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CHAPTER 18 HOW ARE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES USED IN COMMUNICATION?

Figure 18.1 The Electromagnetic Spectrum

TERMS AND DEFINITIONS. Electromagnetic Wave- a wave produced by the acceleration of an electric charge and propagated by the periodic variation of intensities of, usually, perpendicular electric and magnetic fields. Radio Wave- an electromagnetic wave having a wavelength between 1 millimeter and 30,000 meters, or a frequency between 10 kilohertz and 300,000 megahertz. Microwaves- an electromagnetic wave of extremely high frequency, 1 GHz or more, and having wavelengths of from 1 mm to 30 cm. Infrared- the part of the invisible spectrum that is contiguous to the red end of the visible spectrum and that comprises electromagnetic radiation of wavelengths from 800 nm to 1 mm. X-rays- a form of electromagnetic radiation, similar to light but of shorter wavelength and capable of penetrating solids and of ionizing gases. Such radiation having wavelengths in the range of approximately 0.110 nm. Gamma Rays- electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths shorter than approximately one tenth of a nanometer. Ultraviolet waves- beyond the violet in the spectrum, corresponding to light having wavelengths shorter than 4000 angstrom units. Light waves- also, visible waves, an electromagnetic radiation to which the organs of sight react, ranging in wavelength from about 400 to 700 nm. Frequency Band- a specific range of frequencies, especially a set of radio frequencies, as HF, VHF, and UHF.

Frequency modulation- or FM, a method of impressing a signal on a radio carrier wave by varying the frequency of the carrier wave. amplitude modulation- or AM, a method of impressing a signal on a radio carrier wave by varying its amplitude.

LAWS/ PRINCIPLES The Nature of Electromagnetic Waves. An electromagnetic wave consists of mutually perpendicular and oscillating electric and magnetic fields (Figure 18.2). The wave is a transverse wave, since the fields are perpendicular to the direction in which the wave travels. Electromagnetic waves can travel through a vacuum or a material substance. All electromagnetic waves travel through a vacuum at the same speed, which is known as the speed of light c (c = 3.00 x 108 m/s).

Figure 18.2 Electromagnetic wave consists of mutually perpendicular and oscillating electric and magnetic fields The Electromagnetic Spectrum. The frequency f and wavelength of an electromagnetic wave in a vacuum are related to its speed c through the relation c = f. The series of electromagnetic waves, arranged in order of their frequencies or wavelengths, is called the electromagnetic spectrum (See Figure 18.1). In increasing order of frequency (decreasing order of wavelength), the spectrum includes radio waves, infrared radiation, visible light, ultraviolet radiation, X-rays, and gamma rays. Visible light has frequencies between about 4.0 1014 and 7.9 x 1014 Hz. The human eye and brain perceive different frequencies or wavelengths as different colors. What are in the Electromagnetic Spectrum? Radio waves are made by various types of transmitter, depending on the wavelength. They are also given off by stars, sparks and lightning, which is why you hear interference on your radio in a thunderstorm. Microwaves are basically extremely high frequency radio waves, and are made by various types of transmitter. In a mobile phone, they're made by a transmitter chip and an antenna, in a microwave oven they're made by a "magnetron". Their wavelength is usually a couple of centimeters. Stars also give off microwaves. Infra red waves are just below visible red light in the electromagnetic spectrum ("Infra" means "below"). You probably think of Infra-red waves as heat, because they're given off by hot objects, and you can feel them as warmth on your skin. Infra Red waves are also given off by stars, lamps, flamesand

anything else that's warm - including you. The detector on this security light picks up the Infra red radiation from your body. Our eyes can detect only a tiny part of the electromagnetic spectrum, called visible light. This means that there's a great deal happening around us that we're simply not aware of, unless we have instruments to detect it. Light waves are given off by anything that's hot enough to glow. The surface of the Sun is around 5,600 degrees, and it gives off a great deal of light. Ultra-Violet light is made by special lamps, for example, on sun beds. It is given off by the Sun in large quantities. We call it "UV" for short. The UV attracts insects, which are electrocuted by highvoltage wires near the lamp - so they won't land on the food and contaminate it. Uses for UV light include getting a sun tan, detecting forged bank notes in shops, and hardening some types of dental filling. You also see UV lamps in clubs, where they make your clothes glow. This happens because substances in washing powder "fluoresce" when UV light strikes them - they absorb the UV and then re-radiate the energy at a longer wavelength. The lamps are sometimes called "blacklights" because we can't see the UV coming from them. Also, when you mark your posessions with a security marker pen, the ink is invisible unless you shine a UV lamp at it. Ultraviolet rays can be used to kill microbes. Hospitals use UV lamps to sterilise surgical equipment and the air in operating theatres. Food and drug companies also use UV lamps to sterilise their products. Suitable doses of Ultraviolet rays cause the body to produce vitamin D, and this is used by doctors to treat vitamin D deficiency and some skin disorders. X-rays are very high frequency waves, and carry a lot of energy. They will pass through most substances, and this makes them useful in medicine and industry to see inside things. X-rays are given off by stars, and strongly by some types of nebula. Gamma rays are given off by stars, and by some radioactive substances. They are extremely high frequency waves, and carry a large amount of energy. They pass through most materials, and are quite difficult to stop - you need lead or concrete in order to block them out. APPLICATIONS The physics of cochlear implants. Cochlear implants use the broadcasting and receiving of radio waves to provide assistance to hearing-impaired people who have auditory nerves that are at least partially intact. These implants utilize radio waves to bypass the damaged part of the hearing mechanism and access the auditory nerve directly, as Figure 18.3 illustrates. An external microphone (often set into an ear mold) detects sound waves and sends a corresponding electrical signal to a speech processor small enough to be carried in a pocket. The speech processor encodes these signals into a radio wave, which is broadcast from an external transmitter coil placed over the site of a miniature receiver (and its receiving antenna) that has been surgically inserted beneath the skin. The receiver acts much like a radio. It detects the broadcasted wave and from the encoded audio information produces electrical signals that represent the sound wave. These signals are sent along a wire to electrodes that are implanted in the cochlea of the inner ear. The electrodes stimulate the auditory nerves that feed directly between structures within the cochlea and the brain. To the extent that the nerves are intact, a person can learn to recognize sounds.

Physics of Radiotherapy. Because Gamma rays can kill living cells, they are used to kill cancer cells without having to resort to difficult surgery. This is called "Radiotherapy", and works because cancer cells can't repair themselves like healthy cells can when damaged by gamma rays. Getting the dose right is very important! There's also targeted radiotherapy, where a radioactive substance is used to kill cancer cells but it's a substance that'll be taken up by a specific part of the body, so the rest of the body only gets a low dose. An example would be using radioactive iodine to treat cancer in the thyroid gland. Radioactivity is particularly damaging to rapidly dividing cells, such as cancer cells. This also explains why damage is done by radiotherapy to other rapidly dividing cells in the body such as the stomach lining (hence nausea), hair follicles (hair tends to fall out), and a growing fetus (not because of mutations, but simply major damage to the baby's rapidly dividing cells).

Figure 18.4- Radiotherapy How Does a Light Bulb Work? The key component in a light bulb is the filament. You can see the filament inside the bulb as a fine wire strung between two contact points. Both ends of the filament are connected to electrical leads that connect to the outside electrical wiring through the metal base. When the bulb is screwed into a lamp socket and the switch is turned on, a circuit is completed. The filament is part of that circuit, meaning the current must pass through it. The bulb glows because the resistance of the filament is much greater than that of the rest of the circuit. Picture a four lane highway suddenly narrowing down to one lane. All the traffic would

back up. In electrical terms, the rest of the circuit is carrying more current than the filament can carry. The filament's being fed more current than it can handle, and the energy has to go somewhere, so the filament starts to heat up. The energy is converted from electrical to heat energy and the filament begins to glow, just like any other metal will as it heats up. The energy has now been converted into light. The filament is "incandescing" which is the source of the term "incandescent bulb."

MULTIPLE CHOICE. 1. Select the correct statement: A. ultraviolet light has a longer wavelength than infrared B. blue light has a higher frequency than x rays C. radio waves have higher frequency than gamma rays D. gamma rays have higher frequency than infrared waves E. electrons are a type of electromagnetic wave 2. Of the following human eyes are most sensitive to: A. red light B. violet light C. blue light D. green light E. none of these (they are equally sensitive to all colors) 3. Which of the following is NOT true for electromagnetic waves? A. they consist of changing electric and magnetic fields B. they travel at different speeds in vacuum, depending on their frequency C. they transport energy D. they transport momentum E. they can be reflected 4. Which of the following types of electromagnetic radiation travels at the greatest speed in vacuum? A. Radio waves B. Visible light C. X rays D. Gamma rays E. All of these travel at the same speed 5. Radio waves differ from visible light waves in that radio waves: A. travel slower B. have a higher frequency C. travel faster D. have a lower frequency E. require a material medium

PROBLEMS. 1. Explain how electromagnetic waves are made by an oscillator circuit. Answer: The propagation of an electromagnetic wave, which has been generated by a discharging capacitor or an oscillating molecular dipole, is illustrated by Figure 1. The spark current oscillates at a frequency (n), which is a characteristic of the circuit. The electromagnetic disturbance that results is propagated with the electronic (E) and magnetic (B) vectors vibrating perpendicularly to each other and also to the direction of propagation (Z). The frequency, n, is determined by the oscillator, while the wavelength is determined by the oscillation frequency divided by the velocity of the wave. As the current oscillates up and down in the spark gap, at the characteristic circuit frequency (n), a magnetic field is created that oscillates in a horizontal plane. The changing magnetic field, in turn, induces an electric field so that a series of electrical and magnetic oscillations combine to produce a formation that propagates as an electromagnetic wave.

The electric field in an electromagnetic wave vibrates with its vectorial force growing stronger and then weaker, pointing in one direction, and then in the other direction, alternating in a sinusoidal pattern. At the same frequency, the magnetic field oscillates perpendicular to the electric field. The electric and magnetic vectors, reflecting the amplitude and the vibration directions of the two waves, are oriented perpendicular to each other and to the direction of wave propagation. 2. Enumerate and differentiate the elements of the electromagnetic spectrum. Answer: Let us recap the following: a. Radio Wave- an electromagnetic wave having a wavelength between 1 millimeter and 30,000 meters, or a frequency between 10 kilohertz and 300,000 megahertz. b. Microwaves- an electromagnetic wave of extremely high frequency, 1 GHz or more, and having wavelengths of from 1 mm to 30 cm. c. Infrared- the part of the invisible spectrum that is contiguous to the red end of the visible spectrum and that comprises electromagnetic radiation of wavelengths from 800 nm to 1 mm. d. X-rays- a form of electromagnetic radiation, similar to light but of shorter wavelength and capable of penetrating solids and of ionizing gases. Such radiation having wavelengths in the range of approximately 0.110 nm. e. Gamma Rays- electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths shorter than approximately one tenth of a nanometer.

f.

Ultraviolet waves- beyond the violet in the spectrum, corresponding to light having wavelengths shorter than 4000 angstrom units. g. Light waves- also, visible waves, an electromagnetic radiation to which the organs of sight react, ranging in wavelength from about 400 to 700 nm.