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# CHAPTER 11 HOW SOUND IS PRODUCED, PROPAGATED AND PERCEIVED?

TERMS AND DEFINITIONS. Sound- is produced when a vibration causes pressure variations in the medium. It travels in the form of waves Pitch- is the highness or lowness of a sound. It depends almost completely on the frequency of the sound wave. Hertz- is a unit to a measure frequency and so pitch is measured in hertz. Timbre- is used to distinguish between two different sounds that have the same pitch and loudness. This tone is very important since it helps us to identify what produced the sound. Refraction- The change in speed results in a change in the direction of the wave movement as the wave enters another medium at a certain angle. Diffract- Sound waves bend around corners or barriers like doors and walls. Resonance- occurs when the vibration of an object at its natural frequency is caused by another object vibrating at the same frequency. Loudness- is determined mainly by the amplitude of the sound wave. Medium- It is the material where sound waves need to travel through Doppler Effect- compresses the sound waves in the direction where the source is moving. An increase in the sources speed would crowd and compress the sound waves even further

LAWS/THEORIES/PRINCIPLES The Nature of Sound. Sound is a longitudinal wave that can be created only in amedium; it cannot exist in a vacuum. Each cycle of a sound wave includes one condensation (a region of greater than normal pressure) and one rarefaction (a region of less than normal pressure). A sound wave with a single frequency is called a pure tone. Frequencies less than 20 Hz arecalled infrasonic. Frequencies greater than 20 kHz are called ultrasonic. The brain interprets the frequency detected by the ear primarily in terms of the subjective quality known as pitch. A highpitched sound is one with a large frequency (e.g., piccolo). A low-pitched sound is one with a small frequency (e.g., tuba). The pressure amplitude of a sound wave is the magnitude of the maximum change in pressure, measured relative to the undisturbed pressure. The pressure amplitude is associated with the subjective quality of loudness. The larger the pressure amplitude, the louder the sound. The Doppler Effect. The Doppler effect is the change in frequency detected by an observerbecause the sound source and the observer have different velocities with respect to the medium of sound propagation. Diffraction is the bending of a wave around an obstacle or the edges of an opening. APPLICATIONS The physics of a touch-tone telephone. Pure tones are used in touch-tone telephones, such as the one shown in Figure 11.1. These phones simultaneously produce two pure tones when each button is pressed, a different pair of tones for each different button. The tones are transmitted electronically to the central telephone office, where they activate switching circuits that complete the call. For example, the drawing indicates that pressing the 5 button produces pure tones of 770 and 1336 Hz simultaneously. These frequencies are characteristic of the second row and second column of buttons, respectively. Similarly, the 9 button generates tones of 852 and 1477 Hz. Animals producing Sounds. Sound can be generated whose frequency lies below 20 Hz or above 20 kHz, although humans normally do not hear it. Sound waves with frequencies below 20 Hz are said to be infrasonic, while those with frequencies above 20 kHz are referred to as ultrasonic. Some species of bats known as microbats use ultrasonic frequencies up to 120 kHz for locating prey and for navigating while rhinoceroses use infrasonic frequencies as low as 5 Hz to call one another. The physics of sonar. Sonar (sound navigation ranging) is a technique for determining water depth and locating underwater objects, such as reefs, submarines, and schools of fish. The core of a sonar unit consists of an ultrasonic transmitter and receiver mounted on the bottom of a ship. The transmitter emits a short pulse of ultrasonic sound, and at a later time the reflected pulse returns and is detected by the receiver. The distance to the object is determined from the electronically measured round-trip time of the pulse and a knowledgeof the speed of sound in water; the distance registers automatically on an appropriate meter. MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. Take the speed of sound to be 340m/s. A thunder clap is heard about 3 s after the lightning is seen. The source of both light and sound is: A. moving overhead faster than the speed of sound B. emitting a much higher frequency than is heard

C. emitting a much lower frequency than is heard D. about 1000m away E. much more than 1000m away 2. At points in a sound wave where the gas is maximally compressed, the pressure A. is a maximum B. is a minimum C. is equal to the ambient value D. is greater than the ambient value but less than the maximum E. is less than the ambient value but greater than the minimum 3. Which of the following properties of a sound wave determine its pitch? A. Amplitude B. Distance from source to detector C. Frequency D. Phase E. Speed 4. The rise in pitch of an approaching siren is an apparent increase in its: A. speed B. amplitude C. frequency D. wavelength E. number of harmonics 5. A plane produces a sonic boom only when: A. it emits sound waves of very long wavelength B. it emits sound waves of high frequency C. it flys at high altitudes D. it flys on a curved path E. it flys faster than the speed of sound PROBLEMS. 1. Describe the Doppler Effect. Answer: The Doppler effect is a phenomenon observed whenever the source of waves is moving with respect to an observer. The Doppler effect can be described as the effect produced by a moving source of waves in which there is an apparent upward shift in frequency for the observer and the source are approaching and an apparent downward shift in frequency when the observer and the source is receding. The Doppler effect can be observed to occur with all types of waves - most notably water waves, sound waves, and light waves. We are most familiar with the Doppler effect because of our experiences with sound waves. Perhaps you recall an instance in which a police car or emergency vehicle was traveling towards you on the highway. As the car approached with its siren blasting, the pitch of the siren sound (a measure of the siren's frequency) was high; and then suddenly after the car passed by, the pitch of the siren sound was low. That was the Doppler effect - a shift in the apparent frequency for a sound wave produced by a moving source.

Another common experience is the shift in apparent frequency of the sound of a train horn. As the train approaches, the sound of its horn is heard at a high pitch and as the train moved away, the sound of its horn is heard at a low pitch. This is the Doppler effect. A common Physics demonstration the use of a large Nerf ball equipped with a buzzer that produces a sound with a constant frequency. The Nerf ball is then through around the room. As the ball approaches you, you observe a higher pitch than when the ball is at rest. And when the ball is thrown away from you, you observe a lower pitch than when the ball is at rest. This is the Doppler effect. 2. How shock waves are produced? Answer: The Doppler effect is observed whenever the speed of the source is moving slower than the speed of the waves. But if the source actually moves at the same speed as or faster than the wave itself can move, a different phenomenon is observed. If a moving source of sound moves at the same speed as sound, then the source will always be at the leading edge of the waves that it produces. The diagram at the right depicts snapshots in time of a variety of wave fronts produced by an aircraft that is moving at the same speed as sound. The circular lines represent compressional wave fronts of the sound waves. Notice that these circles are bunched up at the front of the aircraft. This phenomenon is known as a shock wave. Shock waves are also produced if the aircraft moves faster than the speed of sound. If a moving source of sound moves faster than sound, the source will always be ahead of the waves that it produces. The diagram at the right depicts snapshots in time of a variety of wave fronts produced by an aircraft that is moving faster than sound.

## CHAPTER 13 WHAT LAWS GOVERN THE TRANSFER OF HEAT?

TERMS AND DEFINITIONS. Isochoric Process - a thermodynamic process that takes place at constant volume so that no work is done on or by the system. Isothermal Process - A thermodynamic process that takes place at constant temperature and in which the systems internal energy remains the same. AdiabaticProcess- The thermodynamic process wherein energy is not transferred to or from a system by heat IsobaricProcess - A process that takes place in a system is one wherein there is a change in the internal energy, the amount of heat flowing into the system, and the work done by the system, while the pressure remains constant. Heat Engine- is any device that converts heat energy into work. Heat Pump- is a device that transfers heat energy from a low-temperature reservoir to a hightemperature reservoir. Thermal Efficiency- a measure of how well an engine operates. It is the ratio of work done by the engine to the energy added to the system by heat during one cycle. Entropy- a term introduced by Clausius in 1865, is a measure of the disorder in a system. Waste heat- it is a certain amount of heat that is not converted into work Thermodynamics- is the branch of classical physics that is concerned with heat and its relation to temperature, work and energy.

LAWS/THEORIES/PRINCIPLES Thermodynamic Systems and Their Surroundings.A thermodynamic system is the collection of objects on which attention is being focused, and the surroundings are everything else in the environment. The state of a system is the physical condition of the system, as described by values for physical parameters, often pressure, volume, and temperature. The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics.Two systems are in thermal equilibrium if there is no net flow of heat between them when they are brought into thermal contact. Temperature is the indicator of thermal equilibrium in the sense that there is no net flow of heat between two systems in thermal contact that have the same temperature. The zeroth law of thermodynamics states that two systems individually in thermal equilibrium with a third system are in thermal equilibrium with each other.

If A and C are in thermal equilibrium with B, then A is in thermal equilibrium with C. Practically this means that all three are at the same temperature, and it forms the basis for comparison of temperatures. It is so named because it logically precedes the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics. The First Law of Thermodynamics.The first law of thermodynamics states that due to heat Q and work W, the internal energy of a system changes from its initial value of Ui to a final value of Uf according to Equation 15.1. In this equation Q is positive when the system gains heat and negative when it loses heat. W is positive when work is done by the system and negative when work is done on the system. The first law of thermodynamics is the conservation-of-energy principle applied to heat, work, and the change in the internal energy. The internal energy is called a function of state because it depends only on the state of the system and not on the method by which the system came to be in a given state. The first law of thermodynamics is the application of the conservation of energy principle to heat and thermodynamic processes:

The first law makes use of the key concepts of internal energy, heat, and system work. It is used extensively in the discussion of heat engines. The standard unit for all these quantities would be the joule, although they are sometimes expressed in calories or BTU.

Heat Engines. A heat engine produces work from input heat that is extracted from a heat reservoir at a relatively high temperature. The engine rejects heat into a reservoir at a relatively low temperature. The efficiency e ofa heat engine is given by

A heat engine typically uses energy provided in the form of heat to do work and then exhausts the heat which cannot be used to do work. Thermodynamics is the study of the relationships between heat and work. The first law and second law of thermodynamics constrain the operation of a heat engine. The first law is the application of conservation of energy to the system, and the second sets limits on the possible efficiency of the machine and determines the direction of energy flow.

General heat engines can be described by the reservoir model (left) or by a PV diagram (right) The Second Law of Thermodynamics.The second law of thermodynamics can be stated in a number of equivalent forms. In terms of heat flow, the second law declares that heat flows spontaneously from a substance at a higher temperature to a substance at a lower temperature and does not flow spontaneously in the reverse direction. APPLICATIONS Refrigerators.The Second Law of Thermodynamics states that heat will spontaneously always flow from a hot region to a cold region. By itself it never flows the other way, but can be made to do so under the influence of an external agency. The Second Law of Thermodynamics also states that this outside influence must do some work. In a kitchen refrigerator the inside of a closed box is to be kept cool by removing heat from the inside and depositing it on the outside. Because the heat will not move freely from the cold inside to the hot outside it must be made to do so using an intermediate fluid which absorbs heat on the inside, then carries outside of the box and releases the heat to the air This fluid circulates in a pipe which passes in and out of the back of the refrigerator, kept moving by a compressor driven by an electric motor. It is the work done by this compressor (using electrical energy from the household

electricity supply) that makes the refrigerator work without violating the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Any refrigerator takes in energy from the region to be cooled (or kept cold) and deposits heat energy into some region outside of the refrigerator, such as your kitchen. In order to work there has to be some work done by the compressor and its electric motor. Using the First Law of Thermodynamics we can write QC - QH = -W (Note: since work in done one the refrigerator by another device, the compressor, rather than by the refrigerator itself, according to the sign convention which is part of the first law, the work done is negative.) Suppose that 2.4 MJ of work is used to remove 5.2 MJ of heat from the inside of the refrigerator, then an amount of heat QH = QC + W = 5.2 MJ + 2.4 MJ = 7.6 MJ must be added to the kitchen. Air Conditioners. With the same concept as the principles in refrigerators,ir conditioners make us of special liquids which absorb heat as they change from a liquid to a gas and release the heat again as they change from a gas to a liquid. COLD region = house HOT region = outside HEAT PUMP = evaporator, compressor, condenser and liquid

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. If two objects are in thermal equilibrium with each other: A. they cannot be moving B. they cannot be undergoing an elastic collision C. they cannot have different pressures D. they cannot be at different temperatures E. they cannot be falling in Earths gravitational field 2. The zeroth law of thermodynamics allows us to define: A. work B. pressure C. temperature D. thermal equilibrium E. internal energy 3. A constant-volume gas thermometer is used to measure the temperature of an object. When the thermometer is in contact with water at its triple point (273.16 K) the pressure in the thermometer is 8.500 104 Pa. When it is in contact with the object the pressure is 9.650 104 Pa. The temperature of the object is: A. 37.0K B. 241K C. 310K D. 314K E. 2020K 4. Heat has the same units as: A. temperature B. work C. energy/time D. heat capacity E. energy/volume 5. An ideal gas expands into a vacuum in a rigid vessel. As a result there is: A. a change in entropy B. an increase of pressure C. a change in temperature D. a decrease of internal energy E. a change in phase PROBLEMS. 1. If warm air rises, why is the temperature at the top of the mountains lower than down below? Answer: It is true that warm air rises, but as it gradually rises, it becomes thinner and expands, which possesses a cooling effect. On the high mountain ranges, the surrounding atmospheric air is very thin: so that there is also not much surrounding air to hold the heat in when the sun does warm the mountain, and much of the warming effect escapes.

2. An engine takes in 9000 J and does 1700 J of work each cycle while operating at the temperatures 650C and 370 C. (a) What is the engines actual efficiency? (b) What is the maximum theoretical efficiency of this system? Given: Solution:

## Required: a. Efficiency = ? b. Maximum theoretical efficiency =?

Chapter 14 HOW DO ELECTRIC CHARGES THAT ARE AT REST INTERACT? TERMS AND DEFINITIONS. Electrostatics- is defined as the study of electricity at rest. It is the bodies that carry the electrons that are usually fixed. Protons- these are carriers of positive charges Neutrons- these are uncharged particles Electrons- these are carriers of negative charges. They are found orbiting around the outer part of the atom Atom- these are tiny particles that make up a molecule. These are made of particles with positive and negative charges. Molecules- these are the smallest particle in a chemical element or compound that has the chemical properties of that element or compound. Conductors- materials whose electric charges are free to move within. Insulators- it is where the electric charges are not free to move within. Semiconductors- a kind of material that is somewhere between insulators and conductors, such as silicon and germanium Conduction- is the transfer of electrons from a charged object to another object by direct contact. Induction- it is the movement of electrons to one part of an object by the electric field of another object. Polarization- the effect where the electric charges can shift slightly to one side when there is a charge nearby. Electric field- The region around a charged object or particle, where the electric force can be determined. LAWS/THEORIES/PRINCIPLES The Origin of Electricity.There are two kinds of electric charge: positive and negative. The SI unit of electric charge is the coulomb (C). The magnitude of the charge on an electron or a proton is e =1.60 x 1019 C. Since the symbol e denotes a magnitude, it has no algebraic sign. Thus, the electron carries a charge of -e, and the proton carries a charge of +e. The charge on any object, whether positive or negative, is quantized, in the sense that the charge consists of an integer number of protons or electrons. Charged Objects and the Electric Force.The law of conservation of electric charge states that the net electric charge of an isolated system remains constant during any process. Like charges repel and unlike charges attract each other. Again, Electric charges have the following important properties: Unlike charges attract one another, and like charges repel one another. Charge is conserved. Charge is quantizedthat is, it exists in discrete packets that are some integral multiple of the electronic charge. Conductors and Insulators An electrical conductor is a material, such as copper, that conducts electric charge readily. An electrical insulator is a material, such as rubber, that conducts electric charge poorly.

Charging by Contact and by Induction Charging by contact is the process of giving one object a net electric charge by placing it in contact with an object that is already charged. Charging by induction is the process of giving an object a net electric charge without touching it to a charged object. Conductors are materials in which charges move freely. Insulators are materials in which charges do not move freely. Coulombs Law.Coulombs law states that the electric force exerted by a charge q1 on a second charge q2 is

wherer is the distance between the two charges. The constant k , called the Coulomb constant, has the value 9 x 10-9 Nm2/C2. The smallest unit of charge known to exist in nature is the charge of the particles in an atom, which is the electron and the proton both have a value of 1.6 x 10-19 C (but electron is negatively charged and proton is positively charged).

Figure 14.1 Each point charge exerts a force on the other. Regardless of whether the forces are (a) attractive or (b) repulsive, they are directed along the line between the charges and have equal magnitudes.

APPLICATIONS Simple Experiments.There are many experiments in our daily life which confirm the presence of electric charges and forces between them (either attractive or repulsive). Example, when we apply comb on our hair, the comb starts attracting pieces of paper. Attractive forces between comb and pieces of paper are even strong to suspend the paper. Electric forces also come into effect when glass or rubber is rubbed against the fur or silk. These devices are said to be electrified or electrically charged. The physics of xerography.The electrostatic force that charged particles exert on one another plays the central role in an office copier. The copying process is called xerography, from the Greek xeros and graphos, meaning dry writing. The heart of a copier is the xerographic drum, an aluminum cylinder coated with a layer of selenium. Aluminum is an excellent electrical conductor. Selenium, on the other hand, is a photoconductor: it is an insulator in the dark but becomes a conductor when exposed to light. Consequently, a positive charge deposited on the selenium surface will remain there, provided the

selenium is kept in the dark. When the drum is exposed to light, however, electrons from the aluminum pass through the conducting selenium and neutralize the positive charge. The photoconductive property of selenium is critical to the xerographic process. First, an electrode called a corotron gives the entire selenium surface a positive charge in the dark. Second, a series of lenses and mirrors focuses an image of a document onto the revolving drum. The dark and light areas of the document produce corresponding areas on the drum. The dark areas retain their positive charge, but the light areas become conducting and lose their positive charge, ending up neutralized. Thus, a positive-charge image of the document remains on the selenium surface.In the third step, a special dry black powder, called the toner, is given a negative charge and then spread onto the drum, where it adheres selectively to the positively charged areas. The fourth step involves transferring the toner onto a blank piece of paper. However, the attraction of the positive-charge image holds the toner to the drum. To transfer the toner, the paper is given a greater positive charge than that of the image, with the aid of another corotron. Last, the paper and adhering toner pass through heated

pressure rollers, which melt the toner into the fibers of the paper and produce the finished copy. Figure 14.2 (a) This cutaway view shows the essential elements of a copying machine. (b) The five steps in the xerographic process.

The physics of a laser printer. A laser printer is used with computers to provide highqualitycopies of text and graphics. It is similar in operation to the xerographic machine, except that the information to be reproduced is not on paper. Instead, the information is transferred from the computers memory to the printer, and laser light is used to copy it onto the selenium aluminum drum. A laser beam, focused to a fine point, is scanned rapidly from side to side across the rotating drum. While the light remains on, the positive charge on the drum is neutralized. As the laser beam moves, the computer turns the beam off at the right moments during each scan to produce the desired positive-charge image, which is the letter A in the picture.

Figure 14.3 As the laser beam scans back and forth across the surface of the xerographicdrum, a positive-charge image of the letter A is created. MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. The charge on a glass rod that has been rubbed with silk is called positive: A. by arbitrary convention B. so that the proton charge will be positive C. to conform to the conventions adopted for G and m in Newtons law of gravitation D. because like charges repel E. because glass is an insulator 2. To make an uncharged object have a negative charge we must: A. add some atoms B. remove some atoms C. add some electrons D. remove some electrons E. write down a negative sign 3. To make an uncharged object have a positive charge: A. remove some neutrons B. add some neutrons C. add some electrons D. remove some electrons E. heat it to cause a change of phase 4. When a hard rubber rod is given a negative charge by rubbing it with wool: A. positive charges are transferred from rod to wool B. negative charges are transferred from rod to wool C. positive charges are transferred from wool to rod D. negative charges are transferred from wool to rod E. negative charges are created and stored on the rod

5. An electrical insulator is a material: A. containing no electrons B. through which electrons do not flow easily C. that has more electrons than protons on its surface D. cannot be a pure chemical element E. must be a crystal PROBLEMS. 1. Two charges, one of +5x10-7C and the other of -2x10-7 C, attract each other with a force of 100 N. How far apart are they? Given: Required: F = 100 N r=? q1= +5x10-7C q2= -2x10-7 C Solution: From Coulombs law equationTo solve for r ( )( )( )

2. Two charges repel each other with a force of 9.3 x 10-4 N when they are 20 cm apart (a) What is the force on each when they are 4.5 cm apart? (b) when they are 86 cm apart? Given: Required: F1 = 9.3 x 10-4 N (a) F2= ? r1 = 20 cm (b) F3= ? (a) r2 = 4.5 cm (b) r3 = 86 cm Solution: From Coulombs law equation, we can see that the electric force is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the two charges. HenceTherefore(a) (b) ( ) ( ) ( ( )( ) )( )

## CHAPTER 15 HOW IS ELECTRICITY PUT INTO USE?

TERMS AND DEFINITIONS. Electric Current- is the movement of charged particles in a specific direction. Direct Current- it is the current that continues to flow in the same direction through the conducting wire all the time. Alternating Current- it is the current that periodically reverses the direction in which it is moving. Resistance- it is the opposition a material offers to current Resistivity- it allows comparison of abilities of different materials to conduct current. Electric Circuit- is a conducting loop in which a current can transfer electrical energy from a suitable source to a useful load. Load- is a device that converts electrical energy into some other useful form. Power- is the rate of energy transfer Series Circuit- has two or more loads but current flows through a single conducting path. Parallel Circuit- has more than one path for current to flow LAWS/THEORIES/PRINCIPLES The electric current I in a conductor is defined aswhereq is the charge that passes through a cross-section of the conductor in a time t. The SI unit of current is the ampere (A), where 1 Ampere = 1 Coulomb/ second.

The resistance R of a conductor is defined either in terms of the length of the conductor or in terms of the potential difference across it:

Where L is the length of the conductor, is the resistivity of the material of which it is made, and Ais its cross-sectional area. Ohms law states that the resistance is directly proportional to the potential difference (or voltage) and is inversely proportional to the current passing through it. In mathematical termsWhere V is the potential difference or the voltage drop, I is the electric current. The SI unit of resistance is volts per ampere, which is defined to be 1 ohm, . ; that is, 1 = 1 V/A. If the resistance is independent of the applied potential difference, the conductor obeys Ohms law. Resistance, at least to some degree, exists in all electrical elements. The resistors might be light bulbs, heating elements, or components specifically manufactured for their resistance. It is assumed that the resistance in the connecting wires is negligible. The series connection of two resistors (R1 and R2) is shown in Figure 1 . What is the equivalent resistor for this combination?

Figure 1 Two resistors connected in series. The drawing (a) is equivalent to the schematic (b). Because there is only one pathway for the charges, the current is the same at any point in the circuit, that is, I = I1 = I2. The potential difference supplied by the battery equals the potential drop over R1 and the potential drop over R2. Thus,

When resistors are in series, the equivalent resistance is the sum of the individual resistances. Compare this result with adding capacitors in series. For series resistors, the current is the same; while

for series capacitors, the charge is the same. (Note that the equivalent resistance is a simple sum, but the equivalent capacitance is given by a reciprocal expression.) The parallel connection for two resistors (R1 and R2) is shown in Figure 2 . What is the equivalent resistance for this combination?

Figure 2 Two resistors connected in parallel. The drawing (a) is equivalent to the schematic (b). At point a for the circuit diagramsee Figure 2 (b)the current branches so that part of the total current in the circuit goes through the upper branch and part through the lower branch. The potential drop of the current is the same regardless of which path is taken; therefore, the voltage difference is the same over either resistor (V batt = V1 = V2). The currents sum to the total current:

## from Ohm's law,

therefore, Thus, the reciprocal of the equivalent resistance is equal to the sum of the reciprocals of the individual resistors in the parallel combination. Compare this result with adding capacitors in parallel. For parallel resistors, the voltages across the resistors are equal, and the same is true for parallel capacitors. (Note that the equivalent resistance is a reciprocal expression, but the equivalent capacitance for parallel combination is a simple sum.) APPLICATION The physics of safe electrical grounding. The figure below shows the same appliance connected to a wall socket via a three-prong plug that provides safe electrical grounding. The third prong connects the metal casing directly to a copper rod driven into the ground or to a copper water pipe that is in the ground. This arrangement protects against electrical shock in the event that a broken wire touches the metal casing. In this event, charge would flow through the casing, through the third prong, and into the ground, returning eventually to the generator. No charge would flow through the persons body, because the copper rod provides much less electrical resistance than does the body.

The physics of impedance plethysmography. In the figure on the left, this shows how the technique is applied to diagnose blood clotting in the veins (deep venous thrombosis) near the knee. A pressure cuff, like that used in blood pressure measurements, is placed around the midthigh, while electrodes are attached around the calf. The two outer electrodes are connected to a source that supplies a small amount of ac current. The two inner electrodes are separated by a distance L, and the voltage between them is measured. The voltage divided by the current gives the resistance. The key to this technique is the fact that resistance can be related to the volume Vcalfof the calf betweenthe inner electrodes. The volume is the product of the length L and the calfs cross-sectional area A, or Vcalf = LA. And the resistance is solved by the equation-

Thus, resistance is inversely proportional to volume, a fact that is exploited in diagnosing deep venous thrombosis. Blood flows from the heart into the calf through arteries in the leg and returns through the system of veins. The pressure cuff in Figure 20.6 is inflated to the point where it cuts off the venous flow but does not alter the arterial flow. As a result, more blood enters than leaves the calf. Therefore, the volume of the calf increases, and the electrical resistance decreases. When the cuff pressure is removed suddenly, the volume returns to a normal value, and so does the electrical resistance. With healthy (unclotted) veins, there is a rapid return to normal values. A slow return, however, reveals the presence of clotting.

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. Current is a measure of: A. force that moves a charge past a point B. resistance to the movement of a charge past a point C. energy used to move a charge past a point D. amount of charge that moves past a point per unit time E. speed with which a charge moves past a point 2. A 60-watt light bulb carries a current of 0.5A. The total charge passing through it in one hour is: A. 120 C B. 3600 C C. 3000 C D. 2400 C E. 1800 C 3. A 10-ohm resistor has a constant current. If 1200C of charge flow through it in 4 minutes what is the value of the current? A. 3.0 A B. 5.0 A C. 11 A D. 15 A E. 20 A 4. A certain wire has resistance R. Another wire, of the same material, has half the length and half the diameter of the first wire. The resistance of the second wire is: A. R/4 B. R/2 C. R D. 2R E. 4R 5. Which of the following graphs best represents the current-voltage relationship for a device that obeys Ohms law? Answer: B

PROBLEMS. 1. How much current would a 10.4 bread toaster draw when connected to a 220 V outlet? Given: Required: R = 10.4 I=? V = 220 V Solution: From Ohms law-

2. A 4 , 8 , and 12 resistor are connected in series with a 24V battery. Finda. The total resistance b. the current in the circuit c. the current flowing in each resistor Given: Required: a) b) c) RT= ? IT =? I1, I2, I3

Solution: a) In series, the total resistance is the algebraic sum of all the individual resistances in the circuit.

## b) From Ohms Law-

c) Then, in series, the total current is also the individual currents flowing in each resistor. So-

## CHAPTER 16 HOW ARE ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM INTERRELATED?

TERMS AND DEFINITIONS. Magnetism- it is the study of magnetic fields and their effect on materials Magnetic Field- Magnetic forces pull and push objects by generating this. It is a region in which a magnetic force can be detected. Electromagnetism- it is the relationship between electricity and magnetism Energy- the ability to move an object some distance Commutator- it is the part which reverses the flow of current through an electric motor. Electric Motor- converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. It is a device that uses electric current to turn an axle. Current meters- are devices which measure electric current. In these devices, there is a response of magnetic forces between an electromagnetic and a permanent magnet Electromagneticinduction- Magnetism can also be used to produce electricity. This fact is essential in todays massive generation of electricity by power plants Transformer- Voltage and current in AC circuits can be increased or decreased using this device. It uses electromagnetic induction to change the voltage and current in a circuit Generator- converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. Any device that creates an electrical current by turning a coil of wire through a magnetic field LAWS/ PRINCIPLES Magnetic Fields A magnet has a north pole and a south pole. The north pole is the end that points toward the north magnetic pole of the earth when the magnet is freely suspended. Like magnetic poles repel each other, and unlike poles attract each other. A magnetic field exists in the space around a magnet. The magnetic field is a vector whose directionat any point is the direction indicated by the north pole of a small compass needle placed at that point. As an aid in visualizing the magnetic field, magnetic field lines are drawn in the vicinity of a magnet. The lines appear to originate from the north pole and end on the south pole. The magnetic field at any point in space is tangent to the magnetic field line at the point. Furthermore, the strength of the magnetic field is proportional to the number of lines per unit area that passes through a surface oriented perpendicular to the lines. Magnetic Materials. Ferromagnetic materials, such as iron, are made up of tiny regions called magnetic domains, each of which behaves as a small magnet. In an unmagnetized ferromagnetic material, the domains are randomly aligned. In a permanent magnet, many of the domains are aligned, and a high

degree of magnetism results. An unmagnetized ferromagnetic material can be induced into becoming magnetized by placing it in an external magnetic field. Induced Emf and Induced Current.Electromagnetic induction is the phenomenon in which an emf is induced in a piece of wire or a coil of wire with the aid of a magnetic field. The emf is called an induced emf, and any current that results from the emf is called an induced current. Lenzs Law. Lenzs law provides a way to determine the polarity of an induced emf. Lenzs law is stated as follows: The induced emf resulting from a changing magnetic flux has a polarity that leads to an induced current whose direction is such that the induced magnetic field opposes the original flux change. This statement is a consequence of the law of conservation of energy.

APPLICATIONS Mass Spectrometer.Physicists use mass spectrometers for determining the relative masses and abundances of isotopes. Chemists use these instruments to help identify unknown molecules produced in chemical reactions. Mass spectrometers are also used during surgery, where they give the anesthesiologist information on the gases, including the anesthetic, in the patients lungs. In the type of mass spectrometer illustrated in the figure, the atoms or molecules are first vaporized and then ionized by the ion source.The ionization process removes one electron from the particle, leaving it with a net positive charge of +e. The positive ions are then accelerated through the potential difference V, which is applied between the ion source and the metal plate. With a speed v, the ions pass through a hole in the plate and enter a region of constant magnetic field, where they are deflected in semicircular paths. Only those ions following a path with the proper radius r strike the detector, which records the number of ions arriving per second.

The physics of a loudspeaker. Most loudspeakers operate on the principle that a magnetic field exerts a force on a current-carrying wire. Figure 16.2 shows a speaker design that consists of three basic parts: a cone, a voice coil, and a permanent magnet. The cone is mounted so it can vibrate back and forth. When vibrating, it pushes and pulls on the air in front of it, thereby creating sound waves. Attached to the apex of the cone is the voice coil, which is a hollow cylinder around which coils of wire are wound. The voice coil is slipped over one of the poles of the stationary permanent magnet (the north pole in the drawing) and can move freely. The two ends of the voice-coil wire are connected to the speaker terminals on the back panel of a receiver. The receiver acts as an AC generator, sending an alternating current to the voice coil. The alternating current interacts with the magnetic field to generate an alternating force that pushes and pulls on the voice coil and the attached cone. To see how the magnetic force arises, consider Figure 16.2b, which is a cross-sectional view of the voice coil and the magnet. In the cross-sectional view, the current is directed into the page in the upper half of the voice coil ( ) and out of the

page in the lower half ( ). In both cases the magnetic field is perpendicular to the current, so the maximum possible force is exerted on the wire. An application of RHR-1 to both the upper and lower halves of the voice coil shows that the magnetic force in the drawing is directed to the right, causing the cone to accelerate in that direction. One-half of a cycle later when the current is reversed, the direction of the magnetic force is also reversed, and the cone accelerates to the left. If, for example, the alternating current from the receiver has a frequency of 1000 Hz, the alternating magnetic force causes the cone to vibrate back and forth at the same frequency, and a 1000-Hz sound wave is produced. Thus, it is the magnetic force on a current-carrying wire that is responsible for converting an electrical signal into a sound wave. The physics of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). A new technique that shows promise for the treatment of psychiatric disorders such as depression is based on mutual induction. This technique is called transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and is a type of indirect and gentler electric shock therapy. In traditional electric shock therapy, electric current is delivered directly through the skull and penetrates the brain, disrupting its electrical circuitry and in the process alleviating the symptoms of the psychiatric disorder. The treatment is not gentle and requires an anesthetic, because relatively large electric currents must be used to penetrate the skull. In contrast, TMS produces its electric current byusing a time-varying magnetic field. A primary coil is positioned over the part of the brain to be treated (see Figure 16.3), and a timevarying current is applied to this coil. The magnetic field produced by the primary coil penetrates the brain and, since the field is changing in time, it induces an emf in the brain. This induced emf causes an electric current to flow in the conductive brain tissue, with therapeutic results similar to those of conventional electric shock treatment. The current delivered to the brain, however, is much smaller than the current in the conventional treatment, so that patients receive TMS treatments without anesthetic and without severe after-effects such as headaches and memory loss. TMS remains in the experimental stage, however, and the optimal protocol for applying the technique has not yet been determined.

MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Which of the following is not true? a. Magnets have the ability to attract materials that are magnetic in nature. b. Like poles attract and unlike poles repel each other. c. When allowed to hang freely, magnets always align in one particular direction. d. Magnetic poles always occurs in pairs. 2. The polarity of an unmarked magnet can be determined using: A. a charged glass rod B. a compass C. an electroscope D. another unmarked magnet E. iron filings 3. A circular device made up of many blades that is responsible in converting mechanical energy to electrical energy. a. pump b. agitator c. turbine d. transformer 4. Lenz law can explain: A. paramagnetism only B. diamagnetism only C. ferromagnetism only D. only two of the three types of magnetism E. all three of the types of magnetism 5. It converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. a. turbine b. electric motor

c. battery

d. electromagnet

PROBLEMS 1. Differentiate AC from DC. How is each generated? Answer:The difference between AC and DC is that AC is an alternating current (the amount of electrons) that flows in both directions and DC is direct current that flows in only one direction; the product that is flowing being electrons. AC power is what fuels our homes. The wires outside of our house are connected at two ends to AC generators. DC is found in batteries and solar cells. Both AC and DC employ magnets to repel electrons. Electrons are negatively charged particles that are one of 3 components that make up an atom. Negative charges will repel negative charges and positive charges will repel positive charges, so one only needs to introduce a negatively charged item next to electrons to force them to move in the opposite direction. Likewise, you can attract electrons by introducing something that is positively charged into their environment drawing the electrons to it. This property of electrons is what allows for AC power to work; that is, they switch directions constantly. The picture to the left is a demonstration of AC power at work. The constant switching of directions is evident in the dotted appearance of the light lines. 2. Discuss how a DC motor operates. Answer: A DC motor is a mechanically commutated electric motor powered from direct current (DC). The stator is stationary in space by definition and therefore so is its current. The current in

the rotor is switched by the commutator to also be stationary in space. This is how the relative angle between the stator and rotor magnetic flux is maintained near 90 degrees, which generates the maximum torque. DC motors have a rotating armature winding (winding in which a voltage is induced) but non-rotating armature magnetic field and a static field winding (winding that produce the main magnetic flux) or permanent magnet. Different connections of the field and armature winding provide different inherent speed/torque regulation characteristics. The speed of a DC motor can be controlled by changing the voltage applied to the armature or by changing the field current. The introduction of variable resistance in the armature circuit or field circuit allowed speed control. Modern DC motors are often controlled by power electronics systems called DC drives.

CHAPTER 17 HOW DO ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS WORK? TERMS AND DEFINITIONS. Electronics- It deals with utilizing the flow of electrons for devices or systems, specifically in telecommunications and computers Resistors- are electronic components that keep current and voltage at the level that other electronic components need to function properly. Capacitor- is a device that stores electric charge. Doping- the process of deliberately adding very small amounts of impurities or foreign substances to an otherwise pure substance Dopants- the impurities in doping Diodes- are the simplest semiconductor device. It allows a current to pass through it in only one direction. Integrated Circuit- combines transistors and diodes with resistors and capacitors on one silicon chip. Logic gates- Logic Circuits make use of these to represent switch conditions. These are represented by different symbols. Transistor- looks like two diodes joined back to back. Dielectric- these are two conducting plates separated by a thin insulating layer LAWS/ PRINCIPLES Resistors. A resistor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element.Resistors are common elements of electrical networks and electronic circuits and are ubiquitous in electronic equipment. Practical resistors can be made of various compounds and films, as well as resistance wire (wire made of a high-resistivity alloy, such as nickel-chrome). Resistors are also implemented within integrated circuits, particularly analog devices, and can also be integrated into hybrid and printed circuits. Capacitors. A capacitor is a device that stores charge and energy. It consists of two conductors or plates that are near one another, but not touching.The insulating material included between the plates of a capacitor is called a dielectric. Logic Gates. A logic gate is an elementary building block of a digital circuit. Most logic gates have two inputs and one output. At any given moment, every terminal is in one of the two binary conditions low (0) or high (1), represented by different voltage levels. The logic state of a terminal can, and generally does, change often, as the circuit processes data. In most logic gates, the low state is approximately zero volts (0 V), while the high state is approximately five volts positive (+5 V).There are six basic logic gates: AND, OR, XOR, NOT, NAND and NOR. The AND gate is so named because, if 0 is called "false" and 1 is called "true," the gate acts in the same way as the logical "and" operator. The following illustration and table show the circuit symbol and logic combinations for an AND gate. (In the symbol, the input terminals are at left and the output terminal is at right.) The output is "true" when both inputs are "true." Otherwise, the output is "false." The OR gate gets its name from the fact that it behaves after the fashion of the logical inclusive "or." The output is "true" if either or both of the inputs are "true." If both inputs are "false," then the output is "false." The XOR (exclusive-OR) gate acts in the same way as the logical "either/or." The output is "true" if either, but not both, of the inputs are "true." The output is "false" if both inputs are "false" or if both

inputs are "true." Another way of looking at this circuit is to observe that the output is 1 if the inputs are different, but 0 if the inputs are the same. A logical inverter, sometimes called a NOT gate to differentiate it from other types of electronic inverter devices, has only one input. It reverses the logic state. The NAND gate operates as an AND gate followed by a NOT gate. It acts in the manner of the logical operation "and" followed by negation. The output is "false" if both inputs are "true." Otherwise, the output is "true." The NOR gate is a combination OR gate followed by an inverter. Its output is "true" if both inputs are "false." Otherwise, the output is "false." APPLICATIONS The physics of heart pacemakers. The charging/discharging of a capacitor has many applications. Heart pacemakers, for instance, incorporate RC circuits to control the timing of voltage pulses that are delivered to a malfunctioning heart to regulate its beating cycle. The pulses are delivered by electrodes attached externally to the chest or located internally near the heart when the pacemaker is implanted surgically. A voltage pulse is delivered when the capacitor discharges to a preset level, following which the capacitor is recharged rapidly and the cycle repeats. The value of the time constant RC controls the pulsing rate, which is about once per second. The physics of windshield wipers. The charging/discharging of a capacitor is also used in automobiles that have windshield wipers equipped for intermittent operation during a light drizzle. In this mode of operation, the wipers remain off for a while and then turn on briefly. The timing of the on off cycle is determined by the time constant of a resistor capacitor combination. MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. A device that stores electric charge. a. Capacitor b. resistor

c. inductor

d. diode

2. The following describes the OR gate except: a. If A is 1 OR B is 1, then Q is 1. b. The circuit involved is in series. c. The mathematical equation for an OR gate is Q = A + B d. None of these. 3. The following describes the AND gate except: a. If A and B are both 1, then Q is 1. b. The circuit involved is in series. c. The mathematical equation for AND gate is Q = A + B d. None of these. 4. It combines transistors and diodes with resistors on one silicon chip. a. Capacitor b. logic circuits c. inductor

d. integrated circuit

5. Which of the following is not correct? a. Resistors with the gold band are the best. b. The number 0 is assigned to black. c. Tolerance is given by the extra letter at the end of a resistor. d. To read the color code of a resistor, start at the rightmost part and read it from right to left.

## Figure 18.1 The Electromagnetic Spectrum

TERMS AND DEFINITIONS. Electromagnetic Wave- a wave produced by the acceleration of an electric charge and propagated by the periodic variation of intensities of, usually, perpendicular electric and magnetic fields. Radio Wave- an electromagnetic wave having a wavelength between 1 millimeter and 30,000 meters, or a frequency between 10 kilohertz and 300,000 megahertz. Microwaves- an electromagnetic wave of extremely high frequency, 1 GHz or more, and having wavelengths of from 1 mm to 30 cm. Infrared-the part of the invisible spectrum that is contiguous to the red end of the visible spectrum and that comprises electromagnetic radiation of wavelengths from 800 nm to 1 mm. X-rays- a form of electromagnetic radiation, similar to light but of shorter wavelength and capable of penetrating solids and of ionizing gases. Such radiation having wavelengths in the range of approximately 0.110 nm. Gamma Rays-electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths shorter than approximately one tenth of a nanometer. Ultraviolet waves-beyond the violet in the spectrum, corresponding to light having wavelengths shorter than 4000 angstrom units. Light waves- also, visible waves, an electromagnetic radiation to which the organs of sight react, ranging in wavelength from about 400 to 700 nm.

Frequency Band-a specific range of frequencies, especially a set of radio frequencies, as HF, VHF, and UHF. Frequency modulation-or FM, a method of impressing a signal on a radio carrier wave by varying the frequency of the carrier wave. amplitude modulation- or AM, a method of impressing a signal on a radio carrier wave by varying its amplitude.

LAWS/ PRINCIPLES The Nature of Electromagnetic Waves. An electromagnetic wave consists of mutually perpendicular and oscillating electric and magnetic fields (Figure 18.2). The wave is a transverse wave, since the fields are perpendicular to the direction in which the wave travels. Electromagnetic waves can travel through a vacuum or a material substance. All electromagnetic waves travel through a vacuum at the same speed, which is known as the speed of light c (c = 3.00 x 108 m/s).

Physics of Radiotherapy. Because Gamma rays can kill living cells, they are used to kill cancer cells without having to resort to difficult surgery.This is called "Radiotherapy", and works because cancer cells can't repair themselves like healthy cells can when damaged by gamma rays. Getting the dose right is very important! There's also targeted radiotherapy, where a radioactive substance is used to kill cancer cells but it's a substance that'll be taken up by a specific part of the body, so the rest of the body only gets a low dose. An example would be using radioactive iodine to treat cancer in the thyroid gland. Radioactivity is particularly damaging to rapidly dividing cells, such as cancer cells. This also explains why damage is done by radiotherapy to other rapidly dividing cells in the body such as the stomach lining (hence nausea), hair follicles (hair tends to fall out), and a growing fetus (not because of mutations, but simply major damage to the baby's rapidly dividing cells).

Figure 18.4- Radiotherapy How Does a Light Bulb Work? The key component in a light bulb is the filament. You can see the filament inside the bulb as a fine wire strung between two contact points. Both ends of the filament are connected to electrical leads that connect to the outside electrical wiring through the metal base. When the bulb is screwed into a lamp socket and the switch is turned on, a circuit is completed. The filament is part of that circuit, meaning the current must pass through it. The bulb glows because the resistance of the filament is much greater than that of the rest of the circuit. Picture a four lane highway suddenly narrowing down to one lane. All the traffic would

back up. In electrical terms, the rest of the circuit is carrying more current than the filament can carry. The filament's being fed more current than it can handle, and the energy has to go somewhere, so the filament starts to heat up. The energy is converted from electrical to heat energy and the filament begins to glow, just like any other metal will as it heats up. The energy has now been converted into light. The filament is "incandescing" which is the source of the term "incandescent bulb."

MULTIPLE CHOICE. 1. Select the correct statement: A. ultraviolet light has a longer wavelength than infrared B. blue light has a higher frequency than x rays C. radio waves have higher frequency than gamma rays D. gamma rays have higher frequency than infrared waves E. electrons are a type of electromagnetic wave 2. Of the following human eyes are most sensitive to: A. red light B. violet light C. blue light D. green light E. none of these (they are equally sensitive to all colors) 3. Which of the following is NOT true for electromagnetic waves? A. they consist of changing electric and magnetic fields B. they travel at different speeds in vacuum, depending on their frequency C. they transport energy D. they transport momentum E. they can be reflected 4. Which of the following types of electromagnetic radiation travels at the greatest speed in vacuum? A. Radio waves B. Visible light C. X rays D. Gamma rays E. All of these travel at the same speed 5. Radio waves differ from visible light waves in that radio waves: A. travel slower B. have a higher frequency C. travel faster D. have a lower frequency E. require a material medium

PROBLEMS. 1. Explain how electromagnetic waves are made by an oscillator circuit. Answer: The propagation of an electromagnetic wave, which has been generated by a discharging capacitor or an oscillating molecular dipole, is illustrated by Figure 1. The spark current oscillates at a frequency (n), which is a characteristic of the circuit. The electromagnetic disturbance that results is propagated with the electronic (E) and magnetic (B) vectors vibrating perpendicularly to each other and also to the direction of propagation (Z). The frequency, n, is determined by the oscillator, while the wavelength is determined by the oscillation frequency divided by the velocity of the wave. As the current oscillates up and down in the spark gap, at the characteristic circuit frequency (n), a magnetic field is created that oscillates in a horizontal plane. The changing magnetic field, in turn, induces an electric field so that a series of electrical and magnetic oscillations combine to produce a formation that propagates as an electromagnetic wave.

The electric field in an electromagnetic wave vibrates with its vectorial force growing stronger and then weaker, pointing in one direction, and then in the other direction, alternating in a sinusoidal pattern. At the same frequency, the magnetic field oscillates perpendicular to the electric field. The electric and magnetic vectors, reflecting the amplitude and the vibration directions of the two waves, are oriented perpendicular to each other and to the direction of wave propagation. 2. Enumerate and differentiate the elements of the electromagnetic spectrum. Answer: Let us recap the following: a. Radio Wave- an electromagnetic wave having a wavelength between 1 millimeter and 30,000 meters, or a frequency between 10 kilohertz and 300,000 megahertz. b. Microwaves- an electromagnetic wave of extremely high frequency, 1 GHz or more, and having wavelengths of from 1 mm to 30 cm. c. Infrared-the part of the invisible spectrum that is contiguous to the red end of the visible spectrum and that comprises electromagnetic radiation of wavelengths from 800 nm to 1 mm. d. X-rays- a form of electromagnetic radiation, similar to light but of shorter wavelength and capable of penetrating solids and of ionizing gases. Such radiation having wavelengths in the range of approximately 0.110 nm. e. Gamma Rays-electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths shorter than approximately one tenth of a nanometer. f. Ultraviolet waves-beyond the violet in the spectrum, corresponding to light having wavelengths shorter than 4000 angstrom units. g. Light waves- also, visible waves, an electromagnetic radiation to which the organs of sight react, ranging in wavelength from about 400 to 700 nm.

CHAPTER 19 WHAT IS THE MYSTERY BEHIND LIGHT? TERMS AND DEFINITIONS. Luminous flux- a measure of the rate of flow of luminous energy, evaluated according to its ability to produce a visual sensation. For a monochromatic light it is the radiant flux multiplied by the spectral luminous efficiency of the light. It is measured in lumens. Illuminance- Sometimes called: illumination, the luminous flux incident on unit area of a surface. It is measured in lux Photometer- an instrument that measures luminous intensity or brightness, luminous flux, light distribution, color, etc., usually by comparing the light emitted by two sources, one source having certain specified standard characteristics. Photon- a quantum of electromagnetic radiation, regarded as a particle with zero rest mass and charge, unit spin, and energy equal to the product of the frequency of the radiation and the Planck constant Blackbody Radiation- the electromagnetic radiation that a perfect blackbody would give off at a given temperature. A warm blackbody would emit radiation with a higher average frequency than a cooler one. Bioluminescence- the production of light by living organisms as a result of the oxidation of a light-producing substance (luciferin) by the enzyme luciferase: occurs in many marine organisms, insects such as the firefly, etc Luminous Intensity- the luminous flux in lumens emitted per unit solid angle by a light source, measured in candles. Phosphorescence- the property of being luminous at temperatures below incandescence, as from slow oxidation in the case of phosphorus or after exposure to light or other radiation. PROBLEMS. 1. Give two physical evidences that light travels in straight lines. Answer: 1. You cannot see objects that are behind objects you have clear vision of. 2. Any object behind a light source is invisible. 2. A lamp with a luminous flux of 2275 lm is used to light a portion of the sidewalk. The lamp is 3 m high. What is the illumination of the sidewalk? Given: Required: F = 2275 lm E=? r=3m Solution:

CHAPTER 20 HOW ARE IMAGES REFLECTED AND REFRACTED BY MIRRORS AND LENSES? TERMS AND DEFINITIONS. Geometrical optics- -the branch of science that deals with light as rays, especially in the study of the effects of lenses and mirrors on light beams. Real images- are those created when light rays actually converge, or meet at a point. Lens- curved piece of glass or some other transparent material that is used to refract light. Chromatic aberration- This is an effect where the light is passing through a lens is slightly dispersed causing objects viewed through the lens to appear ringed with color. Periscope- is made up of a tube complete with prisms or mirrors arranged in series. It enables things in front to be seen over an obstacle, producing an erect image. Spherical aberration- the image formed by parallel rays in a large concave spherical mirror is not a perfect point because some rays converge at points other than the focus. This effect produces a blurred image Cones- contain pigments that detect colors of red light, green light and blue light. They only function in bright light. Rods- contain pigments that distinguish among black, white and shades of gray. They react in small amounts of light, so they are important for night vision. LAWS/ THEORIES/ PRINCIPLES The Formation of Images by Lenses Converging lenses and diverging lenses depend on the phenomenon of refraction in forming an image. With a converging lens, paraxial rays that are parallel to the principal axis are focused to a point on the axis by the lens. This point is called the focal point of the lens, and its distance from the lens is the focal length f. Paraxial light rays that are parallel to the principal axis of a diverging lens appear to originate from its focal point after passing through the lens. The distance of this point from the lens is the focal length f. The image produced by a converging or a diverging lens can be located via a technique known as ray tracing. The nature of the image formed by a converging lens depends on where the object is situated relative to the lens. When the object is located at a distance from the lens that is greater than twice the focal length, the image is real, inverted, and smaller than the object. When the object is located at a distance from the lens that is between the focal length and twice the focal length, the image is real, inverted, and larger than the object. When the object is located between the focal point and the lens, the image is virtual, upright, and larger than the object. Regardless of the position of a real object, a diverging lens always produces an image that isvirtual, upright, and smaller than the object. The Human Eye.In the human eye, a real, inverted image is formed on a light-sensitive surface, called the retina. Accommodation is the process by which the focal length of the eye is automatically adjusted, so that objects at different distances produce sharp images on the retina. The near point of the eye is the point nearest the eye at which an object can be placed and still have a sharp image produced on the retina. The far point of the eye is the location of the farthest object on which the fully relaxed eye can focus. For a young and normal eye, the near point is located 25 cm from the eye, and the far point is located at infinity. A nearsighted (myopic) eye is one that can focus on nearby objects, but not on distant objects. Nearsightedness can be corrected with eyeglasses or contacts made from diverging lenses. A farsighted (hyperopic) eye can see distant objects.

APPLICATIONS The physics of the compound microscope. To increase the angular magnification beyond that possible with a magnifying glass, an additional converging lens can be included to premagnify the object before the magnifying glass comes into play. The result is an optical instrument known as the compound microscope (Figure 20.1). Its magnifying glass is called the eyepiece, and the additional lens is called the objective.

The physics of nearsightedness.A person who is nearsighted (myopic) can focus on nearby objects but cannot clearly see objects far away. For such a person, the far point of the eye is not at infinity and may even be as close to the eye as three or four meters. When a nearsighted eye tries to focus on a distant object, the eye is fully relaxed, like a normal eye. However, the nearsighted eye has a focal length that is shorter than it should be, so rays from the distant object form a sharp image in front of the retina, as Figure 20.2a shows, and blurred vision results. The nearsighted eye can be corrected with glasses or contacts that use diverging lenses, as Figure 20.2b suggests. The rays from the object diverge after leaving the eyeglass lens. Therefore, when they are subsequently refracted toward the principal axis by the eye, a sharp image is formed farther back and falls on the retina. Since the relaxed(but nearsighted) eye can focus on an object at the eyes far pointbut not on objects farther awaythe diverging lens is designed to transform a very distant object into an image located at the far point. Figure 20.2c shows this transformation, and the next example illustrates how to determine the focal length of the diverging lens that accomplishes it.

The physics of farsightedness. A farsighted (hyperopic) person can usually see distant objects clearly, but cannot focus on those nearby. Whereas the near point of a young and normal eye is located about 25 cm from the eye, the near point of a farsighted eye may be considerably farther away than that, perhaps as far as several hundred centimeters. When a farsighted eye tries to focus on a book held closer than the near point, it accommodates and shortens its focal length as much as it can. However, even at its shortest, the focal length is longer than it should be. Therefore, the light rays from the book would form asharp image behind the retina if they could do so, as Figure 26.36a suggests. In reality, no light passes through the retina, but a blurred image does form on it. Figure 20.3b shows that farsightedness can be corrected by placing a converging lens in front of the eye. The lens refracts the light rays more toward the principal axis beforethey enter the eye. Consequently, when the rays are refracted even more by the eye, they converge to form an image on the retina. Part c of the figure illustrates what the eye sees when it looks through the converging lens. The lens is designed so that the eye perceives the light to be coming from a virtual image located at the near point.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. 1. A virtual image is one: A. toward which light rays converge but do not pass through B. from which light rays diverge but do not pass through C. from which light rays diverge as they pass through D. toward which light rays converge and pass through E. with a ray normal to a mirror passing through it 2. Which of the following is true of all virtual images?

A. They can be seen but not photographed B. They are ephemeral C. They are smaller than the objects D. They are larger than the objects E. None of the above 3. When you stand in front of a plane mirror, your image is: A. real, erect, and smaller than you B. real, erect, and the same size as you C. virtual, erect, and smaller than you D. virtual, erect, and the same size as you E. real, inverted, and the same size as you 4. An object is 2m in front of a plane mirror. Its image is: A. virtual, inverted, and 2m behind the mirror B. virtual, inverted, and 2m in front of the mirror C. virtual, erect, and 2m in front of the mirror D. real, erect, and 2m behind the mirror E. none of the above 5. A ball is held 50 cm in front of a plane mirror. The distance between the ball and its image is: A. 100 cm B. 150 cm C. 200 cm D. 0 E. 50 cm

CHAPTER 21 WHAT IS RELATIVITY? TERMS AND DEFINITIONS. Frame of reference- is part of the description of motion. Non-intertial reference frame- is one in which an isolated object appears to be accelerating. It is actually the frame, not the object that is accelerating. General theory of relativity- attempts to explain within a single framework almost all the laws of the physical universe. The main premise of this theory is that the theory must be valid for all reference frames, inertial and non inertial. Special theory of relativity- a theory which did not only solve the riddle regarding the velocity of light but also explored the very nature of motion, space and time. Ether- was the medium in which light was assumed to propagate Time dilation- when observing another reference frame, especially one that approaches the speed of light, the moving reference frames time interval changes. Here, the duration of the interval appears longer than the proper time Relativistic mass- the mass of the body that is in motion. It is always greater than the mass of the object at rest. Inertial reference frame- is nonrotating, nonaccelerating, one in which Newtons first law of motion holds. In such a frame, an object at rest remains at rest and an object in motion continue to move at constant velocity if no force acts on it. Relativity- it is the observation of the motion of a body by two different observers in relative motion to each other. Gravitational Red Shift- is another result of the general theory of relativity. Gravity affects time by causing it to slow down- the greater the gravitational field, the greater the slowing of time. LAWS/ THEORIES/ PRINCIPLES Events and Inertial Reference FramesAn event is a physical happening that occurs at a certain place and time. To record the event an observer uses a reference frame that consists of a coordinate system and a clock. Different observers may use different reference frames. The theory of special relativity deals with inertial reference frames. An inertial reference frame is one in which Newtons law of inertia is valid. Accelerating reference frames are not inertial reference frames. The Postulates of Special Relativity. The theory of special relativity is based on two postulates. The relativity postulate states that the laws of physics are the same in every inertial reference frame. The speed-of-light postulate says that the speed of light in a vacuum, measured in any inertial reference frame, always has the same value of c, no matter how fast the source of the light and the observer are moving relative to each other. The Relativity of Time:Time Dilation. The proper time interval t0 between two events is the time interval measured by an observer who is at rest relative to the events and views them occurring at the same place. An observer who is in motion with respect to the events and who views them as occurring at different places measures a dilated time interval t. The dilated time interval is greater than the proper time interval, according to the time-dilation equation. In this expression, v is the relative speed between the observer who measures t0 and the observer who measures t.

The Relativity of Length: Length Contraction. The proper length L0 between two points is the length measured by an observer who is at rest relative to the points. An observer moving with a relative speed v parallel to the line between the two points does not measure the proper length. Instead, such an observer measures a contracted length L given by the length-contraction formula.

Length contraction occurs only along the direction of the motion. Those dimensions that are perpendicular to the motion are not shortened. The observer who measures the proper length may not be the observer who measures the proper time interval.

APPLICATIONS

MULTIPLE CHOICE. 1. A basic postulate of Einsteins theory of relativity is: A. moving clocks run more slowly than when they are at rest B. moving rods are shorter than when they are at rest C. light has both wave and particle properties D. the laws of physics must be the same for observers moving with uniform velocity relative to each other E. everything is relative 2. A consequence of Einsteins theory of relativity is: A. moving clocks run more slowly than when they are at rest B. moving rods are longer than when they are at rest C. light has both wave and particle properties D. the laws of physics must appear the same to all observers moving with uniform velocity relative to each other E. everything is relative 3. A consequence of Einsteins theory of relativity is: A. moving clocks run faster than when they are at rest B. moving rods are shorter than when they are at rest C. light has both wave and particle properties D. the laws of physics must appear the same to all observers moving with uniform velocity relative to each other E. everything is relative 4. According to the theory of relativity: A. moving clocks run fast B. energy is not conserved in high speed collisions C. the speed of light must be measured relative to the ether D. momentum is not conserved in high speed collisions E. none of the above are true

5. The proper time between two events is measured by clocks at rest in a reference frame in which the two events: A. occur at the same time B. occur at the same coordinates C. are separated by the distance a light signal can travel during the time interval D. occur in Boston E. satisfy none of the above PROBLEMS. 1. Find the mass of an electron (m= 9.1 x 10-31 kg) whose velocity is 0.99c? Given: Required: mo = 9.1 x 10-31 kg m=? v = 0.99 c Solution:

2. An observer sees a spacecraft, measured as 100 m long, when at rest, pass by in a uniform motion with a speed of 0.500c. What would be the length of the moving spacecreaft as measured by the observer? Given: Required: Lo = 100 m L=? V = 0.5c Solution: ( ) ( ( ) )

CHAPTER 22 HOW IS NUCLEAR PHYSICS USEFUL TO MAN? TERMS AND DEFINITIONS. Atoms - matter is composed of these very small particles Electron - it is a negatively charged component of an atom. Electrons exist outside of and surrounding the atom nucleus. Proton - these are particles that are smaller than most nuclei and with a charge equal opposite to that of the electron Nucleus - an atom must contain a positive charge equal to the negative charge of its electrons Neutron - e penetrating neutral radiation consisted of uncharged particles that could pass easily through matter without a large transfer of energy, since particles with no charge produce virtually no ionization of matter. Isotopes- these have the same number of protons, but a different number of neutrons. Due to the differences in their atomic masses, they may differ in their physical properties, such as density and boiling point. Radioactivity - another factor affecting nuclear instability is the ratio of neutrons to protons, which can disrupt forces in the nucleus even if the total number of such particles is not too large Nuclear Fusion- Massive nuclei tend to be unstable, and they can become more stable through the process of fission. In a similar way, light nuclei can become more stable by joining together in the process Nuclear Fission- occurs when a neutron collides with a large, unstable nucleus. Nuclear Reactor- is a device that generates energy by a controlled chain reaction. LAWS/ PRINCIPLES Nuclear Structure.The nucleus of an atom consists of protons and neutrons, which are collectively referred to as nucleons. A neutron is an electrically neutral particle whose mass is slightly larger than that of the proton. Radioactivity Unstable nuclei spontaneously decay by breaking apart or rearranging theirinternal structure in a process called radioactivity. Naturally occurring radioactivity produces, and rays. Alpharays consist of positively charged particles, each particle being the nucleus of helium. The general form for decay is-

The most common kind of ray consists of negatively charged particles, or -particles, whichare electrons. The general form for decay is-

If a radioactive parent nucleus disintegrates into a daughter nucleus that has a different atomicnumber, as occurs in and decay, one element has been converted into another element, theconversion being referred to as a transmutation. Gammarays are high-energy photons emitted by a radioactive nucleus. The general form for decay is

Gamma decay does not cause a transmutation of one element into another. Nuclear Reactors.A nuclear reactor is a device that generates energy by a controlled chain reaction. Many reactors in use today have the same three basic components: fuel elements, a neutron moderator, and control rods. The fuel elements contain the fissile fuel, and the entire region of fuel elements is known as the reactor core. The neutron moderator is a material (water, for example) that slows down the neutrons released in a fission event to thermal energies so they can initiate additional fission events. Control rods contain material that readily absorbs neutrons without fissioning. They are used to keep the reactor in its normal, or critical, state, in which each fission event leads to one additional fission, no more, no less. The reactor is subcritical when, on average, the neutrons from each fission trigger less than one subsequent fission. The reactor is supercritical when, on average, the neutrons from each fission trigger more than one additional fission. Nuclear Fusion.In a fusion process, two nuclei with smaller masses combine to form a single nucleus with a larger mass. Energy is released by fusion when the binding energy per nucleon is greater for the larger nucleus than for the smaller nuclei. Fusion reactions are said to be thermonuclear because they require extremely high temperatures to proceed. Current studies of nuclear fusion utilize either magnetic confinement or inertial confinement to contain the fusing nuclei at the high temperatures that are necessary. Nuclear Fission. Nuclear fission occurs when a massive nucleus splits into two less massivefragments. Fission can be induced by the absorption of a thermal neutron. When a massive nucleusfissions, energy is released because the binding energy per nucleon is greater for the fragments thanfor the original nucleus. Neutrons are also released during nuclear fission. These neutrons can, inturn, induce other nuclei to fission and lead to a process known as a chain reaction. A chain reactionis said to be controlled if each fission event contributes, on average, only one neutron that fissionsanother nucleus. APPLICATIONS:

3. The mass of a neutron: A. equals that of an electron B. equals that of a proton C. is a little more than that of a proton D. is exactly that of a proton plus an electron E. is as yet unmeasured 4. The atomic number of an element is: A. the whole number nearest to its mass B. the number of protons in its nucleus C. the nearest whole number of hydrogen atoms having the same mass as a single atom of the given element D. the number of neutrons in its nucleus E. its order of discovery 5. The isotopes of an element: A. cannot be separated at all B. occur well separated in nature C. have similar chemical behavior D. cannot be separated by physical methods E. have equal masses

PROBLEMS. 1. What will happen to the atomic number and atomic mass of an atom that emits an alpha particle? Answer: If an atom emits an alpha particle, the atomic number will decrease by 4 and the atomic mass will decrease by 2. For example, upon emission of an alpha particle, uranium 238 is converted into thorium 234 by the nuclear equation

2. Complete the fusion reaction below. What is the missing product? Answer: To follow the law of conservation of charge,

## CHAPTER 23 WHAT ARE THE BASIC BUILDING BLOCKS OF THE UNIVERSE?

TERMS AND DEFINITIONS. Elementary Particles- one of the basic building blocks of the universe from which all other particles are made Electron- Also called negatron, an elementary particle that is a fundamental constituent of matter, having a negative charge of 1.602 1019 coulombs, a mass of 9.108 1031 kilograms, and spin of , and existing independently or as the component outside the nucleus of an atom. Hadrons-any elementary particle that is subject to the strong interaction. Hadrons are subdivided into baryons and mesons. Lepton-any of a class of particles with spin of that are not subject to the strong force and that are believed to be truly elementary and not composed of quarks or other subunits. The leptons known or believed to exist are the electron and electron-neutrino, the muon and mu-neutrino, and the tau lepton and tau-neutrino. Antiparticles- composed only of antiparticles, especially antiprotons, antineutrons, and positrons. Positron-an elementary particle having the same mass and spin as an electron but having a positive charge equal in magnitude to that of the electron's negative charge; the antiparticle of the electron. Quarks-any of the hypothetical particles with spin 1/2, baryon number 1/3, and electric charge 1/3 or 2/3 that, together with their antiparticles, are believed to constitute all the elementary particles classed as baryons and mesons; they are distinguished by their flavors, designated as up (u), down (d), strange (s), charm (c), bottom or beauty (b), and top or truth (t), and their colors, red, green, and blue. Photon- a quantum of electromagnetic radiation, usually considered as an elementary particle that is its own antiparticle and that has zero rest mass and charge and a spin of one. Symbol: Muon-a lepton similar in most respects to the electron except that it is unstable, it may be positively charged, and its mass is approximately 207 times greater; the positively charged muon is the antiparticle of the negatively charged muon. Symbol: Kaon- a meson with strangeness +1 and either positive or zero electric charge, or its antiparticle, with strangeness 1 and either negative or zero electric charge. Symbol: K

Pion-the first meson to be discovered: it has spin 0 and may be positively or negatively charged or neutral; charged pions decay into a muon and a neutrino or antineutrino. Symbol:

LAWS/ PRINCIPLES Elementary Particles Subatomic particles are divided into three families: the boson family (which includes the photon), the lepton family (which includes the electron), and the hadron family (which includes the proton and the neutron). Elementary particles are the basic building blocks of matter. All members of the boson and lepton families are elementary particles. The quark theory proposes that the hadrons are not elementary particles but are composed of elementary particles called quarks. Currently, the hundreds of hadrons can be accounted for in terms of six quarks (up, down, strange, charmed, top, and bottom) and their antiquarks. The standard model consists of two parts: (1) the currently accepted explanation for the strong nuclear force in terms of the quark concept of color and (2) the theory of the electroweak interaction. The Strong Nuclear Force and the Stability of the Nucleus. The strong nuclear force is the force of attraction between nucleons (protons and neutrons) and is one of the three fundamental forces of nature. This force balances the electrostatic force of repulsion between protons and holds the nucleus together. The strong nuclear force has a very short range of action and is almost independent of electric charge. Big Bang Theory. The Big Bang theory postulates that the universe had a definite beginning in a cataclysmic event, sometimes called the primeval fireball. The radiation left over from this event is in the microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum, and it is consistent with a perfect blackbody radiating at a temperature of 2.7 K, in agreement with theoretical analysis of the Big Bang. APPLICATIONS The physics of an expanding universe. The idea that the universe is expanding originated with the astronomer Edwin P. Hubble (18891953). He found that light reaching the earth from distant galaxies is Doppler shifted toward greater wavelengthsthat is, toward the red end of the visible spectrum. This type of Doppler shift results when the observer and the source of the light are moving away from each other. The speed at which a galaxy is receding from the earth can be determined from the measured Doppler shift in wavelength. Hubble found that a galaxy located at a distance d from the earth recedes from the earth at a speed v given by Hubbles law-

H = vd
whereH is a constant known as the Hubble parameter. In other words, the recession speed is proportional to the distance d, so that more distant galaxies are moving away from the earth at greater speeds. Hubbles picture of an expanding universe does not mean that the earth is at the centerof the expansion. In fact, there is no literal center. Imagine a loaf of raisin bread expanding as it bakes. Each raisin moves away from every other raisin, without any single one acting as a center for the expansion. Galaxies in the universe behave in a similar fashion. Observers in other galaxies would see distant galaxies moving away, just as we do.

The physics of dark energy. Not only is the universe expanding, it is doing so at an accelerated rate, according to recent astronomical measurements of the brightness of supernovas, or exploding stars. To account for the accelerated rate, astronomers havepostulated that dark energy pervades the universe. The normal gravitational forcebetween galaxies slows the rate at which they are moving away from each other. The dark energy gives rise to a force that counteracts gravity and pushes galaxies apart. As yet, little is known about dark energy. MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Which of the following particles is stable? A. Neutron B. Proton C. Pion D. Muon E. Kaon 2. An example of a fermion is a: A. photon B. pion C. neutrino D. kaon E. none of these 3. An example of a boson is a: A. photon B. electron C. neutrino D. proton E. neutron 4. In order of increasing strength the four basic interactions are: A. gravitational, weak, electromagnetic, and strong B. gravitational, electromagnetic, weak, and strong C. weak, gravitational, electromagnetic, and strong D. weak, electromagnetic, gravitational, and strong E. weak, electromagnetic, strong, and gravitational

5. The two basic interactions that have finite ranges are: A. electromagnetic and gravitational B. electromagnetic and strong C. electromagnetic and weak D. gravitational and weak E. weak and strong

PROBLEMS. 1. What is a neutrino? Answer: The neutrino is an electrically neutral particle that is emitted along with particles and has a mass that is much, much smaller than the mass of an electron. 2. How are baryons and mesons similar? How are they different? Answer: Similarities: Baryons and mesons are hadrons, i.e., they participate in strong interaction. Both are composed of quarks. Differences: Baryons consist of three quarks and are fermions. Mesons consist of two quarks and are bosons. Baryons have baryon number +1 or -1. Mesons have baryon number 0.