Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 10

International Journal of Mechanical and Production

Engineering Research and Development (IJMPERD)


ISSN 2249-6890
Vol. 3, Issue 2, Jun 2013, 1-10
© TJPRC Pvt. Ltd.

EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS TO ENHANCE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF HEAT


EXCHANGER USING TRIANGULAR FINS

V. VARA PRASAD & M. LAVA KUMAR


Assistant Professor, G. Pulla Reddy Engineering College, Kurnool, India

ABSTRACT

A Heat Exchanger is a device used for the transfer of thermal energy between two or more fluids that are at
different temperatures. The present work demonstrates the application of triangular fins to heat exchanger which enhances
the effectiveness of the heat exchanger. The work presents an experimental comparison of three models of double pipe heat
exchanger. It consists of two concentric tubes in which the hot water flows through the inner tube while the cold water
flows through the outer tube. The effectiveness is computed by L.M.T.D method for different flow rates for the three
models.

KEYWORDS: Heat Exchanger, Triangular Fins, L.M.T.D (Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference) Method, Flow
Rate

INTRODUCTION

Heat exchanger is a device used for effecting the process of heat exchange between two fluids hot and cold. A
heat exchanger is a piece of equipment built for efficient heat transfer from one fluid to another. The two primary
classifications of heat exchangers according to their flow arrangement are Parallel flow and Counter flow. In parallel-flow
heat exchangers, the two fluids enter the exchanger at the same end, and travel in parallel to one another to the other side
and in counter-flow heat exchangers the fluids enter the exchanger from opposite ends.

DESIGN OF THE PROBLEM


Specifications
Heat Exchanger Specifications
Inner tube: Material used: Copper

Inner diameter (di) = 26.5mm

Outer diameter (do ) = 28.5mm

Outer tube: Material used: Mild steel

Inner diameter (Di) = 71.12mm

Outer diameter (Do) = 76.2mm

Length of the heat exchanger = 3 feet

Fin Specifications

Number of fins = 12

Dimensions: Base = 16mm


2 V. Vara Prasad & M. Lava Kumar

Height = 18mm

Thickness = 1mm

Geyser Specifications 230 volts, 3 KW, 1.5lit.

DESCRIPTION
Model I

The apparatus basically consists of a tube in tube type, “Concentric tube heat exchanger”. The inner tube of the
heat exchanger is made of copper while outer tube is made of mild steel.

Figure 1: Plain Heat Exchanger Model

Hot water is employed as hot fluid, which is heated in an electric geyser and it flows through the inner tube. Cold
water is employed as cold fluid which flows through the annulus that is, to the outer side of the inner copper tube. The hot
water flows always in one direction and the cold water can be made to flow as required in both directions, that is parallel
flow and counter flow.

Figure 2: Photograph of Heat Exchanger

Model II

For this model of heat exchanger, fins are attached to the inner side of the copper tube because of which surface
area increases and a turbulent flow is created for the fluid flowing in inner tube, thus leading to an increase in
effectiveness.

Figure 3: Heat Exchanger Model with Internal Fins

Model III

For this model of heat exchanger, fins can be attached to the outer surface of the copper tube. Here also due to
application of fins, surface area increases and a turbulent flow is created in the outer tube.
Experimental Analysis to Enhance the Effectiveness of Heat Exchanger Using Triangular Fins 3

Figure 4: Heat Exchanger Model with External Fins

Figure 5: Photograph of Copper Pipe, Copper Strip and Fins

Figure 6: Copper Pipe with External Fins

Procedure

Tap provided for hot water is opened and water is allowed to flow through the inner copper tube. Cold water tap is
opened and it is led through the annulus. Geyser is switched on, thus water that enters the geyser turns hot and then flows
through the inner copper tube. This hot water flow rate is adjusted by means of the adjusting valve provided and its flow
rate is measured by means of stop watch and measuring flask.

Similarly the cold water flow rate is adjusted as required. The temperatures of both the hot and cold water are
observed at their inlets and outlets after attaining a steady state. These observed readings are tabulated. The experiment is
conducted for both parallel and counter flow runs. The same procedure is repeated for all the three models i.e. plain heat
exchanger, heat exchanger with fins to inner surface of copper tube and heat exchanger with fins to outer surface of copper
tube in its parallel and counter flow arrangements.

Figure 7: Experimental Set Up


4 V. Vara Prasad & M. Lava Kumar

Table 1: Inlet and Outlet Temperatures of Hot and Cold Water for Various Flow Rates for Parallel Flow Plain Heat
Exchanger

Hot Water Cold Water


Flow Inlet Outlet Flow Inlet Outlet
S.No.
Rate Temp Temp Rate Temp Temp
(sec/lit) (ºC) (ºC) (sec/lit) (ºC) (ºC)
1 210 77 57 208 34 48
2 152 75 62 208 38 49
3 64 78 64 120 35 48.5
4 226 74 52 171 37 46
5 170 78 58 172 33.5 48

Table 2: Heat Transfer Rate for Respective Flow Rates for Parallel Flow Plain Heat Exchanger

S.No. mh(lit/sec) mc(lit/sec) ∆Th(ºC) ∆Tc(ºC) Qh (kW) Qc(kW) Q(kW)


1 0.004761 0.004807 20 14 0.39876 0.28181 0.340281
2 0.006578 0.004807 13 11 0.35804 0.22142 0.289735
3 0.015625 0.008333 14 13.5 0.91561 0.47101 0.693315
4 0.004424 0.005847 22 9 0.40757 0.22033 0.313951
5 0.005882 0.005813 25 14.5 0.61572 0.35297 0.484349

Table 3: Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient and Effectiveness for Respective Flow Rates

S.No. ∆Ti(ºc) ∆To(ºc) ∆Tm(K) Uri (Kw/M2k) Uro (Kw/M2k) Effectiveness(Є)


1 43 9 50.056 0.01384 0.01286 0.46511
2 37 13 52.833 0.01168 0.01086 0.29729
3 43 15.5 62.057 0.02719 0.02527 0.313
4 37 6 39.237 0.01321 0.01228 0.59459
5 44.5 10 53.211 0.01951 0.01813 0.32584

Table 4: Inlet and Outlet Temperatures of Hot and Cold Water for Various Flow Rates for Counter Flow Plain
Heat Exchanger

Hot Water Cold Water


Flow Inlet Outlet Flow Inlet Outlet
S.No.
Rate Temp Temp Rate Temp Temp
(sec/lit) (ºc) (ºc) (sec/lit) (ºc) (ºc)
1 210 75 55 208 37 47
2 152 76 58 208 34.5 47
3 64 76 62 120 35 48.5
4 226 76 52 171 36 50
5 170 74.5 55.25 172 33.5 48.5

Table 5: Heat Transfer Rates for Counter Flow Plain Heat Exchanger

S.No. Mh(Lit/Sec) Mc(Lit/Sec) ∆Th(ºc) ∆Tc(ºc) Qh (Kw) Qc(Kw) Q(Kw)


1 0.004761 0.004807 20 10 0.39868 0.20126 0.29997
2 0.006578 0.004807 18 12.5 0.49857 0.25158 0.37366
3 0.015625 0.008333 14 13.5 0.9159 0.47101 0.69345
4 0.00424 0.005847 24 14 0.444555 0.34273 0.39364
5 0.005882 0.005813 19.25 15 0.47411 0.36514 0.41962
Experimental Analysis to Enhance the Effectiveness of Heat Exchanger Using Triangular Fins 5

Table 6: Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient and Effectiveness for Respective Flow Rates
for Counter Flow Plain Heat Exchanger

S.No. ∆Ti(ºc) ∆To(ºc) ∆Tm(K) Uri (Kw/M2k) Uro (Kw/M2k) Effectiveness(Є)


1 28 18 52.114 0.01212 0.01127 0.5263
2 29 23.5 60.221 0.01473 0.0137 0.3012
3 27.5 27 62.743 0.02714 0.02523 0.3292
4 26 16 47.426 0.01614 0.01501 0.6000
5 26 21.75 54.828 0.01682 0.01473 0.3658

Table 7: Inlet and Outlet Temperatures of Hot and Cold Water for Various Flow Rates for Parallel Flow Heat
Exchanger with Internal Fins

Hot Water Cold Water


Flow Inlet Outlet Flow Inlet Outlet
S.No.
Rate Temp Temp Rate Temp Temp
(sec/lit) (ºC) (ºC) (sec/lit) (ºC) (ºC)
1 210 73 52 208 34.5 49.5
2 152 76 58 208 34 50.5
3 64 74 54 120 36 49.5
4 226 75 51 171 35 50
5 170 75 61 172 36 49

Table 8: Heat Transfer Rate for Respective Flow Rates for Parallel Flow Heat Exchanger
with Internal Fins

S.No. mh(lit/sec) mc(lit/sec) ∆Th(ºC) ∆Tc(ºC) Qh (kW) Qc(kW) Q(kW)


1 0.004761 0.004807 21 15 0.41862 0.3019 0.36028
2 0.006578 0.004807 18 16.5 0.49575 0.33209 0.41392
3 0.015625 0.008333 20 13.5 1.30801 0.47101 0.88951
4 0.004424 0.005847 27 15 0.50012 0.36722 0.43367
5 0.005882 0.005813 14 13 0.3448 0.31645 0.33063

Table 9: Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient and Effectiveness for Respective Flow Rates

S.No ∆Ti(ºc) ∆To(ºc) ∆Tm(K) Uri (Kw/M2k) Uro (Kw/M2k) Effectiveness(Є)


1 38.5 2.5 30.3152 0.01526 0.01450 0.5454
2 42 7.5 46.1114 0.01666 0.01584 0.3928
3 38 4.5 36.1548 0.03696 0.03514 0.3552
4 40 1 24.3436 0.01873 0.01781 0.6
5 39 12 52.7463 0.01304 0.01239 0.33

Table 10: Inlet and Outlet Temperatures of Hot and Cold Water for Various Flow Rates for Counter Flow Heat
Exchanger with Internal Fins

Hot Water Cold Water


Flow Inlet Outlet Flow Inlet Outlet
S.No. Rate Temp Temp Rate Temp Temp
(sec/lit) (ºC) (ºC) (sec/lit) (ºC) (ºC)
1 210 79 53 208 35 50
2 152 81 61 208 33 52
3 64 84 60 120 35 54
4 226 78 50 171 35 47
5 170 77 60 172 35.5 52

Table 11: Heat Transfer Rate for Respective Flow Rates for Counter Flow Heat Exchanger with Internal Fins

S.No. Mh(lit/sec) Mc(lit/sec) ∆Th(ºC) ∆Tc(ºC) Qh (kW) Qc(kW) Q(kW)


1 0.00476 0.00481 26 15 0.51838 0.30194 0.41016
6 V. Vara Prasad & M. Lava Kumar

Table 11: Contd.,


S.No. Mh(lit/sec) Mc(lit/sec) ∆Th(ºC) ∆Tc(ºC) Qh (kW) Qc(kW) Q(kW)
2 0.00658 0.00481 20 19 0.55084 0.38245 0.46665
3 0.01563 0.00833 24 19 1.57012 0.66293 1.11653
4 0.00442 0.00585 28 12 0.51865 0.29377 0.40621
5 0.00588 0.00581 17 16.5 0.41869 0.40156 0.41012

Table 12: Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient and Effectiveness for Respective Flow Rates

S.No. ∆Ti(ºc) ∆To(ºc) ∆Tm(K) Uri (Kw/M2k) Uro (Kw/M2k) Effectiveness(Є)


1 29 18 53.1079 0.01616 0.01536 0.5909
2 29 28 65.6169 0.01770 0.01683 0.39583
3 30 25 63.1462 0.04267 0.04057 0.38775
4 31 15 50.7500 0.01612 0.01535 0.6511
5 25 24.5 56.9870 0.01396 0.01327 0.39759

Table 13: Inlet and Outlet Temperatures of Hot and Cold Water for Various Flow Rates for Heat Exchanger with
External Fins

Hot Water Cold Water


Flow Rate Inlet Temp Outlet Temp Flow Rate Inlet Temp Outlet Temp
S.No.
(sec/lit) (ºC) (ºC) (sec/lit) (ºC) (ºC)
1 210 73.5 52 208 36 51
2 152 74 57 208 36 55
3 64 83 61 120 37 56.5
4 226 77 50 171 37 49
5 170 75 55 172 35 52

Table 14: Heat Transfer Rate for Respective Flow Rates for Heat Exchanger with External Fins

S.No. Mh(lit/sec) Mc(lit/sec) ∆Th(ºC) ∆Tc(ºC) Qh (kW) Qc(kW) Q(kW)


1 0.004761 0.004807 21.5 15 0.4285 0.3019 0.36526
2 0.006578 0.004807 17 19 0.4682 0.3824 0.42533
3 0.015625 0.008333 22 19.5 1.4392 0.6803 1.05982
4 0.004424 0.005847 27 12 0.5001 0.2937 0.39695
5 0.005882 0.005813 20 17 0.4925 0.4138 0.4532

Table 15: Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient and Effectiveness for Respective Flow Rates

S.No. ∆Ti(ºc) ∆To(ºc) ∆Tm(K) Uri (Kw/M2k) Uro (Kw/M2k) Effectiveness(Є)


1 37.5 1 23.1888 0.0162 0.01476 0.6
2 38 2 28.1524 0.18559 0.01691 0.5
3 46 4.5 41.1076 0.04433 0.40407 0.4239
4 40 1 24.3436 0.01754 0.01598 0.675
5 40 3 32.8906 0.01946 0.17743 0.425

Table 16: Inlet and Outlet Temperatures of Hot and Cold Water for Various Flow Rates for Counter Flow Heat
Exchanger with External Fins

Hot Water Cold Water


S.No. Flow Rate Inlet Temp Outlet Temp Flow Rate Inlet Temp Outlet Temp
(sec/lit) (ºC) (ºC) (sec/lit) (ºC) (ºC)
1 210 77 51 208 36.5 56.5
2 152 79 54 208 34 58
3 64 80 58 120 36 57
4 226 80 50 171 36 54.5
5 170 75 55 172 35 53
Experimental Analysis to Enhance the Effectiveness of Heat Exchanger Using Triangular Fins 7

Table 17: Heat Transfer Rate for Respective Flow Rates for Counter Flow Heat Exchanger
with External Fins

S.No. Mh(lit/sec) Mc(lit/sec) ∆Th(ºC) ∆Tc(ºC) Qh (kW) Qc(kW) Q(kW)


1 0.004761 0.004807 26 20 0.51838 0.40253 0.46046
2 0.006578 0.004807 25 24 0.68855 0.4831 0.58582
3 0.015625 0.008333 22 21 1.43928 0.73269 1.08598
4 0.004424 0.005847 30 18.5 0.55569 0.4529 0.50429
5 0.005882 0.005813 20 18 0.49258 0.43817 0.46537

Table 18: Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient and Effectiveness for Respective Flow Rates

S.No. ∆Ti(ºC) ∆To(ºC) ∆Tm(K) Uri (kW/m2k) Uro (kW/m2 k) Effectiveness(Є)


1 20.5 14.5 39.8973 0.01933 0.01762 0.6075
2 21 20 47.1936 0.02404 0.02191 0.5333
3 23 22 51.7996 0.04393 0.04004 0.4772
4 25.5 14 44.1607 0.02089 0.01904 0.6818
5 22 20 48.3177 0.01903 0.01734 0.45

CONCLUSIONS

Among the three models of the heat exchangers, effectiveness is observed to be higher for model-3 i.e., heat
exchanger with fins attached to the outer surface of the copper tube.

The order of Effectiveness for the three proposed models is observed to be:

Єplain H. E < Є H. E with Internal Fins < Є H. E with External Fins

Effectiveness of heat exchanger with fins attached to inner surface of copper tube is more than the plain heat
exchanger because the fluid in inner tube is subjected to turbulent flow.

The effectiveness of heat exchanger with fins attached to outer surface of copper tube is more than the other two
models because, the surface area of inner pipe through which heat transfer occurs, from hot water to cold water, is
increased and also because of the arrangement of fins, a turbulent flow is created in the fluid flowing in the outer tube.

Thus, it is concluded that effectiveness of heat exchanger with fins attached to outer surface of copper tube is
higher among the three models of heat exchangers.

NOMENCLATURE

Qh - Heat transfer rate of hot water (kW)

Qc - Heat transfer rate of cold water (kW)

mh - Flow rate of hot water (lit/sec)

mc - Flow rate of cold water (lit/sec)

Cph - Specific heat at constant pressure of hot water (kJ/kg K)

Cpc - Specific heat at constant pressure of cold water (kJ/kg K)

Thi - Temperature of hot water at inlet (◦C)

Tho - Temperature of hot water at outlet (◦C)


8 V. Vara Prasad & M. Lava Kumar

Tci - Temperature of cold water at inlet (◦C)

Tco - Temperature of cold water at outlet (◦C)

∆Th - Difference between hot water inlet and outlet temperatures

= Thi-Tho

∆Tc - Difference between cold water inlet and outlet temperatures

= Tci-Tco

∆Ti - Difference between the temperatures of hot and cold fluids at one end

∆To - Difference between the temperatures of hot and cold fluids at other end

di - Inner diameter of the inner tube (m)

do - Outer diameter of the inner tube (m)

Di - Inner diameter of the outer tube (m)

Do - Outer diameter of the outer tube (m)

L - Length of the heat exchanger (m)

Ai - Area of the inner tube (m2)

Ao - Area of the outer tube (m2)

Uri - Overall inner heat transfer coefficient (kW/m2K)

Uro - Over all outer heat transfer coefficient (kW/m2K)

L.M.T.D- Logarithmic mean temperature difference

=∆Tm

Є - Effectiveness of the Heat Exchanger

REFERENCES
1. Bowman, R.A., A.C. Muller and W.M.Nagle, Mean Temperature Differerence in Design, Trans ASME,
62,288,1940.
2. Fass,A.P and M.N.Oziski, Heat Exchanger Design, Whiley, New York,1965.
3. Rennie, T.J. and Raghavan, V.G.S., 2005, Experimental studies of adouble-pipe helical heat exchanger. Exp
Thermal Fluid Sci, 29:919–924.
4. Increasing Heat Exchanger Performance by Kelvin M.Lunsford.
5. Heat Transfer Research by Arthur E.Bergles.
6. Ercan Ataer,O.,2004.An approximate method for transient behaviour of finnedtubes cross flow Heat Exchangers.
7. Earth Tube Heat Exchangers for Environmental Control of Farm Buildings by Girja Sharan.
8. Second law based optimization of a plate fin Heat Exchanger using Imperialist
Competitive Algorithm by Moslem Yousefi, Amer Nordin Darus and Hossein Mohammadi.
9. Effectiveness Selection Methodology for a Louvered Fin Heat Exchanger using Thermal Resistance and No. of
Transfer Units Method by D.Govindaraj.
Experimental Analysis to Enhance the Effectiveness of Heat Exchanger Using Triangular Fins 9

10. Two Phase Heat Transfer Studies on Liquid-liquid system in Tube side shell and Tube Heat Exchanger.
11. Entropy generation minimisation analysis of cross-flow Heat Exchangers used in indirect evaporative air
conditioners by Morteza Eslamian,Ali
12. Optimal design of plate-fin Heat Exchangers by a hybrid evolutionary algorithmby
M.Yousefi,R.Enayatifar,A.N.Darus.
13. Fin efficiency and mechanisms of heat exchange through fins in multi-streamplate-fin Heat Exchangers
formulation by B.V.S.Prasad.
14. Prediction of boiling Heat Transfer duty in a compact plate-fin Heat Exchanger using the improved local
assumption by C.C.Chen,J.V.Loh,J.W.Westwater.