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ْ

ﺔﻴِ ﺒ َ

ِ

ر ﻝا ﺔ ﻠﻝا ﻲ ﻓ م ﺴﻻا

َ

َ

ِ

ِ

ُ ْ

NOUNS IN ARABIC

The Arabic word can be: A noun, a verb or a particle.

ARABIC The Arabic word can be: A noun, a verb or a particle. ِ Particle ف
ARABIC The Arabic word can be: A noun, a verb or a particle. ِ Particle ف
ARABIC The Arabic word can be: A noun, a verb or a particle. ِ Particle ف
ARABIC The Arabic word can be: A noun, a verb or a particle. ِ Particle ف
ِ Particle ف ر ْ ﺤ َ Verb ل ِ ٌ ٌ ﻌ ﻓ ْ
ِ
Particle
ف ر ْ ﺤ َ
Verb
ل
ِ
ٌ
ٌ
ْ
Noun
م
ا
ٌ ﺴ ْ
Preposition
:
ر ﺠ ف ر
َ
ُ
ْ ﺤ َ
ِ
ِ
Past tense
ﻀﺎ
ﻤﻝا ل ﻌ ﻔ ﻝا
ِ
ُ
ْ
Human
نﺎﺴ ﻨ إ
َ
ْ
ٌ
ْ
ِ
ﻰﻝإ ،ﻰﻠ ﻋ ،ﻲ
َ
ف ْ ◌ َ
ر ح
ُ
َ
Conjunction
Present
ٍ
ِ
،وأ ،و :
فطْ
ُ عرﺎﻀِ
ﻝا ل ﻔ
ْ
ُ
ﻌ ﻝا
ْ
Animal
ناو ﺤ
َ
ُ
ْ
ٌ
َ
َ
tense
ـﻓ ،مُ
Negation
ِ
ﻻ :
ﻲٍ ْ ﻨ َ ف ُ ر ْ َ
Command
رِ ﻤَﻷا ل ﻓ
Solid
دﺎ ﻤ ﺠ
ْ
ُ
ْ
ٌ
َ َ
ٍ
ِ
Calling Particle
ﺎﻴ :
ءاد ﻨ ف ر
Plant
تﺎ ﺒ ﻨ
ُ
ْ ﺤ َ
ٌ
َ
َ
Etc.
Place
نﺎ ﻜ ﻤ
ٌ
َ
َ
Time
نﺎ ز
ٌ
َ
َ
ِ
Adjective
ٌ ﺔ َ
ِ
Pronoun
رﻴ ﻀ
ٌ
َ
Demons-
ة رﺎﺸ إ م ﺴا
ٍ
ِ
trative
َ
ُ ْ
Relative
لو ﺼ ﻤ م ﺴا
ٌ
و
Pronoun
ُ
ْ َ
ٌ ْ
Etc.

How to recognize a noun?

1- It can have Tanween

َ

نﻴوِ ﻨ َ ( ٌ و)

ٌ

ْ

د

َ

2- It can have لا of definition

فﻴرِ ﻌ  ﺘﻝا لا ( ُ و

ِ

ْ

َ

َ

ْ

د ﻝ ﻝا)

3- It can have a calling particle ءاد

ِ

ﻨ ف ر

ُ

ْ َ

before (

دﻤ

ُ

ﻤ ﺎ ﻴ )

َ ُ

َ

4- It can have a preposition ر

َ

ﺠ ف ر

ُ

ْ َ

before (

ْ

ْ َ

ت ﻝا ﻲ ﻓ )

ِ

ِ

5- It can show possession

ﻪ إ فﺎ ﻀ ﻤ (

ِ

ْ

ِ

َ

ُ

َ

ٌ

ِ

د َ ﻝ ﻝا ْ ت ﻴ

ُ

َ

و

ْ ﺒ َ ،

ٍ

دﻤ

ﻤ ت ﻴ

َ ُ

ُ

ْ ﺒ َ

)

*In Arabic possession is expressed - in most cases - by a noun without لا (

ت ﺒ)

ُ

ْ َ

(the thing possessed/owned) followed by another noun that has لا (

ِ

د َ ﻝ و

ْ

َ

ﻝا) or a

proper name (

comes indefinite.

6- It can have

ٍ

دﻤ ﺤ

َ ُ

) (The possessor/owner). In few cases the possessor

ُ ْ َ

ءﺎﺘ ٌ

( ٌ َ )

ﻓ ر

ْ

ُ

ٌ

ﺔطو ﻤ

ﺒ ر

7- We can give information

ر ٌ ﺒ َ

about it ( ٌ

َ

َ

ﺔ ﻠﻴﻤ ﺠ ت ﻝا)

َ

ِ

ُ

ْ

ْ

The types of nouns

1- Definite or indefinite

ِ Definite ﺔٌ َﻓرِ ﻌ Indefinite ٌ ة ﻜ ر ﻨ َ ْ ﻤ َ
ِ
Definite ﺔٌ َﻓرِ
Indefinite ٌ
ة ﻜ
ر ﻨ
َ
ْ ﻤ َ
َ
When the noun is specific.
Examples of the most common types of nouns:
When the noun is
ِ
not specific:
ت
ﻨ ﺒ
ٌ
ْ
1- Proper noun
م
َ ﻠ ﻌ َ ﻝا ْ
:
دﻤ ٌ
ُ
َ ُ
ِ
2- The nouns starting with لا of definition:
بﺎ َ ﻜ ﻝا
ْ
ُ
3- The noun added to a definite noun to give
ِ
ب
ِ
meaning of possession
ﻝﺎ
ِ  طﻝا بﺎ َ ﺘ
ﻜ (The book of the
ُ
ِ
student) the word
بﺎ َ ﺘ
ﻜ here is definite because it is
ُ
followed by a definite possessor.
ِ
4- The pronoun
رﻴ ﻤﻀﻝ
ا
:
ت َ ﻨَأ ْ ، ْ ﻫ ُ ، و
م
ُ
َ
ُ
ِ
ِ
5- Demonstrative
ة
رﺎ ﺸﻹا م ﺴا
َ
:
ءﻻ ُ ﻫ ،
ؤ
ا ذ
َ
َ
َ
ُ ْ
َ
ِ
ِ
6- Relative Pronoun
لو ﺼ ﻤ
ُ
و ﻝا
ْ
م
ُ ﺴﻻا ْ
:
نﻴ  ﻝا ،
ذ
ي ذ 
ﻝا
ُ
ْ َ
َ
ِ
7- The human, animal or anything we call ( ُ
ﺔ طﺎ َ ﻓ ﺎ ﻴ)
َ
َ

2- Conjugated or built on one form

-

Conjugated

ٌ

َ ْ ُ

ب ﻌ

ر

: means that the last mark of the noun will change

when it comes in a different position in the sentence.

Ex.

ْ

بﺎ َ ﻝا ﻲ ﻓ

ِ

ِ

ِ

ر ُأ

َ

ﻗَأ

ْ

بﺎ َ ﻝا ر ُأ

ْ

ﻗ َأ –

ْ

َ

ِ

َ

دﻴ ﻤ بﺎ َ

ٌ

ِ

ُ

ُ

ﻝا

ْ

ِ

Notice the difference of the last mark in the word

ْ

بﺎ

ِ

َ

ﻜ ﻝا

in each example.

- Built on one form

the last letter, even if its position changes.

Ex. The pronoun

ْ

ﻲ ﺒ

: َ means that the noun will have the same mark on

ِ

َ ْ

َ

(he) is, in all cases ending with a Fat-hah ٌ

ُ

و

َ

ﺔ ﺘ

ﺤ ﻓ

uθèδ āωÎ) tµ≈s9Î) Iω ”Ï%©!$# ª!$# uθèδ 

The pronouns, the demonstratives, the relative pronouns are examples of the

most common

ِ ﻨ ﺒ

ْ

َ

nouns.

a- The pronouns

ر ﻤﻀﻝا

ُ

ﺌﺎ

ِ

َ

All pronouns with no exception are built on one form

For more details, please see file about “Arabic Pronouns”. Download from here.

http://quranicarabic.wordpress.com/quraanic-arabic/quraanic-arabic-

advanced-level/

ﻲ ِ ﻤ

ْ

َ

b - The demonstratives

ِ

ة ﺸﻹاِ

رﺎ

َ

َ

ءﺎ ُ ﻤ َ ﺴَأ ْ

   

ْ

 

ْ

 

دﻴ ﺒ

ُ

ﻌ ﻝا

َ

ِ

 

ُ

بﻴرِ َ ﻘ ﻝا

 

That/Those

This/These

 ذ ﻝا ْ د ر ﻔ ﻤﻝا

َ

ر

ُ

ﻜ ﻤ

ُ

ُ

َ

ْ

ُ

 

َ

ك ذ

َ

ِ

 

اذ ﻫ

َ

 

ُ ﺔﺜﻨ ﻤﻝا ةد ﻔ

َ

ؤ

ُ

ُ

ْ

ر ﻤﻝا

َ

ُ

 

ﻠ ْ ﺘ

َ

ك

ِ

 

ِ ِ

ذ

ﻩ ﻫ

َ

 

ر

ُ

ذ ﻝا ْ ﻰﻨ َ ﺜ ﻤﻝا

َ

ُ

ُ

 

َ

ك

ِ

ﻨاذ

َ

نِ ذﻫ / ناذِ

ْ

َ

ُ

ثﻨ ﻤﻝا ﻰﻨ َ ﺜ ﻤﻝا

َ

ؤ

ُ

ُ

 

َ

ك

ﻨﺎﺘ

ِ

َ ﺘﺎﻫ / نﺎ ﻫ

نِ

ْ

ﺘﺎ

َ

َ

ثﻨ ﻤﻝا /

ِ

َ ُ

ؤ

رِ

ذ

َ

ﻜ ﻤ

ُ

ﻝا ْ ُ ﻊ ﻤ ْ َ

ك وُأ

َ

َ

ِ

ْ

 

ِ

ءﻻ ُ

َ

ؤ

 

All demonstratives are

ﻤ َ except those for the بﻴرِ َ

ْ

ِ ﻨ ﺒ

ﻝا ﻰﻨ َ

ْ

ﻤ ُ they follow the

same conjugation of dual nouns.

c- The relative pronouns ﺔُ

ﻝو ﺼ ﻤ

َ

ْ

ُ

و ﻝا ُ

ْ َ

َ ْ

ءﺎ ﺴَﻷا

 ذ ﻝا ْ د ر ﻔ ﻤﻝا

َ

ر

ُ

ﻜ ﻤ

ُ

ُ

َ

ْ

ُ

 

ي ﻝا

ذ

ِ

 

ُ ﺔﺜﻨ ﻤﻝا ة د ر ﻔ ﻤﻝا

َ

ؤ

ُ

ُ

َ

ْ

ُ

 

ﻲ ِ ﻝا

 

ر

ُ

ذ ﻝا ْ ﻰﻨ َ ﺜ ﻤﻝا

َ

ُ

ُ

 

ﻴ ﻠﻝا /ناِ

ْ

نِ ذ

َ

ذ

َ

ﻠﻝا

ُ

ثﻨ ﻤﻝا ﻰﻨ َ ﺜ ﻤﻝا

َ

ؤ

ُ

ُ

 

نِ ﻠﻝا /نﺎِ َ ﻠﻝا

ْ

َ ﺘ

   

َ

ﻜ ﻤ

رِ

ذ ﻝا ﻊ ﻤ

َ

ُ

ْ

ُ

ْ ﺠ َ

 

نﻴ ذ ﻝا

ِ

 

ثﻨ ﻤﻝا ﻊ ﻤ ﺠ

ِ

َ ُ

ؤ

ُ

ْ َ

 

ِ ﺌﻼﻝا/ﻲ ِ ﺘﻼﻝا

   

ْ

 

ُ

ْ

 

َ

Human

ل

ِ

ﻗﺎﻌ

ﻝ ا

ن

 
 

ْ

 

Non human

ل

ِ ﻗﺎﻌ ِ

ﻝا رﻴ ﻏ

ُ

َ

 

َ

(but can be used for human in some cases)

 

 

All relative pronouns are

conjugation of dual nouns.

ﻤ َ except those for dual; they follow the same

ِ ﻨ ﺒ

ْ

3- Singular, dual or plural nouns

In English, a noun may be singular or plural. Plural refers to more than one.

In Arabic, a noun may be singular, dual or plural. Plural refers to more than two.

The Singular ُ

د َ ﻔ ْ ُ ﻝا: ْ

ر ﻤ

The singular is what shows one masculine or one feminine.

Ex.

ً

ل ﺠ ر ،ﺠ ر ، ل ﺠ ر

ٍ

ُ َ

ُ َ

ٌ

ُ َ

/ ب

ِ

ِ

ﺘ ﻝا ،

َ

ْ

ْ

ﺘ ﻝا

َ

ب

َ

ِ

ْ

،ب ﺘ ﻜ ﻝا

ِ

ُ

ﺎ َ

The conjugation of a singular noun is:

The Cases

Examples for positions under different

cases

Mark of the last letter

(

ُ ﺔ َ ﺤ

ﻝﺎ

َ

ﻝا

ْ

)

 

First noun in a sentence :

ٌأ د َ َ ﺘ ﺒ ْ

ُ

 

ٌ

 

ٌ

ُ

 

ٌأ د َ َ ﺘ ﺒ ْ

ُ

:

ٌ َ َ

ر

ﺔ ﻤ ﻀ

َ

ﻓ ﻤ

ْ َ

عو ر

Information about the

(د ٌ َ ﻝ و)

َ

 

ل

ٌ

Doer of the verb : ﻋﺎﻓ

ِ

ٌ

ُ

ْ

Object

: ِ ِ ﺒ لو ﻔ

ٌ

ُ

ْ

ﻤ َ

ٌ

َ ْ

َ

ﺤ ﺘ ﻓ

َ

بو ﺼ ﻤ

A noun that shows the time or

the place

ٌ

: ف ر

ْ

ظ

َ

( د

َ

ا و)

َ

ً

   

ٌ

َ

 

ٌ

ُ

ْ

َ

Noun after preposition :

ٌ

ُ

ْ

َ

ٌ ﺴا ْ

رو ﺠ

ر ﻤ م

َ ْ

ة ﺴ ﻜ

ر

رو ﺠ

ر ﻤ

Noun showing the possessor

:

ﻪ ﻝإ فﺎﻀ

ٌ

ْ

َ

ِ

ُ

(د ﻝ و)

َ

َ

ٍ

For an easy explanation of the different cases of Arabic Grammar, please go to

http://quranicarabic.wordpress.com/2010/04/10/quraanic-arabic-lesson-3/

The Dual ﻰﻨ َ

ْ

ﺜ ﻝا:

ُ

ﻨ و فﻝَأ

ُ

The dual noun is formed from the singular, by adding نو

َ

(نﺎِ ـــ) when the

noun is ٌ

ﻓ ﻤ and نو ﻨ

ُ

ُ و ٌ َ

َ

ءﺎ ﻴ (

عو ر

ْ َ

) - with a ﺔﺤ ْ َ before ءﺎﻴ - when the noun is

نِ

ْ

َ

ـــ

ــ

ٌ

بو ﺼ ﻨ

ُ

ْ

َ

or

ٌ

ُ

ْ

رو ﺠ

ر

َ

نِ ﻴ ْ َ

د ﻝ و وَأ نِ د ﻝ و

َ

َ

ْ

ا

َ

َ

د ﻝ َ و / َ
د ﻝ
َ
و
/
َ

نِ ﺒﺎ َ ﺘ ﻜ وَأ نِ

ْ َ

ِ

ْ

ﺒﺎ َ

َ

بﺎ َ

ِ

َ ِ ْ ﺘ ﺒﺎ َ ﻜ َ بﺎ َ ﺘ ِ ﻜ ُ ْ ﻤ

ُ

ْ ٌ

ِ

When changing a singular noun ending with ٌ

ﺔ طو ر

َ

ءﺎﺘ to dual, the

Ex.

ٌ ﺔ طو َ ر

ُ

َ

ْ ٌ

ءﺎﺘ change to a ت, to which dual ending is attach

Ex.

نِ ﻴ ﻤ ﻠ ﺴ ﻤ وَأ نﺎِ ﻤ ﻠ ﺴ ﻤ

ْ

َ

َ

ِ

ْ

ُ

ْ

َ

َ

ِ

ْ

ُ

ِ ﺔ ﻤ ﺴ ﻠ / َ ْ ﻤ ُ
ِ
ﻤ ﺴ
/
َ
ْ
ﻤ ُ

ﻴ ﺴ ر د ﻤ وَأ نﺎِ ﺴ ر د

ْ

َ

نِ

َ

َ

ْ

َ

ْ

َ

َ

ْ

ﻤ َ

ﺴ ر د ْ َ نِ ﺘ َ َ ْ َ ْ ﺘ َ َ ْ

َ

َ

ر

د

ْ

ﻤ َ

The Cases

Examples for positions under different

cases

Letters which change

(

ُ ﺔ َ ﺤ

ﻝﺎ

َ

ﻝا

ْ

)

 

First noun in a sentence :

ٌأ د َ َ ﺘ ﺒ ْ

ُ

 

ﻝَأ

ٌ

ف

 

ٌأ د َ َ ﺘ ﺒ ْ

ُ

:

ٌ َ َ

ر

 

عو ر

ٌ

ﻓ ْ ﻤ َ

ُ

Information about the

ِ

َ

 

Doer of the verb

ل

ٌ

: ﻋﺎﻓ

ِ

(نِ ا و)

َ

د

َ

ٌ

ُ

ْ

Object

: ِ ِ ﺒ لو ﻔ

ٌ

ُ

ْ

ﻤ َ

ءﺎﻴ

ٌ

 

َ

َ

بو ﺼ ﻤ

A noun that shows the time or

ٌ

: ف ظ

ْ

ر

َ

(نِ د ﻝ و)

ْ

َ

َ

the place

   

ءﺎﻴ

ٌ

َ

(نِ د ﻝ و)

ْ

َ

َ

Noun after preposition :

Noun showing the possessor

:

ٌ

ُ

ْ

َ

ٌ

ُ

ْ

َ

رو ﺠ

ر ﻤ

ٌ ﺴا ْ

رو ﺠ

ر ﻤ م

ﻪ ﻝإ فﺎﻀ

ٌ

ْ

َ

ِ

ُ

Important comments:

1- The ف ﻝَأ and the ءﺎﻴ are what change in the dual, in the different positions,

ِ

not the last mark as in the singular.

2- The letter نِ with ةر

conjugation of the dual. It is only an alternative to the sound of Tanween that you hear in the singular.

This نِ might be deleted, if the dual is followed by a possessor

ﻜ َ at the end of dual ﻰﻨ َ

ْ

ْ

ﻝا, has no relation with the

ُ

ﻪ ﻝ إ فﺎ ﻀ ﻤ

ِ

ِ

َ

ُ

ْ

َ

ٌ

Ex. ﻲ ِ ﺒﻨﻝا ﺎ َ ﺘ ﻨ ِ  ْ ﺒ (the two daughters
Ex.
ﻲ ِ ﺒﻨﻝا ﺎ َ ﺘ ﻨ
ِ
ْ
ﺒ (the two daughters of the prophet)
No ن at the end of نﺎ َ
ﺘ ﻨ ﺒ
ِ
ْ

ْ

The Plural ُ

ﻤ ﻝا:

ْ َ

ﻊ ﺠ

In Arabic, there are three types of plural: Sound masculine plural, sound feminine plural and broken plural.

َ

1- The Sound Masculine Plural

It is so called 'sound', because the singular form remain intact or sound, i.e. the singular is same and only different endings are added to it.

م ِ ﻝﺎﺴﻝا

ُ

ْ

رِ ذ ﻝا ُ

ُ

ﻜ ﻤ

ْ َ

ﻊ ﺠ

The sound masculine plural noun, is formed from the singular, by adding (

نو ــ)

َ

ُ

ـــ

when the noun is ٌ

ُ

عو ر

ْ َ

and

(نﻴ ) when the noun is

َ

ــ ـ ــ

ِ

ٌ

بو ﺼ ﻨ

ُ

ْ

َ

or

ٌ

ُ

ْ

, this ءﺎﻴ is

َ

رو ﺠ

ر

َ

a long vowel (ee) with a ةر

ْ

before.

Ex.

ن ﻤ ِ ﻠ ِ ﺴ ﻤ وَأ

َ

ْ

ُ

ْ

ن ﻤ ﻠ ﺴ

ُ

َ

ْ

ﻤ ُ

و

ِ

ِ م ﻠ ﻤ ﺴ / ْ ُ
ِ
م
ﻠ ﻤ
/
ْ
ُ

ن ﺤ ِ ﻝﺎ ِ ﺼ ،

َ

َ

ُ

ن ﺤ ﻝﺎ ﺼ

َ

و

ِ

َ

ﻝﺎ ِ ﺼ ، َ ﻴ َ ُ ن ﺤ ﻝﺎ ﺼ َ و ِ َ

ﺢ ﻝﺎ

ِ

َ

The Cases

   

Letters which change

ُ َ

 

ْ

 

(

ﻝﺎ

ﺔ ﺤ

َ

ﻝا

)

 

Examples for positions under different cases

 
 

First noun in a sentence :

ٌأ د َ َ ﺘ ﺒ ْ

ُ

 

 

واو

ٌ

 

ٌ

ُ

ﻓ ﻤ

ْ َ

عو ر

 

Information about the

ٌأ د َ َ ﺘ ﺒ ْ

Doer of the verb

ُ

ٌ ﺒ َ ﺨ َ

:

ل

ٌ

ر

: ﻋﺎﻓ

ِ

(ن ﻤ ﻠ ﺴ

َ

ُ

و

ِ

ْ

ﻤ ُ )

 

ٌ

ُ

ْ

Object

: ِ ِ ﺒ لو ﻔ

ٌ

ُ

ْ

ﻤ َ

ءﺎﻴ

ٌ

َ

بو ﺼ ﻤ

A noun that shows the time or

the place

ٌ

: ف ر

ْ

َ

ظ

(ن ﻤ ﻠ ﺴ

َ

ِ

ِ

ْ

ﻤ ُ )

   

ءﺎﻴ

ٌ

(ن ﻤ ﻠ ﺴ

َ

ِ

ِ

ْ

ﻤ ُ )

Noun after preposition :

Noun showing the possessor

:

ٌ

ُ

 

ٌ

ُ

ْ

َ

رو ﺠ

ر ﻤ

ْ َ ٌ ﺴا ْ

ر ﻤ م

رو ﺠ

ﻪ ﻝإ فﺎﻀ

ٌ

ْ

َ

ِ

ُ

Important comments:

1- The واو and the ءﺎﻴ are what change in the dual in the different positions, not

the last mark as the singular.

2- The letter ن with

َ

ﺤ ﺘ

َ ْ

َ

at the end of

م ﻝﺎﺴﻝا

ُ

ِ

ْ

رِ ذ ﻝا ُ

ُ

ﻜ ﻤ

ْ َ

َ

has no relation with

conjugation of the dual. It is only an alternative to the sound of Tanween

that you hear in the singular.

نﻴوِ ﻨ َ ﺘ

ٌ

ْ

- The general rule is that

م ﻝﺎﺴﻝا

ُ

ِ

رِ ﻜ ذ َ ﻤ ﻝا ْ ُ ﻊ ﻤ ﺠ

ُ

ْ َ

is used for some masculine

human but it may come, as an exception, with a few rare masculine, non- human.

Ex.

(

ْ

ﻋ)

َ

ن

رِ

ِ

ْ

ُ

ن ر ﺸ

َ

و

ِ

(twenty) -

َ

ِ

ﻝﺎ ﻋ) ن ﻤ

َ

َ

ُ

َ

َ

و ﻝﺎ ﻋ

َ

(worlds)

2- The Sound Feminine Plural

م ﻝﺎﺴﻝا ِ

ُ

ثﻨ ﻤ

ِ

ْ

ؤ ﻝا ُ

َ ُ

ْ َ

ﻊ ﺠ

It is so called sound because the singular forms remain intact or sound, i.e. the singular is same and only different endings are added to it. The sound masculine plural noun is formed from the singular by adding

(تﺎـ when the noun is ٌ

ُ

)

ُ

عو ر

ْ َ

and

ِ

(تﺎـ

)

when the noun is

ٌ

بو ﺼ ﻨ

ُ

ْ

َ

or

Ex.

ت

ٍ

ِ ﻠ ِ ْ ﻤ وَأ

ُ

ْ

ﻤ ﺴ

ت ٌ ﺎﻤ

ﻠ ﻤ

ْ

ُ

ِ

ِ ﺔﻤ ﻠ ﺴ ْ ﻤ ُ /
ِ
ﺔﻤ
ﺴ ْ ﻤ ُ
/

رﺎﻴ ﺴﻝا ،

ت ا

ِ

َ

َ

ت رﺎﻴ ﺴﻝا

ُ

ا

َ

َ

، ت ا ِ َ َ ت رﺎﻴ ﺴﻝا ُ ا َ َ Notice that we

Notice that we delete ٌ

َ

ﺔ طو ر

َ

ُ

ْ ٌ

ءﺎ َ before adding the (

تﺎـ)

ِ

ٌ

ُ

ْ

َ

رو ﺠ

ر

.

ة رﺎﻴ ﺴﻝا

َ

َ

The Cases

Examples for positions under different

 

Marks which

(

ُ ﺔ َ ﺤ

ﻝﺎ

َ

ﻝا

ْ

)

cases

change

 

First noun in a sentence :

ٌأ د َ َ ﺘ ﺒ ْ

ُ

 

ٌ

 

ٌ

ُ

 

ﺔ ﻤ ﻀ

َ

ﻓ ﻤ

ْ َ

عو ر

Information about the

ٌأ د َ َ ﺘ ﺒ ْ

Doer of the verb

ُ

ٌ ﺒ َ ﺨ َ

:

ل

ٌ

ر

: ﻋﺎﻓ

ِ

(ت

َ

ِ

ٌ

ﺴ ْ ﻤ ُ

)

ٌ

ُ

ْ

Object

: ِ ِ ﺒ لو ﻔ

ٌ

ُ

ْ

ﻤ َ

ة

ٌ

َ

ﺴ ﻜ

َ

ر

ْ

 

َ

َ

بو ﺼ ﻤ

A noun that shows the time or

the place

ٌ

: ف ر

ْ

ظ

ٍ

(ت

َ

ِ

ﺴ ْ ﻤ ُ

)

   

ة

ٌ

َ

ﺴ ﻜ

َ

ر

ْ

 

Noun after preposition :

ٌ

ُ

ْ

َ

ٌ ﺴا ْ

رو ﺠ

ر ﻤ م

 

ٌ

ُ

ْ

َ

رو ﺠ

ر ﻤ

Noun showing the possessor

:

ﻪ ﻝإ فﺎﻀ

ٌ

ْ

َ

ِ

ُ

ٍ

(ت

َ

ِ

ﺴ ْ ﻤ ُ

)

ﻝا ُ

ْ

* The general rule is that

and non-human) but it may be used in some cases for masculine.

م ﻝﺎﺴﻝا

ُ

ثﻨ ﻤ

ِ

َ ُ

ؤ

is used for feminine nouns (human

ْ َ

ِ

ٍ Ex. ت ﺎﻤﺎﻤ ﺤ وَأ ت ٌ ﺎﻤﺎﻤ ﺤ مﺎﻤ ﺤ َ ْ َ
ٍ
Ex.
ت
ﺎﻤﺎﻤ
ﺤ وَأ
ت ٌ ﺎﻤﺎﻤ
مﺎﻤ
َ
ْ
َ
َ
ِ
3- The Broken Plural رﻴِ
ﺴ ﻜ  ﺘﻝا ُ ﻤ
ْ
ﻊ ﺠ
ْ َ

(bathroom)

- It is so called broken because it is formed by breaking up the singular pattern, by adding or removing vowels and letters: before, in between or after the singular. I does not have a pattern that you can follow, you need to learn them individually.

- It can be used for human and non-human.

Ex.

ً ٌ

ل ٍ ﺎﺠرِ ،ﺎﺠرِ ،ل ﺎﺠرِ

ً ٌ ل ٍ ﺎﺠرِ ، ﻻ ﺎﺠرِ ، ل ﺎﺠرِ ُ ر َ ل ﺠ

ُ ر َ

ل

/ ب ﺘ ﻜ ﻝا ، ب ﺘ ﻜ ﻝا ،ب ﺘ ﻜ ﻝا

ِ

َ

ُ ُ

ْ ُ

ُ ْ

ُ

ُ

ُ ْ

، ب ﺘ ﻜ ﻝا ِ َ ُ ُ ْ ُ ُ ْ ُ ُ ُ

ْ

بﺎ َ ﺘ ﻜ ﻝا

ِ

The Cases

Examples for positions under different

Mark of the last letter

 

ُ َ

ْ

(

ﻝﺎ

ﺔ ﺤ

َ

ﻝا

)

cases

 

First noun in a sentence :

ٌأ د َ َ ﺘ ﺒ ْ

ُ

 

ٌ

 

ٌ

ُ

 

ٌأ د َ َ ﺘ ﺒ ْ

ُ

:

ٌ ﺒ َ َ

ر

ﺔ ﻤ ﻀ

َ

ﻓ ْ ﻤ َ

عو ر

Information about the

(د ٌ َ ﻝ و)

َ

 

Doer of the verb

ل

ٌ

: ﻋﺎﻓ

ِ

ٌ

ُ

ْ

Object

: ِ ِ ﺒ لو ﻔ

ٌ

ُ

ْ

ﻤ َ

ﺔ ﺤ ﺘ ﻓ

ٌ

َ ْ

َ

َ

بو ﺼ ﻤ

A noun that shows the time or

the place

َ

: ف ظ

ْ

ر

ٌ

( د

َ

ا و)

َ

ً

 

Noun after preposition :

ٌ

ُ

ْ

َ

ٌ ﺴا ْ

رو ﺠ

ر ﻤ م

ة ﺴ ﻜ

ٌ

َ

َ ْ

ر

 

ٌ

ُ

ْ

َ

َ

رو ﺠ

ر ﻤ

Noun showing the

ِ

possessor

:

ﻪ ﻝإ فﺎﻀ

ٌ

ْ

ُ

(د ﻝ و)

َ

َ

ٍ

Notice that the conjugation بار ﻋإ of Broken Plural is exactly as د

َ

ُ

ْ

ر ﻤﻝا

ْ

In the next file ُ ﷲا

ءﺎ ﺸ نإ

َ

َ

ْ

we will study the Nominative sentence, and its two

ﺒ ﻝاو ُأ د ﺘ ﺒ

َ

ر ﺨ

ُ َ

ْ

َ َ ْ

ْ

main parts:

of nouns and their conjugation.

ﻝا and you will see more examples of the different types

ُ