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Embryology Prof. Yvette Marris E. Legaspi, RN, MAN

Embryology

Prof. Yvette Marris E. Legaspi, RN, MAN

Fertilization

An egg must be

fertilized within 12 to

24 hours of ovulation

It takes about 72 hours for an egg to reach the

uterus.

The sperm must

encounter the egg

somewhere in the

uterine tube

takes about 72 hours for an egg to reach the uterus. • The sperm must encounter

Fertilization

Fertilization • A sperm can survive for 48-72 hours in the female reproductive tract • It
Fertilization • A sperm can survive for 48-72 hours in the female reproductive tract • It

A sperm can survive for 48-72 hours in the female

reproductive tract

It takes about 10 hours to navigate into the ampulla of the fallopian tube where fertilization

Fertilization

When the sperm encounters and egg, it

undergoes an acrosomal

reaction- exocytosis of the

acrosome, releasing the

enzymes needed to

penetrate the egg.

Sperm must penetrate the granulosa cells and zona

pellucida that surrounds

the egg

needed to penetrate the egg. • Sperm must penetrate the granulosa cells and zona pellucida that

Zygote

A zygote is formed when the

nucleus of the sperm and

ovum combine to create a cell with 23 pairs of

chromosomes. (prior to the

start of cleavage)

Fertilization occurs in the ampulla of the uterine tube within 24 hours after

ovulation (oocyte dies after

24 hours)

Fertilization occurs in the ampulla of the uterine tube within 24 hours after ovulation (oocyte dies

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From Fertilization to Implantation

From Fertilization to Implantation 6

Formation of the Morula

Cleavage: Rapid mitotic

cell division (without cell growth) that subdivides the

cytoplasm of the zygote

Cleavage produces

daughter cells called

blastomeres

The zona pellucida remains

around the entire group of

cells.

About 3 days

daughter cells called blastomeres • The zona pellucida remains around the entire group of cells. •

Morula

After 3 days of

cleavage, a solid ball of cells has formed

that resembles a mulberry (similar to

a Marion berry)

This Morula contains 16 or more cells

of cells has formed that resembles a mulberry (similar to a Marion berry) • This Morula
of cells has formed that resembles a mulberry (similar to a Marion berry) • This Morula

Blastocyst

By the fourth or fifth day the morula develops

into a a fluid-filled hollow sphere called a blastocyst

Blastocyst : contains 3 parts

Trophoblast: The outer layer of cells

Take part in placenta formation

Inner cell mass: A group of cells clustered

at one side of the blastocyst

Becomes the embryo

Blastocoele: The fluid filled cavity

Blastocyst 10

Blastocyst

Blastocyst 10

Implantation

By day six or seven the trophoblast will

adhere to the endometrium with the inner

cell mass side facing the uterine wall

The trophoblast cells proliferate and form

two distinct layers

Syncytiotrophoblast: Cells on the perimeter touching the endometrium.

Cytotrophoblast: Cells on the interior of

the trophoblast that retain their cell

boundaries

Implantation

Implantation

Syncytiotrophoblast

At the point of contact between the trophoblast

and the endometrium, the dividing cells lose

their plasma membranes

This creates a syncytium in which there is a layer of cytoplasm containing multiple nuclei

The syncytiotrophoblast erodes a path

through the uterine endometrium by secreting

hyaluronidase

The implanted blastocyst will eventually be covered over by endometrial cells

Implantation

Viability of the corpus luteum is maintained by

human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) secreted

by the trophoblast

hCG prompts the corpus luteum to continue to

secrete progesterone and estrogen

Between the second and third month, the

placenta assumes the role of progesterone and

estrogen production

Chorionic Villi

Chorionic villi are

Chorionic Villi • Chorionic villi are extensions of the cytotrophoblast covered with syncytiotrophoblast that extend

extensions of the cytotrophoblast covered

with syncytiotrophoblast that extend into

the maternal blood filled spaces (lacunae)

Maternal blood will exchange nutrients

through these villi that will eventually contain embryonic vessels.

Embryonic Disc

The inner cell mass organizes into an oval sheet

with two layers (the embryonic disc)

Ectoderm: The layer closest to the attachment of the trophoblast

Endoderm: The layer closest to the blastocoele

Amniotic Cavity

The inner cell mass

Amniotic Cavity • The inner cell mass will separate from the trophoblast during implantation • The

will separate from the trophoblast during

implantation

The ectoderm cells will migrate and form a fluid-fill chamber (the amniotic cavity)

Amnion: Mesodermal cells will soon create the outer second layer of the amnion

The fluid and membranes will surround and cushion the developing embryo and fetus

Yolk Sac

Begins as the endodermal

cells spread around the outer edges of the

blastocoele.

cells spread around the outer edges of the blastocoele. • The yolk sac is completed as

The yolk sac is completed as the mesoderm cells migrate around the pouch.

Site of embryonic blood cells and gonadal stem cells

Gastrulation

This is the term for the process by which a third

layer of cells called the mesoderm, forms

between the ectoderm and endoderm.

Primitive streak : raised dorsal groove that establishes the longitudinal axis of the embryo

Gastrulation sets the stage for organogenesis; the formation of body organs

Gastrulation

Gastrulation 21
Gastrulation 22

Gastrulation

Gastrulation 22

Primary Germ Layers

Serve as primitive tissues from which all body

organs will be derived

Endoderm:

Epithelial lining of GI & lower respiratory tract

All ducts entering the GI tract

Urinary bladder

Ectoderm:

Nervous system

Epidermis

Lining of mouth, and anus

Primary Germ Layers

Mesoderm:

Muscle

Bone

Cartilage

Blood

Dermis and hypodermis

Kidneys, ovaries, testes

Lining of body cavities

EctodermMesoderm Endoderm Approximately 13 days after fertilization 25

MesodermEctoderm Endoderm Approximately 13 days after fertilization 25

Ectoderm Mesoderm Endoderm Approximately 13 days after fertilization 25

Endoderm

Approximately 13 days after fertilization

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21-23 Days After Fertilization

21-23 Days After Fertilization • Actual Size 1.0 – 1.5 mm 26
21-23 Days After Fertilization • Actual Size 1.0 – 1.5 mm 26

Actual Size 1.0 1.5 mm

28 Days After Fertilization

Actual Size: 4-6 mm

28 Days After Fertilization Actual Size: 4-6 mm • By the end of week 4 there’s

By the end of week 4 there’s significant

development of the nervous system, heart, body

form and placenta.

The embryo starts receiving nutrients and oxygen through the placenta.

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Embryonic Membranes:

Chorion and Allantois

Allantois: a small outpocketing at the caudal end of the yolk sac

Structural base for the umbilical cord

Becomes part of the urinary bladder

Chorion

Becomes the embryonic contribution to the placenta

Derived from trophoblast & mesoderm lining it

Contains the chorionic villi

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Umbilical

Cord

Connects the

embryo/fetus to the

placenta

Contains

2 arteries and 1 vein

2 Arteries

1 Vein

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Placenta

The placenta is fully formed and functional by the 3rd

month of pregnancy

Chorion of embryo & stratum functionalis layer of

uterus

Chorionic villi extend into maternal blood filled

intervillous spaces: maternal & fetal blood vessels do

not join & blood does not mix

Diffusion of O2, nutrients, wastes

Stores nutrients & produces hormones

Barrier to microorganisms, except some viruses

AIDS, measles, chickenpox, poliomyelitis, encephalitis

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Endocrine Placenta

Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG):

Maintains the integrity of the corpus luteum

and promotes the continued secretion of

progesterone

Human Placental Lactogen (hPL) and

Placental Prolactin: Prepare the mammary

glands for milk production

Endocrine Placenta

Relaxin: which relaxes connective tissue of

pelvis and cervix

Suppresses the release of oxytocin by the

hypothalamus

Progesterone and Estrogens: Maintain the endometrial lining

Placenta

This side faces the baby

This side touches the uterus

Placenta This side faces the baby This side touches the uterus 35

Gestation

Fetal period: Begins at week 9

All major organs have been established

This is the time of growth

Gestation: 40 weeks measured from the first day of the uterine cycle (day one of

menstruation)

Actually only 38 weeks from fertilization

Fetal

Period

56 days after fertilization

Actual Size:

30 mm

Fetal Period • 56 days after fertilization • Actual Size: 30 mm 37