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British Forum for Ethnomusicology

The Development of Chordal Harmony in Greek Rebetika and Laika Music, 1930s to 1960s Author(s): Risto Pekka Pennanen Source: British Journal of Ethnomusicology, Vol. 6 (1997), pp. 65-116 Published by: British Forum for Ethnomusicology Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3060831 Accessed: 06/01/2009 20:08
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VOL. 6

BRITISH JOURNAL OFETHNOMUSICOLOGY

1997

The in

development of
Greek
rebetika
to

chordal laika

harmony
music,

and

1930s

1960s

Risto Pekka Pennanen


This article addresses the effects of chordalharmonyon makam-or dromos-basedGreek popular music, a feature almost completely ignored in previous research. The goal is to reconsider the asserted rapid Westernizationof rebetika and especially laika styles after the World War II. Processes of change examined are Westernization,modernizationand Orientalization. The analyses are based on interviews with professional musicians and transcriptions from a large corpus of gramophone recordings. The most important characteristicsstudied are droning,relative majorand minor chords and common-practice and modal harmonyin makam-related songs. The analyses lead to a new theoryfor dromos Culturalmeaningsof developmentsin Greekpopularmusic are analysedas harmonization. well. It is evident that many musicians, researchersand listeners have interpretedGreek popularmusic as more Westernizedthanit actuallyis.

rTOHEINTRODUCTIONOF CHORDALHARMONYis a typical sign of Western

1 influence in a non-Westernmusic culture.The aim of this articleis to show of in Greekurbancultureand the harmonization how, in spite of Westernization music called of Greek melodies in makam-based popular compositionalsystems dromoi (sing. dromos "road"),some characteristicsof the dromoi have been retained in both rebetika music and its successor laika1. I shall analyse the music in the periodfrom the 1930s to developmentof this aspectin Greekpopular based on performance the 1960s and presenta theoryfor dromosharmonization developmentsfrom the rise of the practice.The period chosen covers important bouzouki-basedrebetikaas a recordedgenre in the early 1930s till the birth of new laikasub-stylesin the 1960s.

1 Rebetika tragoudia (pl.) once designated songs which were originally performed, listened to and/or danced by rebetes, men of waywardness and non-conformity.Nowadays the term is used for much of pre mid- 1950s non-Western Greek popularmusic. I use the term "laika"somewhat unconventionally. Usually it is used for "urbanGreek popular music" in general as distinct from the rural dimotika music. (For the debate concerning the terms, see Gauntlett 1982/83:91-2; Dietrich 1987:7 n. 1.) Instead of using the Greek singular ("rebetiko")for one song and "rebetiki"for the music, I call the music "rebetikamusic" and one song a "rebetikasong". Laika tragoudia (pl.) are post mid-1950s Greek popular songs. As with rebetika, I call the music "laikamusic" and one song "laikasong".

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The analysisis primarilybased on a corpusof some 1500 commercialrebetika and laika recordings or their reissues. There is a gap in the recordedmaterial between April 1941 and early June 1946 caused by the cessation of recording activities duringthe Axis occupationof Greece and its aftermath. Owing to the lack of complete and reliable Greekdiscographies, recordingand releasingdates are often undependable(Smith 1989; 1991; Pennanen1996:244-5). I have had some problems with the dates of issue, which are of vital importancefor the chronology.Originalrecordingsandproperlyeditedreissuescan be reliablydated because of the available catalogue numbers that reveal the date of release. indicatingthe datesof recordingare given. Occasionallyeven the matrixnumbers aboutthe original most Greek reissues contain However, very sparseinformation a and of few rebetika recordings important compositions recordings.Fortunately and laika musicians have been partly catalogued (Torp 1993; Hristianopoulos 1994; Maniatis 1994:87-143; Anastasiou 1995; Kleiasiou 1997:400-43; Adamidou 1998:365-94). In addition,many datings are based on information contained in original EMI artiste's recordingsheets, including matrix numbers andrecordingdates, kindlyprovidedby Diane Mueller. rebetika Referencesto bouzoukiplayingtechniques, performance practicesand on music arebasedon privatebouzoukilessons andinterviewswith verbalizations musiciansin Athens,PiraeusandAeginabetweenthe years 1989 and 1998.2 Rebetikacan be subdividedinto two main styles (ConwayMorris 1980). The from Asia Minorin the Orientalstyle associatedwith the largerefugeepopulation 1920s and 1930s can be called cafe music because of its main performance milieu. Probablyfor nationalisticreasons, this style is usually called Smyrnaic (smyrneiko)in Greece, which is quite misleading. Only a part of the repertoire originatedfrom the popularmusic of Izmir (Smyrna):the majorityof melodies came from Istanbul,the centre of Ottomanclassical and popularmusic. In the 1920s and 1930s, Greekcafe musiciansrecordedremakesof Ottoman?arkyand kanto as well as urban and rural tiirkii songs of popular vein (cf. ibid.:82-3; Ayangil 1994; Jouste 1997). Therewere also many originalcompositionsbased Caf6 musiciansmostlyused musicalinstruments on Ottomantradition. capableof
producing microintervals (i.e. violin, kemen~e or lyra, kanun, ud, ciimbui),

althoughthey also frequentlyplayed the guitar,mandolinand accordion.Songs and/or melodiclines providedby instruments, were accompanied by heterophonic were instruments Percussion ud or from the bass formulae guitar. rhythmic sometimesused. The other main style of rebetika, the bouzouki-based Piraeus style, was of Greece. ConwayMorris(1980) calls its associatedwith the urbansub-culture context, i.e. teke or early stages "tekestyle" afterthe most commonperformance of this style were the bouzouki, its hashish den. The main musical instruments
2 Professional musicians of the older generationconsulted for this article were Thanasis Athanasiou (born 1920), Takis Binis (b. 1924), and especially Spyros Kalfopoulos (b. 1923). Younger musicians were Stelios Biblis (b. 1959), Hristos Kalambokis (b. 1968), Kostas Koukoulinis (b. 1957), Nikos Kralis (b. 1960) and Hristos Spourdalakis(b. 1961).

Pennanen:Chordalharmonyin Greek rebetikaand laika

67

miniature version the baglamas and the guitar. The repertoirewas based on alreadyexisting musical materialand original compositionsmostly in hasapiko (2/4 or 4/4 time) and various zeibekikorhythms(slow 4+5/4 for zeibekiko, fast bass tones and slow 5+4/4 for aptaliko)3. 4+5/4 for kamilieriko Droning,rhythmic In cadences, the guitar or chords from the guitarwere used for accompaniment. often played the melody in paralleloctaves. Aroundthe mid-1930s, some cafe composers and singers startedmaking and recording songs in the fashionable Piraeusstyle with bouzoukiandguitaraccompaniment. The laika style is related to its predecessor, rebetika, in a complex way. Whereas rebetikawas originally music of the urbansubculture,laika was true popularmusic of the urbanpopulation-just as the basic meaning of the Greek shift from the rebetikastyles of the 1930s to word would suggest. A remarkable the directionof whatwas to become the new laika style seems to have takenplace after 1947. Post-war rebetika was often performedin increasingly luxurious for the higher bouzoukitavernscalled kosmikestavernes("beaumondetaverns") strata of Greek society. Western popular music was also performedin these taverns by musicians who had few connectionswith the rebetikatradition,and in rebetikabands. The repertoireof kosmikes these musicians also participated tavernes became remarkablyhybrid, and rebetika and Western-style popular music composersproducedsongs thatfit the tasteof the new audiences(Gauntlett 1985:12933, 150).4 From the mid-1950s onwards, this yielded a new style of Greek popular music-laika-performed at night-clubs by large electrically instead amplifiedensembles.The new type of bouzoukiwith four double-courses differ also vocal Laika threebecamea virtuosoinstrument. styles of the traditional Western from those of rebetika. Laika acquired influences from rebetika, TurkishandEgyptianpopularmusic LatinAmerican,NorthAmerican, European, andIndianfilm music. Rebetika and laika have been valued very differentlyby writerson rebetika. as a pureGreek-Oriental (or While rebetikahas often been seen by its proponents even Byzantine) style with great artisticvalue, laika has usually been described andcommercial(see such as foreign-influenced, corrupt using negative attributes e.g. Papaioannou 1973:291; Holst 1983 [1975]:59-60; Dragoumis 1975:25; 1984:64; Konstandinidou 1987:78-80 passim). If there has been very little scholarly solid musicological researchon rebetika,laika is terra incognita for musicologists. This is largely owing to the myths of authenticmusic, national

3 There are also fast 5+4/4 pieces that can be called kamilieriko-aptaliko; this term, however, is not included in the emic vocabulary of rebetika musicians. The distinction between 9/4 pieces in 4+5/4 or 5+4/4 is crucial. 4 The rare sound document recorded by a well-off customer at the Athenian tavern Tzimi tou Hondrou in 1955 gives a hint of the hybrid programme(issued on Venus V-1053). In the live recording,MarikaNinou sings rebetika hits by Vasilis Tsitsanis and Yiorgos Mitsakis, the popularnon-rebetikasong "To monopati" by Yiorgos Mouzakis and the film song "(ikar yucelerden haber sorarim"by Sadettin Kaynak and Vecdi Bingol and "Gezdigim dikenli ask yollarinda"by Kadri$enqalar',the last two in Turkish.

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British Journal of Ethnomusicology,vol. 6 (1997)

music and anti-musicwhich have effectively turnedacademicresearchersaway from the newer style. (Forthe myths,see Kurkela1989:327-67; 1997:188-92.)5 The most common view in the writingsin both popularand scientific veins is andthe spreadof thatafterWorldWarII, increasedemphasison chordalharmony functional harmony caused the disappearanceof dromoi related to Ottoman makams. Vasilis Tsitsanis (1915-84) has often been mentioned as the most pioneerin this development(see e.g. ConwayMorris1980:83;Manuel important 1989:83). For several reasons, this interpretationof Tsitsanis' role is very questionable(Pennanen1997:127-8 n. 7). modes came to be Accordingto PeterManuel(1989:78-9, 83), "thetraditional bouzouki mainstream modern that used essentially as mere scales". He states music continues to use Hitzas-family(e.g. D-E[,-F#-G-A-BV-c-d) and raisedfourth (D-E-F-G#-A-B-c-d; scale of makamNikriz) scales "with traditional harmonization patterns",while most other dromoi have fallen into disuse.6 Manuel's descriptionand conclusions seem not to be based on the analysis of of makamNikriz(withraisedfourth In the dromosequivalent recordedrepertoire. is fourth raised the and seventh), degree frequently lowered even in new movementimplies that the dromos is not in melodic detail compositions. This melodic Manuel believes; instead,some traditional used as a scale to the extent have been retained.7 formulaeandprogressions

Culturalprocesses in Greekpopularmusic
has In writingsaboutGreekpopularmusic of the 1940s to 1960s, Westernization This oversimplified been seen as by far the most significant development. deduction needs reconsideration,in the form of an analysis based on actual of the development would be that sources. A more appropriate interpretation acculturationprocesses in music during these decades consisted of more than adoptionof Westernmusical features.The old was not simply straightforward revealthattherewere Westernelements.Commercial recordings new replacedby at least two other important lines of development, i.e. modernization and Orientalization.

5 Liavas (1994) gives a good summaryof the myth of culturalcontinuity in Greek music from the classical period to the modem times. 6 With some exceptions, Ottoman makam names are used to refer to the corresponding basic makam structures in this study. Since nominally equivalent makams and dromoi can refer to dissimilar tonal structures,I shall specify the system by mentioning the term "makam"or "dromos".In most cases, I shall follow the convention of almost all Greek bouzouki and dromos books and write down scales with the tone D as the root of I. This convention coincides with the practice of playing tunes on the standardtuning of the three-course bouzouki (D'D-A'A'-DD) which favours D-based keys. Thus the fixed theoretical relationships of Ottoman makams for example in modulation are lost. The key-of-D principle shows the prevailing dominance of performancepractice over systematic theory in rebetika. 7 Lilliestam (1995:30) has defined musical formula as a characteristicmotif or patternthat has an easily recognisable nucleus, although the exact realizationof a formulamay vary within certainlimits.

Pennanen:Chordalharmony in Greek rebetikaand laika

69

can be described Accordingto BrunoNettl (1978:171;1985:20),modernization as the incidental movement of a system or its componentsin the direction of Westernmusic and musical life withoutrequiring majorchangesin those aspects thatarecentraland essential.In Greekpopularmusic tradition of the non-Western there are many excellent examples of the modernization process. Many leading composers and performersof the 1950s and 1960s-Yiorgos Mitsakis, Vasilis Tsitsanis, Manolis Angelopoulos,StratosDionysiou, Panos Gavalas,Kaiti Grey, Stelios Kazantzidis,Yiota Lydia-made and recordedmore or less modified and modernizedremakes of old songs. In addition,traditionalmelodic formulaein various makams and dromoi were used for compositions and taximi unmetred improvisations.Good examples of new compositionsbased on earliermelodic models are "Ala turkahorepsemou"(1957, HMV AO 5417) by Vasilis Tsitsanis relatedto "To haremisto hamam"(1935, ColumbiaDG 6165) by Anestis Delias (1912-44) in the rebetikaequivalentof makamU?ak, and "O kapetanios tou spitiou" (1962, ColumbiaSCDG 3116) by L. Vamvakarisand Nikos Dalezios based on the dromosPireotikos-Hitzaskiar song "Tobohori"from the beginning andtechniques,often mixed and new instruments of the century.Both traditional with each other,were used in the remakes. in Greekpopularmusic is a complex subjectthat The period of Orientalization deserves more detailed analysis than is possible here.8It is often forgotten that Greekurbanmusic culturewas not influencedsolely by the West in the 1950s and ones has music cultureson non-Oriental 1960s. Indeed, the effect of "Oriental" After a decrease not been a commonresearchsubjectamongethnomusicologists. from the latterhalf of the 1930s broughtaboutby the censorshipof the Metaxas dictatorship and its repercussions, a considerable amount of melodies from Turkey were recorded in Greek and Turkish after the late 1950s.9 The cover versions gained great popularity.To a lesser extent, Egyptian film songs and instrumentals(e.g. "Cleopatra" by MohamedAbdel Wahab)were also recorded and the Most Turkishand Egyptianmelodies were makam-based, by Greeks.10? dromoi. Greekcover versionsoften containedtaximiain the corresponding in India.According Anotherimportant originated componentof Orientalization cover version of an Indianfilm the first Greek to the matrixinformationsheets, song was recordedin early 1959. The success of Indianmusic films in Greecehad films were shownbetween 1954 and startedsome years earlier.Overone hundred
8 Until 1998, the era was a taboo among many veteran rebetika musicians and in popular writing about Greek popular music (cf. Gauntlett 1991:19). In his biography, Vasilis Tsitsanis (in Hatzidoulis 1980:3944) calls the period "the decade of theft and Indocracy" owing to the fact that some Greek composers tended to copyright compositions of foreign origin. The biography,consisting of interviews plus inaccurate transcriptionsof Tsitsanis' works, contains none of his compositions in Indianstyle. 9 E.g. "13inanay" as "Siko horepse koukli mou" (1960, HMV AO 5616) and "Zeytinyaglyyiyemem, aman" as "Yiati thes na fygeis" (1961, HMV 7PG 2872). 10 There is at least one early example of the interactionbetween Greek and Egyptian popular music. The refrain of "As' ta kolpa" by Panayiotis Toundas, recorded in 1934 by Rita Abatzi (HMV AO 2156), was used by Mohamed Abdel Wahab in the song "Sahirtou"from the 1935 film "Doumou' El Hob" (reissued on AAA 019). The chronology suggests that Abdel Wahab borrowedthe theme from Toundas.

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British Journal of Ethnomusicology,vol 6 (1997)

waned.At least 105 Greekcover versionsof the 1968, afterwhich theirpopularity recorded were the songs during period (Abatzi and Tasoulas, forthcoming). the to success of Indian film "MotherIndia"and its music in 1960, the Owing some Greek composersstartedmakingoriginalmelodies in Indianstyle. Before no tracesof Indianfilm music style in originalworksby 1960 therearepractically Greek composers. (For an importantexception, see Pennanen 1995:138.) The Indianhits and Greekoriginalcompositionsimitatingthembecamepopularto the in Greekpopularmusic (on extentthatit is even possible to speakof Hinduization the term, see Nettl 1997:5). Indian raga formulae,rhythms,singing style and were imitated.One reasonfor the popularityof Indian songs in instrumentation Greece was their hybridism,which made it easier for urbanGreeks to accept them. (For Westerninfluences in Indianfilm music, see Manuel 1988:179-84
passim.)

The frequent sudden shifts between parallelmajor and minor tonalities that becamecommonin Greekpopularmusic of the 1960s originatefrom the melodic of this ragais the models of Indianfilm songs in ragaMisraPilu. The peculiarity unstablethirddegree (cf. Nimbus NI 5365). The most influentialmodel song for Greekcomposersof the new style was the 3/4 (or 6/4) time (Indiandddra tala) "Dunyamen hum"by NaushadAli in MisraPilu from the film "MotherIndia" (for dadratala, see Manuel 1988:177).The first Greekcover version titled "Den me ponese kaneis"was recordedin 1960. Fig. 1 is an excerptfrom a Greekearly 1960s laika song in 3/4 time imitatingragaMisraPiliu.
Fig. 1: Excerptfrom "M' ehoun yelasei dyo mavra matia" by Vasilis Tsitsanis. Recorded in 1961 by Kaiti Grey (HMV 7PG 3004).
A J=1I52 DA

KX &- IpE TV'K(OC-

- I0 TOCOTA7

--

(rou

YE

Ppq - KE,

KOCp -

5tc

Lou!

1 5iKq

w-

q,

ClIE,P

y7r

- ym

XiT rro

Westernization,Orientalizationand modernizationwere often present in a single piece of music, creatinga complexhybrid.ManyTurkishand Indiansongs in the Europeanized, or original compositionsin those styles were accompanied of Brazilianorigin.(Forthe original simplifiedbaion (baido)rhythm rhythmically see Rocha& Pinto 1986:96.) baiaopolyrhythm, orderfrom the 1950s Table 1 lists severalGreekpopularsongs in chronological to the early 1960s with some of the main influences of the era. The foreign

title sou" "Toskalopati

year text contents composer, 1952 Tsitsanis love

rhythm

melody

vocal malevoc, fem & voc maleharm femvoc femvoc voc maleharm. malevoc voc maleharm. femalevoc malevocaltrio femalevoc femalevoc

instrum

414 hasapiko

0dromos H-ouzam 3 minor minor minor Hitzas dromos formof rebetika makam Htlseynii minor riga MitraPilil

bouz,ac bouz,g.

zeibekiko adaptation914 zeibekano"I Th.Derveniotis Greek "Mambo 4/4 "mambo" of mambo 1958 1958 "LaoskaiKolonaki" H-iotis "IKailiopi ap' ti Gouva",2 mou "Perasmenes agapes"$ "Talimania" "Taxenaheria" PanosPetsas 1961? Hiotis1962 1962 Tsitsanis 1962 Tsitsanis love poor/rich, socialsatire love longingfor beloved suffering from absence home love for longing beloved 4/4 swing zeibekiko 914 4/4 "Latin" 4/4 "bai6n" 4/4 hasapiko12/8

bouz,ac bouz,g,

bouz,ac

bouz,v, dr,darb

bouz,ac

mera" "Iteleftea

1962 Zambetas

(waltz) 3/4 d5dra tfila intro spoken voc. freerhythm tila (waltz) didri 3/4 5/8

femalevoc imitation minor malevoc, fem& voc maleharm

2 bouz,

1964 klaiei" Tsitsanis "0 kapetanios

2 bouz,

of the era. Table1: Greekpopularsongsfrom the 1950s to 1960s withsomemaininfluences

of aninternational hit was u hit of 1954"Mambo by Bob Mervil.Similarlocalization fromthe international Italianso! I Themelodyandlyricscontainborrowings Finnishmambowas sungin Savo dialect. Merenheimno.)MTe of 1956by Harsy Savonia" Bergstrm andJaakko & Pe in 1959. (Fordetails,see Kurkela Bardot" hit"Brigitte 2 A Greekadaptation byBraziian MiguelGustavo,firstrecorded American Latin of the international

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British Journal of Ethnomusicology,vol. 6 (1997)

elements are from Italian popularmusic, WesternizedLatin Americanmusic, swing, USA popularsong style of the 1950s and Indianfilm music. There are combinationsof rhythmsand compositionalsystems, performance practicesand instrumentations thatoriginated fromtraditions not relatedto each other. Some of the new combinations were meant for listening rather than for dancing,which had been one of the mainfunctionsof rebetikasongs. One of the songs in Table 1, "Mambozeibekano"starts as a zeibekiko but ends up as a Europeanversion of the fashionablemambo.Since mambowas an international hit dance in the 1950s, many young urbanGreeksknew how to dance to it. By contrast,the Indian-style"O kapetaniosklaiei"consists of a spokenintroduction, a free rhythmvocal introduction section,an instrumental imitatingthe IndianCiltap section in 3/4 followed by a vocal section,an unmetred instrumental bridge,anda vocal section in 5/8 time. With such varietyof sections and rhythms,the song is clearlynot intendedfor dancing. There are some attemptsby Greeksociologists to explainthe initial social and culturalreasonsfor the wave of Orientalsongs in Greecein the late 1950s. It has been seen as a reactionagainstthe extremeWesternization of Greeksociety (cf. Gauntlett1991:19). Similarreasonshave been given for the success of Egyptian film music after the mid-1930s in Turkey during the massive Westernization campaign led by Kemal Atatiirk(cf. Stokes 1992:92-4; Tekelioglu 1996:208). This interpretation stressesdomesticcultural, politicalandsocial factors,which is typical of modern Hellenocentrism.A wider frameworkreveals other possible explanations. Apartfrom the internalreasons,therewere externalones. Accordingto Pekka waves of ethnic styles (e.g. Gypsy Gronow (pers. comm. 1997), international music, Argentinian tango,Hawaiianmusic andItalianpopularsong) precededthe and diffusion of rock. Orientalism in popularmusic was not final breakthrough restrictedto Greece.Many Middle Eastern-style (1952), songs-e.g. "Uskudara" hits in the "Shish Kebab" (1958), "Hava nagilah"(1961)-were international At the same 1950s and 1960s, and some of these were also recordedin Greek.1I time, Indianfilm music was fashionableoutside its country,also elsewhere than in Greece.Accordingto Stokes (1992:96),Indianmusic enjoyeda shortperiodof Stokesmeansfilm music. in Turkeyin the 1950s;presumably popularity to For the analysis of the developmentof Greekurbanmusic, it is important that urbanGreekmusic culturewas not closed to international waves understand of influences. Rebetika and especially laika were affected by many kinds of fromabroad. musicaltraditions "Modal harmony" in rebetika and laika Chordalharmonyhas been treated only marginallyby most musicologists on fusion musics (but see Zganec 1955:89-90; Manuel 1989; Hughes 1991:17-9).
11 E.g. "Moustafa" by the Egyptian jazz musician Bob Azzam and the French record producer Eddie Barclay, recorded in 1960 by Manolis Angelopoulos.

Pennanen:Chordal harmony in Greek rebetikaand laika

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This is also the case in researchon rebetika.Occasionally chordalaccompaniments have not even been includedin the transcriptions and analyses,probably to the view that rebetika is monodic music (e.g. Dragoumis owing basically 1975:19-24; van Straten 1989:69-109 passim). A similar paradigmhas sometimes had a distorting effect on the analysis of Greek rural music (e.g. Frye 1973:243-56, 305-6). In writingon rebetika,the evolutionof harmonyhas been sketched only in very broad lines. Musicological studies often contain general arguments with sparse concrete documentation(e.g. Papaioannou 1973:289; Dietrich 1987:161-2; Manuel1989:79-84). When discussing chordal harmonyin makam-basedmusic, we should start from the melody. The relationshipof certainmakamswith non-equaltempered intervalsto chordalharmony has sometimesbeen seen as blackandwhite,with no the two systems (see Manuel 1989:78, 83; criticized in of possibility combining Pennanen 1997:126). However, musicianshave three differentways to react to chordal harmony. Firstly, Arab and Ottomanmakams and ruralcompositional systems in various non-equal temperedintonationshave been performedwith chordalaccompaniment (see Stokes 1992:85-8;cf. Greve 1995:205).Secondly,in some styles the change of intonation is not complete: equal-tempered does not preventthe vocal or instrumental soloist from intoning accompaniment some tones of melodic formulaein a non-equaltempered way. The thirdpossibilwhile retaining ity is to change the intonationcompletelyinto equal temperament the other basic characteristics of a makam(cf. Signell 1977:46, 126). The adjustment of intonation towards equal temperament is a typical modernization music cultures(cf. Nettl 1978:161, 165). Forexample,it tendencyin non-Western is common to adjustmakamscale structures slightly to fit Westernharmony.(For Braune 1992.) Egyptianpopularmusic, see with his claim of totalincompatibility Somewhatillogically, when compared of and Manuel intervals chordal also admits (1989:78) non-equaltempered harmony, that "in the syncretic musics discussed here, the neutralintervalsemployed in Hicaz and other traditional modes are generallyadjustedto more diatonicpitches when combined with major-minorharmonies."As we shall see, precisely this process has taken place e.g. in dromos Sabah of the bouzouki-basedrebetika tradition. Therefore dromos Sabah is used in rebetika and laika, though its neutralintervals" and a OttomanmakamequivalentmakamSabahas "prominent "chromatic scale" (Fig. 2a, b; cf. Manuel1989:83). There are some basic problems of orientation in the previous studies on dromoi.Insteadof analysesbasedon actualperformance harmonized practice,the writerswho have acceptedthe existenceof rebetikadromoiin equaltemperament of Westernmusic theory.One of have constructedsystems based on applications of Greekfolk songs to createfolkloristic the first to try his handat harmonizations fusion music with a special music theory was Georges Lambelet(1875-1932). His theory was influenced by analyses from the 1870s by L.-A. BourgaultDucoudray(criticizedin Konstantzos1997). Lambeletbased his analyses of the modes"andchordswhichonly used notes melodieshe arranged mostlyon "Greek included songs from within the mode (cf. Powers 1980:418). The arrangements

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British Journal of Ethnomusicology,vol. 6 (1997)

Fig. 2: (a) Thescale of OttomanmakamSaba withdistancesbetweentones in Holderian with traditionalharmonization. commas. (b) Dromos Sabah scale in equal temperament with theoretical the dromos Sabah The scale harmonization (c) of octave-repeated
(Payiatis 1987:26; Boukouvalas 1991:96).12 Whole notes are finals and half notes are

tonal centres. For standardaccidentalsin Turkish music, see Appendix.


[2P]a;_
T5 5 9 8 6.5 5 6.5

43

SA-. ^-r' "

^^-'
6.5 11.5 4 9 5 12 5 9

VIIb i

IH

vib

f i ii-3-5

III IVb+5 v

VIb VIIb i

music (see Lambelet of Ottoman thatbelongedto the cafe-stylerepertoire popular 1934:142-4, 188-91, 192-3). The works of Greek non-academicwriters on dromoi (primarilyauthorsof bouzouki methods and dromos booklets) are based only loosely on actual performancepractice. The scale and harmony concepts of these writers are basicallyWestern.They have writtenthe dromoidown as octave scales, and some havebuiltchordson every scale step (see of themin theirtheoretical presentations Payiatis 1987; Boukouvalas1991:94-9). However,the use of all theoreticalchord degrees in a dromoscompositionis conventionalneitherin rebetikanor in laika practice.In addition,manydromosscales producetriadsthatare not performance acceptablein popularstyles. In rebetika and laika performancepractice, chords are not always based exclusively on scale degrees.Instead,melodies are built aroundtonal centresand melodic formulae,which leads to a harmoniclogic (whatI will call "traditional" differentfrom the Westernone. Tonal centresare dictatedby the harmonization) seyir of each makam.Seyir is a set of rules thatconductsthe melodic progression in a theoreticalscale, thus setting the generalmelodic outline (Signell 1977:5065). However,in Ottomanand Greekpopularmusic seyirs have not been strictly followed by composers and musicians. In particular,instrumentalsections in vocal works often avoid classical rules. Still, tonal centres and makam-specific melodic formulae are importantfor makam identification and classification.
12 In the revised edition of his book, Payiatis abandons the building of chords on every scale step; in addition, his Sabah octave scale can contain either a perfect or diminished octave (Payiatis 1992:50).

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in Owing to these, the compositionalsystems of songs and taximiimprovisations or are often as dromoi on identifiable makams recordings. equaltemperament The importanceof tonal centresand melodic formulaeis a factorthatexplains achieved throughdeductiondiffer from "tradiwhy theoreticalharmonizations tional"performancepractice.The theoreticalharmonizations disregardthe tonal centres. In addition, they are based on the Westernscale concept, accordingto which a scale is repeatedsimilarlyin all octaves;in practice,makamand dromos often arenot repeated,i.e. theiroctavesdifferfromeach other. scale structures betweenmelody and scale is an important The problemof the interrelationship research.In his famous article "Melodie folk music 20th issue of early century of und Skala",ErichM. von Hornbostel(1913), who had stressedthe importance scales in musical analysis, criticized music theoristsfor taking scale instead of melodic structurefor the primaryelement in music. Dromos Sabah,the rebetika equivalentof the OttomanmakamSaba,is a strikingcase of this dilemma.In the following we shall observe the transformationprocess of makam Saba into dromos Sabah, and compare the performance practice to the theoretical harmonization. Fig. 2a is the basic theoretical scale of the modern Ottomanmakam Saba, consisting according to one view of U??aktrichordon A (diigah) with a low on g (gerdaniye). andHicazpentachord on c (9argah) extension,Hicaz pentachord A tone where two genera meet is a tonal centreor giiulii (often called "melodic dominant" Accordingto the seyir, a Saba melody must by Westernresearchers). or the third starteitheron the first (final) (giiqlii)degree.Thereis also some other variance in the seyir. Some Turkishmusicians consider both sixth and seventh secondarytonal centres(Signell 1977:61-5). The pitch of the degree as important second degree of the U??aktrichordnotatedas B4 (segah) varies in practice.In flat but it changesto 2.5 ascendingphrases,the pitch is one Holderiancomma13 commas flat in descending ones (Torun 1993:166; cf. Feldman 1996:206-13 passim).14The second degree of the first Hicaz pentachordis usually some 2.5 commas flat instead of the conventional 4 commas (Signell 1977:37-8, 158; Torun1993:233;Aksoy 1997:15-6). However,in specificallyHicaz formulae,the intonationchanges to that of the conventionalHicaz. The second Hicaz pentachordis conventional.In Saba scale, the octave of the final is usuallydiminished, and the low extensionunderthe final differsfrom the corresponding regionin the basic octave.15 Fig. 2b is the scale of the equal-tempereddromos Sabah of the bouzouki traditionthat is based on the analysis of the recordedreportoireand interviews with musicians.Eachnon-equal-tempered pitchof makamSabahas been adjusted
13 For the Holderian comma, see Dussant 1957. 14 The varying intonation of the UBBaknote group may explain the Phrygian cadence in some Finnish Gypsy, Hungarianand Balkan songs in naturalminor (cf. Ziegler 1979:228, 231, 252; Jalkanen 1981:204; Sarosi 1986:15). 15 This short description of the Saba scale structureis by no means complete. In classical compositions, the upperoctave may contain many kinds of components.

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British Journal of Ethnomusicology,vol. 6 (1997)

to the nearest equal-temperedone.16In Ottoman,modern Turkish and Greek popularmusic, Saba melodies tend to be simplerthanthose of Ottomanclassical music, and they do not ascendas high as in the classical style. As will be shown of dromosSabahsongs utilises chordsi, III, harmonization below, the traditional tonal centresof the viI and VII. The roots of the threefirst chordsare important dromos: instead of the seventh degree as in makamSaba, the sixth degree is a secondary tonal centre. As will be explained below, this is owing to the of the dromosHitzas componentin dromosSabah,leading to the harmonization is not a scale degreein the basic octave, which, use of chordvi;. The fifth of VIII, fromusing the chordin cadences. musicians not does however, prevent Fig. 2c is the form of Sabahgiven in bouzoukiand dromosbooklets.Because of the Western scale concept, the octave has been written as perfect. No tonal centres have been indicated,and the scale is supposedto recuridenticallyin all Chordformsii-3-5 and harmonization. octaves. Underthe scale is the theoretical by the musiciansinterviewed,whereaschord IV[,+5are not consideredacceptable scale, making it unsuitablefor dromos VIb is a productof the octave-repeated Sabah melodies. Chordsi, III, v, VI; and VII; would be basic triads,but as we have seen in Fig. 2b, v and VIbarenot used at all. However,not all bouzoukiand dromosbooklets are similarlydistantfrom performance practice(see Loukareas 1997:41). 1985:42;Koukoulinis1995:43;Grigoriadis Manuel (1989:83) contendsthat the Westerncommonpracticeharmonyused for rebetikaand laikamelodiesin majorandminorcoexistedwith modalharmony andHitzas-typescales the raised-fourth used for melodies based on e.g. Phrygian, rebetikaof the 1930s. (For a moredetailedanalysis,see Jouste in the mainstream 1994:71-85.) Quite unlike Jouste (ibid.:83)and Pennanen(1994:98-100), Papaioannou (1973:289) and Manuel (1989:71) consider modal harmony without dromoido for some makam-based chordprogressions noticing thatcharacteristic researchers these not differ from those of commonpracticeharmony.Apparently have not been able to identify these dromoi and have taken them for Western
major.

The dromoi in questionhere are Rast, Houzam0-3 (OttomanmakamSeg5h) and a modification of the latter,HouzamM-1. The basic scale of dromos Rast looks similar to the Western major (Fig. 3a), but as we shall see below, even have distinctivemelodicformulae modem Rast melodies of the bouzoukitradition not foundin major. 0-3" meansthatin its originalform,the final of In my classification,"Houzam "HouzamM-1" means thatin its modified of while third the the dromosis on I, than the original, i.e. on the root of I (see lower third form, the final is a major been Pennanen1997:135-41). The reasonfor the changeof the final has probably I of the root the final has been drawndown by the harmonization; (Fig. 3b, c). I restricted. and have divided the Houzam 0-3 forms into two classes, varying
16 In Sabah melodies of the bouzouki tradition,the second degree is occasionally flattened in the sectional close. It is difficult to say whether this is owing to the 2.5 comma flat second degree of descending makam Saba, or an imitation of a Saba Zemzeme formula.

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Fig. 3: The basic scales of dromos Rast, dromos Houzam 0-3 and dromos Houzam M-1 and their harmonizations.
bA

Rast

I
Houzam,0-3

V Houzam M-1

CA

Varying Houzam 0-3 melodies are characterized by a wide range, chromatic alterations and some modulations. Because restricted dromos Houzam 0-3 melodies do not extend below the final, contain very few chromatic alterations and have their final a major third higher than Rast and major, they are often taken for the Western major finishing on the third. Two-voiced restricted Houzam 0-3 melodies are a special case. Usually they are classified as normal final-on-tonic major because the harmony voice a third below or sixth above the first one is taken for the actual melody (see ibid.:160-5). Since the conventional I-V-I progression is used for melodies in these three dromoi, the progression is not necessarily a sign of major-minor tonality in a syncretic music culture. Characteristics of dromoi and Western tonality may also coexist in one and the same piece of music. The syncretic nature of post-war rebetika is illustrated in Fig. 4. The melody begins with a broken major triad, which is a typical Western feature. In the first bar, however, there is a common dromos Houzam 0-3 (makam Segah) formula in F that is built around the guiilii, in this case the tone c. The giillu is surrounded by its leading tone and upper neighbour. In the second bar, the melody descends to the final (A) of Houzam 0-3 via the second degree. After this, Houzam gives way to the Western D minor tonality. The piece cannot be readily analysed through either Ottoman or Western theories of music alone. In Ottoman music, this kind of modulation to transposed makam Segah in makam Nihavend-the closest equivalent of the Western minor-is not a standard modulation practice. The modulation is influenced by the Western concept of relative keys. In addition, most of the composition is tonal Fig. 4: Excerpt from "Otanpineis stin taverna" by Vasilis Tsitsanis. Recorded in 1947 by Sotiria Bellou and the composer (HMVAO 2774).

+ffi-I; I
d: Il[

;8

rtmIJ I
iv V7 of iv iv

J
V7 i iv i V7

1
V7 i

III

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British Journal of Ethnomusicology,vol. 6 (1997)

in character.On the otherhand,Westerntheoryis not capableof explainingthe Houzam formula, deriving from makammusic. Rebetikain the 1940s was still more or less somewherebetween Ottomanand Westernmusic, and it frequently containeddistinctiverebetikafeaturesderivedfrom neithersystem or developed from the combinationof them. It had its own musical practicesand aesthetics. This is why musical analysis of rebetikacalls for elements from the theories of OttomanandWesternmusic, andultimatelya specialrebetika theorythatremains to be constructed. One of the main problemsin fieldworkon rebetika has been the memory-based and uncanonizednatureof rebetika.17 Bouzoukimusicianshave acquiredperformance practice in dromoi without learning an analyticaltheory that describes of musical concepts (see e.g. Einarsson them, hamperingthe verbal articulation 1989:53 n. 2). Uncanonizedas it is, the dromostraditionis non-uniform: intervallic structure andrulesof melodicmovementassociatedwith each dromosname can vary considerably according to the musician's age and background. In addition, although the emic rebetika terminology concerning compositional systems mostly derives from Ottomanmusic, the nominalequivalentsof the two traditions often have different contents, which complicates the comparison between them. As we shall see, althoughmost dromoi are related to Ottoman Thereare also dromoiwith no makams,the names are frequently interchangeable. Ottomanstructural equivalents.This is not at all a unique situationin the interof Middle Easternmusic cultures(cf. Chabrier relationships 1991:103).Owing to these facts, the resultsfrom attempts of utilisingmodemTurkish music theoriesin the analysis of the bouzouki-basedrebetikahave not always been encouraging (see Dietrich1987:85-8, 147). From the Ottoman point of view one dromos category may denote many makamcategories.The bouzoukimusiciansI interviewedfor this study classify several makams under one dromos category in their verbalizationsapparently because they stress intervallic structureas the main criterionfor tonal classification, whereas the Ottomantraditionutilises several other criteria(see Signell 1977:125-51; Aksoy 1997 passim). Table 2 shows the most common rebetika classification of some Ottoman makams. Because of their relatively similar intervallic structure,makamSegah is often called dromosHouzam and makam Huiizzam dromos Segah. Most bouzoukimusicianscall the rebetikaequivalentof makamKarcigar"dromosKiourdi", the termderivingfrom "makam Kiirdi".The changein terminologyis owing to the closing formulaof Kiirdfthatcontainsa flat fifth degree-an important structuralcharacteristicof Karcigar (cf. Ozkan 1984:111, 176). The emic category "dromosOussak"may contain melodies in makamsKtirdi,U??ak,Beyatl and Hiiseyniwhich differfrom each otherin terms of intervallic structure, seyir and melodic formulae. However, in the equaltempered system of the bouzouki traditionthe intervallic differences between has come to denote a classithese makamsare largelyblurred."DromosOussak"
17 "Memory-based" is my translation of the Finnish term "muistinvarainen" that is more accurate in musical contexts that the conventional "oral".

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makams and theirclassificationin the bouzouki dromos Table2: Some Ottoman tradition. makams:Segah Huzzam KarcigarKiirdi U?ak Beyati Hiiseyni

dromoi: HouzamSegah Kiourdi

Oussak

ficational category of melodies and scales with predominantlya flat second degree. Owing to the confusionin printedsourcesandamongmusiciansinterviewedon dromos names and their tonal structures, I have chosen to call only some of the dromoi by their emic names. In this article the dromos names Rast, Houzam, Segah, Hitzas, Hitzaskiar,Sabahand Pireotikosrefer to the structures agreedby most professional bouzouki musicians, whereas the makam names Nihavend, Nikrlz, U?ak, Hiiseyni, Kiirdl and Karcigarare used to denote their structural rebetikaand laikatradition. equivalentsin the bouzouki-based Since the mid-1980s, rebetikamelodies have been classified accordingto the Ottomansystemin some Greekprintedsources.The authorsof these publications have studiedTurkishmakamtheoriesor performance practice,and they tend to the Ottoman makam classification for and Kiirdi accept Segah, Htizzam,Karcigar (see Loukareas1985;Tabouris1993;Koukoulinis1995;Grigoriadis 1997). These sourceshave, however,had little effect on professional musicians'verbalizations. As I have shown elsewhere (Pennanen1997), Westernization and modernization processes in Greece did not lead to a simple decrease in the number of dromoiafterthe war. On the contrary, new ways of using the existing dromoiand new dromos modifications were developed. Although there was a tendency towards a scale-like concept of dromoi in compositions, many of the basic melodic featuresandmodulation conventionsinherited from Ottoman music were preserved. To summarise,chordal harmonydid not prevent the use of a wide varietyof dromoi.

Dromoi and chordalharmonyin touristmusic


The analysis of the standard on Greekbouzoukicassettes and CDs for repertoire touristconsumptionreveals that Manuel's claim as to the degree of Westernization is evidently exaggerated.According to Einarsson(1990:202), touristikais Greek music, whose repertoireand style has been modified according to the consists of new interpretapreferencesof Westerntouristlisteners.The repertoire tions of rebetika and laika pieces and new compositionsprimarilymade for a touristaudience.

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British Journal of Ethnomusicology,vol. 6 (1997)

one of the most popular Fig. 5 containsexcerptsfrom "Sikohorepsesyrtaki", style of the 1960s. The composeris Yiorgos Zambetas(1925pieces in touristika 92), an outstanding bouzouki virtuoso, who recorded vocal and bouzouki music extensively in the 1960s.18He has been regardedas the main instrumental touristikastyle (see Mylonas 1993b:208). innovatorin the Western-influenced hasapiko dance in 4/4 Syrtaki(or sirtaki) is a touristversion of the traditional time, but unlike hasapikoproper,it consists of two sections, the slow hasapiko that acceleratesgraduallyand thusbecomes the up-tempohasaposerviko. Syrtaki as a music genre and a dance was modelled after Mikis Theodorakis'famous to it in MichaelCacoyannis'film Zorba instrumental piece and the choreography dance tune mainly consists of Rast and The the Greek(1964) (see Torp 1992).19 Houzam0-3 formulae,but the last sectioncloses in HouzamM-1. Owingto their these melodic possibilities, Westernmajorsound and functionalharmonization, dromoiare favouredby syrtakicomposers. "Siko horepse syrtaki"first appearedin the film I kori mou i sosialistria in 1966. The original recording consists of two vocal sections (text by Alekos Sakellarios)followed by up-tempobouzoukisections.Laterthe compositionhas on bouzoukis.The analysisbelow is based on usually been played instrumentally andSte[iosZafeiriou. the firstinstrumental recordingof 1966 by Zambetas The two sections of the slow part(Fig. 5; starting tempo =116) are in dromos the Houzam0-3 (makamSegah). As often in makammusic of popularcharacter, seyir does not observe the classical rules. In Ottomanclassical music, makam Segah melodies tendto begin fromthe final tone. Duringa repeatof sectionB the tempobegins to accelerate.At first,the fast sectionC (tempoJ =190) seems to be in Houzam0-3. However,in the thirdline the melody moves a thirdlower, thus bringingthe final tone down to the root of chordI, which indicatesdromosRast. the distanceof the secondvoice fromthe first one changesfrom Correspondingly, a third to a sixth. The first three sections are largely based on melodic sequences-a featuretypicalof laikastyle. Section D contains a chromaticformulaF-E-D#-E-F typical of dromosRast The formulais harmonized melodies on the recordedbouzouki-based repertoire. in improvisationsand common is formula Rast The cadence. V-I the with very not as close to Ottoman were that later and Piraeus of styles composed pieces the in it simple taximi before music as was the cafe style. For example, appears in 1934 by recorded the song "Manges karavotsakismeni" (HMV AO 2161) problem.This StratosPayioumtzis.The originof the formulaoffers an interesting makamRast. Nor does the is not used in classical Ottoman kind of chromaticism formulaoccur in Greekchurchmusic, becauseit would be consideredan elxis of
18 According to Dragoumanos (1994:137), Zambetasrecordedas many as 22 LPs between 1963 and 1973. Eleven of these are instrumental records, some bearing non-Greek titles in the Latin alphabet such as "Bouzouki Bouzouki" and "Greece my Love". 19 The slow section of "Zorba's Dance" is from Theodorakis' song "Strose to stroma sou yia dyo" from the 1963 theatrical play "I yeitonia ton angelon" (see HMV GCLP7), while the fast section is his arrangementof "Syrtos Armenohorianos"by the Cretan musician Yiorgos Koutsourelis (1950, Columbia DG 6851).

Pennanen:Chordalharmonyin Greek rebetikaand laika

81

Recordedin Fig. 5: Excerpts from "Sikohorepsesyrtaki"by YiorgosZambetas. 1966 by Stelios Zafeiriouand the composer(LyraLS 1146).
9r'F Rb
I*.
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.

'I
r r,

r"mVlr1

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L L. Li Ah A h. .h h)

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FM ILLLr F
F2 F.

Rb

IFF

Ir r rI'!r!

r i ~-

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AFI

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IFF RbC C7 t J

"

an elxis, which is not acceptable.Accordingto modem churchmusic theory,an elxis takes place when a primarytone pulls a secondaryone towardsitself, thus either flattening the upper neighbour or sharpening the lower one (Seppala 1981:55-6). The formulamay originatefrom the attemptsof musiciansusing instruments incapable of producing microintervalsto establish a clear distinction between

82

British Journal of Ethnomusicology,vol. 6 (1997)

dromos Rast and Western majorin simple melodies. The invention of the new Rast melodic formulacould have servedas a passablesolutionfor the problemof dromosidentity.20 Anotherexplanation is thatbouzoukimusicianstriedto imitate the gliding,portamento passagesof makammusic with chromaticism. Section E startswith an Evi9 formula,i.e. a Segah openingformulatransposed a fifth above. The modulationis not executed accordingto the Ottomanmakam rules (cf. Pennanen1997:132-3, 148-9). SectionF is a conclusive section in Rast thatends with the completecadenceI-IV-V-I. It is obvious from the analysis above that touristikais not as Westernas has rebetika characteristics left in been suggested.Thereare manymorenon-Western of the features are hidden or on the first the style thanare audible listening.Many andsoft tone colours. smoothedout in the soft parallelthirdor sixthharmonies of in the chordal the I shall discuss In development accompaniment following rebetikaand laika from the mid-1930s to the 1960s. I shall try to explain some peculiaritiesof rebetikaharmonythroughselected aspects of bouzouki playing techniques. Droning The simplest and probablyearliestway to accompanybouzoukisongs in Piraeus style is rhythmic droning, which is often associated with hashish songs. The bouzoukior baglamasplayer plays the melody on the highest and middle string courses while the unstoppedcourse or courses give the drone accompaniment. tend to be horizontal,i.e. along one The left-handmovementson the fingerboard of the old This also is course. playingstyle of the long-neckedlutes typical string used in Anatolia and the Balkans (see Stokes 1992:74-5). In the early Piraeusof a group can participatein the drone. The style recordings,other instruments the third,or a full I chord. Guitardrones chord without drone may be an open I consist of bass notes and occasionalmelodicpassagesin the bass registeror a full triadon the top strings(cf. Fig. 27a;Jouste1994:74-7). is "Tout' with dronebouzoukiaccompaniment An earlyPiraeus-style recording in 1929 by New in York recorded oi batsoipou 'rthantora"(Columbia56137-F),
20 Usually the Rast formula is transcribedwithout any attemptsat an analytical approach(see e.g. Jouste 1996:116-7, 125, 138), but the formula has been mentioned in two non-scholarly texts. In his book, the material of which has been compiled from various sources, Loukareas (1985:16) calls this chromatic formula "dromosRast Mahour or Rast Atzem". However, the names "RastMahur"and "RastAcem" have no specific meaning in Ottomanmusic. There is no such makam as Rast Mfhur, but the name could derive from labels of some improvised vocal gazel (amane) recordings from the 1930s (see e.g. "Rast Mahour" sung by Kostas Karipis [1928, Odeon GA 1268]). In this case, Rast is the main makam of the improvisation, while MahOris the modulation. "Rast Atzem" could be related to "Acemli Rast", i.e. the form of makam Rast scale with lowered seventh degree (see Ozkan 1984:115). Later the formula and the terms were borrowed from Loukareas' book by HaralambosPayiatis. In his quasi-scientific book, Payiatis (1992:36-7) repeats the information given by Loukareas and illustrates it with two music examples. He does not mention Loukareas in his bibliography, which consists of books and articles that are in any case mostly irrelevantto his home-spun dromos theory.

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83

Yiannis Yiannidis and Manolis Karapiperis. Due to the censorship of hashish songs and changedtaste of the recordbuying public, drone accompaniment was rarein recordedrebetikaafter 1936. However,therearetwo examplesfromas late as 1951: "San me idis kai sou sfyrixo" and "Kapoio vradi me fengari" (Parlophone B 74186) by Markos Vamvakarisare replicas in the mid-1930s Piraeusstyle which had gone out of fashionlong ago. Duringthe rebetikarevival in the 1970s and '80s, some bouzoukimusiciansof the older as well as younger recordedold andnew drone-style generation songs. Fig. 6 is a simple dromos Segah (makam Hiizzam) melody with a drone accompanimentfrom the early 1930s. The melody begins with a brokenmajor triadthat ascends to the octave of the root of I. After this the melody descendsto the giiqlii (A) via the leading tone G#. The second bar is similar,except that the descent reachesdown to the final. The high-pitchedbaglamasplays the I triadin instrument steady 16th notes. Anotherhigh-pitched imitatingthe baglamassound in the recordingis a drinkingglass tappedagainst a string of worry beads (Gr. komboloi). The guitar plays triad I and the bass notes that provide the basic rhythm.
Fig. 6: Excerpt from "Ta matia sou t'arapika " by Markos Vamvakaris. Recorded

in 1933 by the composer(HMVAO2086).


Aa J=lW0

To jpc - -noc

aov

T'o - p

- K(a.

Toc ,i
drinking glass

K(OCI TpEX-

X&-

Oq - KX.

baglnamas

guitar

_?

_f

_ _f_

Oscillation between relative chords A common harmonic progression in Piraeus style is an oscillation between relativemajorand minorchords,i.e. III-i in minorandvi-I in major.In common chord to the practiceharmony,the progressionfrom the mediantor submediant tonic chord is considered weak because only one tone changes (see Piston

84

British Journal of Ethnomusicology,vol. 6 (1997)

1978:22); thereforeit is not favoured.However, it is commonin some Western popularmusic styles. In Greekpopularmusic, minor i and its relative majorIII are commonly used in succession in some dromoi, Sabahbeing a special case I will analysebelow. There are many compositionswith one section in the major-keydromos and introducanotherin the relativeminor-keydromos.In addition,the instrumental kind of use of tion often startsin majorbut closes with the relative minor.This relative chords was alreadycommon in pre-warrebetika.Some of the melodies are related to Ottoman makams, while with some others, especially of the is hardto verify. Because of its static nature, bouzoukitradition,the relationship the vacillation between relative chords is not very different from the earlier of the drone. It can be seen as an elaboration techniques. accompaniment As seen in Fig. 7, a section could startin a major-keydromosand finish in a relative minor dromos, or vice versa. Fig. 7a begins in D Houzam 0-3, the melody moving aroundthe gtiqli (A) and the final (F#), but ends on the relative minorvia the dominantchord.Fig. 7b startson the E minorchord,but the tonic is G major. The origin of this chordalformulain some dromoimay be connectedwith the of the bouzoukifamily.These tunes are easy playing techniqueof the instruments to compose by using the first position of baglamasor bouzoukiin DAD tuning. Opencoursesprovidean open D chordandthe highestcoursestoppedon the third fret a full D major,while a B minorchordis easily executedwith only two fingers on the lowest andmiddlecourses(Table3). In all the chords,at least one courseis open. Open stringswere consideredan advantagein the old bouzoukitechnique since they contributedto the continuityof sound. When unfrettedfor a longer time, they could serve as drones.Fig. 8 is a prison song thatis harmonizedwith on the bouzoukior the open majorchordandits relativeminorwhen accompanied and the fingeringchartin Table 4 underthe transcription baglamas.The tablature
Fig. 7: (a) Introductionfrom "Alaniara ap' ton Peiraia" by Markos Vamvakaris. Recorded in 1935 by the composer (Parlophon B 21844). (b) Introductionfrom "Oifonografitzides" by Yiorgos Batis. Recorded in 1936 by the composer (HMV AO 2334). The section after the first verse that is similar to the rest of the sections is transcribed since the first occurrence is executed somewhat differently.

=126 j

I _!i.m Ir--, b ! n,,12n

3A

glj'inJ3^'3^^^^^~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~Op
bop,
4w

Pennanen:Chordal harmonyin Greek rebetikaand laika

85

show how easily the melody can be played in the first positionwith DAD tuning. Most songs by Yiorgos Batis (1890-1967), who recordedsimplehashishsongs in the early 1930s, are based on similar low-position and open-stringplaying. It seems thathe composedhis songs on his favouriteinstrument, the baglamas.
Table 3: Chord shape boxes for bouzouki or baglamas in DAD tuning. The vertical lines symbolize the courses, the horizontal lines the frets. The white circles mark open strings, the black circles are stopped string positions.

- la

o
open D D

8-R
-

81
Bm

open

Fig. 8: Excerpt from the bouzouki part of "Andilaloun oi fylakes" recorded in 1936 by Markos Vamvakaris (Odeon GA 1918).21 The horizontal lines of the tablature symbolize the courses of the bouzouki or baglamas and the numbers on them the frets stopped in the DAD tuning.

Q
ot,j

O 0 O 000
B"1 Dm

1
DBm

0 4

fO

Table 4: Fingering chart of the vocal section of "Andilaloun oifylakes" for bouzouki or baglamas in DAD tuning.

00

I)

21 An earlier version was recorded by Marika Papagika in New York in 1919 as "Ta oula sou" (Columbia E 5193).

86

British Journal of Ethnomusicology,vol 6 (1997)

Fig. 9 is a song from the early 1950s in the rebetikaform of makam Kuirdi. Thereare two relativechordprogressions,i-III and VI-iv. The progressioni-III related to the tonic function is very common in Kiirdi songs of the rebetika repertoire.The fourth scale degree is the giillu, and it is no surprise that the functionis likewise presentin two forms,i.e. VI andiv. The second subdominant scale degree is raisedin ascendingpassages but flat in descents.The flat second degree belongs to the basic scale of Kiirdiin rebetikaand is thus more fundafrom folk music, makamKiirdiis rarelyused in its pureform mental.Originating in Ottomanmusic (Feldman1996:225;Ozkan 112). Accordingto the ney player Yiorgos Symeonidis (pers. comm. 1998), this is owing to the 5-comma-flat second degree that is consideredmelodically somewhatawkwardin ascents but good in cadences. Therefore, the 1-comma-flatsecond degree occurs often in music. Ktirdicompositionsof Ottomanclassicalandpopular
from "Tovouno"by LukasDaralas and VangelisPrekas.Recordedin Fig. 9: Excerpt 1954 by Kaiti Grey and DimitrisRoumeliotis(HMVAO 5164).
A^ J=5L8

F vtp3o KCI -

I o TpoypoUv64osA -

0' o-

JT r^ o3 Jj J 0jj -gJ3
arTo

m6 wn- X6- TE-

PO

1oi-

v6

i1

Rb ^i
v' a-

g
KOUYETaXl -m

wz
oTIv Epq-

Jr
p

n
-

J
oc

7r6vo

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Trl

7re- vi&.

can be heardin relativekey progression Echoes of the ambivalent Piraeus-style many post-war compositions. In Fig. 10, the chord progressionbegins with a minor triad after which there is a modulation to the relative major via the dominant.On the melodic level, the beginningis in minor,but the final on the third degree of chord I suggests dromos Houzam0-3. The rest of the song is fromminorto relativemajorin the clearlyin minor.Thereis anotherprogression chordiv to VI. from secondbar.This time the progression goes The fourth bar contains the secondary dominant V7 of iv. The chord harmonizes a chromaticformula that is usually associated with Houzam. The in the descendingbouzoukiinterlude ascendingchromaticformulais anticipated of the previousbar.In this case, Houzamwouldrequirea G majorchordsince the formulashould startfrom the thirdof a majortriad.The use of the formulaout of its originalcontextcould be construedas a symptomof the decline of the dromos

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87

Fig. 10: Excerpt from "0 trelos tsiganos" by Ioanna Yorgakopoulou and Haralambos Vasileiadis. Recorded in 1947 by the composer and Stellakis Perpiniadis (HMVAO 2737).22

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-y

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a
;

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vVX -

VOT

ve,

u , , - voC ToU rS;

Xw - pia

- p6<

oou

si

- vai

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trav to - n

- v6?.

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la(

pOU)

7TOV TO - n-

v60,

; E7^^#P^
o Xo - pia - po4
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ei-

vaO KOaq- 46t

system caused by Western influence. On the other hand, it could also indicate the individuality of the composer, who uses the traditionalformula in a new way. The final bar of the section with the cadence V7-i ensures that the song is in E minor. From the conventional Western point of view, there are opposite tendencies on the harmonic level of the composition. The progressions between relative minor and major chords create a static mood, but the V7-I cadence contains the feeling of dynamic movement. The wide variety of chords in use creates variety, and in combination with harmonic ambivalence this also feels dynamic in its own way. There is another feature in the song that echoes the old Piraeus style: couplets in the refrain are repeated in reverse order to form a quatrain. However, unlike in hashish songs of the bouzouki tradition, the melody and harmony in the example song are skilfully varied.

22 Contraryto the record label credits, the song is often attributedto Vasilis Tsitsanis (see e.g. Hatzidoulis 1980:114). The first phrase of "O trelos tsiganos" was later used for the song "Agapi pou 'yines dikopo mahairi" in the film Stella (1955). The film credits and some other sources (e.g. Hatzidoulis 1980:114)

88

British Journal of Ethnomusicology,vol. 6 (1997)

Especially in laika style a movement from a major triad to its upper tertian relative can take place. Fig. 11 is an excerpt from a Houzam composition by Manolis Hiotis containingthe chordprogressionI-iii. The progressiontogether with chromaticismcreatesa soft, dreamymood that supportsthe lyricism of the song.
Fig. 11: Excerptfrom "Pare me sto tilefono" by Manolis Hiotis. Recorded in 1959 by Mairi Linda and the composer (Parlophone B 74511).
AA J=56 G o goo o

B
Xe - vo
'm

bruz.,_:l^J . an

e 1I6cpe?
i

ToTt-

iAmK

V^ Xi -

E^I

I -3 pe

y6&Kt VOC TOC To

Relativekeys in rebetikaandlaikacan also be used in a purelyWesternway. It formulaof the Piraeusstyle had hard to say if the relative-keyharmonization is any effect on the frequentuse of relative keys in post-war rebetika, or if the practicewas solely of Westernorigin. We can illustratethe developmentof relativekey switches by comparingtwo compositions.The progressionfrom a song recordedin 1938 is simple with only and dominantchords(Fig. 12). However,thereis a hint of a tonic, subdominant sudden key change from chord i of minor to I of the relative major that may derivefromthe Piraeusstyle.
by Vasilis Tsitsanis.Recordedin 1938 by Stratos Fig. 12: Excerptfrom "Arhondissa" Payioumtzisand StellakisPerpiniadis(ColumbiaDG 6440).
A J=!04 D G 7 Ep

-1

Xq!

Zocv

S
-

G
-, aTO -vo,; O pcrTo

G
K - p,

- st O(x-X oa(To

By contrast,a typical compositionby Manolis Hiotis in his late 1950s to early 1960s style consists of short relative key sections. The modulationscheme is much more sophisticatedthan in the 1930s. As seen in Fig. 13, the temporary
attributethe latter song to Manolis Hatzidakis, but the piano sheet music of 1956 (reproducedin Shorelis 1987a:90-l) attributesboth music and lyrics to Tsitsanis, who performedin the film.

Pennanen:Chordal harmonyin Greek rebetikaand laika

89

modulationfrom majorto the relativeminoris signalledby a modulation formula based on a scale passage descendingto the thirdof V(7) of i of the relativeminor. This melodic formulaseems to be an innovationof Hiotis. The returnto majoris usually not abrupt.Hiotis tends to use a chain of secondarydominants,a characin Exx. 13a and 13d. teristicmost apparent
Fig. 13: Hiotis' modulation formula and chord progressions in (a) "Iliovasilemata" (1958); (b) "Pare to dakri mou" (1959); (c) "Pare me sto tilefono" (1959); (d) "Den tha boreso" (1959); (e) "I skouna" (1962).
A y ?iff* _ ^ 1^ a C#

F#m

C#7
'

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A
"''

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C#

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Chordprogressions
The previous section ended by tracingechoes of relative chord oscillationup to recent times. But let us go back now to the 1940s, to consider an earlier step towardscomplexity of chordprogressionsbeyond the oscillation stage. Recordfor Rast, Houzam0-3 and ings made in 1946 and latercontainnew progressions are there the common to In addition I-V-I, compositionswith progressions major. and authentic These Table 5. shown in plagal cadential formulae are also used in commonpracticeharmony(see Piston 1978:184-5, 189-90). frequently 0-3 andmajor. chord Table5: Sometypical for Rast,Houzam progressions post-war I I IV IV ii V7 V7 I I I

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British Journal of Ethnomusicology,vol 6 (1997)

It is also noteworthythat after the war, the tonic was no longer the standard initial chord in major,Rast or Houzam.It became more common thanbefore to I. DegreesV and begin a section on some otherscale degreethanthe conventional initial chords.Fig. 14 is a compositionby less frequentlyIV became alternative Vasilis Tsitsaniscontainingthe progression IV-I-ii-I. Fig. 14: Excerptfrom "To parapono tou xenitemenou"by Vasilis Tsitsanis. Recordedin 1950 by SotiriaBellou (HMVAO2995).

Zov

--

Tr6c-Xq po;

yv - pi -

featuresof the majorkey chordalharmonyin One of the most characteristic and Westernmajorin post-warrebetikaand 0-3 Houzam dromos dromosRast, the chordii as eithera complementary of laikamusic is the frequentuse degreeof the from IV or a substitutefor it. The supertonicwas adapted popularmulti-part Atheniankantada (pl. kantades) serenades that were influenced by ItalianNeapolitan music, or directly from Westernpopularmusic. Analysis of extant tis agapis"by Bayianderas (DimitrisGogos) suggests that"Totragoudi recordings recordedin 1940 was the firstrebetikasong with ii. Chord ii invokes additional dark colourings to major, Rast and Houzam melodies. Accordingto the conventionsof Westernmusic, chordii is supposedto be succeeded by IV or V7-I. However, in the idiomatic harmonicpractice of use of the I-ii-I progression ii-I is not unusual.Dramatic rebetika,the progression is found in the rebetika classic "Synnefiasmenikyriaki"composed by Vasilis Tsitsanis.The degree adds a subduedmood to this major-keycomposition,thus the contentsof the melancholylyrics (Fig. 15). supporting by VasilisTsitsanisandAlekos kyriaki" from "Synnefiasmeni Fig. 15: Excerpt and SotiriaBellou (HMV Tsaousakis Prodromos in 1948 Gouveris.Recorded by AO 2834).

XTOUV

- T6,cvToc Xi

- -c pCuv-veIA
0A uoU!

, - av V--

(&c.
1

vt'

Xcr

-cc
KOCI

Hocf,i
Ioc,
XPlaU

jl
K0tl IMC - V0Cy

Xptart

Pennanen:Chordal harmonyin Greek rebetikaand laika

91

The secondary dominantsV7 of iv and V7 of ii are common in post-war rebetika songs. The history of the former chord in rebetikagoes back to the Westernizedstyle of the Metaxasera (1936-40). Fig. 16 is an excerptfrom 1936. The refrain of this G-minor piece is based on a cycle-of-fourths sequence, containingthe secondarydominantsV7 of iv and V of III. Similarprogressions were common in Greekpopularmusic in the Westernvein, from which rebetika [Columbia adoptedthem. (Cf. Fig. 18c and "Hatzi-baxes" composersapparently DG 6598] by Vasilis Tsitsanisrecordedin 1946.) from "S' agapisa vre mortissa"by SpyrosPeristeris.Recorded Fig. 16: Excerpt in 1936 by KostasRoukounas (ParlophonB 21830).
a
J=148 l Cm Bb F

AX Tr) - p(X TO

t- XA) VIt(-

Get

b rTUrCKOCVEI4 5?

Oape PCd

- o?E

From the late 1940s there was a tendency towardsa faster harmonicrhythm than before. Besides new compositions, this trend influenced remakes of old in a more complex rebetikasongs in the 1960s: they were very often harmonized An versions Jouste than the 1994:80-4).23 (see originalcomposition way original from 1958, Fig. 17 contains a rapidlymoving chord progressionin descending andthe harmony melodic minor.The progression is basedon functionalharmony, thirds. leads the melody largelybasedon leaps of by Panos Gavalas. from "Pali me haramata" Fig. 17: Bouzoukiintroduction Recordedin 1958 by the composer(OdeonGA 7997).
A Bb~ Ab Gm Fmn Cm G F2p CX a

,chords. Thi
~V ~II

A Gm F is totally alien to the traditionalstyle, and it is rarely used in contemharmonization


~ L- IF -I .....W . 1

23 See also.Haralambos Payiatis' arrangementof the 1930s song "Rixe tsiggana ta hartia"by Markos Vamvakaris (Payiatis 1992:55). The original guitar part consists of a minor-triaddrone with some octave doubling of the bouzouki melody, while Payiatis changes the triad on every beat, using six different chords. This kind of harmonizationis totally alien to the traditionalstyle, and it is rarely used in contemporaryperformances.

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British Journal of Ethnomusicology,vol. 6 (1997)

The changing role and characterof chordalharmonyin rebetikaand laika is was a memory-based also reflectedin commercialsheet music. Althoughrebetika and were live performances form of music and the primaryways of distribution were as sheet music. also were published They recordings,hit songs gramophone than probablymade for tavernaand night-clubmusicianswith otherbackground rebetika.It seems that until 1953, these publicationswere single-staff notations of rebetikahits startedto be pubwithout chord symbols. Piano arrangements lished around1953, and they quickly surpassedthe single-line notations.Chord symbols were added to the piano scores as late as around1960. (See Shorelis 1987b:104-5, 216-7.)

and chordforms Chromaticism


In the early 1950s, the influence of Westernpopularmusic on rebetikabecame and the use of nonThis was apparent more pronounced. firstly in chromaticism forms. chord new of harmonictones, secondlyin the introduction tones are often used for andnonharmonic In Westernpopularmusic, chromatic or exotic and atmospherein basically diatonic lyrical creating expressiveness diatonic appoggiatura-the most melodies. The frequently used descending tone of romanticism-produces an ambience importantexpressive nonharmonic and of sentimentalityand nostalgia that has been describedas "marshmallow" 1989:221-2). "sicklysweet"(Jalkanen According to Jalkanen (ibid.:219-80 passim), the chromaticismand nonto variouspopularstyles such as were adapted harmonictones of late romanticism salon music, AustrianSchrammel,GermanSchlager, ragtime, blues and early jazz. In addition,these often appearedin tangos and Hawaiian-stylesongs that were popular in the USA and Europe from the mid-1910s. American and songs were also recordedin Europeanpopularsongs, tangos and Hawaiian-style Greece. Among the most famous composers and singers in these genera were Attik (Kleon Triandafyllou, 1885-1944), Mihalis Souyioul (1906-58), Sofia (b. 1918).Therewere also musicians Vembo (1910-78) andDanaiStratigopoulou and who masteredmany styles experimentedin mixing them. Some Hawaiianstyle studio musicians-Kostas Bezos among them-played on rebetika were recordingsas well (Howard1996). PanayiotisToundasand SpyrosPeristeris and studio stage musicians,who recordingdirectors,and composers, arrangers, bouzouki player Yiorgos worked in various contexts, as did the singer and to the mixing Vidalis. The exceptionalconditionsduringthe war also contributed of styles. According to Gauntlett(1985:117-8, 118 n. 249), during the Axis Occupation (1941-45), the commercial viability of bouzouki-basedrebetika to caused Greekmusiciansspecialisedin Westernpopularmusic and instruments They had played in cabarets,reviewjoin the orchestrasof bouzouki-taverns. theatres, operettasand,up to 1930, in cinemas. In the pre-1950s rebetika,chromaticismwas mostly associated with certain melodic formulae in Rast, Houzam, Segah and the dromos counterpartsof OttomanmakamU?ak, Htiseyni and Karcigar.The chromaticformulaepartly

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93

melodicmoveoriginatefrombouzoukiplayers'attemptsto imitatenon-tempered ments of these makams,and partlyfrom Westernmusic (Pennanen1997:150-3). The chromaticismof Westernpopularmusic connected with chordal harmony startedto infiltraterebetikaafterthe war and especially in the 1950s. Chromatic fills in the style of Manolis passing tones in the vocal melodies and instrumental Hiotis aretypicalof the trend;severalexampleshave been shown above. section in Fig. 18a by Tsitsaniscontainschromaticlower and The instrumental and a chromatically notes Fig. 18b by descendingappoggiatura. neighbour upper transthe same contains Mitsakis appoggiatura descending chromatically Yiorgos texture the in for are features characteristic, Similar third example, a higher. posed of the international tango idiom. Fig. 18c is a Greektango from 1948 containing diatonic and chromatic appoggiature,chromaticpassing tones and chromatic neighbournotes. Exx. 18d and 18e are excerptsfromFinnishtangosof the 1930s
Fig. 18: (a) Excerpt from the introduction of "Ti simera, ti avrio, ti tora" by Vasilis Tsitsanis. Recorded in 1953 by Marika Ninou (Odeon GA 7765). (b) Excerpt from "To paidi tou dromou" by Yiorgos Mitsakis. Recorded in 1953 by Maria Grilli, Yiannis Tatasopoulos and the composer (HMVAO 5104). (c) Excerpt from "As erhosoun yia ligo" by Mihalis Souyioul and Mimis Traiforos. Recorded in 1948 by Danai (HMVAO 2806). (d) Excerptfrom "Valkea sisar" by M. Maja. Recorded in 1934 by Georg Malmsten and Dallape-orkesteri (Odeon A 228283). (e) Excerpt from "Lumihiutaleita" by M. Maja. Recorded in 1936 by Georg Malmsten and Dallape-orkesteri (Odeon A 228352).
a Am
A

Dm

Aim

A7m

T
CAAm

Kpio
N

XTVm
_N
,

- KhX T O Ta 01TOU
I D

(?

-voXt

VOU

E7 4

Am

C axVT6 rouV TO ?4(a T6-ao, fIo' V&Xo1 Pp&6Vu a-X-i6-OE

IJJ \IJj.M Ji..

J
- TE r TO
_____

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a Tr6-ao 46vo~

J iJ Jjll KIxl Iro u -

- Couv KpU(vTO 4 (i 4OU7TTai


d_ Am

- V0o. 0 TO6 iTOT' OXi-lprj KOXl m

Luo
ei

sai - rai - den


Am

kay si- sar hento

val - koi - nen


Dn

hil - jal - leen

sataa maahan lu- mi val - ke - aan.

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British Journal of Ethnomusicology,vol. 6 (1997)

containing similar nonharmonictones and the same chromatic appoggiature. Owing to the hybridrepertoireof kosmikestavernesof the late 1940s and early 1950s, similaritiesbetween songs by rebetikacomposersand tango melodies are not coincidental.Rebetika composersadoptedsome Western-stylemelodic and chordal formulae from contemporaryforeign and foreign-influenced Greek popularmusic. It is not always as easy as above to point out Western influence in Greek popularmusic. Some traditionalmakamformulaehave structuralcompatibility with some formulaeof Westernpopularmusic, which creates new ways to use them in new contexts. The formulastock of dromosHouzam0-3 offers particularly good possibilities for use in a Westernway. Fig. 19a is a Houzam 0-3 (makamSegah) melody thatmodulatesto Evi9 by establishinga new tonalcentre a fifth above thatof Houzam0-3 (cf. Fig. 5, sectionE). from "Esyden Fig. 19: (a) Evil formula in a Houzam0-3 melody. (b) Excerpt Recordedin 1957 eisai anthropos"by ManolosHiotisand HristosKolokotronis. by Panos Gavalasand MairyLinda(OdeonGA7984).

bt

I 2=60

Em

A
-i

-r - plo Ei - vOCt apt

aroX: - paov pou p&bt-rrpwi

6ev

0t -Xc0

Xi

yo

Xi -

yo.

blue note, i.e. a The Evi9 formularesemblesa formulawith the Afro-American Merwe 1996). der van below a third the to (see note thatis attracted scale-degree 1957 contains from 19b in 0-3 The beginning of the Houzam (in D) song Fig. a in ascends sequence,thus creating blue notes againstchordIV (G). The melody The melody, however, does not a phraseon V (A) resemblingthe Evi9 formula. The rest of the excerpt to ascend. stay on the potentialnew tonal centrebut starts is in Houzam 0-3 proper.Since the composer,Manolis Hiotis, knew the tonal music,he has probablydeliberatelanguagesof bothrebetikaandAfro-American This ly utilised the likeness between the Evi, formulaand the blue not phrase.24 kind of freely used chromaticismis a sign of hybridism and a change from
24 The bouzoukiplayer Stelios Vamvakaris uses some Houzamformulaein a blues context in his Red(SD 007). Louisiana and withthebluessinger guitarist recordings

Pennanen:Chordal harmony in Greek rebetikaand laika

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melody types ruled by dromos-specificformulaeof rebetikain the directionof melodiesruledby harmonyof moreWesternized styles. Now let us look at chord forms in rebetikaand laika. Majorand minor triads are well establishedin the recordedrebetikaof the 1930s, and in the 1940s dominant sevenths and to a lesser extent diminishedsevenths had become common. Owing to the number of strings, three-coursebouzouki players often use the diminished triad vii-5 for the dominant function. However, when the guitar providesthe root, the chordsoundsas V7. Table 6 shows the diminishedtriad,the basic V triad,the tonic triadand theirrespectivechordshapes.The advantageof the diminishedtriadchord shape is its closeness to the tonic chord,which saves to a full V triad. the left hand from an awkwardposition shift up the fingerboard Thereare severalexamplesof the diminishedtriadon post mid-1930srecordings. of the PanayiotisToundassong "Tominoretis Forexample,in the 1939 recording bouzouki Tsitsanisplays an introductory Vasilis DG tavernes"(Columbia 6510) taximicontainingthis chord.
Table 6: Bouzouki chord shape boxes for dominant and tonic function chords in D major.
7-.-* 4^

C#f] . f

into GreekpopuIn the mid-1950s, at least one new chordformwas introduced mou" "Thessaloniki of (ColumbiaDG 7229) larmusic. In the first 1956 recording the harmonic demonstrates by Manolis Hiotis and Hristos Kolokotronis,Hiotis capabilitiesof the newly inventedfour-coursebouzoukiby playing a minortriad of with ninth. In some of his melodies Hiotis uses the descendingappoggiatura triad. tones on the accompanying majorsixth or majorninthas nonharmonic add. 9) or sixth and ninth(i 6/9) are also used Tonic minorwith addedninth(i ascentor descent (Fig. 20). These chromatic in codas for minormelodies aftera fromjazz. laika-stylecodas were borrowed
Fig. 20: Ninth chords in laika-style codas.
Dm add9
Dir6i9
1

~Ice I 0 ^~~tr7ra<1~~I k1

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British Journal of Ethnomusicology,vol. 6 (1997)

Melodicand chordalcadences
According to Manuel (1989:83), rebetika pieces, in accordance with their of emergenceas a commercialpopulargenre, soon beganto acquirethe character structuredsongs, with verses, refrains, and definitive cadences. The recorded repertoireof the 1930s-as well as that of the 1920s-does contain structured songs, but the emergenceof "definitivecadences"needs to be analysedin more detail. We will see that chordalcadences for closing sections were established only graduallyover a long periodof time. Chordalcadencespropermarkingthe end of a sectionbecamewidespread only muchlaterthanthe 1930s. The importanceof harmonicformulaecalled cadences is evident in Western music. In common practiceharmony,they convey a feeling of completionat the end of a phraseor a composition.Closes markthe breathing places, establishthe (Piston 1978:184). Viennese tonality and lend coherence to the formal structure classicism especiallymade extensiveuse of the authentic V-I cadence. One factor affecting the adaptation of Westernmelodic andharmonicfeatures in Greekpopularmusic was the varietyof dancerhythms. Accordingto Einarsson of hasapiko(2/4 or 4/4 time) made its metre (1987:35), the symmetricstructure easy to fill up with functionalharmony.Einarssonidentifies influences of West European, mainly Italian, popular style in the 1940s and '50s especially on hasapiko.25 Analysis of recorded material would support his observations: and laziko in 7/8, karsilama in functionalharmonyinfiltratedinto kalamatiano 9/8 as well as zeibekiko,kamilierikoandaptalikoin 9/4 much more slowly than into hasapiko.Because of its Oriental associations,the belly dancetsiftetelliin 4/4 time tended to resist Westerninfluences.Basically, hasapikohad more rhythmic and structural compatibilitywith Westernpopularmusic, and thus characteristics to it. from the West were relativelyeasily adapted Before the 1950s, chordal cadences were relatively rarely used for closing sections in recorded rebetika. There are exceptions usually in minor, e.g. the authenticcadence after each couplet in the vocal section of "Prepeina htiso ena recordedin 1935. However, a tzami"(Odeon GA 1887) by MarkosVamvakaris chordal cadence at the end of a whole piece was fairly common in post-war stop of music at the end of a vocal recordings.The simplestendingwas an abrupt or an instrumentalsection. This ending was used both in dronedpieces and in those with properchords.Remakesof these songs recordedin the late 1950s and to the view that the 1960s usually ended with a chordalcoda, which lends support in Greek popularmusic, formal structuresdefined by chordalcadences gained in the 1950s.26 increasingimportance
25 Italian influence on the output of Greek popular music composers started considerably earlier. The emergence of the late 19th-centurykantada style is described below. I would also claim that the melodic and harmonic similarity between the Neapolitan song "Mistere 'e Marechiare"by Donaldio and the Izmir song of the 1910s, "Den se thelo pia" (attributedto Panayiotis Toundas in Kounadis and Papaioannou 1981:21), is not a coincidence. 26 Cf. e.g. "To proi me ti drosoula" by Vasilis Tsitsanis recorded in 1946 (Columbia DG 6598) and the remake by Grigoris Bithikotsis recordedin 1961 (Columbia SCDG 2839).

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The melodic closing formula of fifth and root of the tonic chord could be played aftereach section or at the end of the piece. This formulacan be regarded as the predecessor of the authentic cadence in some dromoi. In a restricted Houzam0-3 or Segah composition,the closing of fifth androot of chordI might be preceded by the chromatic closing formula (Fig. 21a). (See Pennanen Houzam 1997:149-50.) In the 1960s, remakesandnew compositionsin restricted 0-3 usually close with the conventional V-I cadence(Fig. 21b). Fig. 21: Closingsfor restrictedHouzam0-3 songs. (a) Theclosing offifth and root of the tonic chordprecededby the chromaticclosingformula. (b) Thenewer chordalclose.

cadenceclosing a restricThereare very few pre-warexamplesof the authentic Theremay be only one Segah0-3 recording ted Houzam0-3 rebetika recording. of this kind. The verse of the song "Hiramoderna" hira")by Pana(or "Moderna in while the refrain is dromosSegah. 0-3 Houzam is in restricted Toundas yiotis In the 1931 recordingby Ismini Diatsende(Odeon GA 1622), the last refrainis the 1932 recording followed by the V-I cadencethatends the piece. By contrast, the conventional ending. abrupt by Roza Eskenazy(ColumbiaDG 298) has The section end cadence V-I was used mainly in rebetika recordings of serenade-liketwo-partharmonysongs in hasapikorhythm.The cadencewas first used in the late 1930s for songs in major,minorand dromosRast.The cadencein Houzam0-3 seems to have been used for the first time in the context of restricted a rebetika record in 1940. In the serenade-likeduet in restrictedHouzam "To tragouditis agapis",the cadence is played aftereach vocal section while instrumental sections end with a brokenI chord (Fig. 22). The song was composed in imitation of the Italian-stylekantadesand late 19th centuryAthenianWesterninfluenced popular songs that were sung by multi-part vocal groups and accompaniedby mandolinsand guitars(Mylonas 1993a:40).One reason for the compositionsby rebetikamusiciansafter relativelyhigh numberof serenade-like 1935 was the culturalnationalizationand Westernizationcampaignduring the of GeneralIoannisMetaxas(1936-40). (Forthe cultural policy of the dictatorship regime, see Hering1996.) in rebetika,chordal Probablyowing to the relativenewnessof chordalharmony rebetikasongs by end cadences were adoptedquite slowly into the serenade-like bouzouki musicians. By contrast,other kinds of Greek popularmusic utilised them much earlier. For example, the popularrestrictedHouzam 0-3 song "O barbaYiannis"(HMV AO 2050) in the Atheniankantadastyle thatwas recorded containsV-I cadencesaftereach section. in 1932 by PetrosEpitropakis

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British Journal of Ethnomusicology,vol. 6 (1997)

sectionsfrom Fig. 22: Closingcadences of (a) vocal sectionsand (b) instrumental "Totragouditis agapis" by DimitrisGogos and DespoinaArbatzouglou. Recordedin 1940 by ManolisHiotis and the composer(HMVAO2658).
aA,A 4

b^,

The developmentof the closing formulaein zeibekikorhythmdiffersfromthat of hasapiko.Shown in Fig. 23, the melodicroot-and-fifth closing was executedas a followed a distinctive rhythmic formula,possibly by chordal cadence in the untilthe 1950s. were uncommon coda. Chordalcadencesin recordings closingformulaeforzeibekiko. Fig. 23: Rhythmic

Three recordedversions of "Synnefiasmeni kyriaki"shed light on the process the 1948 originalrecording(Fig. 24a), In formulae. zeibekiko in of change closing coda is used at the end no each after section; separate thereis a rhythmiccadence after each vocal cadence a has of the recording.The 1954 recording27 rhythmic is played at the formula section; the two-voiced descendingchromaticHouzam section andbeforethe repeatof the refrain(Fig. 24b). (For end of the instrumental the formula, see Pennanen 1997:149-50.) In spite of this, the whole piece is in dromosRast, or Westernmajor,dependingon the analyst'sviewpoint(cf. Kostas Roukounasin Petropoulos1983:264).The use of the chromaticHouzamformula At the end, the tempo as a melodic closing in Rast or majoris rareon recordings. slows and the recordingcloses with a coda of the chordalcadenceV-I. The 1958 recording(Fig. 24c) containsnew featuresthataretypicalof the laika style: there are several bouzoukisin tight parallelharmony,and they utilise the tremolo technique. The zeibekiko rhythm is played in the syncopated kofto formulainsteadof the older syriano ("of Syros")formulaof ("short","abrupt") the two earlier recordings. The recording has no rhythmic or chordal end cadences,but it containsa scalarpassageat the end of each section. The absence of chordal cadence in a late 1950s recording is unusual. A standardsection closing of the era would be a scale passageanda chordalcadence.

27 The dating of the recording is problematic, since it was never issued in the 78 rpm format. The first release seems to be the EP Philips 7751 of 1961. According to Dragoumanos(1997), MarikaNinou (191857) made the recordingin 1954 at the Parnassostheatre.

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Fig. 24: Excerpts from three versions of "Synnefiasmeni kyriaki": (a) recorded in 1948 by Prodromos Tsaousakis and Sotiria Bellou (HMVAO 2834), (b) recorded in 1954 by Marika Ninou, Athanasios Efyenikos and Vasilis Tsitsanis (Philips 7751), and (c) recorded in 1958 by Stelios Kazantzidis, Iota Lydia and Marinella (HMVAO 5546).

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Recordings of zeibekiko pieces made during the latter 1950s often contain an instrumental ascending or descending scale passage signalling a close. Westerntype scale runs at the end of sections were used in kantada recordings in the 1920s

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British Journal of Ethnomusicology,vol. 6 (1997)

More rarelythey appearon recordingsof hasapiko and probablyeven earlier.28 and zeibekikosongs in the 1930s.29 scale passages may be associatedwith the change of the dromos Instrumental concept from melodic formulae towards the Western idea of scales. Another all the rests in explanationis horrorvacui, the tendencyto fill up instrumentally The adventof in the slow zeibekikorhythm. the vocal melody, which arefrequent extreme rise of with the end passages coincided virtuositybroughtaboutby the new four-coursebouzoukitype and new aestheticideals of the 1950s. The slow tempo of the last example may be connected with the virtuosity of laika it allowed utmostmelodic pyrotechnicsof fast melodic figures instrumentalists: (cf. Fig. 28c below).

A theoryfor dromosharmonization
As just noted, it became common, especially in the 1950s, to signal the end of of the sections and of a whole piece with a chordalformula.This is an adaptation Hitzas dromos For the dromos into cadence chordal example, Western system. pieces often close with the cadence I1--I.30Manuel(1989:78, 82) writes that lI subdominant, parallelling functions as a dominantand iv serves as an important the importance of that pitch in makam Hicaz itself. Nevertheless, it could be questionedwhetherthe Westernconceptof chordalfunctionscan be appliedin all cases to fusion musics such as rebetika.Instead,one mightconstructan alternative theory that makes a distinctionbetween the chord degree that supportsthe guiili-the tone where two generameet-and the chorddegree that is used in a chordalcadence. The guiilii tone is situatedon eitherthe third,fourthor fifth of a dromosscale. Depending on the dromos, the giiulii chord usually also rests on one of these degrees.The chordis playedwhen the melodyrests on the gtiilii or moves around it. There are also several types of cadence chords in rebetika(Fig. 25). One of them, chord V, is the dominantof tonal music. Accordingto Westerntheory, it contains the two degrees closest to the tonic and therefore resolves more conclusively to tonic chordthanany othertriad.This view is relevantfor rebetika melodies in major, minor, Rast, Houzam M-1 and the dromos equivalents of Nihavendand Nikriz,i.e. Westernscales anddromoiwith raisedseventhandfinal on the root of I. The final of dromosHouzam0-3 and Segah is on the thirdof I, but the root of I drawsthe thirdandfifth of V towardsitself similarlyas in major andRast.
28 See the kantada "Bournovalia"by Panayiotis Toundasrecordedin 1926 (HMV AO 195). 29 See "Tis to vgalane" by Vangelis Papazoglou recorded in 1935 by Roza Eskenazy (HMV AO 2247), and "Zevgolatiotissa" by Panayiotis Toundas recorded in 1934 by Yiorgos Papasideris (Columbia DG 2104). 30 Nettl (1985:39) relates that Iranian pianists who play Persian classical music frequently use the tone above the final, to the tonic of some Neapolitan sixth, moving from the second degree, a three-quarter Persian modes. Sometimes the V-I cadence appearsas well.

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101

Fig. 25: Chordalcadencesfor variousdromoi.

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V

II

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V i

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viib I lib I

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Chordviii is the cadence chord for many dromoiwith flat or unstablesecond and naturalseventh. The resolving power of this chord is mostly owing to the thirdthat is situateda minor second above the final. In the majordromoi Hitzas the chordis often followed or substituted and Hitzaskiar, by its tertianrelativeIIb. chordII In minor dromoi such as the equivalentsof makamU?ak and Hiuseyni, as a substituteof viibhas been used since the 1960s (cf. Jouste 1994:82-4). From the Westernpoint of view, III could be seen as akin to the Neapolitansixth (cf. ibid.:82). Finally, the minor dromos Sabahhas VIII as the cadence chord. The resolving power is comparativelyweak since root and thirdare situateda major have excepsecond from the tonic. The dromosequivalentsof makamKarcigar cadencechordswhich will be discussedbelow. tionallymany alternative Because the characteristics of melody provide the ground of harmonic in accordancewith selection, giqgl chordsand cadencechordsvary considerably the qualities of each dromos.Table 7 shows the tonic, gtiuli and cadence chords chord in a selection of dromoiwhich are groupedaccordingto the most important degrees. In the case of normalHitzas, the fourth scale degree is the giiqlii, and thereforechordiv shouldbe regardedas the gtiqluchordwhile chordsvii? (older style) and III (newer style) are cadence chords which lead to tonic.31In some dromoi these two degree types are one and the same: the giiulii of Rast, the two allows the forms of Houzam,and Segahis on the fifth of I, andthe scale structure use of V both as giiqltichord and cadence chord.Because of the dual role of V, this groupof dromoihas experiencedfewer changesfrom the 1930s to the 1960s than some other dromoi. The authenticcadence has made it easy to use Rast, scale structure The Westernmajor-like Houzamand Segahwith chordalharmony. also explainwhy especiallyRastandthe two formsof Houzam andharmonization were favouredin the touristika style of the 1960s.

31 There are several types of dromoi related to makam Hicaz in rebetika. The scale-level differences of these dromoi are the sixth degree, the position of the giucliiand the position of the final. There are dromos Hitzas melodies with giilii either on the fourth or fifth degree. In terms of the final, there are Hitzas 0-1 and Hitzas M-3.

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vol.6 (1997) British Journal of Ethnomusicology,

chorddegrees in somedromoi. Table 7: Important dromos Rast (major) Houzam0-3 HouzamM-1 tonic gufiliichord cadence chord V V V V V V iv I/V I iv iv III IV iii V V V V V viib/IIb viib/llb lib viib viib vIIb viib/VIlb viib/Vllb/V7

I I I I Segah Nihavend(minor) i i Nikriz Hitzas Hitzaskiar Pireotikos Usak Kiirdi Sabah (old) Karclgar (new) Karcigar I I I i i i i i

Dromoi with gi9lii on the fourth or third scale degree are harmonizedvery differently.Fig. 26 is a Greekcover version of the CentralAnatoliantiirkii"Gel The gtilii of the makamis the fourth Alim" in a modifiedform of makamU??ak. degree, so the harmonizationfavours chord iv instead of V. The pitch of the second degree of the U??ak scale varies: it is one Holderian comma flat in ascending phrasesbut some 2.5 commas flat in descents. In equal temperament this inflection is imitatedby performingthe second degree naturalin ascending passages and flat in the descendingones. (A chromaticdescent is also possible.) of the rebetika form of The unstable second degree affects the harmonization makamU??ak:the cadence chord for melodies is viib, but VII may appearin ascendingpassageswith suddendescentsto final (Fig. 26, bar3). is the role of I. In some cases, it can function A peculiarityof dromosharmony is such a case: degreesused in the 1930s chord.Hitzaskiar as both tonic andguiqlii recordingsare I, iv, V and vii. I commonlysupportsformulaearoundthe giiglii. in Fig. 27a is of the old chordaldrone style. It is typical of The accompaniment startson the fourthbeat of the first bar. the that accompaniment (5+4) aptaliko The guitar plays solely chord I, and the melodic cadence is in parallel octaves insteadof a cadencechord. moredevelopedpiece of Fig. 27b, the stop on the gtiilii is In the harmonically also harmonizedwith I. Owing to the flat second degree of the scale, V is not As with Hitzas,Hitzaskiar suitableas the cadencechordfor Hitzaskiar. recordings harmoof the 1930s mostlyhave vii[-I as the closing chordalformula.Theoretical nizations ignore viib because the seventh scale degree is supposed to be sharp.

Pennanen:Chordalhannony in Greek rebetikaand laika

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Fig. 26: Excerpt from "Exodertiakai kaimoi".Recordedin 1962 by Stelios Kazantzidis (HMV7PG 3034).
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melodies thatdo not descendbelow the final in cadence. Chordvii; fits Hitzaskiar is IIt, the tertialrelativeof vii6(Fig. 27c). The newercadencechordfor Hitzaskiar comDue to the flat second degree, i.e. fifth of V, theoreticalharmonizations In performance practice,this is not the case. The pletely exclude V in Hitzaskiar. makamHicazkarstartsfromthe octave,andthis is very often also truein Ottoman rebetika. In the upper region, the use of V is possible because the flat second degree above the final remains absent. Besides, the Hitzaskiarscale does not repeatidenticallyin octaves. The seconddegreeof the upperoctavemay be either flat as its basic octave equivalent,or natural (Fig. 27b, c). ChordV is not present in all Hitzaskiarmelodies because there are stylistic features in rebetika that occasionally prevent the use of it. As with some of the most popularOttoman makams,thereare alternativeseyirs for dromoiin rebetika.Sometimesa rebetika Hitzaskiar melody startsfrom the root of I and remainsin the lower register;this withoutV. kindof melody is harmonized we can say thatthe selectionof chordsdependson the scale strucIn summary, ture of the dromos and the region in which the melody moves. Period and style also have an effect on harmony.Now we shall have a closer look at two dromoi, andpluralityof dromosharmony. which illustratethe historicaldevelopment The development of Sabah harmonization differsconsiderably fromwhat we have The developmentof Sabahharmonization considered above. Sabah is a minor-keydromos, the giuluiiof which is a third lends itself to the use of the relative above the final (Fig. 2a, b). This structure major chord in harmonization.With exceptions to the rule, a Sabah melody is supposed to start either on the first or the third degree. The initial chord may

104

British Journal of Ethnomusicology,vol 6 (1997)

Fig. 27: Hitzaskiar melodies and their harmonization. (a) Introductionfrom "Maroko" by I. Diamantopoulos and Y. Petropouleas). Recorded in 1940 by Markos Vamvakaris (Odeon GA 7286). (b) Introductionfrom "I gata" by Stellakis Perpiniadis and Nikos Mathesis. Recorded in 1936 by Stellakis Perpiniadis (HMVAO 2401). (c) Introductionfrom "Leiono mystika" by Markos Vamvakaris. Recorded in 1938 by the composer (Odeon GA 7174).

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be eitheri or III. ManySabahmelodiescan be harmonized solely correspondingly with i and III, and directprogressionsfromgiluti chordto tonic were commonin the 1930s. Probablyowing to influence of commonpracticeharmonywith clear used afterthe warwas III-VIIk-i. cadences,the cadential progression Fig. 28 shows two Sabah melodies from the 1930s and one from the early i-III-i harmonizationof the old stratum. 1960s. Fig. 28a is a straightforward ChordIII supportsthe stop on the gtiiluiat the end of the bar.Fig. 28b is a III-vikfromthe thirddegree.The traditional for a melody starting III-i progression guitar in is formula the paralleloctaves. In laika style, the descenddescending partfor ing bass run is replacedby chordprogressionswith the flat fourthchorddegree: IV6 -III-i and IV[ -III-VII-i. Fig. 26c is a virtuoso laika-style introduction III-vikIII-IV-III-IVV-III-i-VIlI-i. with the modemprogression harmonized

Pennanen:Chordalharmonyin Greek rebetikaand laika

105

Recordedin from "0 synahis"by MarkosVamvakaris. Fig. 28: (a) Introduction sectionhas been 1934 by the composer(HMVAO2185). Thesecondbouzouki because the guitarplayer mostprobably transcribed forgot to play the relative hasiklou"by Markos from "Mortissa majorchord in thefirst one. (b) Excerpt DG 473). (c) Recordedin 1933 by the composer(Columbia Vamvakaris. Introduction from "Aspethanona glytoso"by Panos Gavalasand N. Dalezios. Recordedin 1961 by Panos Gavalas(ParlophoneGDSP2603).

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can be sketchedas follows. Afterthe The developmentof Sabahharmonization droneera, chordsi andIII beganto be used. This was enoughfor melodies with a of narrowrangeand little emphasison the flat sixth degree.Forthe harmonization melodies with emphasis on that degree, chord vi; was added.After the war, the In the laika style of the late 1950s, chordIV[,was cadence chord VII; appeared. of the new harmonization. an interpretation The added. Table 8 shows finally the that of dromos scale is the is because the second Sabah genre startingpoint Hicaz pentachord,the harmonizationis influenced by that of dromos Hitzas. Therefore,III of Sabahfunctionsas I of Hitzasandvi6 of Sabahis the gtiilii chord

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British Journal of Ethnomusicology,vol. 6 (1997)

in Hitzas.After the establishment of IIt as the cadencechordfor Hitzas,musicians also startedusing it for the Hitzas inside Sabah. The returnto i of Sabah was executedeitherdirectly(III-i) or through the cadencechordof Sabah(III-VIII,-i).

Table 8: Hitzas harmonization inside Sabah.

Hitzas: Sabah: i

I III

IIb

iv vIIb

IVb vib

Karcigar harmonization
and the positionof the guilii, makamKarcigar has Because of its scale structure offered exceptionally many possibilities for harmonization.In the caf6 style, melodies tended to observe the rules of the Ottomantradition,though Karcigar In the bouzoukitradition, therewas variationin melodicprogression. has Karcigar experiencedstructural changes. Both forms tend to resist functionalharmonization. According to the theory of genera, the basic Karcigarscale consists of the U?ak tetrachord on A (diig5h) and Hicaz pentachordon d (neva). As with makamsSaba and U~?ak,the pitch of the second degreeof the U??aknote group is notatedas B4(segah) but it varies in practice,being 1 commaflat in ascending phrases but 2.5 commas flat in descents. The 4-commas-flat fifth degree is frequentlyraised in melodic progressionand especially in cadences (Fig. 29a). Besides U??akand Hicaz note groups,there are some other componentsin this makam,but there is no need for a detailedanalysishere. In point of fact, due to the melodic peculiaritiesof Karcigar, the theory of genera does not explain the of the makamparticularly characteristics well. Karcigar melodies in the classical seyir startfrom the giiuliiwhich in this case is the fourthdegree. Fig. 30a is an

makam Karcigarscale, and (b) the basic Fig. 29: (a) The basic Ottoman traditionwiththe traditional harmonization. Karcigarscale of the bouzouki

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Pennanen: Chordal harmonyin Greek rebetikaand laika

10 107

30: (a) Excerpt from "Zourlopainemenis yenna" by VangelisPapazoglou. -Fig-:. Recordedin 1934 by RitaAbatzi(HMVAO219]). (b) Excerpt from " by KostasRoukounas. Recordedin 1936 by the composer "Kondrabatzides (OdeonGA 1919).

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makamKarcigar. The melody begins excerptfrom a 1935 song in equal-tempered from giiglii, with the fifth degreeraised.In the first threebars,thereare stops on the octave of the final; from then on, however, the fourthdegree dominatesthe rest of the piece until the final cadence, and the fifth degree becomes flat. The of the last bar is a featureof the late Ottomancaf6 and high octave transposition night-clubstyle (cf. Greve 1995:170-3;Beken 1996).

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British Journal of Ethnomusicology,vol. 6 (1997)

With minorexceptions, the equal-tempered basic scale of the newer modified of the bouzouki tradition is similar to the classical makam(Fig. 29b). In Karcigar terms of theoreticalharmonization,the flat fifth degree is a potentialproblem since it seems to preventthe use of the minori chord.In performance practice, this issue seems to presentfew difficulties,since the possibilityof raisingthe fifth degree resolves most harmonizationproblems. In the bouzouki tradition, the tonal hierarchyalso tends be differentfrom the classical Ottomanone. Karcigar The most remarkable structural changeis the positionof the giiqliitone. Because the thirddegreesurpassesthe fourthin tonalhierarchy. of chordalharmony, Thus, the generaof the dromosare U,?ak trichord andNikrizpentachord on c (9argah), but again the note groupsdo not explainthe melodicmovementssufficiently.The gtilii chord is iii, which allows the use of the flat fifth degree. Since the second degree of the upper octave is usually flat, chord vii, is used when the melody moves aroundthe seventh scale degree. When the melody approaches the final, chord VII; is normallyused. ChordIV appearswhen the melody occasionally stops on the fourth degree. This happens especially when the composition is of the cafe style. influencedby the Ottoman Karcigar In Fig. 30b, the melody begins from the final, moves aroundthe thirddegree and finally settles on it. The guiiliichordis suggestedby the root and fifth alternation from the guitar. The melodic movement of the vocal line is somewhat similarto thatof makamSaba. Karcigarmelodies of the bouzouki traditionare based on the alternationof U?ak and Nikriz on i and iii respectively.Oscillationbetween i and iii creates a restless feeling that is suitablefor heavy zeibekikosongs with depressinglyrics. This static progressioncan end a section on recordingsin the Piraeusstyle of the 1930s. In rebetikaperformancepractice, as we have seen, there are three cadence chordsfor Karcigar, i.e. viib,VII;, and V(7).The first two chordsare alternatives, the use of which is enabledby the chromatically descendingseconddegreeof the basic octave and the flat second degreeof the upperoctave. Sometimesthe alternative cadences are used within the same song in different sections. Karcigar melodic closing formulaetend to emphasisethe fourthdegree, which fits all the three chords. From a purely theoreticalpoint of view, V(7) is not an expected cadencechordsince its thirdis not a scale degreeof Karcigar. However,the chord is used in cadences with no leading tone that would clash with it. As Karcigar melodic closing formulaetend to avoid the areabelow the final, V(7)can be used fairly often. On the basis of recorded repertoire,it seems that the authentic cadence closes a Karcigarsection of a piece where the other sections are in a dromosutilising the same close. Thus, the use of V(7)as the cadencechordhelps to adjusta Karcigarsection to the compositionalwhole thatutilises the Western standard cadence. harmonization. It first Fig. 3 la illustrates the use of chord viil in Karcigar appearsat the point where the flat second degree of the upper octave is introcoda containsthe flat second duced. After the progressioniii-i, the instrumental in the basic octave, which calls for the cadencechordvii;. Fig. 31b is an excerpt

Pennanen:Chordal harmnony in Greek rebetika and laika10

109

Fig. 31: (a) The end of "Drapetis tou Yendi Koule " by Yiorgos Mitsakis. Recorded in 196] by Nikos Youlakis (Columbia SCDG 685]). (b) Excerptfrom "Periplanomeni zoi " by Vasilis Tsitsanis and Kostas Virvos. Recorded in 1954 by Sotiria Bellou (Odeon GA 7789). (c) Excerptfrom "Peismatara" by Markos Vamvakaris. Recorded in 1937 by the composer (Parlophon B 21955). (d) Excerpt from "Mes' tin polli skotoura mou" by Vasilis Tsitsanis. Recorded in 1938 by Stratos Payioumtzis (HMVAO 2540). (e) Excerptfrom "Htes to vrady stin taverna " by Andonis Repanis and Panayiotis Kablieris. Recorded in 1968 by Stratos Dionysiou (Columbia 3798).
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from a typicalheavy zeibekikoin Karcigar. The harmony stays in iii for the whole first bar, and there is a clear Nikrfiz feeling in the melodic line. The second bar begins with i, followed directlyby iii. The piece's restless and unstablemood is underlinedby this chord progressionand the corresponding change of the fifth degree from flat to naturaland back again. During the cadence chord ViIIVa

110

British Journal of Ethnomusicology,vol. 6 (1997)

chromaticdecsent to the final occurs.The bar ends with a Karcigar instrumental and the closing formula.Fig. 31c startson iii, narrow-range melody moves around the root of the chord. In the seventh bar the fifth degree is not raised, and it for the fourthdegree (hence not clashing functionsas a descendingappoggiatura with the cadentialV chord).The cadencechordsare V andI, as in the succeeding instrumental section in the dromosformof Nikriz(not transcribed). Fig. 3 Id from the 1930s startsin the majorkey of the precedingsection (not transcribed),but the descending melody modulates to the Nikriz part of the i.e. to the parallelminor.After iii, the harmonicprogression bouzouki Karcigar, passes throughthe i-V-i cadence.This time the fifth scale degreeis raisedin the cadence, which makes it a neighbourof the fourthdegree. Fig. 31e, a Karcigar section from a 1968 song, shares some characteristicswith the previous two in the fourth examples.The melody startsin the majorbut modulatesto Karcigar bar. The chordal cadence consists of the progression+II7-V7-i. The fifth scale line, but is raised in the instrumental degree remains flat in the vocal Karcigar closing formula.The section closes with the V7-i. The alternativecadence chordsoffer an interestingproblemof interpretation. Accordingto the conventionalWesternview, the cadencesVIIb-i and viib-i are effect cadenceV-i is often thoughtof signs of modalharmonywhile the dominant as automatically signalling functional harmony.Still, Karcigar melodies and can hardlybe labelledas either"tonal" harmonizations or "functional". Conclusion The Westernization of Greekpopularmusic afterthe Second WorldWarwas not a steadily advancing process. Modernizationhelped to preserve the old nonWesternmusical characteristics, while Orientalization was an opposingprocess that tendedto supportthe Easternfeaturesof urbanGreekmusic and even create new ones. Remakesof old rebetikasongs revitalised the use of traditional melodic formulaein variousmakamsanddromoi.The formulaewere utilisedin new comas well. InfluencesfromTurkish,Arabicand positions and taximi improvizations Indiansongs had similareffects, thoughthey also introduced new characteristics into Greekpopularmusic. Because of these processes,the victoryof functionalharmonyover traditional was not evidentnordid majorandminorscales surpassthe dromosharmonization makam-related dromos systems duringthe period studied here. The traditional systemslived on in somewhatfragmented, pre-warmakam-derived compositional and modified forms. Chordal simplified harmonyhad influence on the tonal structuresof some dromoi. The place of the final and sometimes of the gtiulu DromosHouzamis a typicalexample. changedowing to harmonization. The idiomatic harmonizations in rebetikaand laika performance practiceare often very different from the deductive theoreticalharmonizationsof printed sources that are based on the Western scale concept. Some features of the harmonization-such as the alternation of relativemajorand minortriads-were from bouzouki developed playing techniquesin the Piraeusstyle of the 1930s.

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Certain harmonization formulae are applications of Western practices. The Westerncadenceprinciplewas appliedto dromosmelodiesin an idiomaticway in the 1930s, and in the 1940s cadences became structural frames that markedthe end of a section. It is also noteworthythat faster harmonicrhythmbegan to be used in the 1950s, a tendencypresentin new compositionsand in remakesof old did not to whatis sometimesthought,chordprogressions rebetikasongs. Contrary tonalor Western. makedromosmelodies automatically In rebetika and laika, there are three basic ways to use chordal harmony. in an idiomaticway, such Firstly,thereare dromosmelodies thatareharmonized that the harmonic selection is based on the melodic qualities of each dromos. Giitiluandcadencechordsaremost oftennot the chordV of the commonpractice. Secondly,melodies may be in Westernmajoror minorandthustheirchordsarein accordance with the rules of common practice harmony.The third possibility fromboththeseforegoingpractices.Some melodies are in containscharacteristics dromoi that differ greatly from the Western major or minor scales, but their harmonizationis based on functionalharmonywith dominant-toniccadences. with its alternativecadence chords (i.e. The rebetika form of makam Karcigar VII, viibor V(7))is an examplepar excellence of the complicatedacculturation processesin Greekpopularmusic. We can try to analyse the three different tendencies in rebetika and laika recordings in the 1950s and especially the 1960s in their cultural context. Expressive singing style and ratherdismal and suicidal lyrics combined with minor-key dromoi and non-functional harmony tended to create a heavily depressing atmosphere in the songs. No wonder that in the mid-1960s the declaredthatmelancholic of the first PanhellenicPsychiatry Conference chairman bouzouki songs were responsiblefor an increase in mental disordersin Greece (Gauntlett1991:11). Psychiatristsas Western-oriented upper-classpeople most Sabah or felt that zeibekiko melodies in likely e.g. Karcigarwere tonally unbalanced and chaotic. The statementof the chairmancould also be politically motivated.Sabah and Karcigar melodies soundedclearly Oriental,and thus they were certainto be consideredsubversivein the official nationalist discourse. On the otherhand,a partof the rebetikaand laikarepertoire tendedto emphasise the Western features of Greek popularmusic. In some cases only instrumentation,singing style and languagewould indicatethe Greeknessof a piece of recorded music. This kind of Westernized music was at least theoretically acceptable with regard to its Westernness for the West-oriented upper-class Greeksof the 1960s. The most common reactionto Westerninfluencesin Greekpopularmusic lies betweenthe two extremes.Functional harmonization andV-I cadencesarefactors that have helped to mask the non-Westernmusical features of Greek popular music under an appearanceof being Western.Owing to this, many musicians, researchersand listenershave interpreted especially Greektouristmusic as more Westernizedthan it actuallyis. This situationcan be seen as the musical symbol of the modern Greek culturalambiguitybetween East and West: Orientaldeep arehiddenunderthe Westernsurface. structures

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Prof. Stathis Gauntlett (Australia); Dr. Pekka Gronow, Eero Heimolinna, Kimmo Hyyppa, Docent Pekka Jalkanen, Docent Vesa Kurkela, Prof. Heikki Laitinen, Dipl. Composer Sakari Vainikka (Finland); Leonidas Drizis (FRG); Moisis Aser, Marios Drizis, Pavlos Erevnidis, Panayiotis Kounadis, Sotiris Lykopoulos, Yiorgos Symeonidis, Prof. Demetre Yannou (Greece); Mats Einarsson (Sweden); Dr. John Baily, Dr. David W. Hughes, Diane Mueller (UK); Helen Abatzi, Joe Carson, Prof. Jozef Pacholczyk (USA). The research was supported by grants from The Emil Aaltonen Foundation and The Alfred Kordelin Foundation.

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LPS AND CDS CITED


AAA 019 Mohamed Abdelwahab Integrale Vol. VIII (1935). Film Doumou' El Hob (Larmes d'amour). HMV GCLP7 Mikis Theodorakis,I yeitonia ton angelon. Nimbus NI 5365 Hariprasad Chaurasia,Raga Darbari Kanada.Dhun in Raga Mishra Pilu. SD 007 LouisianaRed & Stelios Vamvakaris,To blues synandato Rebetiko. Venus V-1053 MarikaNinou, Mia vradi stou Tzimitou Hondrou.

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APPENDIX
accidentalsused in modem Turkish notation: Standard

raises 1 comma 4 commas

lowers

5 commas

of FolkTradition in theDepartment atthe RistoPekkaPennanenworksas a researcher Finland.He has published widely on music culturesin the Universityof Tampere, He is currently his PhD of ideasin ethnomusicology. andthe history Balkans finishing in Greek music.Address: andmodernization thesison Westernization popular Dept.of PL 607, FIN-33101Tampere, of Tampere, e-mail FolkTradition, Finland; University
Web site of the Department: <kpripe@uta.fi>; http://www.uta.fi/laitokset/kpl/V.