Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 32

Department for the Execution

of Judgments of the ECHR


DGI - Directorate General of
Human Rights and Rule of Law
Council of Europe
F-67075 STRASBOURG CEDEX
March 15th 2013.
,
Alekseyev v. Russia (4916/07).
,
. ,
1144, 1150 1164, , Alekseyev v. Russia (4916/07), c 9 (2)

.
. , ,
(. 16.3 ),
. .
, .
,
.

, MBA,
.

1

Alekseyev v. Russia (4916/07)

.......................................................................................................................................................... 3
I. ................................................................................................................................ 4
1. Alekseyev v. Russia (4916/07)............................................................. 4
2. ,
................................................................ 4
3. , ........ 5
4.
............................................................................................. 6
II.
Alekseyev v. Russia................................................................. 7
III. ............................................................................................... 8
1. ........................................................................................................................ 8
a. ............... 8
b. ,
..........................................................11
2. .....................................................................................................................................11
a. , ................12
b.
........................................................................................................................12
c.
..............................................14
3. ...........................................................................................16
.
, ..........................................16
b. -
, ............................................................17
c.
,
.......................................................................................................18
IV. ...................................................................................21
1.
......................................................................................................22
2. ...............23
3. ......................................................................25
V. Alekseyev v. Russia
...............................................................................................................25
1. ....................................25
2. ..................................................................27
3.
...........................................................29
2

Alekseyev v. Russia (4916/07)

4. ..............................................................................................30
5. ultra vires ............................31
***


() , , Alekseyev v. Russia
(4916/07). ,
, .
, ( , (ordre public), ), . , ( ).
,
Alekseyev v. Russia. , , . , , - ,
.
ultra vires, ,
.

3

Alekseyev v. Russia (4916/07)

I.
1. Alekseyev v. Russia (4916/07)
Alekseyev v. Russia (4916/07) , , .. - .
, 21.10.2010 ., .
11 , 13 14
. 11 .

2. ,
46 ,
11 , .
,
, 1144- (06.06.2012), 1150- (26.09.2012) 1164 (05-07.03.2013) .
, ,
.. ,
.
. 5 , 1144- , , , , , c ,
.
. 3 , 1150- ,
, , ,
, [].
, , Alekseyev v. Russia.

4

Alekseyev v. Russia (4916/07)

3. ,

1
(2006 .)2 (2011 .)3, 4, -5, 6, 7,
8, 9, 10 (2012)
11 (2013).
. 12, 25.01.2013 .
,
. , , . 14 . 1 ( , , ,

30.01.2013
3 2006 N 41- " ".
3
30.09.2011 N 336-24- " " ".
4
15 2012 . N 193-5- .
5
- 07.03.2012 N 108-18 - "
-"
6
14.06.2012 N 226- " " (
07.06.2012 N 226-).
7
9 2012 . N 1507- " , , , , ".
8
10 2012 . N 75- "
" ".
9
23 2012 581- "
.
10
03.07.2012 N 2535- "
- "
( 20.06.2012).
11
30 2013 . N 199 "
" ,
- ".
12
44554-6
(: http://asozd2.duma.gov.ru/main.nsf/%28Spravka%29?OpenAgent&RN=445546&02).
2

5

Alekseyev v. Russia (4916/07)

) 24 1998 . N 124- " ",


,
, , . , . 5 . 4 28.12.2010 436- ,
, ()
, , , , .
, , (. 38 . 1), [] ,
.
,
.

4.
.
, 2010 .
13, , - .
. 14, .
15.08.2012 1-12-1115 ( ),
03.10.2012 78-12-1616 ( -) 07.11.2012 8712-217 ( ).
.

13

19.01.2010 N 151-- "


, 4 " " 3.10 " ".
14
30.01.2013.
15
http://www.vsrf.ru/stor_pdf.php?id=501100 ( 30.01.2013).
16
http://www.vsrf.ru/stor_pdf.php?id=508846 ( 30.01.2013).
17
http://www.vsrf.ru/stor_pdf.php?id=512110 ( 30.01.2013).

6

Alekseyev v. Russia (4916/07)

II. Alekseyev v. Russia


, , , ,
,
Alekseyev v. Russia.
, ( 86) , - , , .
, ,
.
, , .
.
, 15.08.2012 :
(), , , , ,
,
, .
03.10.2012 07.11.2012.
, , Alekseyev v. Russia
- .
15.08.2012:
,
, , , .

7

Alekseyev v. Russia (4916/07)

III.
,
. 10 . 1 ,
, , .
. . 10 . 2 :
, , , , ,

, ,
, , , ,
, .
, ,
,
.
, ,
, .
, , .

1.
, , ,
, .
a.
, ,
, .
, , (), , /, -

8

Alekseyev v. Russia (4916/07)

. , 2012 . 52%
, 61%, ,
4%18. 19. 2011 15,2 ,
(3826,5 100 . )20.
, 21, , 22, B 23, ( ) 24.

, , , , , ,
25.

18

CDC Fact Sheet HIV and AIDS among Gay and Bisexual Men, June 2012,
http://www.cdc.gov/nchhstp/newsroom/docs/2012/CDC-MSM-0612-508.pdf ( 30.01.2013)
19
Baral S., Sifakis F., Cleghorn F., Beyrer C., 2007 Elevated Risk for HIV Infection among Men Who Have Sex with
Men in Low- and Middle-Income Countries 20002006: A Systematic Review. PLoS Med 4(12): e339
20
- 36 (2012), http://www.hivrussia.ru/files/bul_36.pdf ( 30.01.2013).
21
Fluker J. L. (1976). A 10-year study of homosexually transmitted infection. British Journal of Venereal Diseases,
55, 155160; Fluker J. L., & Cross C. (1981). Homosexuality and sexually transmitted diseases. British Journal of
Hospital Medicine, 26, 265267; Laumann E. O., Gagnon J. H., Michael R. T., & Michaels S. (1994). The social organization of sexuality. Chicago: University of Chicago Press; Handsfield H. H. (1981). Sexually transmitted diseases in
homosexual men. American Journal of Public Health, 71, 989990.
22
.,

,
2010
Sexually
Transmitted
Diseases
Surveillance,
http://www.cdc.gov/std/stats10/gonorrhea.htm
(
10.01.2012);

http://www.cdc.gov/std/stats10/syphilis.htm ( 10.01.2012); J. Vincelette et al., Predicators of Chlamydial Infection and Gonorrhea among Patients Seen by Private Practitioners, Canadian Medical Association
Journal 144 (1995): 713721; Gonorrhea Among Men Who Have Sex with Men -- Selected Sexually Transmitted
Diseases Clinics, 1993-1996, MMWR Weekly, September 26, 1997 / 46(38), 889-892 .
23
Health Professionals Should not Miss an Opportunity to Vaccinate Men Who Have Sex with Men against hepatitis A and hepatitis B, Centers for Disease Control National Center for Infectious Diseases (March 3, 2003)
24
Joel Palefsky, Anal HPV infection, AIN and anal cancer, Presentation at ACIP meeting, February 24, 2011,
http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/recs/acip/downloads/mtg-slides-feb11/11-3-hpv-infection.pdf
(
10.01.2012); DC, HPV and Men - Fact Sheet, http://www.cdc.gov/std/hpv/STDFact-HPV-and-men.htm ( 10.01.2012).
25
Mental disorders, suicide, and deliberate self harm in lesbian, gay and bisexual people: a systematic review, National Institute for Mental Health in England, 2008: http://www.nmhdu.org.uk/silo/files/mental-disorders-suicideand-deliberate-selfharm-in-lesbian-gay-and-bisexual-people.pdf ( 10.01.2012); . :
James E. Phelan, Neil Whitehead, Philip M. Sutton, What Research Shows: NARTHs Response to the APA Claims
on Homosexuality, Journal of Human Sexuality Vol. 1 (National Association for Research and Therapy of Homo-

9

Alekseyev v. Russia (4916/07)

, , , .
,

26.

sexuality, 2009), p. 57-60, 68-72, 75-80; . : King M., & McKeown E. (2003). Mental health and social wellbeing of gay men, lesbians, and bisexuals in England and Wales. London: Mind (National Association for Mental
Health); Joanne Hall, Lesbians Recovering from Alcoholic Problems: An Ethnographic Study of Health Care Expectations, Nursing Research 43 (1994): 238244; Theo G.M. Sandforte et al., "Same-Sex Sexual Behavior and Psychiatric Disorders: Findings from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence," Archives of General Psychiatry 58, 10 (2001): 85-91; de Graaf R., Sandfort T.G.M., & ten Have M. (2006). Suicidality and sexual orientation:
Differences between men and women in a general population-based sample from the Netherlands. Archives of
Sexual Behavior, 35, 253-262; .
26
.: .., .., .. . . http://www.state-religion.ru/files/Doc.pdf ( 10.03.2013): ,
, : 5 , ,
; 7
, 3
, 20.11.1989,
25.10.2007,
, 1530 (2007)
23.01.2007 -: , ,
1371 (1998) 23.04.1998
, 1065 (1987)
06.10.1987 , 1307 (2002) 27.09.2002 : , 1099 (1996) 25.09.1996
, 874 (1979)
04.10.1979 ,
- R(91)11 09.09.1991 , , ,
, Rec(2001)16 31.10.2001 (. 26-27). .
: http://moral-law.ru/library/doc-fr.pdf ( 10.03.2013).

10

Alekseyev v. Russia (4916/07)

b.

, . 14
, (. .
Karner v. Austria, 40016/98 24.07.2003, 37).
, , ,
,
, , . ,
. 14 .

2.
,
,
.
. 3 :
, , ,
, , ,
( 38, 1).
,
,
, , ,
, ,
, .
, ,
, ,
, , ,
. ,
.

11

Alekseyev v. Russia (4916/07)

a. ,
, , , 10 1948 ,
, .
, ().
. 16.3 :

.

. , . 23.1 ().
, ,
. 10.1 , ()
.
() , .
, ,
, - ,
.
b.
, , ,
,
:
, , ,
(, . 16.1).
, ,
(, . 23.2).
, . , . ,
12

Alekseyev v. Russia (4916/07)

. 10.1 , []
, .
, , , , , .
,
,

(. 12 .), .
, , , , .
.
, , ,
. , , , ,
:
.
. , ,
, :
(. 16.1 ),
(. 23.2 ),
(. 12 ). ,
,
, . ,
,
, , , .
, , ,
, .

13

Alekseyev v. Russia (4916/07)

c.

, . 10 . 2 ,
, , .
. 19.3 (b) . 21 ,
, , .
, . 10 (ordre public)
, , , , ,
, . , , .
29.2 , , (. 19)
(. 20) . , , , 1966 ., .. (1950), - .
3 4 30 (c) 3 31
1969 , ,
,
, .
, , . 10 (ordre public)
.
, ,
, . , ..

( E/CN.4/1985/4, ), . 22:
, ,
,
, , .
.. (. 66).
, , , , ,
14

Alekseyev v. Russia (4916/07)

. (ordre public).
. , Karner v. Austria ,
:
.. , (Karner v. Austria, 40016/98,
24.07.2003, 40).
:
, ( , 41).
, ,
.
, , ,

, 27.
,

. , , , .. . , , , ,
, , . ,
, , ,

27

, , ,
; , , ,
.
, , ,
. , ,
. Jos M. Gonzlez del
Valle, The Permissible Scope of Legal Limitations on the Freedom of Religion or Belief in Spain, 19 EMORY INT'L L.
REV. 1033 (2005), . 1043 ( ).

15

Alekseyev v. Russia (4916/07)

, , , . 20 .

3.
, . 10.2
,
.
, , . , ( ). ,
. , , , ( 3
). ,
. , 07.11.2012 ,
[] ,
.
03.10.2012 -.
. ,

.
, . 29.2, , .
. 19.3 b , , , , , , , .
.13.2 b,
, , .
, , , . 10, ,
.

16

Alekseyev v. Russia (4916/07)

, , .
, , , . 10,
. , ,
, , . , ,
.
,
, . , Mller and others v. Switzerland (10737/84, 24.05.1988, 30)
,
.
b. - ,
, ,
- . , , ,
:
, , , . -
.
, - .
, , , ,
.
,
, , , , , , (Handyside v. UK, 5493/72, 07.12.1976, 48; . Mller and others v. Switzerland, 10737/84, 24.05.1988, 35).
Handyside v. UK (. , 48), . 10.2 , ,
17

Alekseyev v. Russia (4916/07)

. (
, 48) :

,
.
, . 10 . 2 (. 10.2) [] . ( ), , , .
. 27:
,

,
, , (. , . 27).
c. ,
.
, . 32 34, , 28, . 19 ( ), , 22:
,
, , []
,

28

. , .

18

Alekseyev v. Russia (4916/07)

,
.
, Alekseyev v. Russia 13.04.2011 29 , ,
, . ,
, , :
, .
, , , .
. , , , . ,
, , ,
, ,
.
,
,
, , , .
, ,
, ,
.
,
.
, . , , .

29

http://www.patriarchia.ru/db/text/1452161.html

19

Alekseyev v. Russia (4916/07)


,
, .
, . , ,
, 2012 . 30 :
( ) ....
,
(. 41).
, ,
, (. 42).
- , (. 50).
74% ,
, 87% - .. -.
:
- , ,
, ,
, - . (. 49).

, , .
, , , .

30

. /
.. .. . .: , 2012 ( ). 98 ., 25 .
(http://www.oprf.ru/files/dokument2011/religiya09022012.pdf - 11.03.2013).

20

Alekseyev v. Russia (4916/07)

, , , 78% 31.
, 32, 86%
6% .
, , ,
. , 33, 2010 ., 97%
. , , .
, 07.11.2012 , , ,
, [] ,
, , ,
.
, , ,

, .
, , ,
, , ,
[],
, (Handyside v. UK, . ).

IV.
, ,
. , ,
. , , , .

31

78% ,
http://www.fontanka.ru/2012/04/08/027/
32
: , http://wciom.ru/index.php?id=459&uid=112718
33
, http://wciom.ru/index.php?id=459&uid=13608

21

Alekseyev v. Russia (4916/07)

1.
, , , , .
.
, . 20 .
. 4 ,
- , .
, ,
.
- . 6.3:

.
. 19 . 1 .
. 19.2 d ,
[] ,
, , .
, , .
, :
, . 29 . 2 :
, , , . , , , .
. 20.2 , . 6. 13 ,
.
. 24 . 1 06.03.2006 N 35- ,
, .

22

Alekseyev v. Russia (4916/07)

. 1 . 1 25.07.2002 N 114- , , , , ,
.
,
, .

2.
, , .
, 19.01.2010
,
, , , ,
.
15.08.2012 .
, . , , :
, .
() , ()
, ,
, - 34.

34

, , 33- - ( 33-15 3 2009 .).

23

Alekseyev v. Russia (4916/07)

,
, , , ,
.
, , . ,
, , :
,
(),
, , ,
,
,
,
, , ,

.
,
- .
:
( , ) ,
, ,
,
, , ,

.
,
, -

24

Alekseyev v. Russia (4916/07)

, ,
.
, , , . 5
,
, .

3.
( II) ,
Alekseyev v. Russia
.
,
. 10 ( III), , : (a) , (b) (c) , , .
, , .

V. Alekseyev v. Russia
, , Alekseyev v. Russia, . , ,
. , , .

1.
(. III.3), , , , . , .
,
,
, . , -
25

Alekseyev v. Russia (4916/07)

,
, , , , . ,
, ,
, ,
.

,
.
, , Alekseyev v. Russia . , , ,
. ,
- ( 59 ). , , ,

( 85).
, , , -
( 82). ,
, (. , III.3 ).
, ..
-. , 35 , , , 82
Alekseyev v. Russia , -:
, - 27.05.2006,

35

.., .., .. . . http://www.state-religion.ru/files/Doc.pdf ( 10.03.2013).

26

Alekseyev v. Russia (4916/07)

( -), 2004 2005 ., -


, , (. 43).
:
, ,
-, 27 2006 . -,
, - , (. 28).
, Alekseyev v. Russia,
- .

, , .

, - . .

2.
, , .. ,
.
,
, . , ,
,
( ),
( ), , , .
, , , ,
. , ,
27

Alekseyev v. Russia (4916/07)

X and Others v. Austria (19010/07,


19.02.2013) .. , ,
, . ,
, . , ,
36.
, ,
, , ,
. , , -, . 9.1
:
- , , , ,
, ,
.
, , , .
, , 37.

Salgueiro da Silva Mouta v. Portugal (33290/96, 21.12.1999).
, ,
, ,
. , , , ,
,
.
, , , , ( 29),
, . ,

36

Regnerus M. How different are the adult children of parents who have same-sex relationships? Findings from the
New Family Structures // Social Science Research Volume 41, Issue 4 July 2012 P. 752770
37
Joint partly dissenting opinion of Judges Casadevall, Ziemele, Kovler, Joien, ikuta, de Gaetano and
Sicilianos, 8, (Frett v. France, no. 36515/97, 42, ECHR 2002 I)

28

Alekseyev v. Russia (4916/07)

, , ,
, . , , , . , ,
,
, .
, , .
.

3.

,
.. .
, , -
,
.
, , . , ,
.
,
, , .
, 38. , Christine
Goodwin v. the United Kingdom (28957/95 , 11.07.2002) , , .
,
, , -

38

. : Dzehtsiarou, Kanstantsin, European Consensus: A Way of Reasoning (May, 28 2009).


University College Dublin Law Research Paper No. 11/2009. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1411063
or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1411063

29

Alekseyev v. Russia (4916/07)

, , .. 39.
,
, .
Alekseyev v. Russia ( 83),
, , Salgueiro da
Silva Mouta v. Portugal
. .
, , , - ,
,
. ,

.

4.
, , , , ,
,
, jus cogens, . 53
1969 .
, , , , , .

39

, ,
, .
, .: Soltysyak v. Russia, no. 4663/05,
10.02.2011, . 24; Kiyutin v. Russia, no. 2700/10, 10.03.2011, . 28-29; Giuliani and Gaggio [GC], no. 23458/02,
24.03.2011, . 154; R.R. v. Poland, no. 27617/04, 26.05.2011, . 85-86; Stummer v. Austria [GC], no. 37452/02,
7.07.2011, . 47; Bayatyan v. Armenia [GC], no. 23459/03, 7.07.2011, . 58-65; V.C. v. Slovakia, no. 18968/07,
8.11.2011, . 83; Ergashev v. Russia, no. 12106/09, 20.12.2011, . 99; Finogenov and others v. Russia, nos.
18299/03 27311/03, 20.12.2011, . 162-163; Gorovenky and Bugara v. Ukraine, nos. 36146/05 42418/05,
12.01.2012, . 22; Fetisov and others v. Russia, nos. 43710/07 et al., 17.01.2012, . 65; C.A.S. and C.S. v. Romania,
no. 26692/05, 20.03.2012, . 53; Konstantin Markin v. Russia [GC], no. 30078/06, 22.03.2012, . 51.

30

Alekseyev v. Russia (4916/07)

, Christine Goodwin v. United Kingdom


, , . , , , [
] , ( 100).
, , . , :
,
, Goodwin
,
.
[] ,
( Cassar v. Malta, 36982/11).
, ,
Alekseyev v. Russia.

5. ultra vires
, , ultra vires. , ,
, , Goodwin v. United Kingdom Alekseyev
v. Russia, ultra vires40.
, ,
.
. - .
, .

, , , , .

40

ultra vires, ,
Women On Waves and Others v. Portugal (31276/05, 03.02.2009), ,
. 10 , ,
, .

31

Alekseyev v. Russia (4916/07)

, , , , .. , ,
, . , mutatis mutandis, (Ziemele) Andrejeva v. Latvia (55707/00,
18.02.2009):
,
, , , ultra vires.
, , .

, , -
( 41).
,

, MBA,

.

32

Alekseyev v. Russia (4916/07)