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NCCI: Buckling lengths of columns: rigorous approach

NCCI: Buckling lengths of columns: rigorous approach SN008a-EN-EU

NCCI: Buckling lengths of columns: rigorous approach


This NCCI gives information concerning the calculation of the buckling length for columns, to be used for the buckling verification (slenderness approach). Simple aids (e.g. diagrams, tables) are presented.

Contents
1. 2. Basis Columns in building frames 2 2

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NCCI: Buckling lengths of columns: rigorous approach

NCCI: Buckling lengths of columns: rigorous approach SN008a-EN-EU

1.

Basis

The buckling length Lcr of a compression member is the length of an otherwise similar member with pinned ends (ends restrained against lateral movement but free to rotate in the plane of buckling) which has the same elastic critical buckling load. In the absence of more accurate information, the theoretical buckling length for elastic critical buckling may conservatively be adopted. An equivalent buckling length may be used to relate the critical load of a member subject to non-uniform loading to that of an otherwise similar member subject to uniform loading. An equivalent buckling length may also be used to relate the critical load of a non-uniform member to that of a uniform member under similar conditions of loading and restraint.

2.
Created on Wednesday, February 11, 2009 This material is copyright - all rights reserved. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement

Columns in building frames

The buckling length Lcr of a column in a non-sway mode may be obtained from Figure 2.1.

Pinned

Fixed

Fixed

Pinned

Figure 2.1

Buckling length ratio Lcr / L for a column in a non-sway mode

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NCCI: Buckling lengths of columns: rigorous approach

NCCI: Buckling lengths of columns: rigorous approach SN008a-EN-EU

The buckling length Lcr of a column in a sway mode may be obtained from Figure 2.2.

Pinned

Created on Wednesday, February 11, 2009 This material is copyright - all rights reserved. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement

Fixed

Fixed

Pinned

Figure 2.2

Buckling length ratio Lcr / L for a column in a sway mode

The following empirical expressions may be used as conservative approximations instead of reading values from Figure 2.1 and Figure 2.2: a) non-sway mode (Figure 2.1)

Lcr 2 = 0,5 + 0,14(1 + 2 ) + 0,055(1 + 2 ) L


b) sway mode (Figure 2.2)

(2.1)

Lcr 1 0,2(1 + 2 ) 0,121 2 = L 1 0,8(1 + 2 ) + 0,61 2

(2.2)

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NCCI: Buckling lengths of columns: rigorous approach

NCCI: Buckling lengths of columns: rigorous approach SN008a-EN-EU

For the theoretical models shown in Figure 2.3 the distribution factors 1 and 2 are obtained from:

1 =

Kc K c + K 11 + K 12

(2.3)

2 =
where and Kc

Kc K c + K 21 + K 22
is the column stiffness coefficient I/L is the effective beam stiffness coefficient

(2.4)

Kij

Created on Wednesday, February 11, 2009 This material is copyright - all rights reserved. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement

(a) Non-sway mode

(b) Sway mode

Figure 2.3

Distribution factors for columns

These models may be adapted to the design of continuous column, by assuming that each length of column is loaded to the same value ratio (N/Ncr). In the general case where (N/Ncr) varies, this leads to a conservative value of Lcr/L for the most critical length of column. For each length of a continuous column the assumption made above may be introduced by using the model shown in Figure 2.4 and obtaining the distribution factors 1 and 2 from:

1 = 2 =
where

K c + K1 K c + K1 + K11 + K 12 Kc + K2 K c + K 2 + K 21 + K 22

(2.5)

(2.6)

K1 and K2 are the stiffness coefficients for the adjacent lengths of column. Page 4

NCCI: Buckling lengths of columns: rigorous approach

NCCI: Buckling lengths of columns: rigorous approach SN008a-EN-EU

Created on Wednesday, February 11, 2009 This material is copyright - all rights reserved. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement

Figure 2.4

Distribution factors for continuous column

Where the beams are not subject to significant axial forces, their effective stiffness coefficients may be determined by reference to Table 2.1, provided that they remain elastic under the design moments.
Table 2.1 Effective stiffness coefficient for a beam
Effective beam stiffness coefficient K (provided that beam remains elastic)

Conditions of rotational restraint at far end of beam

Fixed at far end

1,0

I L
I L

Pinned at far end Rotation as at near end (double curvature) Rotation equal and opposite to that at near end (single curvature) General case Rotation a at near end and b at far end

0,75 1,5 0,5 I L

I L

b I + 1 0 , 5 a L
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NCCI: Buckling lengths of columns: rigorous approach

NCCI: Buckling lengths of columns: rigorous approach SN008a-EN-EU

For building frames with concrete floor slabs, provided that the frame is of regular layout and the loading is uniform, it is normally sufficiently accurate to assume that the effective stiffness coefficients of the beams are as shown in Table 2.2.
Table 2.2 Effective stiffness coefficient for a beam in a building frame with concrete floor slabs
Non-sway mode Sway mode

Loading conditions for the beam Beams directly supporting concrete floor slabs

1,0

I L I L

1,0 1,0 1,5

I L I L I L

Other beams with direct loads

0,75 0,5

Beams with end moments only

I L

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Where, for the same load case, the design moment in any of the beams exceeds Wel fy/M0, as a conservative assumption the beam may be assumed to be pinned at the point or points concerned. Where a beam has semi-rigid joints, its effective stiffness coefficient should be reduced accordingly. Where the beams are subject to significant axial forces, their effective stiffness coefficients should be adjusted accordingly. Stability functions may be used. As a simple alternative, the increased stiffness coefficient due to axial tension may be neglected and the effects of axial compression (when N/NE > 0,1) may be allowed for by multiplying the second moment of area of the beams I by the factor

N 1 0,4 N E
Where NE =

2 EI
L2

or by using the conservative approximations given in Table 2.3.

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NCCI: Buckling lengths of columns: rigorous approach

NCCI: Buckling lengths of columns: rigorous approach SN008a-EN-EU

Table 2.3

Approximate formulae for reduced beam stiffness coefficients due to axial compression
Effective beam stiffness coefficient K (provided that beam remains elastic)

Conditions of rotational restraint at far end of beam

Fixed

I N 1,0 1 0,4 L NE

Pinned

I N 0,75 1 1,0 L NE I N 1,5 1 0,2 L NE I N 0,5 1 1,0 L NE

Rotation as at near end (double curvature)

Rotation equal and opposite to that at near end (single curvature)

Created on Wednesday, February 11, 2009 This material is copyright - all rights reserved. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement

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NCCI: Buckling lengths of columns: rigorous approach

NCCI: Buckling lengths of columns: rigorous approach SN008a-EN-EU

Quality Record
RESOURCE TITLE Reference(s) ORIGINAL DOCUMENT Name Created by Technical content checked by Editorial content checked by Technical content endorsed by the following STEEL Partners: 1. UK 2. France
Created on Wednesday, February 11, 2009 This material is copyright - all rights reserved. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement

NCCI: Buckling lengths of columns: rigorous approach EN 1993-1-1

Company RWTH RWTH SCI

Date 06.06.05 10.06.05 15/7/05

Matthias Oppe Christian Mller D C Iles

G W Owens A bureau A Olsson C Mller J Chica G W Owens

SCI CTICM SBI RWTH Labein SCI

30/6/05 30/6/05 30/6/05 30/6/05 30/6/05 08/6/06

3. Sweden 4. Germany 5. Spain Resource approved by Technical Coordinator TRANSLATED DOCUMENT This Translation made and checked by: Translated resource approved by:

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