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Islah-i-Zahir=Fiqh :

Islah literally means purification. Islah also denotes the meaning of repair or fix. A more detailed analysis also reveals the meaning of reform. So, in essence, Islah means to purify by fixing or reforming. Zahir literally means visible, present and incapable of ignoring it. It is someone or something which, once we have come into contact with them or it, gradually occupies every thought. Therefore, Islah-i-Zahir means to repair something that is visible, present and incapable of going unnoticed. Fiqh is an Islamic term for jurisprudence. It refers to the whole corpus of Islamic jurisprudence. It may also be termed as the jurists understanding of Shariah. It comprises, among other things, the exercise of intelligence in deciding a point of law in the absence of a binding text (nass) of the Quran and Sunnah.


Islamic International law. That part of the law and custom of the land and treaty obligations which a Muslim state observes in its dealings.


Uqubah means punishment. The principal purpose of a punishment is to maintain and create benefit to humans as well as keeping them away from mafsadah because Islam gives guidance and lessons to humans. The penalty set out is to improve individual and the community to maintain social order. Uqubah is a penalty to criminal according to Islamic legal system. There are three main categories of Uqubah namely uqubah hudud, uqubah qisas and compensation and uqubah tazir.


Mamluk is a slave soldier. A warrior caste dominant in Egypt and influential in the Middle East for over 700 years. Islamic rulers created this warrior caste by collecting non-Muslim slave boys and training them as cavalry soldiers especially loyal to their owner and each other. They converted to Islam in the course of their training. The Mamluks were first used in Muslim armies in Baghdad by the Abbasid caliphs in the 9th cent. and quickly spread throughout the Muslim world. They served the Ayyubid sultans from the 12th cent. onward and grew powerful enough to challenge the existence of the rulers who were theoretically their masters. Aybak, the first Mamluk to actually rule, persuaded (1250) the mother of the last Ayyubid sultan to marry him after

she had murdered her son. For more than 250 years thereafter, Egypt and Syria were ruled by Mamluk sultans supported by a caste of warrior slaves, from which the sultans were chosen. The Mamluks took advantage of their power to become the principal landholders in Egypt. Tadbir Manzil: Tadbir means management. Manzil means household. Therefore, Tadbir Manzil is management of the household. According to Ibn Sinas concept in Tadbir Manzil, Ibn Sina begins his treaties with an introduction on the necessity of administration and government of human aspect of life. This concept is the thing should be fairly shared among men, which discusses why men need dwelling and why they must congregate in the families. Furthermore, it also concerns in management of household which study the responsible all family components in conducting household in proper manner. Munakihat: Munakihat literally means ties or knots. From Syarak, Munakihat means marriage. Marriage is an akad which legalise a relationship between man and woman living together and set out the rights and responsibilities of each party. Marriage is a requirement in Islam because it is a noble act.

Reference Ali, S. (2011, July 7). Conflict and security law. Retrieved from

http://jcsl.oxfordjournals.org/content/14/1/115.short Djazuli. Fiqh jinayah, PT Raja Grafindo Persada, 1997. Jakarta. Cet. Kedua Muslich, A. Hukum Pidana Islam. Sinar Grafika, 2005, Jakarta, Cet. Pertama

Retrieved from http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Mamluk Ismail, N. (n.d.). The economic motive of man: an analysis of ibn sinas theory on economics. Retrieved from http://esharianomics.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/The-Economic-


Retrieved from http://forums.islamicawakening.com/f15/muslim-international-law-kitab-al-siyar-al10993/ Munakahat. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.islamgrid.gov.my/articles/munakahat/munakahat.php