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Cart | Account | Help Top of Form GO Bottom of Form Home Literature Writing Foreign Languages Math Science More Subjects Test Prep College Cliffs Films Shop Home> Sciences> Geology> Glacier Movement Introduction to Physical Geology

History of Physical Geology The Earth's Origin The Earth's Structure The Earth's Exterior Geologic Time The Earth Today The Earth's Components Chemical Composition Minerals and Rocks Mineral Properties The Rock Cycle Igneous Rocks Magmatic Differentiation Volcanoes and Lavas Extrusive Rock Types Rock Textures Intrusive Rock Types Intrusive Structures How Different Magmas Form Igneous Rocks and Plate Tectonics Sedimentary Rocks How Sedimentary Rocks Form Clastic Sedimentary Rocks Chemical Sedimentary Rocks Organic Sedimentary Rocks

Sedimentary Features Sedimentary Environments Metamorphic Rocks Metamorphism Defined Factors Controlling Metamorphism Types of Metamorphism Metamorphic Rock Types Hydrothermal Rocks Metamorphism and Plate Tectonics Geologic Structures Geologic Structures Defined Tectonic Forces Interpreting Structures Mapping in the Field Folding Fracturing Unconformities Weathering and Erosion Weathering Processes of Mechanical Weathering Processes of Chemical Weathering Soil Mass Wasting Introduction to Mass Wasting MassWasting Controls

Types of Mass Wasting Prevention of Mass Wasting Running Water Types of Water Flow Stream Dynamics Stream Erosion Sediment Load Stream Deposition Stream Valleys Regional Erosion Glaciers and Glaciation Introduction to Glaciation Types of Glaciers How Glaciers Develop Glacier Movement Glacial Erosion Glacial Landforms Glacial Deposits Glaciers in the Past North American Glaciation Groundwater Groundwater and Infiltration Porosity Permeability The Water Table

Streams and Springs Effects of Groundwater Flow Groundwater Pollution Geothermal Energy The Shorelines Waves Beaches Shoreline Features Tides Deserts and Winds Distribution and Causes of Deserts Desert Features The Effects of Wind Earthquakes How Earthquakes Form Seismic Waves Monitoring Earthquakes Effects of Earthquakes Earthquakes and Plate Tectonics Control and Prediction Inside the Earth Geophysics Defined Seismic Waves: Methods of Detection The Structure of the Earth The Crust

The Mantle Isostatic Equilibrium The Core Magnetic Fields Gravity Geothermal Gradients The Ocean Floor Investigative Technologies Continental Margins Ocean Floor Sediments Active Continental Margins Passive Continental Margins Reefs Midoceanic Ridges Oceanic Crust Plate Tectonics Early Evidence for Plate Tectonics Paleomagnetic Evidence Sea Floor Evidence How Plates Move Types of Plate Boundaries Why Plates Move Mantle Plumes Pangaea MountainBuilding

Introduction to Mountains Features of Mountain Belts Types of Mountains How Mountains Form How Continents Form Geologic Time Geologic Time Defined Relative Time Geologic Correlations Absolute Age A Summary of Earth's History Earth Resources We Depend On Resources and Reserves Metallic Deposits Energy Resources Nonmetallic Resources Recycling and Conservation Our Solar System Introduction to the Solar System Mercury Venus Earth's Moon Mars Jupiter and Saturn Related Topics:

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6 Glacier Movement Movement of ice sheets. An ice sheet moves downslope in a number of directions from a central area of high altitude and is not restricted to a channel or valley. The ice sheet must expand because of the constant accumulation of ice and snow. Ice sheets do not move as quickly as alpine glaciers because there is less slope and more mass involved. Ice sheets move mostly by plastic flow. Mountain ranges are completely buried by the ice sheet at the South Pole, which is greater than 3,000 meters thick. <a href="http://ad.doubleclick.net/jump/CNSite/;navArea=CLIFFSNOTES2_SCIENCES;type=Review_Topic;ca t=SCIENCE;kword=geology;contentItemId=9605;tile=3;sz=300x250;ord=123456789?" target="_blank"><img

src="http://ad.doubleclick.net/ad/CNSite/;navArea=CLIFFSNOTES2_SCIENCES;type=Review_Topic;cat=S CIENCE;kword=geology;contentItemId=9605;tile=3;sz=300x250;ord=123456789?" width="300" height="250" border="0" alt="" /></a> Movement of valley glaciers. Glaciers can move more than 15 meters a day. The larger volumes of ice on steeper slopes move more quickly than the ice on the more gentle slopes farther down the valley. These dynamics allow a glacier to replenish the ice that is lost in the zone of wastage. Glaciers in temperate zones tend to move the most quickly because the ice along the base of the glacier can melt and lubricate the surface. Other factors that affect the velocity of a glacier include the roughness of the rock surface (friction), the amount of meltwater, and the weight of the glacier. Basal sliding and plastic flow. A valley glacier has various components of flow. First, the entire glacier moves as a single mass over the underlying rock surface. The pressure from the weight of the glacier generates a layer of water that helps the ice glacier move downslope. This process is called basal sliding. In addition to basal sliding, which slowly moves the glacier downslope as a unit, plastic flow causes glacial ice buried underneath more than about 50 meters to move like a slow-moving, plastic stream. The central and upper portions of a glacier, as do those portions of a stream, flow more quickly than those near the bottom and sides, where friction between the ice and valley walls slows down the flow. In general, the rate of plastic flow is greater than the rate of basal sliding. Above a depth of about 50 meters, the weight of the overlying ice is not sufficient to cause plastic flow. This more rigid upper zone, which is called the zone of fracture, is carried along the top of the plastic flow piggyback style. Sometimes the zone of fracture moves faster than the underlying plastic flow. When this happens, especially down a steep slope, the surface breaks into a series of deep fissures called crevasses. Crevasses also result where a valley glacier curves because the ice flows faster toward the outside of the curve than the inside. A steep, rapid descent may result in an icefall, a piled-up mass of splintered ice blocks from a series of rapidly formed crevasses. Cite this article <a href="http://ad.doubleclick.net/jump/CNSite/;navArea=CLIFFSNOTES2_SCIENCES;type=Review_Topic;ca t=SCIENCE;kword=geology;contentItemId=9605;tile=4;sz=300x250;ord=123456789?" target="_blank"><img src="http://ad.doubleclick.net/ad/CNSite/;navArea=CLIFFSNOTES2_SCIENCES;type=Review_Topic;cat=S CIENCE;kword=geology;contentItemId=9605;tile=4;sz=300x250;ord=123456789?" width="300" height="250" border="0" alt="" /></a>

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