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09 / 12 / 06

Intro to FEM (continued)

Examples of using FEM to solve a problem and comparison with exact solution:

We consider a problem already discussed in the previous class:

Solution by exact method:

u

0 L 2 L
0
L 2
L

x

ρ g ρ g u = x (L x ) − 2 E ρ g
ρ g
ρ g
u =
x
(L x )
2 E
ρ
g
σ
=
(L − 2
x )
2

x

ρ gL

2

σ

0 L L ρ gL − 2 2
0
L
L
ρ gL
2
2

x

Now we will solve the same problem by FEM:

In FEM, the displacement is discretized as

u x

(

)

=

reduced to algebraic equation:

where

K jk

=

L

0

KU = F or

E w x w x d x

j

k

'

() ()

'

,

F

j

=

L

0

n

k =1

f w

n

k

= 1

(

u w x

k

k

)

K

jk

u = F

k

j

j

(x )

d

x

=

L

0

and the governing equation is

ρ

g w

j

(x )

d x

(see notes of

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09 / 12 / 06

previous lecture).

FEM nodes:

w j 1 0 j −1 j j +1 L ⎧ x − x j
w
j
1
0 j −1
j j +1
L
⎧ x − x
j − 1
[
]
,
x
∈ x
x
1 ,
j −
j
x
− x
j
j − 1
x
()
− x
j + 1
[
]
w x =
,
x
∈ x , x
j
j
j + 1
1 − x
x j +
j
0, otherwise

Case study 1: In the simplest possible case, we choose only one node, i.e. have one node and 2 elements.

()

w x =

1

()

'

w x =

1

⎧ x , 0 < x < L ⎪ ⎪ L 2 ⎨ L −
x
, 0
< x < L
⎪ ⎪
L 2
L − x
,
L
2 < x <
L
2

2

L

⎧ 2 , 0 < x < L 2 ⎪ ⎪ L 2 ⎨ ⎪
2
, 0
< x < L
2
L
2
,
L
2
<
x
<
L
L
0, otherwise
L / 2 u (x ) = u w (x ) 1 1
L / 2
u (x )
= u w
(x )
1
1

2

x

n = 1. In this case, we

EN0175

09 / 12 / 06

u = F K 11 1 1 2 L 2 L ⎛ 2 ⎞ ⎟
u = F
K 11
1
1
2
L
2
L
⎛ 2 ⎞ ⎟
E
'
=
E w x x
()
d
=
E ⎜
d
x =
4
K 11
1
0
0
L
L
L
ρ gL
=
F 1
ρ
0
g w x x
()
d
=
1
2
2
F
ρ gL
1
u =
=
1
K
8 E
11
u
ρ
g
u =
x
(L x )
2
E
x
0
L 2
L

Exact solution:

(

u x

=

FEM solution for stress:

 

σ

()

x

=

 

=

2 ρ g L ⎞ ρ gL L 2 ) = − ⎟= 2 E
2
ρ
g
L
ρ
gL
L 2
)
=
− ⎟=
2
E
L 2 ⎛ ⎜ L
2
8 E
⎧ 2 Eu / L , 0 < x < L 2 ' Eu x
⎧ 2
Eu / L
,
0
<
x
<
L
2
'
Eu x
()
'
Eu w x
()
1
=
=
1
1
2
Eu / L
,
L
2
<
x
<
L
1
ρ
gL ⎧ 1,
0
<
x < L
2
4
1,
L
2
<
x
<
L

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σ integration points x
σ
integration points
x

Remarks:

1.

σ FEM

= σ x ( ) element
= σ x
(
) element

(Stress calculated using FEM corresponding to an average of stress over

an element). 2. Stress is not well defined at the nodal points (taking on different values depending on which side of the node). It is better to evaluate stress at integration points.

Case study 2: With slightly more sophistication and still within the possibility of doing calculation

by hand, we can choose two nodes

n = 2 . L 3 2 L 3 u (x ) = u w
n = 2 .
L
3
2 L
3
u (x )
= u w
(x )
+ u w
1
1
2
2

(x )

()

w x =

1

x , 0 < x < L 3 ⎪ L 3 ⎪ 2 L 3
x , 0
< x < L
3
L 3
2 L
3 −
x
,
L
3
<
x
<
2
L
L 3
0,
2
L
/3 <
x
<
L

3

,

()

w x =

2

⎧ 0, 2 L /3 < x < L ⎪ x L − 3 ⎪
0,
2
L
/3 <
x
<
L
x L
3
,
L
3
<
x
<
2
L
3
L 3
L − x
,
2
L
3 <
x
<
L
L 3

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⎧ 3 , ( 0, L 3 ) ⎪ ⎧ ⎪ 0, ( 0, L
⎧ 3
,
(
0,
L
3
)
⎪ 0,
(
0,
L
3
)
L
⎪ ⎪
3
⎪ 3
'
w x = −
()
,
L
(
'
L
3,2
L
3
)
,
w x =
()
,
(
L
3,2
L
3
)
1
2
L
0 ,
(
2
L
3,
L
)
3
,
(
2
L
3,
L
)
L
w
w
1
2
⎡ K
K ⎤
11
12
K =
K
21 K
22
2
L
2
L
3
⎛ 3 ⎟ ⎞ d x =
6 E
' 2
K
=
E w x x
()
d
=
E ⎜
11
0 1
0
L
L
2
L
' 2
K
=
E w
()
x x
d
=
L
E ⎜
⎛ 3 ⎟ ⎞ d x =
6 E
22
0 2
L 3
L
L
L
2
L
3
3
⎞ ⎛
3 ⎞
3 E
'
K
= ∫
E w x w x x
() ()
'
d
=
E ⎜ ⎛
⎟ ⎜ ⎟ d x =−
=
K
12
1
2
21
0
L
3
L
⎠ ⎝ L ⎠
L
3 E ⎡
2 − 1 ⎤
K
=
L
− 1
2

(Comment: The stiffness matrix is highly banded and sparse, and in some cases can be easily

determined. If

n

= 100

for the present problem, we can extract the above calculations to

determine

5

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09 / 12 / 06

⎡ 2 − 1 ⎤ 0 ⎢ ⎥ − 1 2 − 1 ⎢ ⎥
⎡ 2
− 1
0
1
2
1
K = C ⎢
− 1
2
O
n
O
O − 1
0
− 1
2

)

Nodal forces:

   

F

2

 

ρ gL

 

F

1

=

=

3

KU = F

3 E

2

1

⎤ ⎡ u

1

ρ

gL ⎡ ⎤

1

 

L

1

1

=

2

ρ

⎦ ⎣

u

2

gL

2

1

=

2

3

⎣ ⎦

1 ⎤ ⎡ ⎤

1

1

=

ρ

gL ⎡ ⎤

2

1

u

1

u ⎤ ⎥

u

2

=

u

2

=

9

E

ρ

9

gL

E

2

3

1

2

⎦ ⎣ ⎦

1

   

9

E

⎣ ⎦

1

Exact solution:

 

(

=

( = L

L

3

)

=

 

ρ

g

L ⎜ ⎛ L

L

− ⎟=

ρ

2

gL

 
 

u

x

(

=

2

x ( = 2 L 3

L

3

)

2

E

=

ρ

3

g

2 3 L ⎛ ⎜ L

3

2

L

9

E

⎟=

ρ

2

gL

 

u

x

     

2

E

3

9

E

 

6

EN0175

09 / 12 / 06

u ρ g u = x (L x ) − 2 E x 0 L
u
ρ
g
u =
x
(L x )
2 E
x
0
L

FEM solution for stress:

' ' σ (x ) = Eu (x ) ' = Eu w (x )
'
'
σ
(x )
=
Eu
(x )
'
=
Eu w
(x )
+ Eu w
(x )
1
1
2
2
σ
integration points
ρ gL 2
ρ gL 3
0
1
2
L

x

Brief overview of FEM in 2D and 3D (read course notes Section 1.2 on the web):

points ρ gL 2 ρ gL 3 0 1 2 L x Brief overview of FEM

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Node number (integer);

Nodal displacement (vector); (can also include other physical quantities e.g. temperature, pressure, etc.)

Elements: associated with a number of nodes;

Element connectivity;

Type of elements:

Linear elements:

Quadratic elements:

of elements: Linear elements: Quadratic elements: 3 nodal triangle (linear) w ( x , y =

3 nodal triangle (linear)

w(x , y =

)

a

1

+

a x

2

+

a y

3

nodal triangle (linear) w ( x , y = ) a 1 + a x 2

8

6 nodal triangle

(

w x y

,

)

=

a

1

+

a x

2

+

a y

3

4

+

+

a xy a x

4

5

2

+

a y

6

2