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RAM - relative atomic mass RMM - relative molecular mass Pertama anda perlu faham konsep ini.

Anda perlu tahu cara mengiranya. Ok, sebelum itu,kita faham ini dahulu: 1. Relative atomic mass, Ar is the atomic mass of an atom when compared to a standardatom 2. Standard atom: Hydrogen scale: hydrogen is the lightest atom of all and the mass of one hydrogen atom was assigned 1 unit. Weakness of Hydrogen scale: not too many elements can react readily with hydrogen, the reactive masses of some elements were not accurate, hydrogen exists as a gas at room temperature and has a number of isotopes with different masses. Helium scale: the second lightest atom of all and the mass of one helium atom was assigned 1 unit. Weakness of Helium scale: Mass of 1 helium atom = 4 times the mass of a hydrogen atom So, mass of 1 helium atom = 4 times 1/12 mass of a carbon atom helium exists as a gas at room temperature and helium is an inert gas. Oxygen scale: chose as the standard atom to compare the masses of atoms Weakness of Oxygen scale: the existence of three isotopes of oxygen were discovered, natural oxygen (containing all the three isotopes) as the standard (Chemist) and used the isotopes oxygen-16 as the standard (Physicists). Carbon scale: standard atom of comparison internationally. a carbon-12 atom is 12 times heavier than an atom of hydrogen, used as the reference standard in mass spectrometers, exists as a solid at room temperature, most abundant carbon isotope, happening about 98.89% and carbon-12 is close to the agreement based on oxygen. 3. Relative molecular mass, Mr of a substances is the average mass of a molecule (two or more atoms) of the substances when compared 1/12 with of the mass of a carbon-12 atom. 4. Relative formula mass, Fr is for ionic compound which is calculated by adding up therelative atomic masses of all the atoms. 5. Example:

Relative atomic mass, Ar of helium = 4 Relative molecular mass, Mr of CO2 = 12 + 2(16) = 44

Relative formula mass, Fr of NaCl = 23 + 35.5 = 58.5 Relative formula mass, Na2CO310H2O = 2(23) + 12 + 3(16) + 10 [2(1) + 16] = 286 Contoh di atas adalah cara untuk mengira jisim sesuatu sebatian. Ini sangat penting bila kita nak kira bilangan mol nanti.
1. Avogadro constant / Avogadros number is 6.02 x 1023 2. Atomic substances Elements all the particles are atoms. Example: zinc (Zn), sodium (Na), aluminium (Al) and all noble gases, argon (Ar), helium (He) and neon (Ne). RAM (Relative Atomic Mass) of Na = 23 3. Molecular substances Covalent compounds the particles are molecules. Example: carbon dioxide (CO2), water (H2O) and non-metal elements, iodine (I2), nitrogen (N2) and oxygen (O2). RMM (Relative Molecular Mass) of I2 = 127 + 127 = 254 4. Ionic substances Ionic compounds the particles are ions. Example: sodium chloride (NaCl), hydrochloric acid (HCl) and potassium iodide (KI). RFM (Relative Formula Mass) of HCl = 1 + 35.5 = 36.5 5. Avogadros Law / Gas Law states that equal volumes of all gases contain the same numberof molecules under the same temperature and pressure. Example: equal volumes of molecular hydrogen and nitrogen would contain the same number of molecules under the same temperature and pressure. 6. Volume of gas (dm3) = Number of moles of gas x Molar volume 7. Room temperature and pressure (r.t.p.) = 24 dm3 mol-1 (25C and 1 atm) Example: What is the volume of 5.0 mol helium gas at s.t.p.? Volume of gas = Number of moles x Molar gas volume = 5.0 mol x 24 dm3 mol-1 = 120 dm3 8. Standard temperature and pressure (s.t.p.) = 22.4 dm3 mol-1 (0C and 1 atm) Example: What is the volume of 5.0 mol helium gas at s.t.p.? Volume of gas = Number of moles x Molar gas volume = 5.0 mol x 22.4 dm3 mol-1 = 112 dm3 9. Mass (g) = Number of moles x Molar mass 10. Number of particles = Number of moles x Avogadro constant 11. Volume (dm3) = Number of moles x Molar volume

Be sure to copy down all these formulae a few times on paper so that you will have a better chance recalling it in the future. Copying them onto a card to bring around will be very helpful. Empirical and Molecular Formulae 1. Empirical (simplest ratio of atoms of each element that present in the compound) and molecular formulae (actual number of atoms of each element that are present in one molecule of the compound) indicate: the types of the elements the symbols of the elements and the ratio of atoms or moles of atoms of each element in a compound. 2. Molecular formula = (empirical formula)n n is a positive number

Compound Carbon dioxide Ethane Propene Glucose Quinine

Molecular formula CO2 CH3 CH2 CH2O C10H12NO

n 1 2 3 6 2

Empirical formula (CO2) = CO2 (CH3)2 = C2H6 (CH2)3 = C3H6 (CH2O)6 = C6H12O6 C20H24N2O2

3. Chemical formulae for covalent compounds. Name Nitrogen gas Oxygen gas Ammonia Water Chemical formula N2 O2 NH3 H2O 2 nitrogen atoms 2 oxygen atoms 1 nitrogen atom and 3 hydrogen atoms 2 hydrogen atoms and 1 oxygen atom 4. Cations are positively-charged ions. Charge +1 +1 * +1 +1 +1 * +1 +1 Cations Ammonium ion Copper(I) ion Hydrogen ion Lithium ion Nickel(I) ion Potassium ion Silver ion Formula NH4+ Cu+ H+ Li+ Ni+ K+ Ag+ Number of each element

+1 +2 +2 +2 * +2 * +2 * +2 +2 * +2 +2 * +2 +3 +3 * +3 * +4 * +4 *

Sodium ion Barium ion Calcium ion Copper(II) ion Iron(II) ion Lead(II) ion Magnesium ion Manganese(II) ion Nickel(II) ion Tin(II) ion Zinc ion Aluminium ion Chromium(III) ion Iron(III) ion Lead(IV) ion Tin(IV) ion

Na+ Ba2+ Ca2+ Cu2+ Fe2+ Pb2+ Mg2+ Mn2+ Ni2+ Sn2+ Zn2+ Al3+ Cr3+ Fe3+ Pb4+ Sn4+

* refer to the Roman numerals 5. Anions are negatively-charged ions. Charge -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 Anions Bromide ion Chloride ion Chlorate(V) ion Ethanoate ion Fluoride ion Hydride ion Hydroxide ion Iodide ion Manganate(VII) ion Nitrate ion Nitrite ion Oxide ion Carbonate ion Chromate(VI) ion Dichromate(VI) ion Sulphide ion Sulphate ion Sulphite ion Formula BrClClO3CH3COOFHOHIMnO4NO3NO2O2CO32CrO42Cr2O72S2SO42SO32-

-2 -3 -3 -3

Thiosulphate ion Nitride ion Phosphate ion Phosphite ion

S2O32N3PO43PO33-

6. Chemical formulae for ionic compounds Name Zinc chloride Copper(II) sulphate Aluminium sulphate 7. Meaning of prefixes Prefix MonoDiTriTetraPentaHexaHeptaOctaNonaDecaMeaning 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Chemical formula ZnCl2 CuSO4 Al2(SO4)3 Number of cation 1 Zn2+ 2 Cu2+ 2 Al3+ Number of anion 2 Cl2 SO423 SO42-

8. Naming of chemical (non-metal) compounds with Greek numerical prefixes. Non-metal compound Carbon monoxide Carbon dioxide Sulphur dioxide Sulphur trioxide Carbon tetrachloride (tetrachloromethane) So, do come back for more Berry Essential Notes. If it is not simplified to its essense, then it is not from Berry Berry Easy. Let us do the summarising while you understand the core before you master the whole topic. Do share out this site with your friends. Chemical Equation 1. Importance of chemical equation: The types of reactants; the physical conditions; the quantity of reactants and products and stated Chemical formula CO CO2 SO2 SO3 CCl4

in moles. nA + nB > pC + pD 2. Reactants are written in the left side of the reaction and products are written in the right side of the reaction. Example 1: Word equation: Sodium hydroxide + sulphuric acid > sodium sulphate + water Chemical equation: NaOH + H2SO4 > Na2SO4 + H2O Balancing equation: 2NaOH + H2SO4 > Na2SO4 + 2H2O Complete chemical equation: 2NaOH + H2SO4 > Na2SO4 + 2H2O Example 2: Word equation: Aluminium + copper(II) oxide > aluminium(III) oxide + copper Chemical equation: Al + CuO > Al2O3 + Cu Balancing equation: 2Al + 3CuO > Al2O3 + 3Cu Complete chemical equation: 2Al + 3CuO > Al2O3 + 3Cu Example 3: Word equation: Nitrogen + hydrogen <> ammonia Chemical equation: N2 + H2 <> NH3 Balancing equation: N2 + 3H2 <> 2NH3 Complete chemical equation: N2 + 3H2 <> 2NH3 3. Information obtainable from chemical equations. i) mass of reactants ii) volume of reacting gas iii) mass of products formed iv) volume of gas produced Example: 2 cm3 of lead (II) nitrate solution is added to excess of potassium iodide solution. How many molecules of potassium nitrate will be formed? [Relative atomic mass: N, 14; O, 16; K, 39; I, 127; Pb, 207; Avogadro's constant: 6.02 x 10 23mol-1] Step 1: Write a complete chemical equation. Pb(NO3)2(aq) + 2KI(aq) > PbI2(s) + 2KNO3(aq) From the equation, 1 mole of Pb(NO3)2 reacts with 2 moles of KI formed 1 mole PbI2 of and2 moles of KNO3. Step 2: Convert to moles. No. of moles of Pb(NO3)2 = Mass of Pb(NO3)2 / Relative molecular mass = 2 / [207 + 2(14 + 3 x 16)] = 6.04 x 10-3 mol Step 3: Ratio of moles. Number of moles of KNO3/ Number of moles of Pb(NO3)2 = 2/1

Number of moles of KNO3 = (2 x 6.04 x 10-3) / 1 = 12.08 x 10-3 mol Step 4: Convert to the number of molecules of potassium nitrate. Number of molecules of KNO3 = 12.08 x 10-3 x 6.02 x 1023 = 7.27 x 1021