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Production technology of rice ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE: Rice is principal food crop of nearly half of the worlds population.

It occupies an important position in economy of Pakistan. It is second important food crop of the world as well as our country. Adaptation: It requires plenty of water either from rain fall or irrigation. The precipitation should be well distributed and should be 130-150 cm. The crop requires relatively high temperature 20-38`C through out the entire growing period of 4-6 months. Abundant sunshine and ample light is required for high yield. Heavy soil is more desirable because of less percolation losses. Clay loam soils are best because they work into soft mud when puddled. Rice is fairly tolerant to salinity and can be grown on soil in ph of 4.0-7.0. It is believed the rice is non aquatic because proper branching and presence of root hair are characteristics of an aquatic plant. Rice is the ability to germinate and thrive in water, while other cereals are killed under such condition. It is a unique plant having the ability to transport oxygen to submerge roots. However the plants cannot grow under complete an-aerobic condition. CULTURAL PRACTICES: There are four methods of rice production. Dry System Wet System Direct sowing method Transplantation method Dry System: In this system rice is planted on moist soil like wheat, maize and other cereal crops and irrigated when water is available. This system needs high seed rate 100kg/hatre. High fertility and thorough weed control. The yields are low and this system is not much used. Wet System: In this system rice fields are kept wet from germination of the crop to a few days before harvest. This system is important and most widely used system

of rice production. The seed may be sown directly in the field or crop may be transplanted in the field after raising nursery. Direct Sowing Method: The seed may be drilled or broad cast planted and irrigated and alternative method of broad casting dry or sprouted seed on puddle land may be used. A seed rate of 45-65kg/hacter is required for direct sowing method. The field lightly irrigation for about ten days and drained once so that the germination seeds get oxygen. Transplantation Method: Planting nursery: Prepare the seed bed by plowing and plinking 2-3 times to make affine seed bed. Plant the nursery in May in hilly area and in last week of May or first week of June in plans using sprouted seed, at the rate of 1kg/20sq.meter. (Breadth must be 1.5-2meter.) For transplanting 1 hacter the following amount of seed should be sown in nursery. a) IR-8: 20-30kg seed (3 seed lings per hill) b) Basmati or other tall variety: 10-12kg seed (1 seed lings per hill) PREPARATION OF LAND FOR TRANSPLANTING: Method of preparation depend upon the soil type environmental condition the land should be prepared by plowing 2-3 time and planking to make a fine seed bed. The land should be irrigated about 3 days before transplanting puddle and leveled. The nursery should be transplanted about 25-35 days after sowing. When the seedlings are 20-25cm tall and have 5-6 leaves. The seedling should be transplanted in hills. A population of 1.6lac-2lac hills per hacter should be maintained using hill spacing 2525sq.cm to 2020sq.cm Irrigation: The field should be irrigated lightly for 3-4 days after transplanting. Afterwards 5-7cm of water should maintain in the field. Water should be changed occasionally. Irrigation should be stopped before 8-10 days before harvesting. Weeding: Weeds should be controlled by hand pulling specially the wild rice. We decide such as machete 5G. Saturn and treflain can be used to control weeds in rice.

FERTILIZER APPLICATION: The following dozes are recommended for 1 hacter rice. Dwarf-lodging resistance variety (basal dose): 2-3 bags of DAP + 2-3 bags of urea. Top dressing: 55 days after transplanting bag of urea. In soil with zinc deficiency, zinc sulphate at the rate of 10-30kg/hacter should be applied before transplanting. Harvesting: It is done with sickle or combine harvester the crop should be harvested when a few grains are still green at the base of the panicle. Delay in harvesting shattering losses and reduce yield and income. Early harvesting result in yield and quality reduction. Threshing: In this process the grains along with their adhering husks are separated from stocks. Generally rice is threshed after harvesting or a short period of drying. Threshing can be done by beating small bundle against a piece of log or by bullock treading of by threshing machine. The grains are cleaned by winnowing and dried before storage. Utilization: Husk rice is eaten after cooking. Rice is also par-boiled and polished after harvesting. It is cooked in many ways like rice alone, with meat, with peas or with difference pulses, sweet dishes, kichri, kheer and pudding. Broken rice is used for poor people in farm of kheer and kichri. Bread can be made from its flour after grinding. Rice can be pocked and eaten as such or after adding sugar. The husk is used as a feed for horses and donkeys, as a fuel, as a manure, for manufacture of hard boards and for oil extracting.

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