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CLASS NAMES AND THE INTERNATIONAL NUMBERING SYSTEM FOR FOOD ADDITIVES

CAC/GL 36-1989

SECTION 1 - INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND


The International Numbering System for Food Additives (INS) is intended as a harmonised naming system for food additives as an alternative to the use of the specific name, which may be lengthy. Inclusion in the INS does not imply approval by Codex for use as food additives. The list may include those additives that have not been evaluated by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The INS does not include flavourings, which have a JECFA number as identifier, chewing gum bases, and dietetic and nutritive additives. Enzymes which function as food additives have been included in an 1100 series.

EXPLANATORY NOTES ON THE LAY-OUT OF THE INS


The INS in numerical order (Section 3) is set out in three columns giving the identification number, the name of the food additive and the technological purposes. The identification number usually consists of three or four digits such as 100 for curcumins and 1001 for choline salts and esters. However, in some instances the number is followed by an alphabetical suffix, for example, 150a identifies Caramel I plain caramel and 150b identifies Caramel II - sulfite caramel. The alphabetical designations are included in order to further characterize the different classes of additives (e.g. caramel produced by different processes). Under the column listing the name of the food additive, some additives are further subdivided by numerical subscripts. For example, curcumins are subdivided into (i) curcumin and (ii) turmeric. These identifications identify sub-classes (in this case of curcumins) which are covered by separate Codex specifications. The name of the food additive is sometimes followed by an additional name in parentheses. The parenthetical name is optional, and may be used, when necessary, to indicate another commonly associated name or synonym for the additive, for example INS 235 Natamycin (Pimaricin). Not all synonyms are listed. The name of an additive is sometimes, after a comma, followed by a description of the additive, for example INS 161h(i) Zeaxanthin, synthetic. The various technological purposes of the food additives are included in the INS in a third column. The purposes listed are indicative rather than exhaustive. The technological purposes are grouped under more descriptive functional class titles which are intended to be meaningful to consumers. These are listed in Section 2 along with simple definitions of the function performed. A single food additive can often be used for a range of technological purposes in a food and it remains the responsibility of the manufacturer to declare the most descriptive functional class in the list of ingredients. In preparing the INS in numerical order, an effort has been made to group food additives with similar purposes together. However, because of the extension of the list and its open nature, most of the three digit numbers have already been allocated. Consequently, the positioning of a food additive in the list can no longer be taken as an indication of the purpose, although this will often be the case. The food additives that have been allocated an ADI by JECFA, http://www.fao.org/ag/agn/agns/jecfa_index_en.asp and http://www.who.int/ipcs/food/jecfa/en/ may be found at:

JECFA specifications adopted by the Codex Alimentarius Commission are listed in CAC/MISC 6 Codex Specifications for Food Additives that can be found on Codex website: http://www.codexalimentarius.net/download/standards/9/CXA_006e.pdf

THE OPEN NATURE OF THE LIST


Because of its primary purpose of identification, the INS is an open list subject to the inclusion of additional additives or removal of existing ones on an ongoing basis.

Adopted in 1989, Revision 2008. Section 3 and 4 International Numbering System for Food Additives are regularly updated. Last amendment 2012.

CAC/GL 36-1989 SECTION 2 TABLE OF FUNCTIONAL CLASSES, DEFINITIONS AND TECHNOLOGICAL PURPOSES

FUNCTIONAL CLASSES 1. Acidity regulator

DEFINITION A food additive, which controls the acidity or alkalinity of a food. A food additive, which reduces the tendency of components of food to adhere to one another. A food additive, which prevents or reduces foaming. A food additive, which prolongs the shelf-life of foods by protecting against deterioration caused by oxidation. A food additive (non-flour use) used to decolourize food. Bleaching agents do not include pigments. A food additive, which contributes to the bulk of a food without contributing significantly to its available energy value. A food additive used to provide carbonation in a food. A food additive used to dissolve, dilute, disperse or otherwise physically modify a food additive or nutrient without altering its function (and without exerting any technological effect itself) in order to facilitate its handling, application or use of the food additive or nutrient. A food additive, which adds or restores colour in a food. A food additive, which stabilizes, retains or intensifies the colour of a food. A food additive, which forms or maintains a uniform emulsion of two or more phases in a food.

TECHNOLOGICAL PURPOSE acidity regulator, acid, acidifier, alkali, base, buffer, buffering agent, pH adjusting agent anticaking agent, anti-stick agent, drying agent, dusting agent antifoaming agent, defoaming agent antioxidant, antioxidant antibrowning agent bleaching agent bulking agent, filler synergist,

2. Anticaking agent 3. Antifoaming agent 4. Antioxidant

5. Bleaching agent 6. Bulking agent

7. Carbonating agent 8. Carrier

carbonating agent carrier, carrier solvent, nutrient carrier, diluent for other food additives, encapsulating agent

9. Colour 10. Colour retention agent 11. Emulsifier

colour, decorative pigment, surface colourant colour retention agent, colour fixative, colour stabilizer, colour adjunct emulsifier, plasticizer, dispersing agent, surface active agent, crystallization inhibitor, density adjustment agent (flavouring oils in beverages), suspension agent, clouding agent emulsifying salt, melding salt

12. Emulsifying salt

A food additive, which, in the manufacture of processed food, rearranges proteins in order to prevent fat separation. A food additive, which makes or keeps tissues of fruit or vegetables firm and crisp, or interacts with gelling agents to produce or strengthen a gel. A food additive, which enhances the existing taste and/or odour of a food. A food additive, which is added to flour or dough to improve its baking quality or colour. A food additive, which makes it possible to form or maintain a uniform dispersion of a gaseous phase in a liquid or solid food. A food additive, which gives a food texture through formation of a gel. A food additive, which when applied to the external surface of a food, imparts a shiny appearance or provides a protective coating. A food additive, which prevents food from drying out by counteracting the effect of a dry atmosphere. A food additive gas, which is introduced into a container before, during or after filling with food

13. Firming agent

firming agent

14. Flavour enhancer 15. Flour treatment agent

flavour enhancer, flavour synergist flour treatment agent, flour bleaching agent, flour improver, dough conditioner, dough strengthening agent foaming agent, whipping agent, aerating agent gelling agent glazing agent, sealing agent, coating agent, surface-finishing agent, polishing agent, film-forming agent humectant, moisture-retention agent, wetting agent packaging gas

16. Foaming agent

17. Gelling agent 18. Glazing agent

19. Humectant

20. Packaging gas

CAC/GL 36-1989
FUNCTIONAL CLASSES DEFINITION with the intention to protect the food, for example, from oxidation or spoilage. 21. Preservative A food additive, which prolongs the shelf-life of a food by protecting against deterioration caused by microorganisms. A food additive gas, which expels a food from a container. A food additive or a combination of food additives, which liberate(s) gas and thereby increase(s) the volume of a dough or batter. A food additive, which controls the availability of a cation. A food additive, which makes it possible to maintain a uniform dispersion of two or more components. A food additive (other than a mono- or disaccharide sugar), which imparts a sweet taste to a food. A food additive, which increases the viscosity of a food. preservative, antimicrobial preservative, antimycotic agent, bacteriophage control agent, fungistatic agent, antimould and antirope agent, antimicrobial synergist propellant TECHNOLOGICAL PURPOSE

22. Propellant

23. Raising agent

raising agent

24. Sequestrant 25. Stabilizer

sequestrant stabilizer, foam stabilizer, colloidal stabilizer, emulsion stabilizer sweetener, intense sweetener, bulk sweetener thickener, bodying agent, binder, texturizing agent

26. Sweetener

27. Thickener

CAC/GL 36-1989 SECTION 3 INTERNATIONAL NUMBERING SYSTEM FOR FOOD ADDITIVES List in numerical order INS No.
100 100(i) 100(ii) 101 101(i) 101(ii) 101(iii) 102 103 104 107 110 120 121 122 123 124 125 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 140 141 141(i) 141(ii) 142 143 150 150a 150b 150c 150d 151 152 153 154 155 160a 160a (i) 160a(ii) 160a(iii) 160a(iv) 160b 160b(i) 160b(ii) 160c(i) 160c(ii) 160d 160d(i) 160d(ii)

Name of Food Additive


Curcumins Curcumin Turmeric Riboflavins Riboflavin, synthetic Riboflavin 5'-phosphate sodium Riboflavin from Bacillus subtilis Tartarzine Alkanet Quinoline yellow Yellow 2G Sunset yellow FCF Carmines Citrus red No. 2 Azorubine (Carmoisine) Amaranth Ponceau 4R (Cochineal red A) Ponceau SX Erythrosine Red 2G Allura red AC Manascorubin Patent blue V Indigotine (Indigo carmine) Brilliant blue FCF Chlorophylls Chlorophylls and chlorophyllins, copper complexes Chlorophylls, copper complexes Chlorophyllins, copper complexes, potassium and sodium salts Green S Fast Green FCF Caramels Caramel I plain caramel Caramel II - sulfite caramel Caramel III - ammonia caramel Caramel IV - sulfite ammonia caramel Brilliant black (Black PN) Carbon black (Hydrocarbon) Vegetable carbon Brown FK Brown HT Carotenes Carotenes, beta-, synthetic Carotenes, beta-, vegetable Carotenes, beta-, Blakeslea trispora Carotenes, beta-, algae Annatto extracts Annatto extracts, bixin-based Annatto extracts, norbixin-based Paprika oleoresin Paprika extract Lycopenes Lycopene, synthetic Lycopene, tomato

Functional class
Colour Colour Colour Colour Colour Colour Colour Colour Colour Colour Colour Colour Colour Colour Colour Colour Colour Colour Colour Colour Colour Colour Colour Colour

Technological purpose
colour colour colour colour colour colour colour colour colour colour colour colour colour colour colour colour colour colour colour colour colour colour colour colour

Colour Colour Colour Colour Colour Colour Colour Colour Colour Colour Colour Colour Colour Colour Colour Colour Colour Colour Colour Colour Colour Colour Colour

colour colour colour colour colour colour colour colour colour colour colour colour colour colour colour colour colour colour colour colour colour colour colour

CAC/GL 36-1989 INS No.


160d(iii) 160e 160f 161a 161b 161b(i) 161b(ii) 161c 161d 161e 161f 161g 161h 161h(i) 161h(ii) 162 163 163(ii) 163(iii) 163(iv) 163(v) 164 165 166 170

5 Functional class
Colour Colour Colour Colour Colour Colour Colour Colour Colour Colour Colour Colour Colour Colour Colour Colour Colour Colour Colour Colour Colour Acidity regulator Anticaking agent Colour Firming agent Flour treatment agent Stabilizer Acidity regulator Anticaking agent Colour Firming agent Flour treatment agent Stabilizer Colour Colour Colour Colour Colour Colour Colour Colour Colour Emulsifier Stabilizer Thickener Colour Preservative Preservative Preservative Preservative Preservative Preservative Preservative Preservative

Name of Food Additive


Lycopene , Blakeslea trispora Carotenal, beta-apo-8Carotenoic acid, ethyl ester, beta-apo-8'Flavoxanthin Luteins Lutein from Tagetes erecta Tagetes extract Kryptoxanthin Rubixanthin Violoxanthin Rhodoxanthin Canthaxanthin Zeaxanthins Zeaxanthin, synthetic Zeaxanthin-rich extract from Tagetes erecta Beet red Anthocyanins Grape skin extract Blackcurrant extract Purple corn colour Red cabbage colour Gardenia yellow Gardenia blue Sandalwood Calcium carbonates

Technological purpose
colour colour colour colour colour colour colour colour colour colour colour colour colour colour colour colour colour colour colour colour colour acidity regulator anticaking agent surface colourant firming agent dough conditioner stabilizer acidity regulator anticaking agent surface colourant firming agent dough conditioner stabilizer colour colour colour colour colour surface colourant colour colour colour colour emulsifier stabilizer thickener colour preservative preservative preservative preservative preservative preservative preservative preservative

170(i)

Calcium carbonate

170(ii)

Calcium hydrogen carbonate

171 172 172(i) 172(ii) 172(iii) 173 174 175 180

Titanium dioxide Iron oxides Iron oxide, black Iron oxide, red Iron oxide, yellow Aluminium powder Silver Gold, metallic Lithol rubine BK

181

Tannic acid (Tannins)

182 200 201 202 203 209 210 211 212

Orchil Sorbic acid Sodium sorbate Potassium sorbate Calcium sorbate Heptyl para-hydroxybenzoate Benzoic acid Sodium benzoate Potassium benzoate

CAC/GL 36-1989 INS No.


213 214 215 216 217 218 219

6 Functional class
Preservative Preservative Preservative Preservative Preservative Preservative Preservative Antioxidant Bleaching agent Flour treatment agent Preservative Antioxidant Bleaching agent Flour treatment agent Preservative Antioxidant Preservative Antioxidant Bleaching agent Flour treatment agent Preservative Antioxidant Bleaching agent Flour treatment agent Preservative Antioxidant Preservative Antioxidant Preservative Antioxidant Preservative Antioxidant Preservative Preservative Preservative Preservative Preservative Preservative Preservative Preservative Preservative Preservative Preservative Preservative Preservative Preservative Preservative Colour retention agent Preservative Colour retention agent Preservative Colour retention agent Preservative Colour retention agent Preservative Acidity regulator Preservative Acidity regulator Preservative

Name of Food Additive


Calcium benzoate Ethyl para-hydroxybenzoate Sodium ethyl para-hydroxybenzoate Propyl para-hydroxybenzoate Sodium propyl para-hydroxybenzoate Methyl para-hydroxybenzoate Sodium methyl para-hydroxybenzoate

Technological purpose
preservative preservative preservative preservative preservative preservative preservative antioxidant bleaching agent flour treatment agent preservative antioxidant bleaching agent flour treatment agent preservative antioxidant preservative antioxidant bleaching agent flour treatment agent preservative antioxidant bleaching agent flour treatment agent preservative antioxidant preservative antioxidant preservative antioxidant preservative antioxidant preservative preservative preservative preservative preservative preservative preservative preservative preservative preservative preservative preservative preservative preservative preservative colour fixative preservative colour fixative preservative colour fixative preservative colour fixative preservative acidity regulator preservative acidity regulator preservative

220

Sulfur dioxide

221

Sodium sulfite

222

Sodium hydrogen sulfite

223

Sodium metabisulfite

224

Potassium metabisulfite

225 226 227 228 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 249 250 251 252 260 261 261(i)

Potassium sulfite Calcium sulfite Calcium hydrogen sulfite Potassium bisulfite Diphenyl Ortho-phenylphenol Sodium ortho-phenylphenol Thiabendazole Nisin Natamycin (Pimaricin) Formic acid Sodium formate Calcium formate Hexamethylene tetramine Formaldehyde Gum guaicum Dimethyl dicarbonate Lauric arginate ethyl ester Potassium nitrite Sodium nitrite Sodium nitrate Potassium nitrate Acetic acid, glacial Potassium acetates Potassium acetate

CAC/GL 36-1989 INS No.


261(ii) 262 262(i)

7 Functional class
Acidity regulator Preservative Acidity regulator Preservative Sequestrant Acidity regulator Preservative Sequestrant Acidity regulator Preservative Stabilizer Acidity regulator Preservative Preservative Acidity regulator Preservative Preservative Preservative Preservative Carbonating agent Packaging gas Preservative Propellant Acidity regulator Acidity regulator Acidity regulator Antioxidant Flour treatment agent Antioxidant Antioxidant Antioxidant Antioxidant Antioxidant Antioxidant Antioxidant Antioxidant Antioxidant Antioxidant Antioxidant Antioxidant Antioxidant Antioxidant Antioxidant Antioxidant Antioxidant Antioxidant Antioxidant Antioxidant Antioxidant Antioxidant Antioxidant Emulsifier Antioxidant Emulsifier Antioxidant Antioxidant Acidity regulator

Name of Food Additive


Potassium diacetate Sodium acetates Sodium acetate

Technological purpose
acidity regulator preservative acidity regulator preservative sequestrant acidity regulator preservative sequestrant acidity regulator preservative stabilizer acidity regulator preservative preservative acidity regulator preservative preservative preservative preservative carbonating agent packaging gas preservative propellant acidity regulator acidity regulator acidity regulator antioxidant flour treatment agent antioxidant antioxidant antioxidant antioxidant antioxidant antioxidant antioxidant antioxidant antioxidant antioxidant antioxidant antioxidant antioxidant antioxidant antioxidant antioxidant antioxidant antioxidant antioxidant antioxidant antioxidant antioxidant antioxidant emulsifier antioxidant emulsifier antioxidant antioxidant acidity regulator

262(ii)

Sodium diacetate

263 264 265 266 270 280 281 282 283

Calcium acetate Ammonium acetate Dehydroacetic acid Sodium dehydroacetate Lactic acid, L-, D- and DLPropionic acid Sodium propionate Calcium propionate Potassium propionate

290

Carbon dioxide

296 297 300 301 302 303 304 305 307 307a 307b 307c 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 322(i) 322(ii) 323 324 325

Malic acid, DLFumaric acid Ascorbic acid, LSodium ascorbate Calcium ascorbate Potassium ascorbate Ascorbyl palmitate Ascorbyl stearate Tocopherols Tocopherol, d-alphaTocopherol concentrate, mixed Tocopherol, dl-alphaTocopherol, gamma-, synthetic Tocopherol, delta-, synthetic Propyl gallate Octyl gallate Dodecyl gallate Ethyl gallate Guaiac resin Erythorbic acid (Isoascorbic acid) Sodium erythorbate (Sodium isoascorbate) Potassium isoascorbate Calcium isoascorbate Tertiary butylhydroquinone Butylated hydroxyanisole Butylated hydroxytoluene Lecithins Lecithin Lecithin, partially hydrolysed Anoxomer Ethoxyquin Sodium lactate

CAC/GL 36-1989 INS No. Name of Food Additive Functional class


Antioxidant Bulking agent Humectant Thickener Acidity regulator Antioxidant Acidity regulator Flour treatment agent Acidity regulator Flour treatment agent Acidity regulator Flour treatment agent Acidity regulator Antioxidant Sequestrant Acidity regulator Emulsifier Sequestrant Stabilizer Acidity regulator Emulsifier Sequestrant Stabilizer Acidity regulator Emulsifier Sequestrant Stabilizer Acidity regulator Sequestrant Stabilizer Acidity regulator Sequestrant Stabilizer Acidity regulator Firming agent Sequestrant Stabilizer Acidity regulator Firming agent Sequestrant Stabilizer Acidity regulator Firming agent Sequestrant Stabilizer Acidity regulator Antioxidant Flavour enhancer Sequestrant Acidity regulator Sequestrant Stabilizer Acidity regulator Sequestrant Stabilizer

8 Technological purpose
antioxidant synergist bulking agent humectant bodying agent acidity regulator antioxidant synergist acidity regulator flour treatment agent acidity regulator flour treatment agent acidity regulator flour treatment agent acidity regulator antioxidant sequestrant acidity regulator emulsifier sequestrant stabilizer acidity regulator emulsifier sequestrant stabilizer acidity regulator emulsifier sequestrant stabilizer acidity regulator sequestrant stabilizer acidity regulator sequestrant stabilizer acidity regulator firming agent sequestrant stabilizer acidity regulator firming agent sequestrant stabilizer acidity regulator firming agent sequestrant stabilizer acidity regulator antioxidant synergist flavour synergist sequestrant acidity regulator sequestrant stabilizer acidity regulator sequestrant stabilizer

326 327 328 329

Potassium lactate Calcium lactate Ammonium lactate Magnesium lactate, DL-

330 331

Citric acid Sodium citrates

331(i)

Sodium dihydrogen citrate

331(ii)

Disodium monohydrogen citrate

331(iii)

Trisodium citrate

332 332(i)

Potassium citrates Potassium dihydrogen citrate

332(ii) 333

Tripotassium citrate Calcium citrates

333(i)

Monocalcium citrate

333(ii)

Dicalcium citrate

333(iii)

Tricalcium citrate

334

Tartaric acid, L(+)-

335 335 (i)

Sodium tartrates Monosodium tartrate

335(ii) 336

Sodium L(+)-tartrate Potassium tartrates

CAC/GL 36-1989 INS No.


336(i)

9 Functional class
Acidity regulator Sequestrant Stabilizer Acidity regulator Sequestrant Stabilizer Acidity regulator Sequestrant Stabilizer Acidity regulator Antioxidant Sequestrant

Name of Food Additive


Monopotassium tartrate

Technological purpose
acidity regulator sequestrant stabilizer acidity regulator sequestrant stabilizer acidity regulator sequestrant stabilizer acidity regulator antioxidant synergist sequestrant acidity regulator buffer emulsifier humectant moisture-retention agent raising agent sequestrant stabilizer texturizing agent acidity regulator buffer emulsifier humectant moisture-retention agent sequestrant stabilizer texturizing agent acidity regulator emulsifier humectant moisture-retention agent antimicrobial synergist stabilizer sequestrant texturizing agent acidity regulator buffer emulsifier humectant moisture-retention agent sequestrant stabilizer texturizing agent acidity regulator buffer emulsifier humectant moisture-retention agent sequestrant stabilizer texturizing agent acidity regulator emulsifier humectant moisture-retention agent sequestrant

336(ii)

Dipotassium tartrate

337

Potassium sodium L(+)-tartrate

338 339

Phosphoric acid Sodium phosphates

Acidity regulator Emulsifier 339(i) Sodium dihydrogen phosphate Humectant Raising agent Sequestrant Stabilizer Thickener Acidity regulator Emulsifier 339(ii) Disodium hydrogen phosphate Humectant Sequestrant Stabilizer Thickener Acidity regulator Emulsifier Humectant 339(iii) Trisodium phosphate Preservative Stabilizer Sequestrant Thickener

340

Potassium phosphates Acidity regulator Emulsifier

340(i)

Potassium dihydrogen phosphate

Humectant Sequestrant Stabilizer Thickener Acidity regulator Emulsifier

340(ii)

Dipotassium hydrogen phosphate

Humectant Sequestrant Stabilizer Thickener Acidity regulator Emulsifier

340(iii)

Tripotassium phosphate

Humectant Sequestrant

CAC/GL 36-1989 INS No. Name of Food Additive Functional class


Stabilizer Thickener 341 Calcium phosphates Acidity regulator Anticaking agent Firming agent Flour treatment agent 341(i) Calcium dihydrogen phosphate Humectant Raising agent Sequestrant Stabilizer Thickener Acidity regulator Anticaking agent Firming agent Flour treatment agent 341(ii) Calcium hydrogen phosphate Humectant Raising agent Stabilizer Thickener Acidity regulator Anticaking agent Emulsifier Firming agent Flour treatment agent Humectant Raising agent Stabilizer Thickener 342 342(i) 342(ii) 343 343(i) 343(ii) 343(iii) 344 345 349 350 350(i) 350(ii) 351 351(i) 351(ii) 352 352(i) Ammonium phosphates Ammonium dihydrogen phosphate Diammonium hydrogen phosphate Magnesium phosphates Magnesium dihydrogen phosphate Magnesium hydrogen phosphate Trimagnesium phosphate Lecithin citrate Magnesium citrate Ammonium malate Sodium malates Sodium hydrogen DL-malate Sodium DL-malate Potassium malates Potassium hydrogen malate Potassium malate Calcium malates Calcium hydrogen malate Acidity regulator Anticaking agent Acidity regulator Anticaking agent Acidity regulator Anticaking agent Preservative Acidity regulator Acidity regulator Acidity regulator Humectant Acidity regulator Humectant Acidity regulator Acidity regulator Acidity regulator acidity regulator anticaking agent acidity regulator anticaking agent acidity regulator anticaking agent preservative acidity regulator acidity regulator acidity regulator humectant acidity regulator humectant acidity regulator acidity regulator acidity regulator Acidity regulator Flour treatment agent Acidity regulator Flour treatment agent acidity regulator flour treatment agent acidity regulator flour treatment agent acidity regulator anticaking agent firming agent dough conditioner flour treatment agent humectant moisture-retention agent raising agent sequestrant stabilizer texturizing agent acidity regulator anticaking agent firming agent dough conditioner flour treatment agent humectant moisture-retention agent raising agent stabilizer texturizing agent acidity regulator buffer anticaking agent clouding agent firming agent flour treatment agent humectant moisture-retention agent raising agent Stabilizer texturizing agent

10 Technological purpose
stabilizer texturizing agent

341(iii)

Tricalcium phosphate

CAC/GL 36-1989 INS No.


352(ii) 353 354 355 356 357 359 363 364 364(i) 364(ii) 365 366 367 368 370 375 380 381 383

11 Functional class
Acidity regulator Acidity regulator Acidity regulator Acidity regulator Acidity regulator Acidity regulator Acidity regulator Acidity regulator Acidity regulator Flavour enhancer Acidity regulator Flavour enhancer Acidity regulator Acidity regulator Acidity regulator Acidity regulator Acidity regulator Sequestrant Colour retention agent Acidity regulator Anticaking agent Gelling agent Stabilizer Thickener Antioxidant Preservative Sequestrant Antioxidant Colour retention agent Preservative Sequestrant Antioxidant Colour retention agent Preservative Sequestrant Stabilizer Antioxidant Sequestrant Antioxidant Antioxidant Antioxidant Preservative Antioxidant Stabilizer Bulking agent Carrier Emulsifier Foaming agent Gelling agent Glazing agent Humectant Sequestrant Stabilizer Thickener Bulking agent Carrier Emulsifier Foaming agent Gelling agent

Name of Food Additive


Calcium malate, D,LMetatartaric acid Calcium tartrate, DLAdipic acid Sodium adipates Potassium adipates Ammonium adipates Succinic acid Sodium succinates Monosodium succinate Disodium succinate Sodium fumarates Potassium fumarates Calcium fumarates Ammonium fumarate Heptonolactone, 1,4Nicotinic acid Triammonium citrate Ferric ammonium citrate Calcium glycerophosphate

Technological purpose
acidity regulator acidity regulator acidity regulator acidity regulator acidity regulator acidity regulator acidity regulator acidity regulator acidity regulator flavour enhancer acidity regulator flavour enhancer acidity regulator acidity regulator acidity regulator acidity regulator acidity regulator sequestrant colour retention agent acidity regulator anticaking agent gelling agent stabilizer thickener antioxidant preservative sequestrant antioxidant colour retention agent preservative sequestrant antioxidant colour stabilizer preservative sequestrant stabilizer antioxidant sequestrant antioxidant antioxidant antioxidant preservative antioxidant stabilizer bulking agent carrier emulsifier foaming agent gelling agent glazing agent humectant sequestrant stabilizer thickener bulking agent carrier emulsifier foaming agent gelling agent

384

Isopropyl citrates

385

Calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate

386

Disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate

387 388 389 390 391 392 399

Oxystearin Thiodipropionic acid Dilauryl thiodipropionate Distearyl thiodipropionate Phytic acid Rosemary extract Calcium lactobionate

400

Alginic acid

401

Sodium alginate

CAC/GL 36-1989 INS No. Name of Food Additive Functional class


Glazing agent Humectant Sequestrant Stabilizer Thickener Bulking agent Carrier Emulsifier Foaming agent Gelling agent Glazing agent Humectant Sequestrant Stabilizer Thickener Bulking agent Carrier Emulsifier Foaming agent Gelling agent Glazing agent Humectant Sequestrant Stabilizer Thickener Antifoaming agent Bulking agent Carrier Foaming agent Gelling agent Glazing agent Humectant Sequestrant Stabilizer Thickener Bulking agent Carrier Emulsifier Foaming agent Gelling agent Stabilizer Thickener Bulking agent Carrier Emulsifier Glazing agent Gelling agent Humectant Stabilizer Thickener Bulking agent Carrier Emulsifier Gelling agent 407 Carrageenan Glazing agent Humectant Stabilizer Thickener

12 Technological purpose
glazing agent humectant sequestrant stabilizer thickener bulking agent carrier emulsifier foaming agent gelling agent glazing agent humectant sequestrant stabilizer thickener bulking agent carrier emulsifier foaming agent gelling agent glazing agent humectant sequestrant stabilizer thickener antifoaming agent bulking agent carrier foaming agent gelling agent glazing agent humectant sequestrant stabilizer thickener bulking agent carrier emulsifier foaming agent gelling agent stabilizer thickener bulking agent carrier emulsifier coating agent glazing agent gelling agent humectant stabilizer thickener bulking agent carrier emulsifier gelling agent coating agent glazing agent humectant stabilizer thickener

402

Potassium alginate

403

Ammonium alginate

404

Calcium alginate

405

Propylene glycol alginate

406

Agar

CAC/GL 36-1989 INS No. Name of Food Additive Functional class


Bulking agent Carrier Emulsifier Gelling agent 407a Processed euchema seaweed (PES) Glazing agent Humectant Stabilizer Thickener Gelling agent Stabilizer Thickener Gelling agent Stabilizer Thickener Emulsifier Stabilizer Thickener Stabilizer Thickener Emulsifier Stabilizer Thickener Emulsifier Stabilizer Thickener Bulking agent Carrier Emulsifier Glazing agent Stabilizer Thickener Emulsifier Foaming agent Stabilizer Thickener Emulsifier Stabilizer Thickener Gelling agent Stabilizer Thickener Stabilizer Thickener Emulsifier Stabilizer Thickener Bulking agent Humectant Sequestrant Stabilizer Sweetener Bulking agent Humectant Sequestrant Stabilizer Sweetener Anticaking agent Bulking agent

13 Technological purpose
bulking agent carrier emulsifier gelling agent coating agent glazing agent humectant stabilizer thickener gelling agent stabilizer thickener gelling agent stabilizer thickener emulsifier stabilizer thickener stabilizer thickener emulsifier stabilizer thickener emulsifier stabilizer thickener bulking agent carrier emulsifier glazing agent stabilizer thickener emulsifier foaming agent stabilizer thickener emulsifier stabilizer thickener gelling agent stabilizer thickener stabilizer thickener emulsifier stabilizer thickener bulking agent humectant sequestrant stabilizer sweetener bulking agent humectant sequestrant stabilizer sweetener anticaking agent bulking agent

408

Bakers yeast glycan

409

Arabinogalactan

410

Carob bean gum

411

Oat gum

412

Guar gum

413

Tragacanth gum

414

Gum arabic (Acacia gum)

415

Xanthan gum

416

Karaya gum

417

Tara gum

418

Gellan gum

419 420

Gum ghatti Sorbitols

420(i)

Sorbitol

420(ii)

Sorbitol syrup

421

Mannitol

CAC/GL 36-1989 INS No. Name of Food Additive Functional class


Humectant Stabilizer Sweetener Humectant Thickener Emulsifier Firming agent Gelling agent Stabilizer Thickener Carrier Emulsifier Gelling agent Glazing agent Humectant Stabilizer Thickener Anticaking agent Emulsifier Stabilizer Thickener Emulsifier Gelling agent Stabilizer Thickener Carrier Emulsifier Gelling agent Stabilizer Thickener Emulsifier Emulsifier Emulsifier Emulsifier Emulsifier Emulsifier

14 Technological purpose
humectant stabilizer sweetener humectant bodying agent emulsifier firming agent gelling agent stabilizer thickener carrier emulsifier gelling agent glazing agent humectant stabilizer thickener anticaking agent emulsifier stabilizer thickener emulsifier gelling agent stabilizer thickener carrier emulsifier gelling agent stabilizer thickener emulsifier emulsifier emulsifier dispersing agent emulsifier dispersing agent emulsifier dispersing agent emulsifier dispersing agent emulsifier dispersing agent emulsifier emulsifier gelling agent stabilizer thickener emulsifier emulsifier emulsifier stabilizer emulsifier stabilizer density adjustment agent emulsifier density adjustment agent emulsifier

422 423

Glycerol Octenyl succinic acid (OSA) modified gum arabic

424

Curdlan

425

Konjac flour

426

Soybean hemicellulose

427

Cassia gum

428

Gelatin

429 430 431 432 433 434 435 436

Peptones Polyoxyethylene (8) stearate Polyoxyethylene (40) stearate Polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monolaurate Polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate Polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monopalmitate

Polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearate Emulsifier Polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan tristearate Emulsifier Emulsifier Gelling agent Stabilizer Thickener Emulsifier Emulsifier Emulsifier Stabilizer Emulsifier Stabilizer

440

Pectins

441 442 443 444 445 445(i) 445(ii)

Superglycerinated hydrogenated rapeseed oil Ammonium salts of phosphatidic acid Brominated vegetable oils Sucrose acetate isobutyrate Glycerol esters of rosin Glycerol ester of gum rosin Glycerol ester of tall oil rosin

Emulsifier Emulsifier

CAC/GL 36-1989 INS No.


445(iii) 446 450

15 Functional class
Emulsifier Stabilizer Emulsifier

Name of Food Additive


Glycerol ester of wood rosin Succistearin Diphosphates

Technological purpose
density adjustment agent emulsifier stabilizer emulsifier acidity regulator buffering agent emulsifier moisture-retention agent raising agent sequestrant stabilizer texturizing agent acidity regulator emulsifier raising agent moisture-retention agent sequestrant stabilizer texturizing agent acidity regulator buffering agent emulsifier moisture-retention agent raising agent sequestrant stabilizer texturizing agent acidity regulator emulsifier moisture-retention agent raising agent sequestrant stabilizer acidity regulator emulsifier moisture-retention agent raising agent sequestrant stabilizer texturizing agent acidity regulator buffering agent emulsifier firming agent raising agent sequestrant stabilizer texturizing agent acidity regulator emulsifier moisture-retention agent raising agent sequestrant stabilizer acidity regulator dough conditioner emulsifier firming agent

Acidity regulator Emulsifier Humectant Raising agent Sequestrant Stabilizer Thickener Acidity regulator Emulsifier Raising agent Humectant Sequestrant Stabilizer Thickener Acidity regulator Emulsifier Humectant 450(iii) Tetrasodium diphosphate Raising agent Sequestrant Stabilizer Thickener Acidity regulator Emulsifier Humectant Raising agent Sequestrant Stabilizer Acidity regulator Emulsifier Humectant Raising agent Sequestrant Stabilizer Thickener Acidity regulator Emulsifier Firming agent Raising agent Sequestrant Stabilizer Thickener Acidity regulator Emulsifier Humectant Raising agent Sequestrant Stabilizer Acidity regulator Flour treatment agent Emulsifier Firming agent

450(i)

Disodium diphosphate

450(ii)

Trisodium diphosphate

450(iv)

Dipotassium diphosphate

450(v)

Tetrapotassium diphosphate

450(vi)

Dicalcium diphosphate

450(vii)

Calcium dihydrogen diphosphate

450(viii)

Dimagnesium diphosphate

CAC/GL 36-1989 INS No. Name of Food Additive Functional class


Raising agent Stabilizer Thickener Raising agent Acidity regulator Emulsifier Humectant Sequestrant Stabilizer Thickener Acidity regulator Emulsifier Humectant Sequestrant Stabilizer Thickener Acidity regulator Emulsifier Humectant Raising agent Sequestrant Stabilizer Acidity regulator Emulsifier Humectant Raising agent Sequestrant Stabilizer Thickener Acidity regulator Emulsifier Humectant Raising agent Sequestrant Stabilizer Thickener Acidity regulator Emulsifier Humectant Raising agent Sequestrant Stabilizer Acidity regulator Emulsifier Humectant Raising agent Sequestrant Stabilizer Thickener Emulsifier Humectant Sequestrant Stabilizer Thickener Acidity regulator Emulsifier Humectant Raising agent

16 Technological purpose
raising agent stabilizer texturizing agent raising agent acidity regulator emulsifier moisture-retention agent stabilizer sequestrant texturizing agent acidity regulator emulsifier moisture-retention agent sequestrant stabilizer texturizing agent acidity regulator emulsifier moisture-retention agent raising agent sequestrant stabilizer acidity regulator emulsifier moisture-retention agent raising agent sequestrant stabilizer texturizing agent acidity regulator emulsifier moisture-retention agent raising agent sequestrant stabilizer texturizing agent acidity regulator emulsifier moisture-retention agent raising agent sequestrant stabilizer acidity regulator emulsifier moisture-retention agent raising agent sequestrant stabilizer texturizing agent emulsifier moisture-retention agent sequestrant stabilizer texturizing agent acidity regulator emulsifier moisture-retention agent raising agent

450(ix) 451

Magnesium dihydrogen diphosphate Triphosphates

451(i)

Pentasodium triphosphate

451(ii)

Pentapotassium triphosphate

451(iii)

Sodium potassium trisphospate

452

Polyphosphates

452(i)

Sodium polyphosphate

452(ii)

Potassium polyphosphate

452(iii)

Sodium calcium polyphosphate

452(iv)

Calcium polyphosphate

452(v)

Ammonium polyphosphate

452(vi)

Sodium potassium hexametaphosphate

CAC/GL 36-1989 INS No. Name of Food Additive Functional class


Sequestrant Stabilizer Thickener Stabilizer Thickener Stabilizer Thickener Carrier Stabilizer Thickener Anticaking agent Bulking agent Carrier Glazing agent 460(i) Microcrystalline cellulose (Cellulose gel) Emulsifier Foaming agent Stabilizer Thickener Anticaking agent Bulking agent Glazing agent 460(ii) Powdered cellulose Emulsifier Humectant Stabilizer Thickener Bulking agent Glazing agent 461 Methyl cellulose Emulsifier Stabilizer Thickener Binder Bulking agent Carrier Glazing agent Thickener Binder Emulsifier Foaming agent 463 Hydroxypropyl cellulose Glazing agent Stabilizer Thickener Bulking agent Glazing agent 464 Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose Emulsifier Stabilizer Thickener Emulsifier

17 Technological purpose
sequestrant stabilizer texturizing agent stabilizer binder stabilizer binder carrier stabilizer binder anticaking agent bulking agent carrier coating agent glazing agent dispersing agent emulsifier foaming agent stabilizer texturizing agent thickener anticaking agent bulking agent coating agent glazing agent dispersing agent emulsifier humectant stabilizer texturizing agent thickener bulking agent coating agent glazing agent emulsifier stabilizer thickener binder filler diluent for other food additives coating agent glazing agent thickener binder emulsifier suspension agent foaming agent coating agent film-forming agent glazing agent stabilizer thickener bulking agent coating agent glazing agent emulsifier stabilizer thickener emulsifier

457 458

Cyclodextrin, alphaCyclodextrin, gamma-

459 460

Cyclodextrin, betaCelluloses

462

Ethyl cellulose

465

Methyl ethyl cellulose

CAC/GL 36-1989 INS No. Name of Food Additive Functional class


Foaming agent Stabilizer Thickener Bulking agent Emulsifier Firming agent Gelling agent Glazing agent Humectant Stabilizer Thickener Emulsifier Stabilizer Thickener Stabilizer Thickener Stabilizer

18 Technological purpose
foaming agent stabilizer thickener bulking agent emulsifier suspension agent firming agent gelling agent coating agent glazing agent humectant stabilizer thickener emulsifier stabilizer thickener stabilizer binder stabilizer thickener

466

Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (Cellulose gum)

467

Ethyl hydroxyethyl cellulose

468 469

470

470(i)

470(ii)

470(iii)

471

472a

472b

472c

472d

472e

472g

473 473a

Cross-linked sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (Cross-linked cellulose gum) Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, enzymatically hydrolysed (Cellulose gum, Thickener enzymatically hydrolyzed) Salts of fatty acids, with base aluminium, ammonium, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium Salts of myristic, palmitic and stearic acids Anticaking agent with ammonia, calcium, potassium and Emulsifier sodium Stabilizer Anticaking agent Salts of oleic acid with calcium, potassium Emulsifier and sodium Stabilizer Anticaking agent Magnesium stearate Emulsifier Thickener Antifoaming agent Mono- and di- glycerides of fatty acids Emulsifier Stabilizer Emulsifier Acetic and fatty acid esters of glycerol Sequestrant Stabilizer Emulsifier Lactic and fatty acid esters of glycerol Sequestrant Stabilizer Antioxidant Emulsifier Citric and fatty acid esters of glycerol Flour treatment agent Sequestrant Stabilizer Emulsifier Tartaric acid esters of mono- and diSequestrant glycerides of fatty acids Stabilizer Emulsifier Diacetyltartaric and fatty acid esters of Sequestrant glycerol Stabilizer Emulsifier Succinylated monoglycerides Sequestrant Stabilizer Emulsifier Sucrose esters of fatty acids Stabilizer Emulsifier Sucrose oligoesters, type I and type II Stabilizer

anticaking agent emulsifier stabilizer anticaking agent emulsifier stabilizer anticaking agent emulsifier binder antifoaming agent emulsifier stabilizer emulsifier sequestrant stabilizer emulsifier sequestrant stabilizer antioxidant synergist emulsifier dough conditioner sequestrant stabilizer emulsifier sequestrant stabilizer emulsifier sequestrant stabilizer emulsifier sequestrant stabilizer emulsifier stabilizer emulsifier stabilizer

CAC/GL 36-1989 INS No.


474 475 476 477 478 479 480 481

19 Functional class
Emulsifier Emulsifier Emulsifier Emulsifier Emulsifier Emulsifier Emulsifier Humectant Flour treatment agent Emulsifier Foaming agent Stabilizer Emulsifier Stabilizer Emulsifier Flour treatment agent Foaming agent Stabilizer Emulsifier Stabilizer Flour treatment agent Antioxidant Emulsifier Sequestrant Emulsifier Emulsifier Emulsifier Emulsifier Emulsifier Emulsifier Emulsifier Emulsifier Stabilizer Emulsifier Stabilizer Emulsifier Stabilizer Acidity regulator Anticaking agent Raising agent Acidity regulator Anticaking agent Raising agent Acidity regulator Anticaking agent Raising agent Acidity regulator Stabilizer Acidity regulator Raising agent Stabilizer Acidity regulator

Name of Food Additive


Sucroglycerides Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids Polyglycerol esters of interesterified ricinoleic acid Propylene glycol esters of fatty acids Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propylene glycol Thermally oxidized soya bean oil interacted with mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids Dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate Sodium lactylates

Technological purpose
emulsifier emulsifier emulsifier emulsifier emulsifier emulsifier emulsifier wetting agent dough conditioner emulsifier whipping agent stabilizer emulsifier stabilizer emulsifier dough conditioners whipping agent stabilizer emulsifier stabilizer flour treatment agent antioxidant emulsifier sequestrant emulsifier emulsifier emulsifier emulsifier emulsifier emulsifier emulsifier emulsifier stabilizer emulsifier stabilizer emulsifier stabilizer acidity regulator anticaking agent raising agent acidity regulator anticaking agent raising agent acidity regulator anticaking agent raising agent acidity regulator stabilizer acidity regulator raising agent stabilizer acidity regulator

481(i)

Sodium stearoyl lactylate

481(ii) 482

Sodium oleyl lactylate Calcium lactylates

482(i)

Calcium stearoyl lactylate

482(ii) 483 484 485 486 487 488 489 491 492 493 494 495 496 500 500(i)

Calcium oleyl lactylate Stearyl tartrate Stearyl citrate Sodium stearoyl fumarate Calcium stearoyl fumarate Sodium laurylsulfate Ethoxylated mono- and di-glycerides Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester Sorbitan monostearate Sorbitan tristearate Sorbitan monolaurate Sorbitan monooleate Sorbitan monopalmitate Sorbitan trioleate Sodium carbonates Sodium carbonate

500(ii)

Sodium hydrogen carbonate

500(iii) 501 501(i)

Sodium sesquicarbonate Potassium carbonates Potassium carbonate

501(ii) 503 503(i)

Potassium hydrogen carbonate Ammonium carbonates Ammonium carbonate

CAC/GL 36-1989 INS No.


503(ii) 504 504(i)

20 Functional class
Raising agent Acidity regulator Raising agent Acidity regulator Anticaking agent Colour retention agent Acidity regulator Anticaking agent Carrier Colour retention agent Acidity regulator Acidity regulator Gelling agent Flavour enhancer Stabilizer Thickener Firming agent Stabilizer Thickener Flour treatment agent Colour retention agent Firming agent Stabilizer Antioxidant Colour retention agent Acidity regulator Acidity regulator Acidity regulator Acidity regulator Acidity regulator Firming agent Flour treatment agent Sequestrant Stabilizer Flour treatment agent Stabilizer Firming agent Flavour enhancer Colour retention agent Preservative Firming agent Firming agent Acidity regulator Stabilizer Aciditiy regulator

Name of Food Additive


Ammonium hydrogen carbonate Magnesium carbonates Magnesium carbonate

Technological purpose
raising agent acidity regulator raising agent acidity regulator anticaking agent colour retention agent acidity regulator anticaking agent drying agent carrier colour retention agent acidity regulator acidity regulator gelling agent flavour enhancer stabilizer thickener firming agent stabilizer thickener flour treatment agent colour retention agent firming agent stabilizer antioxidant colour retention agent acidity regulator acidity regulator acidity regulator acidity regulator acidity regulator firming agent flour treatment agent sequestrant stabilizer flour treatment agent stabilizer firming agent flavour enhancer colour fixative preservative firming agent firming agent acidity regulator stabilizer aciditiy regulator buffer colour fixative firming agent raising agent stabilizer acidity regulator acidity regulator acidity regulator firming agent acidity regulator acidity regulator

504(ii)

Magnesium hydroxide carbonate

505 507

Ferrous carbonate Hydrochloric acid

508

Potassium chloride

509 510 511

Calcium chloride Ammonium chloride Magnesium chloride

512 513 514 514(i) 514(ii) 515 515(i) 515(ii)

Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid Sodium sulfates Sodium sulfate Sodium hydrogen sulfate Potassium sulfates Potassium sulfate Potassium hydrogen sulfate

516

Calcium sulfate

517 518 519 520 521 522

Ammonium sulfate Magnesium sulfate Cupric sulfate Aluminium sulfate Aluminium sodium sulfate Aluminium potassium sulfate

523

Aluminium ammonium sulfate

524 525 526 527 528

Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Calcium hydroxide Ammonium hydroxide Magnesium hydroxide

Colour retention agent Firming agent Raising agent Stabilizer Acidity regulator Acidity regulator Acidity regulator Firming agent Acidity regulator Acidity regulator

CAC/GL 36-1989 INS No. Name of Food Additive Functional class


Colour retention agent Acidity regulator 529 530 535 536 537 538 539 541 Calcium oxide Magnesium oxide Sodium ferrocyanide Potassium ferrocyanide Ferrous hexacyanomanganate Calcium ferrocyanide Sodium thiosulfate Sodium aluminium phosphates Acidity regulator Emulsifier Raising agent Stabilizer Thickener Acidity regulator Emulsifier Stabilizer Thickener Anticaking agent Emulsifier Humectant Anticaking agent Anticaking agent Anticaking agent Carrier Antifoaming agent Anticaking agent acidity regulator Emulsifier raising agent Stabilizer texturizing agent acidity regulator Emulsifier Stabilizer texturizing agent anticaking agent Emulsifier moisture-retention agent anticaking agent anticaking agent anticaking agent carrier defoaming agent anticaking agent anticaking agent dusting agent anticaking agent dusting agent anticaking agent dusting agent coating agent surface-finishing agent texturizing agent anticaking agent anticaking agent anticaking agent anticaking agent anticaking agent anticaking agent anticaking agent antifoaming agent glazing agent foam stabilizer acidity regulator raising agent acidity regulator raising agent sequestrant sequestrant stabilizer thickener Flour treatment agent Anticaking agent Anticaking agent Anticaking agent Anticaking agent Anticaking agent Antioxidant Sequestrant

21 Technological purpose
colour retention agent acidity regulator dough conditioner flour treatment agent anticaking agent anticaking agent anticaking agent anticaking agent anticaking agent antibrowning agent Antioxidant Sequestrant

541(i)

Sodium aluminium phosphate, acidic

541(ii)

Sodium aluminium phosphate, basic

542 550 550(i) 550(ii) 551 552 553 553(i) 553(ii)

Bone phosphate Sodium silicates Sodium silicate Sodium metasilicate Silicon dioxide, amorphous Calcium silicate Magnesium silicates Magnesium silicate, synthetic Magnesium trisilicate

Anticaking agent Anticaking agent Anticaking agent

553(iii)

Talc

Glazing agent Thickener Anticaking agent Anticaking agent Anticaking agent Anticaking agent Anticaking agent Anticaking agent Anticaking agent Antifoaming agent Glazing agent Stabilizer Acidity regulator Raising agent Acidity regulator Raising agent Sequestrant Sequestrant Stabilizer Thickener

554 555 556 557 558 559 560 570

Sodium aluminosilicate Potassium aluminium silicate Calcium aluminium silicate Zinc silicate Bentonite Aluminium silicate Potassium silicate Fatty acids

574

Gluconic acid, D-

575

Glucono delta-lactone

576

Sodium gluconate

CAC/GL 36-1989 INS No.


577

22 Functional class
Acidity regulator Sequestrant Acidity regulator Firming agent Sequestrant Colour retention agent Acidity regulator Firming agent Flavour enhancer Colour retention agent Antioxidant Colour retention agent Flavour enhancer Flavour enhancer Flavour enhancer Flavour enhancer Flavour enhancer Flavour enhancer Flavour enhancer Flavour enhancer Flavour enhancer Flavour enhancer Flavour enhancer Flavour enhancer Flavour enhancer Flavour enhancer Flavour enhancer Flavour enhancer Flavour enhancer Flavour enhancer Flavour enhancer Flavour enhancer Flavour enhancer Flavour enhancer Flavour enhancer Flavour enhancer Anticaking agent Antifoaming agent Emulsifier Antifoaming agent Carrier Emulsifier Glazing agent Stabilizer Thickener Carrier Emulsifier

Name of Food Additive


Potassium gluconate

Technological purpose
acidity regulator sequestrant acidity regulator firming agent sequestrant colour retention agent colour stabilizer acidity regulator firming agent flavour enhancer colour retention agent antioxidant colour retention agent flavour enhancer flavour enhancer flavour enhancer flavour enhancer flavour enhancer flavour enhancer flavour enhancer flavour enhancer flavour enhancer flavour enhancer flavour enhancer flavour enhancer flavour enhancer flavour enhancer flavour enhancer flavour enhancer flavour enhancer flavour enhancer flavour enhancer flavour enhancer flavour enhancer flavour enhancer flavour enhancer flavour enhancer anticaking agent antifoaming agent emulsifier antifoaming agent carrier clouding agent coating agent glazing agent stabilizer texturing agent thickener carrier clouding agent glazing agent surface finishing agent texturizing agent acidity regulator anticaking agent bulking agent carrier glazing agent coating agent glazing agent

578

Calcium gluconate

579

Ferrous gluconate

580 585 586 620 621 622 623 624 625 626 627 628 629 630 631 632 633 634 635 636 637 638 639 640 641 642 650 900a 900b

Magnesium gluconate Ferrous lactate Hexylresorcinol, 4Glutamic acid, L(+)Monosodium L-glutamate Monopotassium L-glutamate Calcium di-L-glutamate Monoammonium L-glutamate Magnesium di-L-glutamate Guanylic acid, 5Disodium 5-guanylate Dipotassium 5-guanylate Calcium 5-guanylate Inosinic acid, 5Disodium 5-inosinate Potassium 5-inosinate Calcium 5-inosinate Calcium 5-ribonucleotides Disodium 5-ribonucleotides Maltol Ethyl maltol Sodium L-aspartate Alanine, DLGlycine Leucine, LLysin hydrochloride Zinc acetate Polydimethylsiloxane Methylphenylpolysiloxane

901

Beeswax

902

Candelilla wax

Glazing agent Thickener Acidity regulator Anticaking agent Bulking agent Carrier Glazing agent Glazing agent

903

Carnauba wax

904

Shellac, bleached

CAC/GL 36-1989 INS No.


905a

23 Functional class
Glazing agent Antifoaming agent

Name of Food Additive


Mineral oil, food grade

Technological purpose
surface-finishing agent glazing agent sealing agent antifoaming agent glazing agent sealing agent glazing agent sealing agent defoaming agent glazing agent glazing agent defoaming agent glazing agent sealing agent glazing agent sealing agent glazing agent sealing agent glazing agent sealing agent glazing agent glazing agent glazing agent glazing agent glazing agent glazing agent glazing agent glazing agent flour treatment agent flour treatment agent flour treatment agent flour treatment agent flour treatment agent flour treatment agent flour treatment agent flour treatment agent flour bleaching agent flour treatment agent flour treatment agent flour treatment agent bleaching agent flour treatment agent preservative flour treatment agent flour treatment agent propellant packaging gas propellant antioxidant foaming agent packaging gas propellant propellant propellant propellant propellant propellant

905b

Petroleum jelly (Petrolatum)

Glazing agent Glazing agent Antifoaming agent Glazing agent Glazing agent Antifoaming agent Glazing agent

905c 905c(i) 905c(ii) 905d

Petroleum wax Microcrystalline wax Paraffin wax Mineral oil, high viscosity

905e 905f 905g 906 907 908 909 910 911 913 915 916 917 918 919 920 921 922 923 925 926 927a 927b 928 929 930 940 941

Mineral oil, medium and low viscosity, class I Glazing agent Mineral oil, medium and low viscosity, class Glazing agent II Mineral oil, medium and low viscosity, class III Benzoin gum Hydrogenated poly-1-decenes Rice bran wax Spermaceti wax Wax esters Methyl esters of fatty acids Lanolin Glycerol, methyl, or pentaerithrytol esters of colophane Calcium iodate Potassium iodate Nitrogen oxides Nitrosyl chloride Cysteine, L- and its hydrochlorides sodium and potassium salts Cystine, L-and its hydrochlorides sodium and potassium salts Potassium persulfate Ammonium persulfate Chlorine Chlorine dioxide Azodicarbonamide Urea (Carbamide) Benzoyl peroxide Acetone peroxide Calcium peroxide Dichlorodifluormethane Nitrogen Glazing agent Glazing agent Glazing agent Glazing agent Glazing agent Glazing agent Glazing agent Glazing agent Glazing agent Flour treatment agent Flour treatment agent Flour treatment agent Flour treatment agent Flour treatment agent Flour treatment agent Flour treatment agent Flour treatment agent Flour bleaching agent Flour treatment agent Flour treatment agent Flour treatment agent Bleaching agent Flour treatment agent Preservative Flour treatment agent Flour treatment agent Propellant Packaging gas Propellant Antioxidant Foaming agent Packaging gas Propellant Propellant Propellant Propellant Propellant Propellant

942

Nitrous oxide

943a 943b 944 945 946

Butane Isobutane Propane Chloropentafluorethane Octafluorcyclobutane

CAC/GL 36-1989 INS No.


949 950 951 952 952(i) 952(ii) 952(iv)

24 Functional class
Packaging gas Flavour enhancer Sweetener Flavour enhancer Sweetener Sweetener Sweetener Sweetener Anticaking agent Bulking agent Glazing agent Sweetener Sweetener Sweetener Sweetener Sweetener Sweetener Sweetener Flavour enhancer Sweetener Flavour enhancer Sweetener Sweetener Sweetener Flavour enhancer Sweetener Sweetener Sweetener Sweetener Bulking agent Emulsifier Humectant Sweetener Stabilizer Bulking agent Emulsifier Humectant Stabilizer Sweetener Emulsifier Sweetener Thickener Emulsifier Humectant Stabilizer Sweetener Thickener Flavour enhancer Humectant Sweetener Emulsifier Foaming agent Emulsifier Foaming agent Emulsifier

Name of Food Additive


Hydrogen Acesulfame potassium Aspartame Cyclamates Cyclamic acid Calcium cyclamate Sodium cyclamate

Technological purpose
packaging gas flavour enhancer sweetener flavour enhancer sweetener sweetener sweetener sweetener anticaking agent bulking agent glazing agent sweetener sweetener sweetener sweetener sweetener sweetener sweetener flavour enhancer sweetener flavour enhancer sweetener sweetener sweetener flavour enhancer sweetener sweetener sweetener sweetener bulking agent emulsifier humectant sweetener stabilizer bulking agent emulsifier humectant stabilizer sweetener emulsifier sweetener texturizing agent emulsifier humectant stabilizer sweetener thickener flavour enhancer humectant sweetener emulsifier foaming agent emulsifier foaming agent emulsifier

953

Isomalt (Hydrogenated isomaltulose)

954 954(i) 954(ii) 954(iii) 954(iv) 955 956 957 958 959 960 961 962 963 964 965

Saccharins Saccharin Calcium saccharin Potassium saccharin Sodium saccharin Sucralose (Trichlorogalactosucrose) Alitame Thaumatin Glycyrrhizin Neohesperidine dihydrochalcone Steviol glycosides Neotame Aspartame-acesulfame salt Tagatose, DPolyglycitol syrup Maltitols

965(i)

Maltitol

965(ii)

Maltitol syrup

966

Lactitol

967

Xylitol

968 999 999(i) 999(ii) 1000 1001

Erythritol Quillaia extracts Quillaia extract type 1 Quillaia extract type 2 Cholic acid Choline salts and esters

CAC/GL 36-1989 INS No.


1001(i) 1001(ii) 1001(iii) 1001(iv) 1001(v) 1001(vi) 1100 1101 1101(i) 1101(ii) 1101(iii)

25 Functional class
Emulsifier Emulsifier Emulsifier Emulsifier Emulsifier Emulsifier Flour treatment agent Flour treatment agent Flavour enhancer Stabilizer Flavour enhancer Flour treatment agent Flavour enhancer Stabilizer Flour treatment agent Flavour enhancer Stabilizer Antioxidant Stabilizer Flavour enhancer Preservative Bulking agent Glazing agent

Name of Food Additive


Choline acetate Choline carbonate Choline chloride Choline citrate Choline tartrate Choline lactate Amylases Proteases Protease Papain Bromelain

Technological purpose
emulsifier emulsifier emulsifier emulsifier emulsifier emulsifier flour treatment agent flour treatment agent flavour enhancer stabilizer flavour enhancer flour treatment agent flavour enhancer stabilizer flour treatment agent flavour enhancer stabilizer antioxidant stabilizer flavour enhancer preservative bulking agent coating agent glazing agent humectant stabilizer texturizing agent thickener dispersing agent coating agent stabilizer bodying agent colour stabilizer colloidal stabilizer stabilizer coating agent sealing agent surface-finishing agent binder film-forming agent glazing agent thickener anticaking agent carrier solvent emulsifier plasticizer glazing agent carrier carrier carrier solvent emulsifier plasticizer foam stabilizer sequestrant carrier carrier solvent emulsifier plasticizer humectant

1101(iv) 1102 1103 1104 1105

Ficin Glucose oxidase Invertases Lipases Lysozyme

1200

Polydextroses

Humectant Stabilizer Thickener Emulsifier Glazing agent Stabilizer Thickener Colour retention agent Stabilizer

1201

Polyvinylpyrrolidone

1202

Polyvinylpyrrolidone, insoluble

1203

Polyvinyl alcohol

Glazing agent Thickener

1204

Pullulan

Glazing agent Thickener Anticaking agent Carrier

1503

Castor oil

Emulsifier Glazing agent Carrier Carrier Carrier Emulsifier Stabilizer Sequestrant Carrier Carrier Emulsifier Humectant

1504(i) 1504(ii)

Cyclotetraglucose Cyclotetraglucose syrup

1505

Triethyl citrate

1517

Glycerol diacetate

1518

Triacetin

CAC/GL 36-1989 INS No.


1519

26 Functional class
Carrier Emulsifier Glazing agent Humectant Antifoaming agent Carrier

Name of Food Additive


Benzyl alcohol

Technological purpose
carrier dispersing agent glazing agent humectant wetting agent antifoaming agent carrier emulsifier plasticizer glazing agent binder carrier encapsulating agent

1520

Propylene glycol

1521

Polyethylene glycol

Emulsifier Glazing agent Thickener

1522

Calcium lignosulfonate, 40-65

Carrier

CAC/GL 36-1989

27

SUPPLEMENTARY LIST - MODIFIED STARCHES List in numerical order INS No.


1400

Name of Food Additive


Dextrins, roasted starch

Functional Class
Emulsifier Stabilizer Thickener Emulsifier Stabilizer Thickener Emulsifier Stabilizer Thickener Emulsifier Stabilizer Thickener Emulsifier Stabilizer Thickener Emulsifier Stabilizer Thickener Emulsifier Stabilizer Thickener Emulsifier Stabilizer Thickener Emulsifier Stabilizer Thickener Emulsifier Stabilizer Thickener Emulsifier Stabilizer Thickener Emulsifier Stabilizer Thickener Emulsifier Stabilizer Thickener Emulsifier Stabilizer Thickener

Technological purpose
emulsifier stabilizer binder thickener emulsifier stabilizer binder thickener emulsifier stabilizer binder thickener emulsifier stabilizer binder thickener emulsifier stabilizer binder thickener emulsifier stabilizer binder thickener emulsifier stabilizer binder thickener emulsifier stabilizer binder thickener emulsifier stabilizer binder thickener emulsifier stabilizer binder thickener emulsifier stabilizer binder thickener emulsifier stabilizer binder thickener emulsifier stabilizer binder thickener emulsifier stabilizer binder thickener

1401

Acid-treated starch

1402

Alkaline treated starch

1403

Bleached starch

1404

Oxidized starch

1405

Starches, enzyme treated

1410

Monostarch phosphate

1411

Distarch glycerol

1412

Distarch phosphate

1413

Phosphated distarch phosphate

1414

Acetylated distarch phosphate

1420

Starch acetate

1422

Acetylated distarch adipate

1440

Hydroxypropyl starch

CAC/GL 36-1989 INS No.


1442

28 Functional Class
Emulsifier Stabilizer Thickener Emulsifier Stabilizer Thickener Emulsifier Stabilizer Thickener Anticaking Agent Carrier Stabilizer

Name of Food Additive


Hydroxypropyl distarch phosphate

Technological purpose
emulsifier stabilizer binder thickener emulsifier stabilizer binder thickener emulsifier stabilizer binder thickener anticaking agent carrier stabilizer

1450

Starch sodium octenyl succinate

1451

Acetylated oxidized starch

1452

Starch aluminium octenyl succinate

CAC/GL 36-1989 SECTION 4 INTERNATIONAL NUMBERING SYSTEM FOR FOOD ADDITIVES List in alphabetical order INS No.
950 260

29

Name of Food Additive


Acesulfame potassium Acetic acid, glacial

Functional Class
Flavour enhancer Sweetener Acidity regulator Preservative Emulsifier Sequestrant Stabilizer Flour treatment agent Acidity regulator Bulking agent Carrier Emulsifier Glazing agent Gelling agent Humectant Stabilizer Thickener Flavour enhancer Bulking agent Carrier Emulsifier Foaming agent Gelling agent Glazing agent Humectant Sequestrant Stabilizer Thickener Sweetener Colour Colour Colour Aciditiy regulator

Technological Purpose
flavour enhancer sweetener acidity regulator preservative emulsifier sequestrant stabilizer flour treatment agent acidity regulator bulking agent carrier emulsifier coating agent glazing agent gelling agent humectant stabilizer thickener flavour enhancer bulking agent carrier emulsifier foaming agent gelling agent glazing agent humectant sequestrant stabilizer thickener sweetener colour colour colour surface colourant aciditiy regulator buffer colour fixative firming agent raising agent stabilizer acidity regulator stabilizer anticaking agent firming agent firming agent colour acidity regulator acidity regulator bulking agent carrier emulsifier foaming agent gelling agent glazing agent humectant sequestrant

472a 929 355

Acetic and fatty acid esters of glycerol Acetone peroxide Adipic acid

406

Agar

639

Alanine, DL-

400

Alginic acid

956 103 129 173

Alitame Alkanet Allura red AC Aluminium powder

523

Aluminium ammonium sulfate

522 559 521 520 123 264 359

Aluminium potassium sulfate Aluminium silicate Aluminium sodium sulfate Aluminium sulfate Amaranth Ammonium acetate Ammonium adipates

403

Ammonium alginate

Colour retention agent Firming agent Raising agent Stabilizer Acidity regulator Stabilizer Anticaking agent Firming agent Firming agent Colour Acidity regulator Acidity regulator Bulking agent Carrier Emulsifier Foaming agent Gelling agent Glazing agent Humectant Sequestrant

CAC/GL 36-1989 INS No. Name of Food Additive Functional Class


Stabilizer Thickener Acidity regulator Raising agent Flour treatment agent Acidity regulator Flour treatment agent Acidity regulator Acidity regulator Raising agent Acidity regulator Acidity regulator Flour treatment agent Acidity regulator Flour treatment agent Emulsifier Humectant Sequestrant Stabilizer Thickener Emulsifier Flour treatment agent Stabilizer Flour treatment agent Colour Colour Antioxidant Gelling agent Stabilizer Thickener Acidity regulator Antioxidant Flour treatment agent Antioxidant Antioxidant Flavour enhancer Sweetener Sweetener Flour treatment agent Colour Gelling agent Stabilizer Thickener Carrier Emulsifier Glazing agent Stabilizer Thickener 162 558 210 906 928 Beet red Bentonite Benzoic acid Benzoin gum Benzoyl peroxide Colour Anticaking agent Preservative Glazing agent Bleaching agent Flour treatment agent

30 Technological Purpose
stabilizer thickener acidity regulator raising agent flour treatment agent acidity regulator flour treatment agent acidity regulator acidity regulator raising agent acidity regulator acidity regulator flour treatment agent acidity regulator flour treatment agent emulsifier moisture-retention agent sequestrant stabilizer texturizing agent emulsifier flour treatment agent stabilizer flour treatment agent colour colour antioxidant gelling agent stabilizer thickener acidity regulator antioxidant flour treatment agent antioxidant antioxidant flavour enhancer sweetener sweetener flour treatment agent colour gelling agent stabilizer thickener carrier clouding agent coating agent glazing agent stabilizer texturing agent thickener colour anticaking agent preservative glazing agent bleaching agent flour treatment agent

503(i) 503 510 342(i) 368 503(ii) 527 328 349 923 342

Ammonium carbonate Ammonium carbonates Ammonium chloride Ammonium dihydrogen phosphate Ammonium fumarate Ammonium hydrogen carbonate Ammonium hydroxide Ammonium lactate Ammonium malate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphates

452(v)

Ammonium polyphosphate

442 517 1100 160b 160b(i) 160b(ii) 323 163 409

Ammonium salts of phosphatidic acid Ammonium sulfate Amylases Annatto extracts Annatto extracts, bixin-based Annatto extracts, norbixin-based Anoxomer Anthocyanins Arabinogalactan

300 304 305 951 962 927a 122 408

Ascorbic acid, LAscorbyl palmitate Ascorbyl stearate Aspartame Aspartame-acesulfame salt Azodicarbonamide Azorubine (Carmoisine) Bakers yeast glycan

901

Beeswax

CAC/GL 36-1989 INS No.


1519 163(iii) 542 151 133 1101(iii)

31 Functional Class
Preservative Carrier Colour Anticaking agent Emulsifier Humectant Colour Colour Flour treatment agent Flavour enhancer Stabilizer Emulsifier Stabilizer Colour Colour Propellant Antioxidant Antioxidant Flavour enhancer Flavour enhancer Flavour enhancer Acidity regulator Preservative Stabilizer Antifoaming agent Bulking agent Carrier Foaming agent Gelling agent Glazing agent Humectant Sequestrant Stabilizer Thickener Anticaking agent Antioxidant Preservative Acidity regulator Anticaking agent Colour Firming agent Flour treatment agent Stabilizer Firming agent Stabilizer Thickener Sweetener Acidity regulator Emulsifier Humectant Raising agent Sequestrant Stabilizer Acidity regulator Anticaking agent Firming agent Flour treatment agent

Name of Food Additive


Benzyl alcohol Blackcurrant extract Bone phosphate Brilliant black (Black PN) Brilliant blue FCF Bromelain

Technological Purpose
preservative carrier colour anticaking agent emulsifier moisture-retention agent colour colour flour treatment agent flavour enhancer stabilizer emulsifier stabilizer colour colour propellant antioxidant antioxidant flavour enhancer flavour enhancer flavour enhancer acidity regulator preservative stabilizer antifoaming agent bulking agent carrier foaming agent gelling agent glazing agent humectant sequestrant stabilizer thickener anticaking agent antioxidant preservative acidity regulator anticaking agent surface colourant firming agent dough conditioner stabilizer firming agent stabilizer thickener sweetener acidity regulator emulsifier moisture-retention agent raising agent sequestrant stabilizer acidity regulator anticaking agent firming agent dough conditioner flour treatment agent

443 154 155 943a 320 321 629 633 634 263

Brominated vegetable oils Brown FK Brown HT Butane Butylated hydroxyanisole Butylated hydroxytoluene Calcium 5-guanylate Calcium 5-inosinate Calcium 5-ribonucleotides Calcium acetate

404

Calcium alginate

556 302 213

Calcium aluminium silicate Calcium ascorbate Calcium benzoate

170(i)

Calcium carbonate

170 509 333 952(ii)

Calcium carbonates Calcium chloride Calcium citrates Calcium cyclamate

450(vii)

Calcium dihydrogen diphosphate

341(i)

Calcium dihydrogen phosphate

CAC/GL 36-1989 INS No. Name of Food Additive Functional Class


Humectant Raising agent Sequestrant Stabilizer Thickener Flavour enhancer Antioxidant Colour retention agent Preservative Sequestrant Anticaking agent Preservative Acidity regulator Acidity regulator Firming agent Sequestrant Gelling agent Stabilizer Thickener Acidity regulator Anticaking agent Colour Firming agent Flour treatment agent Stabilizer Acidity regulator Acidity regulator Anticaking agent Firming agent Flour treatment agent 341(ii) Calcium hydrogen phosphate Humectant Raising agent Stabilizer Thickener Antioxidant Preservative Acidity regulator Firming agent Flour treatment agent Antioxidant Acidity regulator Flour treatment agent Stabilizer

32 Technological Purpose
humectant moisture-retention agent raising agent sequestrant stabilizer texturizing agent flavour enhancer antioxidant colour retention agent preservative sequestrant anticaking agent preservative acidity regulator acidity regulator firming agent sequestrant gelling agent stabilizer thickener acidity regulator anticaking agent surface colourant firming agent dough conditioner stabilizer acidity regulator acidity regulator anticaking agent firming agent dough conditioner flour treatment agent humectant moisture-retention agent raising agent stabilizer texturizing agent antioxidant preservative acidity regulator firming agent flour treatment agent antioxidant acidity regulator flour treatment agent stabilizer carrier encapsulating agent acidity regulator emulsifier stabilizer acidity regulator dough conditioner flour treatment agent flour treatment agent acidity regulator emulsifier

623

Calcium di-L-glutamate Calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate Calcium ferrocyanide Calcium formate Calcium fumarates Calcium gluconate

385

538 238 367 578

383

Calcium glycerophosphate

170(ii)

Calcium hydrogen carbonate

352(i)

Calcium hydrogen malate

227 526 916 318 327 399 482 1522 352(ii) 352 482(ii)

Calcium hydrogen sulfite Calcium hydroxide Calcium iodate Calcium isoascorbate Calcium lactate Calcium lactobionate Calcium lactylates Calcium lignosulfonate, 40-65 Calcium malate, D,LCalcium malates Calcium oleyl lactylate

Carrier Acidity regulator Emulsifier Stabilizer Acidity regulator Flour treatment agent Flour treatment agent Acidity regulator Emulsifier

529 930 341 452(iv)

Calcium oxide Calcium peroxide Calcium phosphates Calcium polyphosphate

CAC/GL 36-1989 INS No. Name of Food Additive Functional Class


Humectant Raising agent Sequestrant Stabilizer Thickener Preservative Sweetener Anticaking agent Preservative Emulsifier Emulsifier Flour treatment agent Foaming agent Stabilizer Firming agent Flour treatment agent Sequestrant Stabilizer Antioxidant Preservative Acidity regulator Carrier Emulsifier Glazing agent Thickener Colour Colour Colour Colour Colour Colour Carbonating agent Packaging gas Preservative Propellant Colour Acidity regulator Anticaking agent Bulking agent Carrier Glazing agent Emulsifier Stabilizer Thickener Colour Colour Colour Colour Colour Colour Bulking agent Carrier Emulsifier Gelling agent Glazing agent Humectant

33 Technological Purpose
moisture-retention agent raising agent sequestrant stabilizer texturizing agent preservative sweetener anticaking agent preservative emulsifier emulsifier dough conditioners whipping agent stabilizer firming agent flour treatment agent sequestrant stabilizer antioxidant preservative acidity regulator carrier clouding agent glazing agent surface finishing agent texturizing agent colour colour colour colour colour colour carbonating agent packaging gas preservative propellant colour acidity regulator anticaking agent bulking agent carrier glazing agent emulsifier stabilizer thickener colour colour colour colour colour colour bulking agent carrier emulsifier gelling agent coating agent glazing agent humectant

282 954(ii) 552 203 486

Calcium propionate Calcium saccharin Calcium silicate Calcium sorbate Calcium stearoyl fumarate

482(i)

Calcium stearoyl lactylate

516

Calcium sulfate

226 354

Calcium sulfite Calcium tartrate, DL-

902

Candelilla wax

161g 150a 150b 150c 150d 150 152

Canthaxanthin Caramel I plain caramel Caramel II - sulfite caramel Caramel III - ammonia caramel Caramel IV - sulfite ammonia caramel Caramels Carbon black (Hydrocarbon)

290

Carbon dioxide

120

Carmines

903

Carnauba wax

410 160e 160a 160a(iv) 160a(iii) 160a (i) 160a(ii) 160f

Carob bean gum Carotenal, beta-apo-8Carotenes Carotenes, beta-, algae Carotenes, beta-, Blakeslea trispora Carotenes, beta-, synthetic Carotenes, beta-, vegetable Carotenoic acid, ethyl ester, beta-apo-8'-

407

Carrageenan

CAC/GL 36-1989 INS No. Name of Food Additive Functional Class


Stabilizer Thickener Emulsifier Gelling agent Stabilizer Thickener Anticaking agent Carrier Emulsifier Glazing agent 460 925 926 945 141(ii) 140 141 141(i) 1000 1001(i) 1001(ii) 1001(iii) 1001(iv) 1001(vi) 1001 1001(v) 330 Celluloses Chlorine Chlorine dioxide Chloropentafluorethane Chlorophyllins, copper complexes, potassium and sodium salts Chlorophylls Chlorophylls and chlorophyllins, copper complexes Chlorophylls, copper complexes Cholic acid Choline acetate Choline carbonate Choline chloride Choline citrate Choline lactate Choline salts and esters Choline tartrate Citric acid Flour bleaching agent Flour treatment agent Propellant Colour Colour

34 Technological Purpose
stabilizer thickener emulsifier gelling agent stabilizer thickener anticaking agent carrier solvent emulsifier plasticizer glazing agent flour bleaching agent flour treatment agent propellant colour colour

427

Cassia gum

1503

Castor oil

Colour Emulsifier Emulsifier Emulsifier Emulsifier Emulsifier Emulsifier Emulsifier Acidity regulator Antioxidant Sequestrant Antioxidant Emulsifier Flour treatment agent Sequestrant Stabilizer Colour Stabilizer Thickener Colour retention agent Preservative Colour Firming agent Gelling agent Stabilizer Thickener

colour emulsifier emulsifier emulsifier emulsifier emulsifier emulsifier emulsifier acidity regulator antioxidant sequestrant antioxidant synergist emulsifier dough conditioner sequestrant stabilizer colour stabilizer binder colour fixative preservative colour firming agent gelling agent stabilizer thickener sweetener stabilizer binder carrier stabilizer binder stabilizer binder carrier carrier flour treatment agent

472c

Citric and fatty acid esters of glycerol

121 468 519 100(i) 100

Citrus red No. 2 Cross-linked sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (Cross-linked cellulose gum) Cupric sulfate Curcumin Curcumins

424

Curdlan

952 952(i) 457

Cyclamates Cyclamic acid

459

458 1504(i) 1504(ii) 920

Sweetener Stabilizer Cyclodextrin, alphaThickener Carrier Cyclodextrin, betaStabilizer Thickener Stabilizer Cyclodextrin, gammaThickener Cyclotetraglucose Carrier Cyclotetraglucose syrup Carrier Cysteine, L- and its hydrochlorides sodium Flour treatment agent

CAC/GL 36-1989 INS No.


921 265 472e

35 Functional Class
Flour treatment agent Preservative Emulsifier Sequestrant Stabilizer Acidity regulator Flour treatment agent Acidity regulator Firming agent Sequestrant Stabilizer Acidity regulator Emulsifier Firming agent Raising agent Sequestrant Stabilizer Thickener Propellant Antioxidant Acidity regulator Flour treatment agent Emulsifier Firming agent Raising agent Stabilizer Thickener Preservative Emulsifier Humectant Preservative Flavour enhancer Acidity regulator Emulsifier Humectant Raising agent Sequestrant Stabilizer Acidity regulator Emulsifier

Name of Food Additive


and potassium salts Cystine, L-and its hydrochlorides sodium and potassium salts Dehydroacetic acid Diacetyltartaric and fatty acid esters of glycerol Diammonium hydrogen phosphate

Technological Purpose
flour treatment agent preservative emulsifier sequestrant stabilizer acidity regulator flour treatment agent acidity regulator firming agent sequestrant stabilizer acidity regulator buffering agent emulsifier firming agent raising agent sequestrant stabilizer texturizing agent propellant antioxidant acidity regulator dough conditioner emulsifier firming agent raising agent stabilizer texturizing agent preservative emulsifier wetting agent preservative flavour enhancer acidity regulator emulsifier moisture-retention agent raising agent sequestrant stabilizer acidity regulator buffer emulsifier humectant moisture-retention agent sequestrant stabilizer texturizing agent acidity regulator sequestrant stabilizer flavour enhancer flavour enhancer flavour enhancer acidity regulator buffering agent emulsifier moisture-retention agent

342(ii)

333(ii)

Dicalcium citrate

450(vi)

Dicalcium diphosphate

940 389

Dichlorodifluormethane Dilauryl thiodipropionate

450(viii)

Dimagnesium diphosphate

242 480 230 450 628

Dimethyl dicarbonate Dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate Diphenyl Diphosphates Dipotassium 5-guanylate

450(iv)

Dipotassium diphosphate

340(ii)

Dipotassium hydrogen phosphate

Humectant Sequestrant Stabilizer Thickener Acidity regulator Sequestrant Stabilizer Flavour enhancer Flavour enhancer Flavour enhancer Acidity regulator

336(ii) 627 631 635

Dipotassium tartrate Disodium 5-guanylate Disodium 5-inosinate Disodium 5-ribonucleotides

450(i)

Disodium diphosphate

Emulsifier Humectant

CAC/GL 36-1989 INS No. Name of Food Additive Functional Class


Raising agent Sequestrant Stabilizer Thickener Antioxidant Colour retention agent Preservative Sequestrant Stabilizer Acidity regulator Emulsifier 339(ii) Disodium hydrogen phosphate Humectant Sequestrant Stabilizer Thickener Acidity regulator Emulsifier Sequestrant Stabilizer Acidity regulator Flavour enhancer Antioxidant Antioxidant Antioxidant Flavour enhancer Humectant Sweetener Colour Emulsifier Antioxidant Binder Bulking agent Carrier Glazing agent Thickener Antioxidant Emulsifier Stabilizer Thickener Flavour enhancer Preservative Colour Antifoaming agent Glazing agent Stabilizer Anticaking agent Acidity regulator Colour retention agent Anticaking agent Colour retention agent Flour treatment agent Flavour enhancer Stabilizer Colour Preservative Preservative

36 Technological Purpose
raising agent sequestrant stabilizer texturizing agent antioxidant colour stabilizer preservative sequestrant stabilizer acidity regulator buffer emulsifier humectant moisture-retention agent sequestrant stabilizer texturizing agent acidity regulator emulsifier sequestrant stabilizer acidity regulator flavour enhancer antioxidant antioxidant antioxidant flavour enhancer humectant sweetener colour emulsifier antioxidant binder filler diluent for other food additives coating agent glazing agent thickener antioxidant emulsifier stabilizer thickener flavour enhancer preservative colour antifoaming agent glazing agent foam stabilizer anticaking agent acidity regulator colour retention agent colour stabilizer anticaking agent colour retention agent flour treatment agent flavour enhancer stabilizer colour preservative preservative

386

Disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate

331(ii)

Disodium monohydrogen citrate

364(ii) 390 312 315 968 127 488 324

Disodium succinate Distearyl thiodipropionate Dodecyl gallate Erythorbic acid (Isoascorbic acid) Erythritol Erythrosine Ethoxylated mono- and di-glycerides Ethoxyquin

462

Ethyl cellulose

313 467 637 214 143 570 381 505 579 537 585 1101(iv) 161a 240 236

Ethyl gallate Ethyl hydroxyethyl cellulose Ethyl maltol Ethyl para-hydroxybenzoate Fast Green FCF Fatty acids Ferric ammonium citrate Ferrous carbonate Ferrous gluconate Ferrous hexacyanomanganate Ferrous lactate Ficin Flavoxanthin Formaldehyde Formic acid

CAC/GL 36-1989 INS No.


297 165 164

37 Functional Class
Acidity regulator Colour Colour Carrier Emulsifier Gelling agent Stabilizer Thickener Stabilizer Thickener Acidity regulator Raising agent Acidity regulator Raising agent Sequestrant Antioxidant Flavour enhancer Humectant Thickener Carrier Emulsifier Emulsifier Emulsifier

Name of Food Additive


Fumaric acid Gardenia blue Gardenia yellow

Technological Purpose
acidity regulator colour colour carrier emulsifier gelling agent stabilizer thickener stabilizer thickener acidity regulator raising agent acidity regulator raising agent sequestrant antioxidant flavour enhancer humectant bodying agent carrier density adjustment agent emulsifier density adjustment agent emulsifier density adjustment agent emulsifier stabilizer glazing agent flavour enhancer flavour enhancer sweetener colour colour colour antioxidant flavour enhancer emulsifier stabilizer thickener bulking agent carrier emulsifier glazing agent stabilizer thickener emulsifier stabilizer thickener preservative acidity regulator sequestrant preservative preservative antioxidant colour retention agent acidity regulator packaging gas glazing agent

428

Gelatin

418 574

Gellan gum Gluconic acid, D-

575 1102 620 422 1517 445(i) 445(ii)

Glucono delta-lactone Glucose oxidase Glutamic acid, L(+)Glycerol Glycerol diacetate Glycerol ester of gum rosin Glycerol ester of tall oil rosin

445(iii) 445 915 640 958 175 163(ii) 142 314 626 412

Glycerol ester of wood rosin

414

419 241 370 209 239 586 507 949 907

Stabilizer Glycerol esters of rosin Glycerol, methyl, or pentaerithrytol esters of Glazing agent colophane Glycine Flavour enhancer Flavour enhancer Glycyrrhizin Sweetener Gold, metallic Colour Grape skin extract Colour Green S Colour Guaiac resin Antioxidant Guanylic acid, 5Flavour enhancer Emulsifier Guar gum Stabilizer Thickener Bulking agent Carrier Emulsifier Gum arabic (Acacia gum) Glazing agent Stabilizer Thickener Emulsifier Gum ghatti Stabilizer Thickener Gum guaicum Preservative Acidity regulator Heptonolactone, 1,4Sequestrant Heptyl para-hydroxybenzoate Preservative Hexamethylene tetramine Preservative Antioxidant Hexylresorcinol, 4Colour retention agent Hydrochloric acid Acidity regulator Hydrogen Packaging gas Hydrogenated poly-1-decenes Glazing agent

CAC/GL 36-1989 INS No. Name of Food Additive Functional Class


Binder Emulsifier Foaming agent 463 Hydroxypropyl cellulose Glazing agent Stabilizer Thickener Bulking agent Glazing agent 464 Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose Emulsifier Stabilizer Thickener Colour Flavour enhancer Stabilizer Colour Colour Colour Propellant Anticaking agent Bulking agent Glazing agent Sweetener Antioxidant Preservative Sequestrant Emulsifier Stabilizer Thickener Carrier Emulsifier Gelling agent Glazing agent Humectant Stabilizer Thickener Colour Acidity regulator Emulsifier Sequestrant Stabilizer Emulsifier Sweetener Thickener Emulsifier Glazing agent Preservative Antioxidant Emulsifier Preservative Antioxidant Emulsifier Flavour enhancer Flavour enhancer

38 Technological Purpose
binder emulsifier suspension agent foaming agent coating agent film-forming agent glazing agent stabilizer thickener bulking agent coating agent glazing agent emulsifier stabilizer thickener colour flavour enhancer stabilizer colour colour colour propellant anticaking agent bulking agent glazing agent sweetener antioxidant preservative sequestrant emulsifier stabilizer thickener carrier emulsifier gelling agent glazing agent humectant stabilizer thickener colour acidity regulator emulsifier sequestrant stabilizer emulsifier sweetener texturizing agent emulsifier glazing agent preservative antioxidant emulsifier preservative antioxidant emulsifier flavour enhancer flavour enhancer

132 630 1103 172(i) 172(ii) 172(iii) 172 943b

Indigotine (Indigo carmine) Inosinic acid, 5Invertases Iron oxide, black Iron oxide, red Iron oxide, yellow Iron oxides Isobutane

953

Isomalt (Hydrogenated isomaltulose)

384

Isopropyl citrates

416

Karaya gum

425

Konjac flour

161c 270 472b

Kryptoxanthin Lactic acid, L-, D- and DLLactic and fatty acid esters of glycerol

966 478 913 243 322(i) 344 322(ii) 322 641 1104

Lactitol Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propylene glycol Lanolin Lauric arginate ethyl ester Lecithin Lecithin citrate Lecithin, partially hydrolysed Lecithins Leucine, LLipases

CAC/GL 36-1989 INS No.


180 161b(i) 161b 160d(iii) 160d(i) 160d(ii) 160d 642 1105 504(i) 504 511 345 450(ix) 343(i) 625 580

39 Functional Class
Colour Colour Colour Colour Colour Flavour enhancer Preservative Acidity regulator Anticaking agent Colour retention agent Colour retention agent Firming agent Stabilizer Acidity regulator Raising agent Acidity regulator Anticaking agent Flavour enhancer Acidity regulator Firming agent Flavour enhancer Acidity regulator Anticaking agent Acidity regulator Colour retention agent Acidity regulator Anticaking agent Carrier Colour retention agent Acidity regulator Flour treatment agent Anticaking agent

Name of Food Additive


Lithol rubine BK Lutein from Tagetes erecta Luteins Lycopene, Blakeslea trispora Lycopene, synthetic Lycopene, tomato Lycopenes Lysin hydrochloride Lysozyme Magnesium carbonate Magnesium carbonates Magnesium chloride Magnesium citrate Magnesium dihydrogen diphosphate Magnesium dihydrogen phosphate Magnesium di-L-glutamate Magnesium gluconate

Technological Purpose
colour colour colour colour colour flavour enhancer preservative acidity regulator anticaking agent colour retention agent colour retention agent firming agent stabilizer acidity regulator raising agent acidity regulator anticaking agent flavour enhancer acidity regulator firming agent flavour enhancer acidity regulator anticaking agent acidity regulator colour retention agent acidity regulator anticaking agent drying agent carrier colour retention agent acidity regulator flour treatment agent anticaking agent anticaking agent dusting agent anticaking agent emulsifier binder firming agent flavour enhancer anticaking agent dusting agent acidity regulator bulking agent emulsifier humectant stabilizer sweetener bulking agent emulsifier humectant sweetener stabilizer flavour enhancer

343(ii) 528

Magnesium hydrogen phosphate Magnesium hydroxide

504(ii)

Magnesium hydroxide carbonate

329 530 343 553(i) 553 470(iii)

Magnesium lactate, DLMagnesium oxide Magnesium phosphates Magnesium silicate, synthetic Magnesium silicates Magnesium stearate

Anticaking agent

518 553(ii) 296

Magnesium sulfate Magnesium trisilicate Malic acid, DL-

Anticaking agent Emulsifier Thickener Firming agent Flavour enhancer Anticaking agent Acidity regulator Bulking agent Emulsifier Humectant Stabilizer Sweetener Bulking agent Emulsifier Humectant Sweetener Stabilizer Flavour enhancer

965(ii)

Maltitol syrup

965(i)

Maltitol

965 636

Maltitols Maltol

CAC/GL 36-1989 INS No.


130

40 Functional Class
Colour Anticaking agent Bulking agent Humectant Stabilizer Sweetener Acidity regulator Bulking agent Glazing agent

Name of Food Additive


Manascorubin

Technological Purpose
colour anticaking agent bulking agent humectant stabilizer sweetener acidity regulator bulking agent coating agent glazing agent emulsifier stabilizer thickener glazing agent emulsifier foaming agent stabilizer thickener emulsifier preservative antifoaming agent anticaking agent bulking agent carrier coating agent glazing agent dispersing agent emulsifier foaming agent stabilizer texturizing agent thickener defoaming agent glazing agent glazing agent sealing agent defoaming agent glazing agent sealing agent glazing agent sealing agent glazing agent sealing agent glazing agent sealing agent antifoaming agent emulsifier stabilizer flavour enhancer acidity regulator firming agent sequestrant stabilizer flavour enhancer acidity regulator sequestrant stabilizer flavour enhancer acidity regulator flavour enhancer

421

Mannitol

353

Metatartaric acid

461

Methyl cellulose

911

Methyl esters of fatty acids

465

Methyl ethyl cellulose

489 218 900b

Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester Methyl para-hydroxybenzoate Methylphenylpolysiloxane

Emulsifier Stabilizer Thickener Glazing agent Emulsifier Foaming agent Stabilizer Thickener Emulsifier Preservative Antifoaming agent Anticaking agent Bulking agent Carrier Glazing agent

460(i)

Microcrystalline cellulose (Cellulose gel)

Emulsifier Foaming agent Stabilizer Thickener

905c(i) 905a

Microcrystalline wax Mineral oil, food grade

Antifoaming agent Glazing agent Glazing agent Antifoaming agent

905d

Mineral oil, high viscosity

Glazing agent

905e 905f 905g

Mineral oil, medium and low viscosity, class I Glazing agent Mineral oil, medium and low viscosity, class Glazing agent II Mineral oil, medium and low viscosity, class Glazing agent III Antifoaming agent Mono- and di- glycerides of fatty acids Emulsifier Stabilizer Monoammonium L-glutamate Flavour enhancer Acidity regulator Firming agent Monocalcium citrate Sequestrant Stabilizer Monopotassium L-glutamate Flavour enhancer Acidity regulator Monopotassium tartrate Sequestrant Stabilizer Monosodium L-glutamate Flavour enhancer Acidity regulator Monosodium succinate Flavour enhancer

471 624

333(i)

622 336(i) 621 364(i)

CAC/GL 36-1989 INS No.


335 (i) 235 959 961 375 234 941 918 919

41 Functional Class
Acidity regulator Sequestrant Stabilizer Preservative Sweetener Flavour enhancer Sweetener Colour retention agent Preservative Packaging gas Propellant Flour treatment agent Flour treatment agent Antioxidant Foaming agent Packaging gas Propellant Stabilizer Thickener Propellant Emulsifier Antioxidant Colour Preservative Antioxidant Sequestrant Flavour enhancer Colour Colour Glazing agent Colour Emulsifier Gelling agent Stabilizer Thickener Acidity regulator Emulsifier Humectant Sequestrant Stabilizer Thickener Acidity regulator Emulsifier Humectant Sequestrant Stabilizer Thickener Emulsifier Antifoaming agent Glazing agent Glazing agent Acidity regulator Antioxidant Sequestrant Preservative Bulking agent Glazing agent

Name of Food Additive


Monosodium tartrate Natamycin (Pimaricin) Neohesperidine dihydrochalcone Neotame Nicotinic acid Nisin Nitrogen Nitrogen oxides Nitrosyl chloride

Technological Purpose
acidity regulator sequestrant stabilizer preservative sweetener flavour enhancer sweetener colour retention agent preservative packaging gas propellant flour treatment agent flour treatment agent antioxidant foaming agent packaging gas propellant stabilizer thickener propellant emulsifier antioxidant colour preservative antioxidant sequestrant flavour enhancer colour colour glazing agent colour emulsifier gelling agent stabilizer thickener acidity regulator emulsifier moisture-retention agent sequestrant stabilizer texturizing agent acidity regulator emulsifier moisture-retention agent stabilizer sequestrant texturizing agent emulsifier antifoaming agent glazing agent sealing agent glazing agent sealing agent acidity regulator antioxidant synergist sequestrant preservative bulking agent coating agent

942

Nitrous oxide

411 946 423 311 182 231 387 1101(ii) 160c(ii) 160c(i) 905c(ii) 131

Oat gum Octafluorcyclobutane Octenyl succinic acid (OSA) modified gum arabic Octyl gallate Orchil Ortho-phenylphenol Oxystearin Papain Paprika extract Paprika oleoresin Paraffin wax Patent blue V

440

Pectins

451(ii)

Pentapotassium triphosphate

451(i)

Pentasodium triphosphate

429 905b

Peptones Petroleum jelly (Petrolatum)

905c

Petroleum wax

338 391 1200

Phosphoric acid Phytic acid Polydextroses

CAC/GL 36-1989 INS No. Name of Food Additive Functional Class


Humectant Stabilizer Thickener Anticaking agent Antifoaming agent Emulsifier Antifoaming agent Carrier Emulsifier Glazing agent Thickener Emulsifier Emulsifier Sweetener Emulsifier Emulsifier Emulsifier

42 Technological Purpose
glazing agent humectant stabilizer texturizing agent thickener anticaking agent antifoaming agent emulsifier antifoaming agent carrier emulsifier plasticizer glazing agent binder emulsifier emulsifier sweetener dispersing agent emulsifier dispersing agent emulsifier dispersing agent emulsifier dispersing agent emulsifier dispersing agent emulsifier emulsifier emulsifier coating agent sealing agent surface-finishing agent binder dispersing agent coating agent stabilizer bodying agent colour stabilizer colloidal stabilizer stabilizer colour colour acidity regulator flavour enhancer acidity regulator preservative acidity regulator bulking agent carrier emulsifier foaming agent gelling agent glazing agent humectant sequestrant stabilizer thickener

900a

Polydimethylsiloxane

1521

Polyethylene glycol

475 476 964 432 433 434 435 436 431 430 452

Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids Polyglycerol esters of interesterified ricinoleic acid Polyglycitol syrup Polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monolaurate Polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate Polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monopalmitate

Polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearate Emulsifier Polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan tristearate Polyoxyethylene (40) stearate Polyoxyethylene (8) stearate Polyphosphates Emulsifier Emulsifier Emulsifier

1203

Polyvinyl alcohol

Glazing agent Thickener Emulsifier Glazing agent Stabilizer Thickener Colour retention agent Stabilizer Colour Colour Acidity regulator Flavour enhancer Acidity regulator Preservative Acidity regulator Bulking agent Carrier Emulsifier Foaming agent Gelling agent Glazing agent Humectant Sequestrant Stabilizer Thickener

1201

Polyvinylpyrrolidone

1202 124 125 357 632 261(i) 261 357

Polyvinylpyrrolidone, insoluble Ponceau 4R (Cochineal red A) Ponceau SX Potassium adipates Potassium 5-inosinate Potassium acetate Potassium acetates Potassium adipates

402

Potassium alginate

CAC/GL 36-1989 INS No.


555 303 212 228 501(i) 501

43 Functional Class
Anticaking agent Antioxidant Preservative Antioxidant Preservative Acidity regulator Stabilizer Gelling agent Flavour enhancer Stabilizer Thickener Acidity regulator Preservative Acidity regulator Sequestrant Stabilizer Acidity regulator Emulsifier

Name of Food Additive


Potassium aluminium silicate Potassium ascorbate Potassium benzoate Potassium bisulfite Potassium carbonate Potassium carbonates

Technological Purpose
anticaking agent antioxidant preservative antioxidant preservative acidity regulator stabilizer gelling agent flavour enhancer stabilizer thickener acidity regulator preservative acidity regulator sequestrant stabilizer acidity regulator buffer emulsifier humectant moisture-retention agent sequestrant stabilizer texturizing agent anticaking agent acidity regulator acidity regulator sequestrant acidity regulator raising agent stabilizer acidity regulator acidity regulator acidity regulator flour treatment agent antioxidant acidity regulator antioxidant synergist acidity regulator antioxidant bleaching agent flour treatment agent preservative colour fixative preservative colour fixative preservative flour treatment agent acidity regulator emulsifier moisture-retention agent raising agent sequestrant stabilizer texturizing agent preservative

508

Potassium chloride

332 261(ii)

Potassium citrates Potassium diacetate

332(i)

Potassium dihydrogen citrate

340(i)

Potassium dihydrogen phosphate

Humectant Sequestrant Stabilizer Thickener Anticaking agent Acidity regulator Acidity regulator Sequestrant Acidity regulator Raising agent Stabilizer Acidity regulator Acidity regulator Acidity regulator Flour treatment agent Antioxidant Acidity regulator Antioxidant Acidity regulator Antioxidant Bleaching agent Flour treatment agent Preservative Colour retention agent Preservative Colour retention agent Preservative Flour treatment agent Acidity regulator Emulsifier Humectant Raising agent Sequestrant Stabilizer Thickener Preservative

536 366 577

Potassium ferrocyanide Potassium fumarates Potassium gluconate

501(ii) 351(i) 515(ii) 525 917 317 326 351(ii) 351

Potassium hydrogen carbonate Potassium hydrogen malate Potassium hydrogen sulfate Potassium hydroxide Potassium iodate Potassium isoascorbate Potassium lactate Potassium malate Potassium malates

224

Potassium metabisulfite

252 249 922 340

Potassium nitrate Potassium nitrite Potassium persulfate Potassium phosphates

452(ii)

Potassium polyphosphate

283

Potassium propionate

CAC/GL 36-1989 INS No.


954(iii) 560 337 202 515(i) 515 225 336

44 Functional Class
Sweetener Anticaking agent Acidity regulator Sequestrant Stabilizer Preservative Acidity regulator Antioxidant Preservative Anticaking agent Bulking agent Glazing agent

Name of Food Additive


Potassium saccharin Potassium silicate Potassium sodium L(+)-tartrate Potassium sorbate Potassium sulfate Potassium sulfates Potassium sulfite Potassium tartrates

Technological Purpose
sweetener anticaking agent acidity regulator sequestrant stabilizer preservative acidity regulator antioxidant preservative anticaking agent bulking agent coating agent glazing agent dispersing agent emulsifier humectant stabilizer texturizing agent thickener bulking agent carrier emulsifier gelling agent coating agent glazing agent humectant stabilizer thickener propellant preservative antioxidant preservative dispersing agent glazing agent humectant wetting agent bulking agent carrier emulsifier foaming agent gelling agent stabilizer thickener emulsifier flour treatment agent flavour enhancer stabilizer film-forming agent glazing agent thickener colour emulsifier foaming agent emulsifier foaming agent colour

460(ii)

Powdered cellulose

Emulsifier Humectant Stabilizer Thickener Bulking agent Carrier Emulsifier Gelling agent

407a

Processed euchema seaweed (PES)

Glazing agent Humectant Stabilizer Thickener Propellant Preservative Antioxidant Preservative Emulsifier Glazing agent Humectant Bulking agent Carrier Emulsifier Foaming agent Gelling agent Stabilizer Thickener Emulsifier Flour treatment agent Flavour enhancer Stabilizer

944 280 310 216

Propane Propionic acid Propyl gallate Propyl para-hydroxybenzoate

1520

Propylene glycol

405

Propylene glycol alginate

477 1101(i) 1101 1204 163(iv) 999(i) 999(ii) 999 104

Propylene glycol esters of fatty acids Protease Proteases Pullulan Purple corn colour Quillaia extract type 1 Quillaia extract type 2 Quillaia extracts Quinoline yellow

Glazing agent Thickener Colour Emulsifier Foaming agent Emulsifier Foaming agent Colour

CAC/GL 36-1989 INS No.


128 163(v) 161f 101(ii) 101(iii) 101(i) 101 908 392 161d 954(i) 954 470

45 Functional Class
Colour Colour Colour Colour Colour Colour Glazing agent Antioxidant Colour Sweetener

Name of Food Additive


Red 2G Red cabbage colour Rhodoxanthin Riboflavin 5'-phosphate sodium Riboflavin from Bacillus subtilis Riboflavin, synthetic Riboflavins Rice bran wax Rosemary extract Rubixanthin Saccharin Saccharins Salts of fatty acids, with base aluminium, ammonium, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium Salts of myristic, palmitic and stearic acids with ammonia, calcium, potassium and sodium Salts of oleic acid with calcium, potassium and sodium Sandalwood Shellac, bleached

Technological Purpose
colour colour colour colour colour colour glazing agent antioxidant colour sweetener

470(i)

470(ii) 166 904

Anticaking agent Emulsifier Stabilizer Anticaking agent Emulsifier Stabilizer Colour Glazing agent Anticaking agent Carrier Antifoaming agent Colour Acidity regulator Preservative Sequestrant Acidity regulator Bulking agent Carrier Emulsifier Foaming agent Gelling agent Glazing agent Humectant Sequestrant Stabilizer Thickener Acidity regulator Emulsifier Raising agent Stabilizer Thickener Acidity regulator Emulsifier Stabilizer Thickener Anticaking agent Antioxidant Preservative Acidity regulator Emulsifier Humectant

551 174 262(i) 262 356

Silicon dioxide, amorphous Silver Sodium acetate Sodium acetates Sodium adipates

anticaking agent emulsifier stabilizer anticaking agent emulsifier stabilizer colour coating agent glazing agent surface-finishing agent anticaking agent carrier defoaming agent colour acidity regulator preservative sequestrant acidity regulator bulking agent carrier emulsifier foaming agent gelling agent glazing agent humectant sequestrant stabilizer thickener acidity regulator emulsifier raising agent stabilizer texturizing agent acidity regulator emulsifier stabilizer texturizing agent anticaking agent antioxidant preservative acidity regulator emulsifier moisture-retention agent

401

Sodium alginate

541(i)

Sodium aluminium phosphate, acidic

541(ii)

Sodium aluminium phosphate, basic

541 554 301 211 452(iii)

Sodium aluminium phosphates Sodium aluminosilicate Sodium ascorbate Sodium benzoate Sodium calcium polyphosphate

CAC/GL 36-1989 INS No. Name of Food Additive Functional Class


Raising agent Sequestrant Stabilizer Acidity regulator Anticaking agent Raising agent Bulking agent Emulsifier Firming agent Gelling agent Glazing agent Humectant Stabilizer Thickener Stabilizer Thickener Sweetener Preservative Acidity regulator Preservative Sequestrant Acidity regulator Emulsifier Sequestrant Stabilizer Acidity regulator Emulsifier 339(i) Sodium dihydrogen phosphate Humectant Raising agent Sequestrant Stabilizer Thickener Acidity regulator Humectant Antioxidant Preservative Anticaking agent Preservative Acidity regulator Sequestrant Stabilizer Thickener Acidity regulator Anticaking agent Raising agent Acidity regulator Humectant Acidity regulator Antioxidant Preservative Acidity regulator Acidity regulator Sequestrant

46 Technological Purpose
raising agent sequestrant stabilizer acidity regulator anticaking agent raising agent bulking agent emulsifier suspension agent firming agent gelling agent coating agent glazing agent humectant stabilizer thickener stabilizer thickener sweetener preservative acidity regulator preservative sequestrant acidity regulator emulsifier sequestrant stabilizer acidity regulator buffer emulsifier humectant moisture-retention agent raising agent sequestrant stabilizer texturizing agent acidity regulator humectant antioxidant preservative anticaking agent preservative acidity regulator sequestrant stabilizer thickener acidity regulator anticaking agent raising agent acidity regulator humectant acidity regulator antioxidant preservative acidity regulator acidity regulator sequestrant

500(i) 500

Sodium carbonate Sodium carbonates

466

Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (Cellulose gum)

469 331 952(iv) 266 262(ii)

Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, enzymatically hydrolysed (Cellulose gum, enzymatically hydrolyzed) Sodium citrates Sodium cyclamate Sodium dehydroacetate Sodium diacetate

331(i)

Sodium dihydrogen citrate

350(ii) 316 215 535 237 365 576

Sodium DL-malate Sodium erythorbate (Sodium isoascorbate) Sodium ethyl para-hydroxybenzoate Sodium ferrocyanide Sodium formate Sodium fumarates Sodium gluconate

500(ii)

Sodium hydrogen carbonate

350(i) 514(ii) 222 524 335(ii)

Sodium hydrogen DL-malate Sodium hydrogen sulfate Sodium hydrogen sulfite Sodium hydroxide Sodium L(+)-tartrate

CAC/GL 36-1989 INS No. Name of Food Additive Functional Class


Stabilizer Acidity regulator Antioxidant Bulking agent Humectant Thickener Flavour enhancer Emulsifier Antioxidant Bleaching agent Flour treatment agent Preservative Anticaking agent Preservative Colour retention agent Preservative Preservative Colour retention agent Preservative Emulsifier Stabilizer Preservative Acidity regulator Emulsifier Humectant Raising agent Sequestrant Stabilizer Thickener Acidity regulator Emulsifier Humectant Raising agent Sequestrant Stabilizer Thickener Acidity regulator Emulsifier Humectant Raising agent Sequestrant Stabilizer Preservative Preservative Sweetener Acidity regulator Anticaking agent Raising agent Anticaking agent Preservative Emulsifier Flour treatment agent Emulsifier Foaming agent Stabilizer

47 Technological Purpose
stabilizer acidity regulator antioxidant synergist bulking agent humectant bodying agent flavour enhancer emulsifier antioxidant bleaching agent flour treatment agent preservative anticaking agent preservative colour fixative preservative preservative colour fixative preservative emulsifier stabilizer preservative acidity regulator emulsifier moisture-retention agent raising agent sequestrant stabilizer texturizing agent acidity regulator emulsifier moisture-retention agent raising agent sequestrant stabilizer texturizing agent acidity regulator emulsifier moisture-retention agent raising agent sequestrant stabilizer preservative preservative sweetener acidity regulator anticaking agent raising agent anticaking agent preservative emulsifier dough conditioner emulsifier whipping agent stabilizer

325

Sodium lactate

481 638 487 350

Sodium lactylates Sodium L-aspartate Sodium laurylsulfate Sodium malates

223

Sodium metabisulfite

550(ii) 219 251

Sodium metasilicate Sodium methyl para-hydroxybenzoate Sodium nitrate

250 481(ii) 232 339

Sodium nitrite Sodium oleyl lactylate Sodium ortho-phenylphenol Sodium phosphates

452(i)

Sodium polyphosphate

452(vi)

Sodium potassium hexametaphosphate

451(iii)

Sodium potassium trisphospate

281 217 954(iv) 500(iii) 550(i) 550 201 485

Sodium propionate Sodium propyl para-hydroxybenzoate Sodium saccharin Sodium sesquicarbonate Sodium silicate Sodium silicates Sodium sorbate Sodium stearoyl fumarate

481(i)

Sodium stearoyl lactylate

364

Sodium succinates

CAC/GL 36-1989 INS No.


514(i) 514

48 Functional Class
Acidity regulator Antioxidant Bleaching agent Flour treatment agent Preservative

Name of Food Additive


Sodium sulfate Sodium sulfates

Technological Purpose
acidity regulator antioxidant bleaching agent flour treatment agent preservative antibrowning agent antioxidant sequestrant preservative emulsifier stabilizer emulsifier stabilizer emulsifier emulsifier stabilizer emulsifier bulking agent humectant sequestrant stabilizer sweetener bulking agent humectant sequestrant stabilizer sweetener anticaking agent emulsifier stabilizer thickener glazing agent antioxidant colour retention agent antioxidant emulsifier sequestrant flour treatment agent sweetener acidity regulator emulsifier sequestrant stabilizer emulsifier sweetener emulsifier emulsifier stabilizer emulsifier stabilizer emulsifier stabilizer antioxidant bleaching agent flour treatment agent preservative acidity regulator

221

Sodium sulfite

335 539 200 493 494 495 491 496 492

Sodium tartrates Sodium thiosulfate Sorbic acid Sorbitan monolaurate Sorbitan monooleate Sorbitan monopalmitate Sorbitan monostearate Sorbitan trioleate Sorbitan tristearate Antioxidant Sequestrant Preservative Emulsifier Stabilizer Emulsifier Stabilizer Emulsifier Emulsifier Stabilizer Emulsifier Bulking agent Humectant Sequestrant Stabilizer Sweetener Bulking agent Humectant Sequestrant Stabilizer Sweetener Anticaking agent Emulsifier Stabilizer Thickener Glazing agent Antioxidant Colour retention agent Antioxidant Emulsifier Sequestrant Flour treatment agent Sweetener Acidity regulator Emulsifier Sequestrant Stabilizer Emulsifier Sweetener Emulsifier Emulsifier Stabilizer Emulsifier Stabilizer Emulsifier Stabilizer Antioxidant Bleaching agent Flour treatment agent Preservative Acidity regulator

420(i)

Sorbitol

420(ii)

Sorbitol syrup

420

Sorbitols

426

Soybean hemicellulose

909 512

Spermaceti wax Stannous chloride

484 483 960 363 472g 446 955 474 444 473 473a

Stearyl citrate Stearyl tartrate Steviol glycosides Succinic acid Succinylated monoglycerides Succistearin Sucralose (Trichlorogalactosucrose) Sucroglycerides Sucrose acetate isobutyrate Sucrose esters of fatty acids Sucrose oligoesters, type I and type II

220

Sulfur dioxide

513

Sulfuric acid

CAC/GL 36-1989 INS No.


110 441 963 161b(ii)

49 Functional Class
Colour Emulsifier Sweetener Colour Anticaking agent

Name of Food Additive


Sunset yellow FCF Superglycerinated hydrogenated rapeseed oil Tagatose, DTagetes extract

Technological Purpose
colour emulsifier sweetener colour anticaking agent dusting agent coating agent surface-finishing agent texturizing agent colour emulsifier stabilizer thickener gelling agent stabilizer thickener emulsifier sequestrant stabilizer acidity regulator antioxidant synergist flavour synergist sequestrant colour antioxidant acidity regulator emulsifier moisture-retention agent raising agent sequestrant stabilizer texturizing agent acidity regulator buffering agent emulsifier moisture-retention agent raising agent sequestrant stabilizer texturizing agent flavour enhancer sweetener emulsifier preservative antioxidant colour antioxidant antioxidant antioxidant antioxidant antioxidant emulsifier stabilizer thickener carrier solvent emulsifier

553(iii)

Talc

Glazing agent Thickener Colour Emulsifier Stabilizer Thickener Gelling agent Stabilizer Thickener Emulsifier Sequestrant Stabilizer Acidity regulator Antioxidant Flavour enhancer Sequestrant Colour Antioxidant Acidity regulator Emulsifier Humectant Raising agent Sequestrant Stabilizer Thickener Acidity regulator Emulsifier Humectant

181

Tannic acid (Tannins)

417

Tara gum

472d

Tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids

334

Tartaric acid, L(+)-

102 319

Tartarzine Tertiary butylhydroquinone

450(v)

Tetrapotassium diphosphate

450(iii)

Tetrasodium diphosphate

Raising agent Sequestrant Stabilizer Thickener Flavour enhancer Sweetener Emulsifier Preservative Antioxidant Colour Antioxidant Antioxidant Antioxidant Antioxidant Antioxidant Emulsifier Stabilizer Thickener Carrier Emulsifier

957 479 233 388 171 307b 307a 309 307c 308 307 413

Thaumatin Thermally oxidized soya bean oil interacted with mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids Thiabendazole Thiodipropionic acid Titanium dioxide Tocopherol concentrate, mixed Tocopherol, d-alphaTocopherol, delta-, synthetic Tocopherol, dl-alphaTocopherol, gamma-, synthetic Tocopherols Tragacanth gum

1518

Triacetin

CAC/GL 36-1989 INS No. Name of Food Additive Functional Class


Humectant Acidity regulator Acidity regulator Firming agent Sequestrant Stabilizer Acidity regulator Anticaking agent Emulsifier Firming agent Flour treatment agent Humectant Raising agent Stabilizer Thickener Carrier 1505 Triethyl citrate Emulsifier Stabilizer Sequestrant Acidity regulator Anticaking agent Acidity regulator Sequestrant Stabilizer Acidity regulator Emulsifier Humectant Sequestrant Stabilizer Thickener Acidity regulator Emulsifier Sequestrant Stabilizer Acidity regulator Emulsifier Raising agent Humectant Sequestrant Stabilizer Thickener Acidity regulator Emulsifier Humectant 339(iii) Trisodium phosphate Preservative Stabilizer Sequestrant Thickener Colour Flour treatment agent Colour Colour

50 Technological Purpose
plasticizer humectant acidity regulator acidity regulator firming agent sequestrant stabilizer acidity regulator buffer anticaking agent clouding agent firming agent flour treatment agent humectant moisture-retention agent raising agent stabilizer texturizing agent carrier solvent emulsifier plasticizer foam stabilizer sequestrant acidity regulator anticaking agent acidity regulator sequestrant stabilizer acidity regulator emulsifier humectant moisture-retention agent sequestrant stabilizer texturizing agent acidity regulator emulsifier sequestrant stabilizer acidity regulator emulsifier raising agent moisture-retention agent sequestrant stabilizer texturizing agent acidity regulator emulsifier humectant moisture-retention agent antimicrobial synergist stabilizer sequestrant texturizing agent colour flour treatment agent colour colour

380

Triammonium citrate

333(iii)

Tricalcium citrate

341(iii)

Tricalcium phosphate

343(iii) 451 332(ii)

Trimagnesium phosphate Triphosphates Tripotassium citrate

340(iii)

Tripotassium phosphate

331(iii)

Trisodium citrate

450(ii)

Trisodium diphosphate

100(ii) 927b 153 161e

Turmeric Urea (Carbamide) Vegetable carbon Violoxanthin

CAC/GL 36-1989 INS No.


910

51 Functional Class Technological Purpose


glazing agent emulsifier foaming agent stabilizer thickener emulsifier humectant stabilizer sweetener thickener colour colour colour flavour enhancer anticaking agent

Name of Food Additive


Wax esters

415

967

107 161h(i) 161h(ii) 161h 650 557

Glazing agent Emulsifier Foaming agent Xanthan gum Stabilizer Thickener Emulsifier Humectant Xylitol Stabilizer Sweetener Thickener Yellow 2G Colour Zeaxanthin, synthetic Colour Zeaxanthin-rich extract from Tagetes erecta Colour Zeaxanthins Zinc acetate Flavour enhancer Zinc silicate Anticaking agent

CAC/GL 36-1989

52

SUPPLEMENTARY LIST - MODIFIED STARCHES

List in alphabetical order INS No. Name of Food Additive Functional Class
Emulsifier 1422 Acetylated distarch adipate Stabilizer Thickener Emulsifier Stabilizer Thickener Emulsifier Stabilizer Thickener Emulsifier Stabilizer Thickener Emulsifier Stabilizer Thickener Emulsifier Stabilizer Thickener Emulsifier Stabilizer Thickener Emulsifier Stabilizer Thickener Emulsifier Stabilizer Thickener Emulsifier Stabilizer Thickener Emulsifier Stabilizer Thickener Emulsifier Stabilizer Thickener Emulsifier Stabilizer Thickener stabilizer binder thickener emulsifier stabilizer binder thickener emulsifier stabilizer binder thickener emulsifier stabilizer binder thickener emulsifier stabilizer binder thickener emulsifier stabilizer binder thickener emulsifier stabilizer binder thickener emulsifier stabilizer binder thickener emulsifier stabilizer binder thickener emulsifier stabilizer binder thickener emulsifier stabilizer binder thickener emulsifier stabilizer binder thickener emulsifier stabilizer binder thickener

Technological purpose
emulsifier

1414

Acetylated distarch phosphate

1451

Acetylated oxidized starch

1401

Acid-treated starch

1402

Alkaline treated starch

1403

Bleached starch

1400

Dextrins, roasted starch

1411

Distarch glycerol

1412

Distarch phosphate

1442

Hydroxypropyl distarch phosphate

1440

Hydroxypropyl starch

1410

Monostarch phosphate

1404

Oxidized starch

CAC/GL 36-1989 INS No.


1413

53 Functional Class
Emulsifier Stabilizer Thickener Emulsifier Stabilizer Thickener Anticaking Agent Carrier Stabilizer Emulsifier Stabilizer Thickener Emulsifier Stabilizer Thickener

Name of Food Additive


Phosphated distarch phosphate

Technological purpose
emulsifier stabilizer binder thickener emulsifier stabilizer binder thickener anticaking agent carrier stabilizer emulsifier stabilizer binder thickener emulsifier stabilizer binder thickener

1420

Starch acetate

1452

Starch aluminium octenyl succinate

1450

Starch sodium octenyl succinate

1405

Starches, enzyme treated