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The sentence and their constituents parts Language is the best medium to express fragmented, non-synthesized ideas to follow

human beings. Human Ideas remain crude and indefinite till they are expressed in and through the medium of language. It is well known that the best form of a language is the sentence. A sentence synthesizes and unifies the thought. Isolated words are incapable of disseminating intended unitary meanings. Through conjoining of words construes a sentence and mere juxtaposition of words dont constitute a sentence. The primary unit of a meaningful language is a sentence that can express a unitary sense. Language consists of words. Words are words until they are used in a sentence. Once a word is used in a sentence it becomes a part of speech. Words are derived into groups according to the functions they perform. These groups are known as Parts of speech and there are eight parts of speech. Every word in the English language falls into one of these categories. Words are not isolated wholes or rounded up entities in themselves. Every word is consonant with other word. Words are like a Jigsaw puzzle. They can fit in and can only fit into their own given places and not any other. Hence, words have their meaning as well as a logical shape. A mere combination of words and their meanings dont constitute of the meaning of the sentence. Therefore it is imperative that we need to arrive at what is sentence and the elements which are required for a well-intended sentence. A word is an oral or written symbol used for expressing thought. It is a letter of the alphabet or a combination of letters which conveys a definite meaning e.g. a tree, logic. If a letter or group of letters does not carry any sense, it is no more a word. mna is not a word but man is a word. Word is a unit of language. Words are used to express thoughts, commands, wishes, feelings etc. In sentences two or more words are put together to denote or express sense or meaning. On the basis of the sense one can divide the sense of the sentence or meaning of the sentences into four kinds according to their context or location of the sense. Declarative sentence Interrogative sentence Imperative sentence Exclamatory sentence Under each type there are two main integral parts which are present Subject- subject is that about which something is stated Predicate- predicate is that which is stated about the subject Kinds of words Different words are used in a sentence have different function. According to the functions words can be classified into eight categories. Before that we have to divide all the categories of the words into two types: Categorematic words Syncategorematic words Categorematic words- a categorematic word is the one which can by itself be used as a word without the help of other words. Under this type we have got the parts of speech such as ( noun, participles, pronouns, adjectives)

Syncategormatic words- a syncategormatic word is one which cannot independently stand as a word but only along with other words. Under this type we have got this part of speech like (prepositions, adverbs, relative pronouns, conjunctions, articles). Sentences as the Basic Unit of Language When the words in a sentence are mutually related to each other so as to express the intention of the speaker or writer, they make a meaningful sentence. Every word has no sense apart from the sentence. The real expressiveness is associated with the sentence. A sentence is a combination, a kind of order, a kind of succession, and a series of words or a collection of words connected together by mutual relation in order to bring about a unified meaning or sense. In other words, a sentence is intrinsically a particular order in which words are constituted together in such a way to express the intended sense.

At the level of words, the words are mutually disconnected where as at the level of sentence, the words are mutually connected. Example, (wants,bread,Mani..Mani wants bread). When the words, though they give their independent meaning at the level of words, are used as a sentence (by removing the punctuation between them) they give a related meaning. There is nothing new added at the level of the sentence from the level of words. Some of the basic requirements or Conditions for a Meaningful Sentence 1. Logicality The main function of the sentence is to express its complete sense or intended meaning. Otherwise it would be a meaningless sentence, devoid of any sense or non-sensical sentence. Ex. He wants the ball. ( well intended sentence) The ball wants he (Non-sensical sentence) 2. Structure of the sentence There are two basic components which are considered as main part of the sentence namely a subject and predicate. For sentence to be a meaningful sentence subject as well as predicate forms themselves as a Necessary condition The subject and predicate they are considered as the two sides of the same coin. Subject is usually a noun that is, a word that names a person, place (or) thing. The predicate usually follows the subject and identifies an action of a state of being. 3. Function of the sentence Normally a sentence express a relationship under the Declarative sentence, voices a question under the Interrogative sentence, conveys a command under the imperative sentence, or express some sudden feelings or emotions under the exclamatory sentence.

4. Graphic conventions A declarative sentence ends with a full stop (.), an interrogative sentence ends with an question mark (?), an imperative sentence ends with (.), an exclamatory sentence ends with an exclamation mark (!). 5. Syntactic Expectancy A mere combination of words in a jumble, either written or spoken in a haphazard manner, wouldnt make a sentence that would give rise to a unitary meaning. A continuation between things can take place only when there is a mutual relation or affinity. In this physical world, we come across two kinds of collocations Mechanical mixture Chemical continuation

In Mechanical mixture, two or more constituent element lies side by side without getting affected by each other Ex. Sand and Grains of Rice can co-exist without getting affected by each other. In chemical continuation, we see that Hydrogen and Oxygen when they interpenetrate each other, producing qualities that were not present in them when they were by themselves. While certain words have the affinity of Hydrogen and Oxygen, certain words have the affinity of Sand and Grains of rice. Syntactic expectancy is expectancy of a word towards another word. There is expectancy for a word because in itself it is incomplete; it searches for its fulfillment in the company of another word, or words with which it has affinity, a relationship. A word that doesnt give complete sense without another given word possesses with another word. Ex. Rama / goes / to school. In this sentence the subject Rama alone wouldnt be complete without verb which is the primary word for a sentence. Therefore, as a result there is a requirement of relation between words and meanings. 6. Semantic competency A word to in itself is incomplete. It seeks for fulfillment in and through words that are related to it. This longing of words cant be satisfied by any words, but only by that particular word / words, that has / have the potency and compatibility with it. Potentiality in the meaning of a word is to be continued with the meaning of another word. Ex. Water burnswhich contradicts as well as meaningless.

Here the word or words doesnt suit or fit or justified construing of the meaning of one word with that of another word. 7. Juxtaposition Here the mere logicality, expectancy or compatibility doesnt facilitate the formation of a meaningful sentence. Words should be uttered or presented without too large an interval.
English language as hierarchy

English grammar can be seen as a hierarchy. A hierarchy is a system of organization in which things have their allotted ranks depending on how important they are the most important being at the top and the least important at the bottom. At the bottom of the hierarchy that is English grammar is the word, and the top is the sentence. In between these two are the intermediate ranks, the phrase and the clause.

Sentence Clause Phrase


A Brief account of Parts of speech

Noun: naming word Pronoun: used instead of a noun Adjective: describes of a noun Verb: describes the action of a noun Adverb: describes the action of an adjective, verb, or other adverb Preposition: describes the relationship between a noun and a pronoun or establisher of relation Conjunction: joins two sentence Interjection: a word thrown in to express feelings or any emotional greeting