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FORMS AND FUNCTIONS OF LICENCES TO TRANSMIT (IJZAS) IN 18TH-CENTURY-IRAN: 'ABD ALLH AL-MSAW AL-JAZ"IR AL-TUSTARS (111273/170159) IJZA KABRA Sabine Schmidtke

1 Social aspects of the transmission of knowledge have come into the focus of scholarship in recent years,1 yet we are still far from having a comprehensive picture, even for specic periods and areas, of the elements that made up the successful career and posthumous reputation of a scholar. Among these elements are dierent types of documents, whose signicance varies over time and space; they include certicates of audition (sam't) noted on the margins, at the beginning or end of manuscripts2 and autobiographical reports about a scholars studies that circulated as fahrasa, mashyakha (mashkha), barnmaj, thabat or mu'jam.3 One of the most variegated types is the ijza,
1 See, e.g., the studies by Jonathan Berkey (The Transmission of Knowledge in Medieval Cairo. A Social History of Islamic Education, Princeton 1992), Michael Chamberlain (Knowledge and Social Practice in Medieval Damascus, 11901350, Cambridge 1994), Stefan Leder (Charismatic Scripturalism. The anbal Maqdiss of Damascus, Der Islam 74 (1997), pp. 279304), and Daphna Ephrat (A Learned Society in a Period of Transition. The Sunn 'Ulama" of Eleventh-Century Baghdad, Albany 2000). 2 See, e.g., Stefan Leder, Hrerzertikate als Dokumente fr die islamische Lehrkultur des Mittelalters, in Urkunden und Urkundenformulare im Klassischen Altertum und in den orientalischen Kulturen, ed. Raif Georges Khoury, Heidelberg 1999, pp. 147 66; idem, Eine neue Quelle zur Stadtgeschichte von Damaskus. Zur Alltagsgeschichte der adwissenschaft, in Supplement XI der Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlndischen Gesellschaft (26. Deutscher Orientalistentag Leipzig 1995), Stuttgart 1998, pp. 26879; idem, Spoken word and written text. Meaning and social signicance of the Institution of Riwya, Tokyo 2002, pp. 5.; Stefan Leder, Ysn Muammad al-Sawws and Ma"mn alar[, Mu'[am al-sam't al-dimaqiyya. Les certicats daudition Damas 550750h./ 11551349, Damascus 1996; idem, Recueil de documents facsimils des certicats daudition Damas 550750h./11551349. Mu'[am al-sam't al-dimaqiyya, Damascus 2000. For further references, see Adam Gacek, The Arabic Manuscript Tradition. A Glossary of Technical Terms and Bibliography, Leiden 2001, pp. 21619. 3 For autobiographical reports of a scholars studies, see Charles Pellat, Fahrasa, in The Encyclopaedia of Islam. New Edition, vol. 2, pp. 74344; 'Abd al-'Azz al-Ahwn, Kutub barmij al-'ulam" f l-Andalus, Majallat ma'had al-makht al-'arabiyya 1 i

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or, more specically the ijzat al-riwya, the license to transmit. The recipient, or recipients (mujz, pl. mujzn), is authorized by the issuer (mujz) to transmit to others the contents specied in the ijza. They can refer to one or several works, or to a whole body of works that is either precisely specied or only cursorily hinted at. The dividing line between one type of certicate and another is often blurred. If the authorization to transmit follows teaching of the mujz by the mujz, for example, this is called ijzat al-sam' or ijzat al-qir"a, according to the kind of instruction. Similarly, the description of the course of ones studies can form part of an ijza.4 It appears that what was originally an oral authorization came more and more to be documented in writing and formalized in structure and terminology in parallel with the growing dominance of the written word and the growing institutionalization of the scholarly culture. Besides the license to transmit that was issued for specied texts, there were text-independent ijzt not tied to specic contents or texts. Because of their generally large scope, such documents often no longer appeared in the margins or at the beginning or end of other texts, but themselves became autonomous texts, sometimes in the form of books, often with their own titles.5 The contents authorized to be transmitted were usually comprehensive, frequently comprising the whole literature of a certain scholarly tradition (ijza kabra or ijza 'mma).

(1374/1955), pp. 91120; Jacqueline Sublet, Les matres et les tudes de deux traditionistes de lpoque mamelouke. Al-Mashyakha al-Bsima lil-Qibb wa Fima de Ibn ajar al'Asqaln. Etude analytique, Damascus 1967; Georges Vajda, La transmission de la mayaa (Asn l-maqid wa-a'ab al-mawrid ) dIbn al-Bur daprs le manuscrit Reislkttab 262 de la Bibliothque Sleymaniye dIstanbul, Rivista degli studi orientali 48 (197374), pp. 5574. See also Devin J. Stewart, Capital, Accumulation, and the Islamic Academic Biography, Edebiyt 7 (1997), pp. 34562, esp. 34546. 4 For studies about this genre, see Gacek, Arabic Manuscript Tradition, pp. 21619; Cemil Akpinar, (czet, in Trkiye Diyanet Vak (slm Ansiklopedisi, vol. 21, pp. 393400; Devin Stewart, The Doctorate of Islamic Law in Mamluk Egypt and Syria, in Law and Education in Medieval Islam. Studies in Memory of Professor George Makdisi, eds. Joseph E. Lowry, Devin J. Stewart, and Shawkat M. Toorawa, London 2004, pp. 4590; see also my The ijza from 'Abd Allh b. li al-Samhj to Nir al-Jrd al-Qaf. A Source for the Twelver Shi'i Scholarly Tradition of Barayn, in Culture and Memory in Medieval Islam. Essays in Honour of Wilferd Madelung, eds. Farhad Daftary and Josef W. Meri, London 2003, pp. 6485, esp. 78 n. 1. 5 See, e.g., gh Buzurg al-ihrn, al-Dhar'a il tanf al-sh'a 125, Beirut 14036/198386, vol. 1, p. 174 nos. 874, 876, 877, p. 185 no. 957, p. 198 no. 1033, p. 265 no. 1393.

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The majority of ijzt al-riwya within the Imami tradition6 follow a more or less xed pattern, with formalized phrases that serve as demarcators for the dierent building blocks of the document. The opening prayer is followed by an introduction, naming the issuer and the recipient as well as the occasion on which the licence was issued. This is followed by the main section detailing the contents and extent of the ijza. It usually begins with the formula ajaztu lahu an yarwiya 'ann. . . . Very often the mujz includes detailed information on his own shaykhs and their chains of transmission. The ijza usually ends with the conditions attached to itintroduced by formulas such as la-yarwiya dhlika li-man sh"a wa-aabbaand a colophon indicating the place and date of issue. A typical core element of the text-independent ijza kabra or ijza 'mma is the autobibliography of the mujz, usually a complete list of his works, often including even unnished writings and providing details about the size, content, or other special characteristics of the individual titles.7

6 The majority of known ijzas issued by Imami scholars from the 4th/10th to the 14th/20th century is listed in gh Buzurg al-ihrns (d. 1389/1970) bibliography of Imami literature, al-Dhar'a il tanf al-sh'a (as n. 5).In addition to the ijzat al-riwya, more specic types of ijzt evolved, such as the licence to teach and to issue legal opinions (ijzat al-tadrs wa-l-ift") in the Sunni world, which is said to go back to the 3rd/9th century (see Stewart, Doctorate of Islamic Law.), or the ijzat al-ijtihd (ijza ijtihdiyya), which is to be encountered among the Imamis from about the mid-19th century onwards. See, e.g., gh Buzurg, Dhar'a, vol. 1, p. 157 nos. 773, 776, pp. 16869 no. 845, p. 169 no. 852, p. 173 nos. 868, 871, p. 195 no. 1014, vol. 11, pp. 1314 no. 63, p. 14 no. 67, p. 15 no. 74, pp. 2324 no. 132; for this genre, see also Devin J. Stewart, Islamic Legal Orthodoxy. Twelver Shiite Responses to the Sunni Legal System, Salt Lake City 1998, pp. 224. 7 Examples of autobibliographical lists within ijzt belonging to the Imami tradition are the ijza issued by Abu l-Fat 'Uthmn al-Naw (d. 392/10012) for Ab 'Abd Allh al-usayn b. Amad b. Nar (cf. gh Buzurg, Dhar'a, vol. 1, p. 208 no. 1083); the ijza of the Sharf al-Murta (d. 436/1044) issued in Sha'bn 417/September-October 1026 for Abu l-asan Muammad b. Muammad alBuraw (Dhar'a, vol. 1, p. 216 no. 1132; 'Abd Allh b. 's al-Afand, Riy al'ulam" 15, ed. Amad al-usayn, Qum 1401/1981, vol. 4, pp. 3439; cf. also Stewart, Islamic Legal Orthodoxy, p. 147); the ijza granted by Ibn Shahr sh b (d. 588/1192) to Jaml al-Dn 'Al Ibn Sha'ara al-ill al-Jma'n (Dhar'a, vol. 1, p. 243 no. 1286); the ijza of the 'Allma al-ill for Muhann" b. Sinn, which apart from the autobibliography arranged by disciplines does not contain any other element (Dhar'a, vol. 1, p. 178 no. 911; printed in Muammad Bqir al-Majlis, Bir al-anwr 028, 35110, ed. Jawd 'Alaw [et al.], Tehran 13761405/195785, vol. 107, pp. 14749); the ijza of Ibn Ab Jumhr al-As", issued on Monday,

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An essential function of comprehensive, text-independent ijzt is the documentation of the scholarly tradition, rst and foremost the scholars making up the mujzs chains of transmission. Moreover, it is not unusual for presentations of scholars to elaborate on other persons who were somehow connected to them, such as family members or predecessors and successors in public oce, irrespective of

10 Jumd I 896/21 March 1491, for Muammad b. li al-Gharaw (Dhar'a, vol. 1, pp. 24142 no. 1280. A manuscript copy of the ijza is to be found in ms. Dublin, Chester Beatty 3810, . 328r329v. See my Theologie, Philosophie und Mystik im zwlferschiitischen Islam des 9./15. Jahrhunderts. Die Gedankenwelt des Ibn Ab Jumhr al-As" (um 838/143435nach 906/1501), Leiden 2000, p. 270); the ijza of alShahd al-thn issued on 14 Dhu l-ijja 964/7 October 1557 for Tj al-Dn b. Hill al-Jaz"ir (Dhar'a, vol. 1, p. 193 no. 1000); the ijzas of Muammad Bqir al-Majlis for one of his students in Mashhad (Dhar'a, vol. 1, p. 149 no. 712) and for Muammad Ja'far al-liqn issued in 1095/1684 (Dhar'a, vol. 1, p. 150 no. 715); the ijza granted in 1111/16991700 by Sulaymn b. 'Abd Allh alMz to Muammad al-Lr (Dhar'a, vol. 1, p. 197 no. 1024); the ijza of 'Abd Allh b. li al-Samhj (d. 1135/1722) issued on 23 afar 1127/17 February 1716 for N ir al-J r d al-Qa f (ed. Mahd al- ' Aw zim al-Qa f , Qum [1419/199899], pp. 5160. Cf. my The ijza, pp. 6869); the ijza granted in 1153/1740 by Ysuf b. Amad al-Darrz al-Barn to 'Abd Allh b. 'Alaw alBild al-Barn (Dhar'a, vol. 1, p. 266 no. 1394); the ijza of Ra al-Dn alMsaw al-'mil al-Makk (d. 1168/175455) issued in 1155/174243 for two recipients (Dhar'a, vol. 1, p. 192 no. 946); the ijza granted in 1167/1754 by usayn b. Muammad b. 'Abd al-Nab al-Bild to 'Abd al-'Azz b. Amad al-diq alNajaf (Dhar'a, vol. 1, pp. 18990 no. 983); the ijza issued in 1218/18034 by Dildr 'Al b. Muammad al-Naqaw al-Nar bd to his son Muammad (Dhar'a, vol. 1, p. 191 no. 990); the ijza granted by usayn b. Muammad al-Darrz alBarn (d. 1216/18012) to Amad al-As" (d. 1214/1826) (Dhar'a, vol. 1, p. 188 no. 976); the ijzas granted by usayn b. al-Sayyid Dildr 'Al (d. 1273/185657) to his son (Dhar'a, vol. 1, p. 184 no. 948) and to his nephew (Dhar'a, vol. 1, p. 184 no. 949); the ijza granted by Muammad Raf' b. 'Abd al-Muammad al-Kawr al-Kazz to 'Abd al-Ramn b. Muammad al-Karhard al-Suln bd (Dhar'a, vol. 1, pp. 19293 no. 997); the ijza of Ysuf al-Barn known as Lu"lu"at alBarayn (ed. Muammad diq Bar al-'Ulm, Najaf 1386/1966). For al-Barns autobiographical entry in Lu"lu"at al-Barayn, containing his autobibliography, see the analysis of Stewart, Capital, pp. 34562, as well as the partial translation of the text by idem, The Autobiography of Ysuf al-Barn (16961772), in Interpreting the Self. Autobiography in the Arabic Literary Tradition, ed. Dwight F. Reynolds, Berkeley 2001, pp. 21623. Generally for this work, cf. Marco Salati, La Lu"lu"a <sic> albarayn f l-i[za li-qurratay al-'ayn di ay Ysuf b. Amad al-Barn (110786/ 16951772). Per lo studio della 'a di Barayn, Annali de Ca Foscari. Serie Orientale 28 iii (1989), pp. 11145.An example of such an inventory in an ijza by a Sunni author is the autobibliographical ijza of the Eygptian ophthalmologist and encyclopedist Ibn al-Afkn (d. 749/1348). Cf. Jan Just Witkam, Lists of books in Arabic manuscripts, Manuscripts of the Middle East 5 (199091), pp. 12630.For ijzas by Imami scholars containing partial autobibliographies, see gh Buzurg, Dhar'a, vol. 1, p. 151 no. 726, p. 197 no. 1022, pp. 23839 no. 1260, vol. 11, p. 13 no. 59, p. 15 no. 76, p. 23 no. 130.

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whether these persons were links in the mujzs chains of transmission or not. For the sake of documentation, a mujz often quotes complete ijzas by earlier scholars in his own licence, even if they were not his own teachers.8 Thus this type of ijza fullls, among other purposes, functions similar to those of biographical works. In many cases these two genres cannot be clearly distinguished.9 Documentation of ones own scholarly tradition is also the motive behind the compilation of independent collections of ijzt (kutub alijzt).10 Despite the large number of such documents that are available to us and their indisputable value as source material for the reconstruction of the history of scholarly traditions and networks, and their respective curricula, the social meaning and impact of those documents as constitutive elements of a successful career and the posthumous reputation of a scholar need to be studied carefully. There are numerous examples of scholars who considered the ijzt they received throughout their lives as evidence of their own reputation; this can be seen from the way they collected and displayed them in their own writings.11 But there were equally accomplished scholars who took
8 See, e.g., gh Buzurg, Dhar'a, vol. 1, p. 134 no. 627, p. 165 no. 826, p. 172 no. 864, pp. 19394 no. 1002, p. 221 no. 1160, p. 230 no. 1207, p. 236 nos. 1238, 1239, p. 244 no. 1289. 9 A Twelver Shi'i example from the 12th/18th century is Lu"lu"at al-Barayn, a abaqt-work of Imami culture (as n. 7), though this is technically an ijza issued by Ysuf b. Amad al-Barn for two of his nephews; examples from the 14th/20th century are al-Lum'a al-mahdya il l-uruq al-'ilmya by asan b. Hd b. Muammad 'Al al-'mil al-Kim (1272/1855561354/193536), technically also an ijza issued for Mahd b. Muammad Taq al-Ifahn in 1329/1911. Cf. gh Buzurg, Dhar'a, vol. 1, p. 174 no. 877; vol. 18, pp. 35455 no. 452; furthermore Bughyat al-wu't f abaqt mashyikh al-ijzt, again a abaqt-work which formally is an ijza, issued in 1326/19089 by the same asan al-Msaw al-Kim for Muammad Murta al-usayn al-Janfr (d. about 1333/191415). Cf. Dhar'a, vol. 1, p. 174 no. 874, vol. 3, p. 137 no. 464. asan al-Msaw al-Kim granted a third ijza, entitled al-abaqt, which apparently belongs to the same genre; see Dhar'a, vol. 1, p. 174 no. 876. He moreover granted an extensive ijza to gh Buzurg al-ihrn which also contains a section dedicated to abaqt; cf. Dhar'a, vol. 1, p. 174 no. 878. 10 For a survey of such collections in Twelver Shi'i Islam, see gh Buzurg, Dhar'a, vol. 1, pp. 12331. 11 There are numerous examples of scholars who quote the ijzas they had received earlier in ijzas they later issued for their own students; see, e.g., gh Buzurg, Dhar'a, vol. 1, p. 159 no. 785 (ijza granted by Muammad Bqir al-Nsbr alMakk to Nar Allh b. al-usayn al-Mudarris al-"ir in 1130/1718 in which the mujz quotes the ijza he was granted by 'Al Khn al-Madan), p. 168 no. 843 (ijza granted by asan b. Amad al-Kshn to Yay b. Muammad b. al-asan al-Hind in 1337/191819 in which the mujz quotes the ijzt he was granted by

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pride in never having received an ijza throughout their lives.12 A quantitative analysis of more than 900 Imami ijzt from the 4th/10th to the 14th/20th century listed by gh Buzurg (d. 1389/1970) in his bibliography of Imami literature, al-Dhar'a il tanf al-sh'a,13 suggests that the ijzas granted by a scholar were of much higher value for his scholarly reputation than the ones he received. One indication for this is that the entries are arranged according to the names of the issuers of the ijzas, an arrangement that is also characteristic for most ijza collections (kutub al-ijzt).14 Moreover, among the scholars who issued the most ijzas during their own lifetime, the number of ijzas they are reported to have received is signicantly lower.15

his teachers), p. 223 no. 1168 (ijza granted by 'Al b. Hill al-Karak to Malik Muammad b. Suln usayn al-Ifahn in 984/157677 in which the mujz quotes the ijza he was granted by the Muaqqiq al-Karak), p. 244 no. 1279 (ijza granted by Muammad b. 'Al b. Khtn bd to Nr al-Dn 'Al b. al-usayn al-'l al-Karak in which the mujz quotes the ijza issued to him by Jaml al-Dn Amad b. al-jj 'Al al-'nth; see also Dhar'a, vol. 1, p. 141 no. 667). See also Dhar'a, vol. 11, p. 14 no. 64, p. 19 no. 100, p. 25 no. 145. For a majm'a of ijzt collected by scholars of the 13th/19th century, see Dhar'a, vol. 11, p. 20 nos. 10510. Examples from the 14th/20th century are Mrz Muammad 'Al Mudarris Tabrz, who includes in the introduction to his biographical dictionary Raynat al-adab f tarjim al-ma'rfn bi-l-kunya wa-l-laqab (Tabrz 196770, vol. 8, pp. 1819, 25, 27, 29, 3031) facsimiles of taqr statements granted to him by leading jurists of his time, and the collection of ijzt that Muammad usayn al-Mar'ash (13151411/18971990) had received throughout his life, edited by his son Mamd al-Mar'ash (Musalsalt f l-ijzt mutawiya 'al ijzt 'ulam" al-islm f aqq wlid al-'Allma yat Allh al'um al-Sayyid Ab l-Ma'l Shihb al-Dn al-usayn al-Mar'ash al-Najaf 12, Qum 1416/[199596]). 12 E.g. 'Al b. asan al-Bild al-Barn (d. 1340/1922) as he states in an autobiographical entry in his Anwr al-badrayn f tarjim 'ulam" al-Qaf wa-l-As" wa-lBarayn, Najaf 1377/1957, pp. 27172. See also Rainer Brunner, Siehe, was mich an Unglck und Schrecken traf ! Schiitische Autobiographien, in Islamstudien ohne Ende. Festschrift fr Werner Ende zum 65. Geburtstag, eds. Rainer Brunner et al., Wrzburg 2002, p. 67. 13 gh Buzurg, al-Dhar'a, vol. 1, pp. 131266 nos. 6191398; vol. 11, pp. 1329 nos. 58170. 14 E.g. Ijzt al-adth allat katabah . . . al-Mawl Muammad Bqir al-Majlis alIbahn, ed. Amad al-Husayn, Qum 1410/198990. 15 These are, according to gh Buzurg, in chronological order the 'Allma alill (d. 726/1325) [17 ijzas] (Dhar'a, vol. 1, pp. 17578 nos. 897912, vol. 11, pp. 1718 no. 89), his son Fakhr al-Muaqqiqn (d. 771/1370) [16 ijzas] (Dhar'a, vol. 1, pp. 23437 nos. 123144), al-Muaqqiq al-Karak (d. 940/1533) [18 ijzas] (Dhar'a, vol. 1, pp. 21216 nos. 111128), al-Shahd al-thn (d. 966/1558) [9 ijzas] (Dhar'a, vol. 1, pp. 19394 nos. 9981006), Bah" al-Dn al-'mil (d. 1031/1622 or 1032/1623) [31 ijzas] (Dhar'a, vol. 1, pp. 23739 nos. 124566, vol. 11, p. 24 nos. 136, 137), Taq al-Dn al-Majlis (d. 1070/1659) [11 ijzas] (Dhar'a, vol. 1,

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In addition to the mere quantitative aspect, it apparently also mattered to a scholars standing which type of ijza he issued. It seems that the primary function of the ijza 'mma or ijza kabra, which was typically composed by scholars more advanced in age, was to underline the issuers reputation as an accomplished scholar among his contemporaries and for generations to come. In modern times, this genre is often replaced by autobiographies.16

pp. 16163 nos. 80413, vol. 11, pp. 1516 nos. 77, 78), Muammad Bqir alMajlis (d. 1110/169899 or 1111/16991700) [75 ijzas] (Dhar'a, vol. 1, pp. 14856 nos. 699766, vol. 11, pp. 1415 nos. 6873), al-Wad al-Bihbahn (d. c. 1207/1792) [9 ijzas] (Dhar'a, vol. 1, pp. 14748 nos. 68997, see also vol. 11, p. 14 no. 65), Bar al-'Ulm (d. 1212/1797) [11 ijzas] (Dhar'a, vol. 1, pp. 25556 nos. 134351), Muammad Bqir al-Shaft al-Ifahn (d. 1260/1844) [16 ijzas] (Dhar'a, vol. 1, pp. 15658 nos. 76782), asan b. Hd b. Muammad 'Al al-'mil al-Kim (d. 1354/193536) [22 ijzas] (Dhar'a, vol. 1, pp. 17475 nos. 87495). Neither the 'Allma al-ill nor his son Fakhr al-Muaqqiqn is mentioned as a recipient of ijzas, and the same holds true for earlier authors, although the total number of ijzas issued by single scholars that are known is of course much lower. Both Ibn Bbawayh and al-Sharf al-Murta are reported to have issued two ijzas each, yet neither of them is listed as the recipient of an ijza; for Ibn Bbawayh, see gh Buzurg, Dhar'a, vol. 1, p. 216 nos. 1130, 1131; for al-Sharf al-Murta, see ibid., vol. 1, p. 216 nos. 1132, 1133. Al-Muaqqiq al-Karak is mentioned only three times as mujz (Dhar'a, vol. 1, pp. 13334 no. 621, p. 222 no. 1166, p. 244 no. 1289), al-Shahd al-thn and Bah" al-Dn al-'mil are not mentioned as mujz, Taq al-Dn al-Majlis is listed as the recipient of one ijza (Dhar'a, vol. 1, pp. 20910 no. 1092), Muammad Bqir al-Majlis as the recipient of eleven ijzas (Dhar'a, vol. 1, p. 162 nos. 805, 806, p. 200 no. 1043, p. 212 no. 1110, p. 220 no. 1155, p. 228 no. 1194, p. 233, p. 252 no. 1327, p. 257 no. 1354, vol. 11, pp. 1516 no. 77, p. 24 no. 135), al-Wad al-Bihbahn is not mentioned as mujz, Bar al'Ulm is listed eight times as recipient of an ijza (Dhar'a, vol. 1, p. 147 no. 695, p. 148 no. 698, p. 180 nos. 924, 926, p. 200 no. 1047, p. 207 no. 1080, p. 254 no. 1342, p. 266 no. 1398), Muammad Bqir al-Shaft al-Ifahn and asan b. Hd al-'mil al-Kim do not gure as mujz. A telling counter example is Shaykh Amad b. Zayn al-Dn al-As" (d. 1241/1820), who had studied with the leading scholars of his time but whose views were later considered heterodox and who was not part of the Imami scholarly establishment; he is the only scholar to receive more ijzas than he issued. Amad al-As" is mentioned as mujz in three cases (Dhar'a, vol. 1, p. 141 nos. 66264) and as mujz in six cases (Dhar'a, vol. 1, p. 141 no. 661, p. 165 no. 821, p. 188 no. 976, p. 219 no. 1149, p. 253 no. 1331, p. 255 no. 1344; see also Armin Eschraghi, Frhe ai- und Bb-Theologie. Die Darlegung der Beweise fr Muammads besonderes Prophetentum (Ar-Risla f Ibt an-Nubwa al-a), Leiden et al. 2004, p. 11). It seems to be out of humility that gh Buzurg lists only one ijza granted by himself and remarks that he has issued some twenty licences in total but omitted to mention this because of their number. See Dhar'a, vol. 1, p. 229 no. 1199 (ijza granted to 'Abbs b. al-jj Mawl jj al-ihrn in 1330/1912). 16 For an overview of autobiographical writings among Imamis, see Brunner, Schiitische Autobiographien, pp. 5968. See also Autobiographie dun clerc chiite du ]abal 'mil . . . Traduction et annotations par Sabrina Mervin et Hatham al-Amin,

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In what follows I intend to examine an ijza that belongs to the genre of text-independent ijza 'mma, covering more or less the entire culture and literature of Imami scholarship. The ijza was granted by Sayyid ' Abd All h al-M saw al-Jaz" ir al-Tustar (111273/170159) four years before his death to four recipients.17 In the introduction, al-Tustar names two recipients, Muammad b. Karam Allh al-uwayz (d. 1172/175859) and the latters nephew, Ibrhm b. 'Abd Allh al-uwayz (d. 1197/178283). Al-Tustar reports that the two visited him after he had not seen them for a long time. On this occasion he introduced them to some of his writings (masfrt), which they had not known before and which they immediately studied eagerly. The two decided to transmit al-Tustars writings and through him the writings of earlier scholars and therefore asked him to issue an ijza for them which he subsequently granted.18 The humility of al-Tustars account indicates that the two were at the time already accomplished scholars whom the author esteemed highly. Towards the end of the ijza, al-Tustar includes two further persons among its recipients; Ibrhm b. 'Abd Allh b. Nir al-uwayz al-Humayl and Muammad b. Muammad b. Darwsh Muammad al-Ibahn al-Gharaw had asked him in writing many years earlier to grant them an ijza,19 which at the time he had been unable to do (he does not tell us why).20

Damascus 1998. For a survey of the genre in Arabic and Islamic literature, see Franz Rosenthal, Die arabische Autobiographie, Studia Arabica 1 (1937) [= Analecta Orientalia; 14], pp. 340 [repr. in Franz Rosenthal, Muslim Intellectual and Social History. A Collection of Essays, Aldershot 1990, part V]; Dwight F. Reynolds (ed.), Interpreting the Self. Autobiography in the Arabic Literary Tradition, Berkeley 2001. 17 Al-Ijza al-kabra li-l-'Allma . . . 'Abd Allh al-Msaw al-Jaz"ir al-Tustar, ed. Muammad al-Samm al-"ir, Qum 1409/[198889]. Apart from this edition, I consulted a manuscript copy of the ijza copied from the autograph by Abu lasan b. Muammad Musin b. Abi l-asan (copy completed on 26 Raman 1231/20 August 1816) that is preserved in the Library of Congress (Call Number: BP63.I72H884 1815 [Orien Arab]). For the ijza, dated 2 Jumd II 1168/16 March 1755, see also gh Buzurg, Dhar'a, vol. 1, pp. 2067 no. 1077. 18 Al-Ijza al-kabra, p. 4: . . . il an waqa'a ikhtiyruhum . . . 'al riwyatih 'ann wariwyat m arwh min muannaft 'ulam"in . . . 19 Al-Ijza al-kabra, pp. 21112: qad istajzan qabla hdha bi-a'wm muktabatan min al-uwayza . . . Ibrhm . . . wa- . . . Muammad. 20 Al-Ijza al-kabra, p. 212: fa-li-yu'lam annahum . . . sharkn ma'a l-shaykhayn almutaqaddimayn f hdhihi l-ijza. . . .

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Al-Tustar is a well-known Imami scholar about whose life and work most relevant biographical works contain ample information.21 While many of his writings in Arabic and Persian, such as commentaries on legal works of earlier Imamis, treatises dealing with astronomy, and collections of responsa are extant, only his chronicle on Shshtar (Tadhkira-yi Shshtar) and the ijza discussed here have been published so far. The Tadhkira-yi Shshtar also contains a brief autobiographical and autobibliographical paragraph.22 By contrast, next to nothing is known about the four recipients of the ijza. The few biographical works that have entries on them refer almost exclusively to the information provided by al-Tustar in his ijza.23 A comparison of the present document with other comprehensive, text-independent Imami ijzas reveals a number of common features characteristic of this genre. But it also contains a number of special features concerning form and content that set it apart from comparable documents.

21 Muammad Bqir al-Khwnsr, Rawt al-jannt f awl al-'ulam" wa-l-sdt, Qum 1381/1987, vol. 4, pp. 25761 no. 392; Musin al-Amn, A'yn al-sh'a 111, Beirut 1403/1983, vol. 8, p. 87; gh Buzurg al-ihrn, abaqt a'lm al-sh'a, vols. 12, Beirut 139091/1971; vols. 35, ed. ' Al Naq Munzaw , Beirut 139295/197275; vol. 6, ed. 'Al Naq Munzaw, Tehran 1362/1983, vol. 6, pp. 45659; idem, Mua al-maql f muannif 'ilm al-rijl, ed. Amad Munzaw, Tehran 1378/1959, pp. 24647; 'Umar Ri Kala, Mu'jam al-mu"allifn. Tarjim muannif l-kutub al-'arabiyya 115, Beirut 1414/1993, vol. 6, p. 160; Mudarris Tabrz, Raynat al-adab, vol. 2, p. 254; 'Abbs al-Qumm, al-Faw"id al-raawiyya f awl 'ulam" madhhab al-ja'fariyya, Tehran 1327/1948, p. 256; D"irat-i ma'rif-i tashayyu', vol. 5, pp. 35455. Cf. also GALS, vol. 2, p. 586. 22 Takira-i tar. An Account of tar, from the earliest time to A.H. 1169. With notices of its celebrated men and memories of the authors life 12. By Sayyid 'Abdallh Bin Nr al-Dn Bin Ni'matallh al-usayn a-tar (surnamed Faqir), eds. Khn Bahdur Mawl Bash and ams-ul-'Ulam" M. Hidayet Husayn, Calcutta: Asiatic Society of Bengal, 191224 (Bibliotheca Indica; 206), pp. 6061. See also C.A. Storey, Persian Literature. A Bio-Bibliographical Survey, London 192739, vol. 1 i, p. 365 no. 486; Amad Munzaw, Fihrist-i nuskhah-yi kha-yi frs 16, Tehran 134851/ 196972, vol. 6, pp. 428991; gh Buzurg, Dhar'a, vol. 3, pp. 24345 no. 900. 23 For Ibrhm b. 'Abd Allh al-uwayz (d. 1197/178283) cf. Ja'far b. Bqir l Mabba, M al-Najaf wa-iruh, Najaf 195557, vol. 2, p. 182; al-Amn, A'yn, vol. 2, pp. 18182; gh Buzurg, abaqt, vol. 6, p. 7.For Muammad b. Karam Allh al-uwayz (d. 1172/175859) cf. l Mabba, M al-Najaf, vol. 2, p. 189; al-Amn, A'yn, vol. 10, p. 44; gh Buzurg, abaqt, vol. 6, p. 661.For Ibrhm b. 'Abd Allh b. Nir al-uwayz al-Humayl cf. al-Amn, A'yn, vol. 2, p. 182; gh Buzurg, abaqt, vol. 6, p. 7.For Muammad b. Muammad b. Darwsh Muammad al-Ibahn al-Gharaw cf. gh Buzurg, abaqt, vol. 6, p. 642; idem, Dhar'a, vol. 21, p. 56; l Mabba, M al-Najaf, vol. 3, p. 382; al-Amn, A'yn, vol. 10, p. 58.

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To link later generations back to the Prophet and within Shi'ism to the Imams traditionally serves the purpose of guaranteeing the veracity of what is transmitted; in addition, it was considered as pious usage. As a result of the canonization of the adth literature, the signicance of the isnd as a technical auxiliary decreased, whereas its signicance as a blessing grew.24 Al-Tustar addresses the issue of the function of granting an ijza on various occasions. In the introduction he states that the two recipients of the ijza, Muammad and Ibrhm al-uwayz, are not in need of it, as they had apparently received sucient ijzt, through which they already had their place within the network of Imami scholars secured. Rather, they wanted to add further chains to their chains of transmission.25 The author discusses the function of issuing ijzas again in the context of theoretical elaborations on grammatical, etymological and functional aspects of such documents. Here, al-Tustar states that the purpose of issuing ijzt in particular for the four canonical adth collections of the Imamis as well as for other writings of their compilers al-Kuln (d. 329/941), Ibn Bbawayh (d. 381/991) and al-Shaykh al-s (d. 460/1067)26is only to receive blessings, whereas the

24 Ysuf al-Barn (d. 1186/1772) states, for example, in the introduction to his ijza granted to Muammad Mahd Bar al-'Ulm (d. 1212/179798) (transl. Robert Gleave, The Ijza from Ysuf al-Barn (d. 1186/1772) to Sayyid Muammad Mahd Bar al-'Ulm (d. 1212/17978), Iran. Journal of the British Institute of Persian Studies 32 (1994), p. 116): There is no doubt that an ijza is appropriate in these times; even if it is of little use for conrming the akhbr and proving the paths which stem from the illustrious scholars, [it is of little use] because they are so famous that they cannot be denied, particularly the four books which are as clear as the sun in every land. Since our scholarly predecessors have done this [i.e. given ijzas], seeking good fortune and blessing in connecting this noble and holy chain back to the Imams, we shall follow their example, agreeing with what they agree and rejecting what they reject. A similar view was already made explicit by the seventh/thirteenth century adth expert Ibn al-al al-Shahrazr (d. 643/1245), see Eerik Dickinson, Ibn al-al al-Shahrazr and the isnd, Journal of the American Oriental Society 122 (2002), pp. 481505. 25 Al-Ijza al-kabra, p. 4: wa-dhlika l li-ja minhum ilayhi bal tawassu'an f uruq al-riwya. 26 In addition to the four Imami canonical adth collections (al-kutub al-arba'a lil-Muammadn al-thaltha) al-Tustar enumerates the following writings of Ibn Bbawayh: al-Aml (cf. gh Buzurg, Dhar'a, vol. 2, p. 315 no. 1251), 'Ilal al-shar"' (cf. Dhar'a, vol. 15, p. 313 no. 2005), 'Uyn al-akhbr (he presumaby means 'Uyn akhbr alRi; cf. Dhar'a, vol. 15, p. 375 no. 2367), K. al-Tawd (cf. Dhar'a, vol. 4, p. 482 no. 2154), Thawb al-a'ml (cf. Dhar'a, vol. 5, p. 18 no. 77), K. 'Iqb al-a'ml (cf. Dhar'a, vol. 15, p. 280 no. 1828), K. Ma'n al-akhbr (cf. Dhar'a, vol. 21, p. 204 no. 4622) as well as al-Khil (cf. Dhar'a, vol. 7, p. 162 no. 876).

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transmission of these works, as well as the legal practice in accordance with them, does not require an ijza (p. 6). In a dierent context, after outlining the chains of transmission of his teachers back to the Shahd al-thn (d. 966/1558), al-Tustar discusses whether this is sucient or whether they should be connected back to the Shaykh al-s (p. 103). He explains that whatever has been xed in writing is to be considered uninterrupted (musnad ), and it is only pious usage and the blessings attached to it that make it advisable to trace the chains further back to al-s. It is typical for text-independent ijzt to be issued for the entire legacy of the school tradition. Al-Tustar discusses the scope of the licence on two occasions. In his introduction he states that the two recipients had asked him for a licence to transmit his writings as well as the writings of earlier Imami scholars in the eld of legal sciences, particularly adth ( f funn al-'ulm al-shar'iyya siyyam 'ilm al-adth) (p. 4). In the main section of the ijza, he greatly widens the eld, including in fact the entire written legacy of Imamism. Here he states that he is issuing a general licence (ijza 'mma) for everything he has the right to transmit, be it following participation in a sam', reading out to a shaykh or on the grounds of an ijza (sam'an wa-qir"atan wa-ijzatan), in the elds of traditions, tafsr and tajwd, law, theology and legal methodology as well as for all other writings of earlier Imami scholars in the various disciplines and subsections, in the rational sciences as well as the sciences based on revelation (pp. 5859). In the document under discussion a number of other features may be seen that are typical for text-independent ijzt. Besides other functions, ijzt always present self-testimonies, insofar as their issuers claim, either implicitly or explicitly, the right to transmit certain subjects of knowledge that they now confer on the mujz. When the mujz grants a permit of transmission for his own works, his right to do so is self-evident and does not need any further comment. When the permit extends to texts by other authors, however, the mujz usually identies those who have transmitted the knowledge to him, in greater or lesser detail. Often a mujz indicates his social rank within the scholarly tradition he belongs to. In the case of comprehensive ijzt, composed for the most part by prominent scholars at the height of their careers, the authors apparently seek to strengthen their own eminent position within their professional circle, a core element normally being their autobibliography. Al-Tustar begins the

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main section of his ijza with a detailed list of his own works, containing 32 titles, that the recipients are authorized to transmit.27 In many instances, he gives further information about the contents28 and the occasion and date of compilation of the respective titles.29 When he composed a work for others, he mentions where the autograph is located.30 At times he notes that a work (usually glosses) is written in an unorganized manner.31 The general phrase at the beginning of the list of works,32 as well as the precise information about the individual titles, indicate that al-Tustar intended to present a complete list.33 As far as the overall structure of the ijza is concerned, al-Tustar follows the characteristic pattern of such documents. A short opening

Al-Ijza al-kabra, pp. 5057. Cf. Appendix II. Nos. 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 18, 23. 29 Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15. 30 Nos. 6, 9, 10. 31 No. 20: awsh ghayr mudawwana 'al. . . . 32 Al-Ijza al-kabra, p. 50: qad ajaztu li-l-shaykhayn . . . an yarwiy 'ann jam' m yaiu isnduhu ilayya mimm naaqa bihi famm aw khaahu qalam mimm waaqan Allh Subnahu lah min al-kutub al-mabsa wa-l-mukhtaara wa-hiya . . . 33 One reason for the discrepancy between the number of titles quoted and the total of al-Tustars works might be that he wrote some works only after the ijza was issued. gh Buzurg lists the following writings of al-Tustar that are not mentioned in the autobibliographical list: Ijza li-'ulam" al-uwayza (abaqt, vol. 6, p. 458). It is likely that this title refers to the Ijza al-kabra; Tashr waslat al-fawz wa-l-mn [ f mad ib al-zamn 'alayhi al-salm] (Dhar'a, vol. 4, p. 191 no. 949, vol. 16, pp. 37374 no. 1733); Khitm al-kalm f shar maft al-akm (Dhar'a, vol. 7, p. 140 no. 768), being a commentary on the introduction and the second volume of Shar maft al-akm by al-Fay al-Kshn. Since al-Tustar states in his ijza kabra that he composed a commentary on the same work, entitled Dhukhr al-r'i" f shar maft al-shar'i" consisting of one volume only, both titles may either refer to the same commentary or represent indeed two commentaries on the same work; al-Rumiyya (Dhar'a, vol. 11, p. 248 no. 1520; see also vol. 20, p. 114 no. 2175; GALS, vol. 2, p. 586); al-Su"l wa-l-jawb (Dhar'a, vol. 12, p. 246 no. 1615; see also vol. 20, p. 114 no. 2175); al-Law al-maf f du'" al-sir (Dhar'a, vol. 18, p. 376 no. 524); Risla f m yajibu 'al l-insn (Dhar'a, vol. 19, p. 34 no. 177); Dwn Faqr al-Jaz"ir (Dhar'a, vol. 9 iii, p. 842 no. 5635); Mu'tarak al-maql f 'ilm al-rijl (Dhar'a, vol. 21, p. 210 no. 4651); al-Maqfal f l-ad'iya wa-l-arz (Dhar'a, vol. 22, p. 118 no. 6344).gh Buzurg also mentions the following translations of al-Tustar from Arabic into Persian: Tarjamat al-Tarf al-zanjniyya (Dhar'a, vol. 4, p. 89 no. 394); Tarjamat Hadyat al-mu"minn il l-frisiyya, a translation of a work by his grandfather on law, completed on 3 Muarram 1173/26 August 1759 (Dhar'a, vol. 4, p. 147 no. 715). As was mentioned above, this autobibliography is the second list of writings provided by the author; he had included a list of his writings in his Takira-i tar (pp. 6061) completed four years before the issuance of the ijza. All titles mentioned in the Takira are also included in the autobibliographical list in his ijza.
28

27

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prayer (p. 2) is followed by the introduction (pp. 24) containing the characteristic elements, including information about the issuer of the ijza and the two recipients, as well as details about the meeting between mujz and mujzn and the issuing of the document. The structure of the main section of the ijzaintroduced by the characteristic demarcator qad ajaztu li-l-shaykhayn . . . an yarwiy 'ann (p. 50) is also typical. In addition to authorizing transmission of his own works, al-Tustar confers on the recipients the licence to transmit everything he himself has heard from or read to his shaykhs. This sets up the framework for the following portions of the ijza. AlTustar rst discusses his dierent shaykhs, introducing each with the typical formula wa-ajaztu lahum . . . riwyat jam' marwiyyt . . . 'an . . . (pp. 5859), . . . jam' m aa l riwyatuhu bi-l-ijza al-'mma 'an . . . (p. 83) and . . . m rawaytuhu bi-l-ijzt al-'mma 'an . . . (p. 95). Proceeding from the list of his shaykhs and their transmitters, al-Tustar then draws a comprehensive network of Twelver Shi'i scholars with countless chains of transmission covering more than a century, from the time of his grandfather Ni'mat Allh al-Jaz"ir (d. 1112/1701)34 back to the Shahd al-thn. In addition, he indicates three chains of transmission connecting the Shahd al-thn back to the Shaykh al-s (ch. 12). Al-Tustar employs various terms typically used to structure and shorten the presentation of chains of transmission, such as aylla as an indicator of an alternative isnd element (pp. 69, 79, 87, 92, 93, 94). Furthermore, he uses expressions that are typically employed when the isnd fans out: li-l-wlid uruq muta'addida wa-ahammuh arqn . . . (p. 67), wa-ghayrihim min al-falsifa wa-l-maniqiyyn . . . (p. 72), 'an 'iddat min abihi minhum . . . (pp. 67, 78, 86). In his discussion of his own shaykhs, he restricts himself to the most important
34 For him cf. gh Buzurg, abaqt, vol. 6, pp. 78589; idem, Mua al-maql, pp. 48384; al-Khwnsr, Rawt, vol. 8, p. 150; al-Qumm, Faw"id, p. 694; alBarn, Lu"lu"at al-Barayn, p. 111; Takira-i tar, pp. 5659; GALS, vol. 2, p. 586. For a commented translation of Ni'mat Allhs autobiography, that he appended to his al-Anwr al-nu'mniyya as an epilogue (Tabriz 195862, vol. 4, pp. 30226), see Devin Stewart, The Humor of the Scholars. The Autobiography of Ni'mat Allh al-Jaz"ir (d. 1112/1701), Iranian Studies 22 (1989), pp. 4781. A Persian rendering of the autobiography was included in Qia al-'ulam" by Muammad b. Sulaymn Tnakbun which was summarized by Edward G. Browne in A Literary History of Persia. Volume IV, Cambridge 1924, pp. 36167; reprinted in The Most Learned of the Shi'a. The Institution of the Marja' Taqlid, ed. Linda S. Walbridge, Oxford 2001, pp. 1720.

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teachers, as he could not possibly mention all his transmitters in the limited space available.35 Another common way of avoiding lengthy presentations of isnds used here is to refer to licences of previous scholars where these are fully presented, or to biographical works containing such information.36 Al-Tustar refers to the Was"il al-sh'a of al-urr al-'mil (d. 1104/1693) and to the ijzt of other scholars containing detailed descriptions of their respective chains of transmission,37 to the Ghaw l al-la" l of Ibn Ab Jumh r al-A s" (d. after 906/1501) for his seven chains of transmission,38 to the ijzt of Muammad Bqir al-Majlis (d. 1110/1699 or 1111/1700), some of which are contained in the last volume of his Bir al-anwr,39 as well as to the ijzt of his teacher Nar Allh b. al-usayn al-Msaw al-"ir, particularly those collected in his Salsil al-dhahab.40 The end of the ijza is also characteristic: Al-Tustar mentions the conditions attached to the licence, introduced by the formula fa-lyarw 'ann wa-l-yujz m sh" wa-li-man sh" bi-shar"iih al-ma'lma ladayhim . . . (p. 212). The document nishes with a dated colophon by the author (p. 215). In addition to the text-immanent structure with its characteristic demarcators, and in contrast to most other comparable documents of this genre, al-Tustar renes the textual structure by further subdividing the document into seventeen chapters.41 The criteria for this division correspond with its internal structure which is characteristic for ijzt. In the main section of the document, al-Tustar reserves

35 Al-Ijza al-kabra, p. 59: . . . bi-uruq al-muttaila il muannifh wa-hiya kathra yalu aruh f hdha l-mawi' fa-qtairu 'al l-muhimm minh. 36 Cf. for example the ijza issued by al-Shahd al-thn for usayn b. 'Abd alamad in Jumd II 941/December 1534January 1535 (Ras"il al-Shahd al-thn, vol. 2, pp. 113940) or the ijza issued by al-Shahd al-thn for 'Al b. al-"igh al-usayn al-Msaw in Jumd I 958/May-June 1551 (Ras"il al-Shahd al-thn, vol. 2, p. 1153). 37 Al-Ijza al-kabra, p. 69: wa-baqiyat uruq al-shaykh Muammad ma'rfa mutafarriqa f ijzt al-muta"akhkhirn wa-qad istawf muhimmtih f khtimat kitbihi Was"il al-sh'a. 38 Al-Ijza al-kabra, p. 80: . . . il khir al-asnd al-madhkra f awwal Kitb Ghawl al-la"l. For an analysis of Ibn Ab Jumhrs chains of transmission, cf. my Theologie, Philosophie und Mystik, pp. 282306. 39 Al-Ijza al-kabra, p. 80: wa-baqiyat uruq al-Majlis mutafarriqa f ijzatihi wamajm'a f l-mujallad al-akhr min Bir al-anwr. 40 Al-Ijza al-kabra, p. 94: wa-l-sayyid Nar Allh uruq ukhar mutafarriqa f ijztihi wa-majm'at muhimmtihi f Kitbihi Salsil al-dhahab. Cf. also gh Buzurg, Dhar'a, vol. 12, p. 211 no. 1397.For Nar All al-"ir, cf. gh Buzurg, abaqt, vol. 6, pp. 77579. 41 He announces this in the introduction (p. 4): wa-dhlika f 'iddat ful.

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a separate chapter for his autobibliography, which he places at the beginning of the main section (ch. 5). He also has separate chapters for his two main transmittershis father Nr al-Dn (d. 1158/1745) and Nar Allh al-"ir (chs. 6 and 9). His remaining three transmittersMuammad usayn b. Muammad li b. 'Abd al-Wsi' al- usayn al-Kh t n b d (d. 1151/1739),42 Ra al-D n b. Muammad b. 'Al b. aydar al-'mil al-Makk (d. 1168/175455)43 and adr al-Dn b. Muammad Bqir al-Raaw al-Qumm (d. 1165/175152)44are dealt with in one single chapter (ch. 11). In addition, al-Tustar structures his elaboration on the transmitters of his teachers by dividing it into chapters. One entire chapter (ch. 7) is devoted to the transmitters of his father, another (ch. 8) to the transmitters of the latters shaykh and father, Ni'mat Allh al-Jaz"ir. The chains of transmission of Nar Allh al-"ir are also given a separate chapter (ch. 10). A further characteristic of this ijza that sets it apart from comparable documents may be found in the numerous theoretical reections of the author. These can be observed throughout the entire document, i.e., not only in those parts that are typical for ijzt, but also in the biographical section of the document. Following the introduction (pp. 24), al-Tustar adds three chapters in which he deals with theoretical aspects of the genre ijza and with the typical structure of Imami chains of transmission. In Chapter One (pp. 56) he treats grammatical and etymological aspects of the genre and discusses the function of issuing licences to transmit (cf. above). Chapter 2 (pp. 79) deals with the admissibility of transmission by means of licences and with the question of its relative signicance in comparison with other ways of transmission, particularly the sam'. Pointing out the widespread usage of issuing ijzt in the past as well as the present, al-Tustar concludes that the admissibility of transmission on the basis of licences is beyond doubt.

42 For him cf. al-Qumm, Faw"id, p. 494; al-Khwnsr, Rawt, vol. 2, p. 360; ' Abd al-Nab al-Qazw n , Tatm m amal al- mil, ed. A mad al- usayn , Qum 1407/[198687], p. 125; gh Buzurg, abaqt, vol. 6, pp. 198200. 43 For him cf. al-Qazwn, Tatmm, p. 208; gh Buzurg, abaqt, vol. 6, pp. 27577; asan adr, Takmilat amal al-mil, ed. Amad al-usayn, Beirut 1407/1986, pp. 20810 no. 180. 44 For him cf. al-Qumm, Faw"id, p. 213; idem, al-Kun wa-l-alqb 13, ed. Ri al-Mukhtr, Qum 1422/2001, vol. 2, p. 375; al-Khwnsr, Rawt, vol. 4, p. 122; gh Buzurg, abaqt, vol. 6, pp. 38284.

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Chapters Three (pp. 1012) and Four (pp. 1349) contain an analytical presentation of typical Imami chains of transmission. Al-Tustar opens this section with a quote from the ijza from asan b. alShahd al-thn (d. 1011/1607) for Najm al-Dn b. Muammad al-usayn and his sons Muammad and 'Al in which asan subdivides the Imami chains of transmission into three periods, ranked around the following three leading scholars: Shaykh al-s, al-Shahd al-awwal (d. 786/1384) and al-Shahd al-thn.45 Al-Tustar agrees with this division in principle, but points out that within the respective periods there are countless transmitters to be referred to for the chain of transmission to be valid. In the following Chapter Four (pp. 1349) al-Tustar provides a list of 129 scholars in chronological order, starting with the second period (pp. 1317) and continuing into the third period (pp. 1719). He then continues the principle laid down by asan b. al-Shahd al-thn by labeling the period since the passing away of the Shahd al-thn the fourth period.46 Here he provides a list of scholars belonging to this epoch, again in chronological order and subdivided into ve generations. Each generation, states al-Tustar at the end of this section, transmits from the former generation without any interruption or incompleteness in the chain of transmission.47 Exceptions to this rule occur only insofar as some scholars granted each other licences to transmit, so-called honorary ijzas (ijza mudabbaja) (pp. 4749). This term is used when two equal and usually reputed scholars grant each other the right to transmit.48

45 Al-Ijza al-kabra, pp. 1011. The ijza of asan b. al-Shahd al-thn is included in al-Majlis, Bir al-anwr, vol. 109, pp. 379; the passage al-Tustar quotes is to be found on pp. 56. 46 Al-Ijza al-kabra, pp. 19.: al-martaba al-rbi'a al-muta"akhkhira 'an 'ar al-Shahd al-thn il 'arin hdha. 47 Al-Ijza al-kabra, p. 47: . . . yarw kull abaqa 'an al-abaqa al-sbiqa muttailan musalsalan mu'an'anan l yukhlijuhu qa' wa-l irsl wa-l ghayr min wujh al-khadsh wa-likhtill. 48 Al-Tustar mentions the following scholars as examples of those who granted each other licences to transmit: Muammad Bqir al-Majlis and Muammad b. al-asan al-urr al-'mil (d. 1104/1693) and adr al-Dn 'Al Khn b. Nim al-Dn Amad (1052/164231119/17078); Ni'mat Allh al-Jaz"ir and usayn b. Muy al-Dn b. 'Abd al-Laf al-Jmi' (see also Dhar'a, vol. 1, p. 259 no. 1364); and al-Tustar himself and Nar Allh b. al-usayn al-"ir. Cf. al-Ijza al-kabra, p. 49. For further examples, see gh Buzurg, Dhar'a, vol. 1, p. 159 no. 789 (ijza granted by Mrz Muammad Bqir b. Mrz Zayn al-'bidn al-Msaw alKhwnsr al-Ifahn to Qsim b. Muammad al-Najaf in 1268/185152), pp. 19293 no. 997 (ijza granted by Muammad Raf' b. 'Abd al-Muammad alKawr al-Kazz to 'Abd al-Ramn b. Muammad al-Karhard al-Suln bd),

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Al-Tustar restricts himself as a rule to their respective names. Only rarely does he add further information, as in cases when a scholar belongs to more than one generation of transmitters (pp. 34, 37) or when he deems it necessary further to identify a person in order to avoid confusion (pp. 14, 25, 47). Another theoretical block is to be found at the end of the document, where al-Tustar discusses in detail the conditions that are attached to receiving a licence (pp. 21215). Al-Tustar considers the documentation of the scholarly tradition to be of prime signicance. Towards the end of the document, he adds four chapters dealing with his contemporaries, all of whom, except for one, he had met personally. While al-Tustar shares the interest of documenting his own scholarly tradition with compilers of comparable documents, the biographical section of the ijza does not consist of digressions within the main section of the licence, as was the case, e.g., with 'Abd Allh al-Samhjs (d. 1135/1722) Ijza kabra to Nir al-Jrd al-Qaf49 and other comparable ijzas of this size at the time.50 Rather, al-Tustar strictly dierentiates between the main section of the ijza and the following independent biographical section (chs. 1316) that is clearly separated from the preceding section (chs. 512) by an introduction (ch. 13).51 Moreover, even within the biographical section, al-Tustar presents his material in a systematic and well-structured manner. In the introduction to the biographical section he untertakes a critical evaluation of the Rijl-works that were compiled since the time of the Shaykh al-s. He criticizes in particular the fact that the authors provided a very incomplete documentation of the earlier generations of scholars. Moreover, since the last Imami biographical work, the Amal al-mil by al-urr al-'mil (d. 1104/1693) was completedfor which alTustar has the highest respect and in the tradition of which he seeks to put himself 52seventy years have passed that have so far remained
p. 205 no. 1071 (ijza granted by 'Abd Allh al-Samhj to Nir al-Jrd in 1128/1716); p. 256 no. 1350 (ijza granted by 'Abd al-Nab al-Qazwn to Bar al-'Ulm), p. 266 no. 1394 (ijza granted by Ysuf b. Amad al-Barn to 'Abd Allh al-Bild al-Barn). 49 Cf. my The ijza, pp. 7375. 50 See Gleave, The Ijza, pp. 11722. 51 Later authors, such as Musin al-Amn, designate this part of the ijza as an appendix to it, Dhayl al-ijza al-kabra. 52 gh Buzurg accordingly designates al-Tustars ijza as takmila to al-urr almils Amal al-mil; cf. Mua al-maql, p. 246.For Amal al-mil, see Marco Salati,

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undocumented. In the subsequent chapter 14, al-Tustar discusses a total of 65 scholars he had met during his lifetime, all of whom are from the Khzistn area. The respective entries, which are arranged alphabetically by name,53 as a rule contain a general appreciation of the scholar under discussion, information on the circumstances under which al-Tustar met him, sometimes even providing exact dates, the transmitters and teachers of the respective scholar, his writings and other biographical details.54 The majority of the scholars treated here55 out of 65had already passed away before the compilation of the ijza in 1168/1755.55 Al-Tustar frequently indicates the decade of their death,56 at times even the exact year.57 In ve cases he has no information on the date of death.58 Eight scholars out of 65 are still alive in 1168/175559 and with regard to two persons he is uncertain.60Al-Tustar further dedicates an extensive chapter to 'Abd Allh al-Samhj, whom he had never met personally, but whose writings he had found useful (ch. 16). Within the biographical section of the document a further theoretical portion is to be found. After al-Tustar writes in detail about 65 of his contemporaries in chapter 14, he untertakes an overall evaluation of those scholars. His judgement is rather negative. The majority of the scholars, he states, did not pass the stage of mere imitation (taqld ) and even those to whom this does not apply did not proceed far compared to the scholars of the former generations.

I maestri e le catene di trasmissione dellinsegnamento orale nel ]abal 'mil, in Onomastica e trasmissione del sapere nellIslam medievale, ed. Biancamaria Scarcia Amoretti, Rome 1992, pp. 91110; Josef van Ess, Amal al-mel, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, vol. 1, pp. 91718. 53 There are only three exceptions to this rule in the edition of Muammad alSamm al-a"ir (nos. 10, 19, 46), all of which are to be attributed to the editor and were not intended by the author of the ijza; no. 10 is in fact part of the entry no. 9, the father of no. 10; no. 19 belongs to entry no. 18, the brother of no. 19; no. 46 is part of the entry no. 45, the brother of no. 46. 54 Cf. Appendix I. 55 Nos. 1, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 11, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 35, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 47, 48, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68. 56 Nos. 1, 8, 9, 11, 15, 18, 20, 22, 25, 27, 29, 30, 40, 45, 48, 59, 64, 66, 67, 68. 57 Nos. 4, 14, 21, 24, 26, 32, 33, 35, 37, 38, 39, 41, 42, 44, 52, 53, 54, 55, 57, 63. 58 Nos. 5, 17, 28, 51, 65. The information provided by the author on the dates of death of nos. 6, 16, 23, 31, 43, 50, 58 is also rather vague. 59 Nos. 2, 3, 12, 34, 36, 49, 60, 62. 60 Nos. 7, 61.

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According to al-Tustar, this did not result from their inability to reach a higher level but rather from the circumstances in times of political turmoil and civil war, poverty and a general disregard for knowledge and its transmission, as well as for scholars in general. These diculties, which, al-Tustar explains, are by no means restricted to religious scholars but apply also to philosophers and physicians, are characteristic of the chaotic circumstances in Iran following the fall of the Safavids in 1722. As an example of the favorable circumstances earlier generations were able to enjoy, al-Tustar mentions the support Mu ammad B qir al-Majlis received from the Safavid rulers when collecting material for his Bir al-anwr (pp. 19798).

3 The signicance of the ijza discussed here lies in two areas. On the one hand, the document is of prime historical value for the reconstruction of the Imami scholarly network of the 18th century.61 This applies to the information on the father and grandfather of al-Tustar, the four recipients of the ijza and in particular the 65 contemporaries of al-Tustar dealt with in the biographical section of the document. The historical signicance of al-Tustars ijza becomes apparent when one compares his information with later biographical literature. In most cases al-Tustars ijza was the only, in some the main source for the respective biographical entries.62 Given the numerous

For the Imami scholarly network of 18th century Iraq and Iran, cf. Said Amir Arjomand, The Shadow of God and the Hidden Imam. Religion, Political Order, and Societal Change in Shi'ite Iran from the Beginning to 1890, Chicago 1984; Juan R.I. Cole, Shi'i Clerics in Iraq and Iran, 17221780. The Akhbari-Usuli Conict Reconsidered, Iranian Studies 18 i (1985), pp. 334; idem, Ideology, Ethics, and Philosophical Discourse in Eighteenth Century Iran, Iranian Studies 22 i (1989), pp. 734.In general for the political and societal situation in Iran during the 18th century, cf. Laurence Lockhart, Nadir Shah. A Critical Study Based Mainly Upon Contemporary Sources, London 1938; idem, The Fall of the Safavi Dynasty and the Afghan Occupation of Persia, Cambridge 1958; John Perry, Karim Khan Zand, Chicago 1973; Roger Savory, Iran under the Safavids, Cambridge 1980; Hans Robert Roemer, Persien auf dem Weg in die Neuzeit. Iranische Geschichte von 13501750, Beirut 1989, J. Foran, Fragile Resistance. Social Transformation in Iran from 1500 to the Revolution, Boulder/San Francisco/Oxford 1993. 62 Such is the case with nos. 1, 3, 5, 8, 10, 12, 13, 15, 16, 19, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 31, 32, 33, 34, 36, 37, 38, 41, 43, 44, 45.This also applies for persons

61

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self-testimonies and autobiographical and autobibliographical information it contains, the ijza is also a rich source of information on al-Tustars own life. For our understanding of the genre of ijza, particularly the typology of its forms and analysis of its functions, the signicance of the present document lies, moreover, in its being an apparently exceptional case within this genre. Finally, the numerous theoretical reections it contains provide valuable information on the social practice of issuing licences to transmit in the 18th century, which still remains to be fully explored.*

Appendix I: Contemporary scholars, whom the mujz met in the course of his life (ch. 14) The numbering of the following list matches that introduced by the editor of the text. In square brackets are those scholars that are given separate numbers by the editor although the author himself mentioned them only as a digression within another entry without dedicating a separate entry to them. In round brackets is indicated the approximate date of death as given by al-Tustar. In case this information could be further specied on the basis of later sources, the exact year of death is mentioned in square brackets. 1. Ibrhm b. 'Al b. Bll al-Jaz"ir al-Dawraq (tuwuya 'ushr alkhamsn) (gh Buzurg, abaqt, vol. 6, p. 6) 2. Ibrhm b. Muammad Bqir al-Qumm al-Raaw al-Najaf alHamadn (alive in 1168/1755) (al-Amn, A'yn, vol. 2, p. 204; gh Buzurg, Dhar'a, vol. 14,
whom the author mentions without dedicating a specic entry to them; cf., e.g., alIjza al-kabra, p. 155, where he mentions a certain Shaykh Muammad, with whom he studied under 'Al al-liqn (= no. 38). Cf. gh Buzurg, abaqt, vol. 6, p. 638; gh Buzurg identies him on the basis of Tustars information as Muammad al-Tamm al-Jaz"ir al-Shrz (= no. 50). For him, cf. gh Buzurg, abaqt, vol. 6, pp. 64950. Cf. also al-Ijza al-kabra, p. 191, where Fakhr al-Dn al-Shshtar is mentioned as teacher of no. 67. Cf. also gh Buzurg, abaqt, vol. 6, p. 581. For the signicance of this ijza as a historical source, see also ibid, vol. 6, p. 457. * I take the opportunity to thank Rainer Brunner, Etan Kohlberg, Gudrun Krmer, Elizabeth Pond, and Reza Pourjavady who read drafts of this paper and made helpful suggestions.

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3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12. 13.

p. 74; al-Qazwn, Tatmm, p. 56 no. 6; gh Buzurg, abaqt, vol. 6, pp. 1819) Ab Ja'far al-Mzandarn (alive in 1168/1755) (al-Amn, A'yn, vol. 2, p. 316; gh Buzurg, abaqt, vol. 6, pp. 14243) Abu l-asan b. Muammad Zamn b. 'Inyat Allh al-Tustar (d. 1143/1730), brother of no. 39 (Takira, p. 157) Ab lib b. Abi l-asan al-Fatn al-'mil al-Gharaw (d. before 1168/1755) [1070/1659601138/172526] (al-Amn, A'yn, vol. 2, p. 366; l Mabba, M al-Najaf, vol. 3, p. 49; gh Buzurg, abaqt, vol. 6, p. 391; adr, Takmila, pp. 44445 no. 437) Amad b. Muammad Mahd al-Khtn bd (d. after 1139/ 172627) [d. 1154/174142] (gh Buzurg, abaqt, vol. 6, pp. 3436) Amad al-'Alaw al-Khtn bd (d. before or after 1168/1755) [d. 1161/1748] (al-Amn, A'yn, vol. 3, p. 22; al-Qazwn, Tatmm, pp. 6061 no. 12; gh Buzurg, abaqt, vol. 6, pp. 3334) Iskandar b. Jaml al-Dn al-Jaz"ir (tuwuya 'ushr al-arba'n) (al-Amn, A'yn, vol. 3, p. 302; gh Buzurg, abaqt, vol. 6, p. 57) Ism'l al-Burjird (tuwuya 'ushr al-sittn) (al-Amn, A'yn, vol. 3, p. 313; al-Qazwn, Tatmm, p. 71; gh Buzurg, abaqt, vol. 6, p. 59) [Muammad b. Ism'l al-Burjird, son of no. 9 who died shortly after his father (al-Amn, A'yn, vol. 10, p. 20; gh Buzurg, abaqt, vol. 6, p. 945)] Ism'l b. al-Amr Muammad Bqir al-Khtn bd (tuwuya 'ushr al-sittn) [d. after 1160/174748] (al-Amn, A'yn, vol. 3, p. 402; al-Qazwn, Tatmm, p. 69 no. 20; gh Buzurg, abaqt, vol. 6, p. 62) Ja'far al-usayn al-Haraw al-Mashhad (alive in 1168/1755) (al-Amn, A'yn, vol. 4, p. 96) Jaml al-Dn b. Iskandar b. Jaml al-Dn al-Jaz"ir (d. before 1168/1755), son of no. 8 (al-Amn, A'yn, vol. 4, p. 206; gh Buzurg, abaqt, vol. 6, p. 146)

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14. asan b. usayn b. Muy al-Dn b. 'Abd al-Laf al-Jmi' (d. 1130/162021) (al-Am n, A'yn, vol. 5, p. 57; l Ma b ba, M al-Najaf, vol. 3, p. 308; gh Buzurg, abaqt, vol. 6, p. 164; adr, Takmila, pp. 14748 no. 95) 15. usayn b. Ibr h m al-Kh t n b d al-Mashhad (tuwuya maqtlan 'ushr al-sittn) [d. 1159/174647] (al-Amn, A'yn, vol. 5, p. 413; al-Qazwn, Tatmm, pp. 12829 no. 80; gh Buzurg, abaqt, vol. 6, pp. 19698) 16. usayn b. Za'l al-Barn (d. before 1168/1755) (al-Amn, A'yn, vol. 6, p. 23; gh Buzurg, abaqt, vol. 6, pp. 18586) 17. aydar al-'mil al-Mashhad (d. before 1168/1755) (al-Amn, A'yn, vol. 6, p. 271; al-Qazwn, Tatmm, pp. 13941 no. 93; adr, Takmila, p. 195 no. 163; gh Buzurg, abaqt, vol. 6, pp. 23031) 18. Khams b. li al-Khalaf bd (tuwuya 'ushr al-sittn) (al-Amn, A'yn, vol. 6, p. 357; gh Buzurg, abaqt, vol. 6, p. 246) 19. [his (no. 18) brother Amad (alive in 1168/1755) (al-Amn, A'yn, vol. 2, p. 605; gh Buzurg, abaqt, vol. 6, p. 36)] 20. Raf' al-Dn (Muammad Raf') b. Faraj (Farrakh) al-Jln alRaaw al-Rasht (tuwuya 'ushr al-sittn) [d. 1160/174748], uncle of no. 60 (al-Amn, A'yn, vol. 7, pp. 3334; Qumm, Faw"id 535; alQazwn, Tatmm, pp. 15961 no. 111; gh Buzurg, abaqt, vol. 6, pp. 28387) 21. Zak (Muammad Zak) b. Ibrhm al-Kirmnshh (d. 1159/ 174647) (al-Amn, A'yn, vol. 7, p. 68; gh Buzurg, Dhar'a, vol. 10, p. 199; al-Qazwn, Tatmm, pp. 16669 no. 118; gh Buzurg, abaqt, vol. 6, pp. 29091) 22. Shams al-Dn b. aqar al-Bar al-Jaz"ir (tuwuya 'ushr al-arba'n) [ca. 1070/1659601140/172728] (al-Amn, A'yn, vol. 7, p. 352; al-Afand, Riy, vol. 3, p. 12; gh Buzurg, abaqt, vol. 6, p. 351) 23. adr al-Dn b. al-Q Muammad Sa'd al-Qumm (d. before 1168/1755) (al-Amn, A'yn, vol. 7, p. 385; gh Buzurg, abaqt, vol. 6, p. 382)

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24. 'Abd al-Bq b. Murta al-Msaw al-Dizfl (d. 1143/173031) (al-Amn, A'yn, vol. 7, p. 433; gh Buzurg, abaqt, vol. 6, pp. 41314) 25. 'Abd al-usayn al-Qr al-uwayz (tuwuya 'ushr al-arba'n) (gh Buzurg, abaqt, vol. 6, p. 412) 26. 'Abd al-usayn b. Kalab 'Al al-Tustar (d. 1141/172829) (al-Amn, A'yn, vol. 7, p. 451; gh Buzurg, abaqt, vol. 6, p. 420; Takira 159) 27. 'Abd al-Ram al-Damwand (tuwuya 'ushr al-sittn) (al-Amn, A'yn, vol. 7, p. 470; gh Buzurg, abaqt, vol. 6, pp. 42526) 28. 'Abd al-Ram b. Ja'far b. Muammad Bqir al-Sabzawr (d. before 1168/1755) (al-Amn, A'yn, vol. 7, p. 470; gh Buzurg, abaqt, vol. 6, p. 426) 29. 'Abd al-Ghar b. Muammad Taq al-Tustar (tuwuya 'ushr al-khamsn) [d. 1147/173435] (gh Buzurg, abaqt, vol. 6, pp. 43940; Takira, p. 159) 30. 'Abd Allh b. 's al-Ibahn al-mushtahir bi-l-Tabrz al-Afand (tuwuya 'ushr al-thalthn) [1066/165556ca. 1130/171718] (gh Buzurg, Dhar'a, p. vol. 1, p. 127, vol. 3, p. 104, vol. 11, p. 331; idem, Mua al-maql, pp. 240241; idem, abaqt, vol. 6, pp. 44952; al-Qumm, Faw"id, p. 253; idem, al-Kun, vol. 2, pp. 4850; al-Kala, Mu'jam, vol. 6, p. 99; al-Khwnsr, Rawt, vol. 4, p. 255; al-Afand, Riy, vol. 3, p. 230) 31. 'Abd Allh b. Karam Allh al-uwayz (d. before 1168/1755) [alive in 1131/171819] (al-Am n, A'yn, vol. 8, p. 68; l Ma b ba, M al-Najaf, vol. 2, p. 184; gh Buzurg, abaqt, vol. 6, pp. 45960) 32. 'Abd Allh b. Nir al-uwayz al-Humayl (d. 1143/173031), father of one of the recipients of the ijza, Ibrhm b. 'Abd Allh b. Nir al-uwayz al-Humayl (gh Buzurg, abaqt, vol. 6, pp. 47172) 33. 'Abd Muammad b. 'Abd al-Jall b. al-jj 'Abd Muammad al-uwayz (d. 1128/1716) (gh Buzurg, abaqt, vol. 6, p. 473) 34. 'Al al-Burjird al-Nahwand (alive in 1168/1755) (gh Buzurg, abaqt, vol. 6, p. 506) 35. 'Al b. 'Azz Allh b. 'Abd al-Muallib b. Muammad b. alusayn al-Msaw al-Jaz"ir (d. 1149/173637)

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36. 'Al b. 'Al al-Najjr al-Tustar (alive in 1168/1755), brother of no. 53 (gh Buzurg, abaqt, vol. 6, p. 558; Takira, p. 166) 37. 'Al b. Nar Allh al-uwayz al-Q (d. 1150/173738) (gh Buzurg, abaqt, vol. 6, p. 520) 38. 'Al Akbar al-laqn al-Khwnsr (d. 1160/174748) (al-Amn, A'yn, vol. 8, p. 171; gh Buzurg, abaqt, vol. 6, pp. 49699) 39. 'Inyat Allh b. Muammad Zamn b. 'Inyat Allh al-Tustar (d. 1146/173334), brother of no. 4 (gh Buzurg, abaqt, vol. 6, p. 565; Takira, p. 160) 40. 'Iwa al-uwayz al-Bar (tuwuya 'ushr al-sittn) (gh Buzurg, abaqt, vol. 6, p. 566) 41. Fat Allh b. 'Ilwn al-Dawraq al-Ka'b (d. 1130/171718) [1053/1643441130/171718] (al-Kala, Mu'jam, vol. 8, p. 52; gh Buzurg, abaqt, vol. 6, pp. 57879) 42. Faraj Allh b. Muammad usayn al-Tustar (d. 1128/1716), brother of no. 57 (al-Amn, A'yn, vol. 8, pp. 39596; gh Buzurg, abaqt, vol. 6, p. 583; Takira, p. 161) 43. Qawm al-Dn Muammad b. Muammad Mahd al-usayn al-Sayf al-Qazwn (d. before 1168/1755) [d. 1150/164041] (al-Amn, A'yn, vol. 8, p. 452; gh Buzurg, Dhar'a, vol. 4, p. 100; idem, abaqt, vol. 6, pp. 6035; al-Qumm, al-Kun, vol. 3, pp. 9093) 44. Karam Allh al-uwayz (d. 1154/174142), father of one of the recipients of the ijza, Muammad b. Karam Allh aluwayz (d. 1172/175859) (al-Am n, A'yn, vol. 9, p. 29; l Ma b ba, M al-Najaf, vol. 2, p. 186; gh Buzurg, abaqt, vol. 6, p. 614) 45. Majd al-Dn b. Afal b. Fay Allh al-Dizfl (tuwuya 'ushr alkhamsn) (al-Amn, A'yn, vol. 9, p. 45; gh Buzurg, abaqt, vol. 6, p. 630) 46. [Muammad al-Mu"min al-Dizfl, brother of no. 45 (gh Buzurg, abaqt, vol. 6, p. 747)] 47. Majd al-Dn b. Shaf' al-Dn b. Fa al-Dn al-'Abbs alQatham al-Dizfl (d. after 1060/174748) [d. before 1165/ 175152]

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48.

49.

50.

51.

52.

53.

54. 55.

56.

57.

58.

(al-Amn, A'yn, vol. 9, p. 45; gh Buzurg, abaqt, vol. 6, pp. 63031) Musin b. Jn Amad al-Dizfl (tuwuya 'ushr al-khamsn) (al-Amn, A'yn, vol. 9, p. 45; gh Buzurg, abaqt, vol. 6, p. 633) Muammad b. Amad al-Jaz"ir al-Gharaw (alive in 1168/1755) [alive in 1182/176869] (al-Amn, A'yn, vol. 9, p. 71; al-Qumm, Faw"id, p. 386; l Mabba, M al-Najaf, vol. 2, p. 92; gh Buzurg, abaqt, vol. 6, pp. 65354) Muammad al-Tamm al-Jaz"ir al-Shrz (d. after 1158/ 174546) (al-Amn, A'yn, vol. 9, p. 198; gh Buzurg, abaqt, vol. 6, pp. 64950, also pp. 5089) Muammad al-abab", nephew of Muammad Bqir alMajlis (d. before 1168/1755) (al-Amn, A'yn, vol. 9, p. 376; al-Qumm, Faw"id, p. 552) Muammad b. al-jj 'Al b. al-Amr Mamd al-Jaz"ir alTustar (d. 1130/171718) [d. 1131/171819] (al-Amn, A'yn, vol. 10, p. 9; gh Buzurg, abaqt, vol. 6, pp. 65253) Muammad b. 'Al al-Najjr al-Tustar (d. 1140/172728), brother of no. 36 (al-Amn, A'yn, vol. 10, p. 9; gh Buzurg, abaqt, vol. 6, pp. 7067; Takira, p. 161) Muammad b. Fat 'Al b. Muammad al-Tustar (d. 1163/1750) (gh Buzurg, abaqt, vol. 6, p. 677; Takira, p. 168) Muammad b. Muammad li b. 'Abd al-Wsi' al-usayn al-Khtn bd (d. 1148/173536) (gh Buzurg, abaqt, vol. 6, pp. 66465) Muammad Bqir b. Fakhr al-Dn b. Nr al-Dn al-'mil alDizfl (d. after 1160/174748) (gh Buzurg, abaqt, vol. 6, p. 90; adr, Takmila, p. 377 no. 365) Muammad Bqir b. Muammad usayn al-Tustar (d. 1135/ 172223), brother of no. 42 (al-Amn, A'yn, vol. 9, p. 187; gh Buzurg, abaqt, vol. 6, p. 91; Takira, p. 162) Muammad Taq al-'Alaw al-Ri Tawfq (d. before 1168/1755) [alive in 1138/172526] (gh Buzurg, abaqt, vol. 6, p. 118)

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59. Muammad Ri b. Muammad Hd b. Muammad li alabarastn al-Mzandarn (tuwuya 'ushr al-khamsn) (gh Buzurg, abaqt, vol. 6, p. 268) 60. Muammad 'Al b. Muammad Shaf' al-Jln (alive in 1168/ 1755), nephew of no. 20 (gh Buzurg, abaqt, vol. 6, pp. 53435) 61. Muammad Qsim b. Muammad diq al-Astarbd (d. before or after 1168/1755) (al-Amn, A'yn, vol. 10, p. 40; gh Buzurg, abaqt, vol. 6, p. 588) 62. Muammad Mahd b. Muammad li al-Aftn (al-Fatn) (alive in 1168/1755) [d. 1183/176970] (al-Amn, A'yn, vol. 10, p. 67; gh Buzurg, abaqt, vol. 6, pp. 75658; adr, Takmila, pp. 39293 no. 379) 63. Muammad Hd b. Muammad b. 's al-Mar'ash al-Tustar (d. 1138/172526) [d. 1137/172425] (gh Buzurg, abaqt, vol. 6, pp. 8067) 64. Mamd b. Muammad al-uwayz al-Dizfl (tuwuya 'ushr alkhamsn) [d. after 1150/173738] (gh Buzurg, abaqt, vol. 6, p. 712) 65. Manr b. Muammad b. 'Abd al-usayn al-usayn al-Najaf al-laqn (d. before 1168/1755) (al-Amn, A'yn, vol. 10, p. 141; gh Buzurg, abaqt, vol. 6, p. 743) 66. Mahd b. Nu'aym al-Ifahn al-'Uqayl al-Astarbd (tuwuya 'ushr al-sittn) (al-Amn, A'yn, vol. 10, pp. 16667; gh Buzurg, abaqt, vol. 6, p. 761, also pp. 79091) 67. Naar 'Al b. Muammad Amn al-Zajjj al-Tustar (tuwuya 'ushr al-khamsn) [d. 1146/173334] (al-Amn, A'yn, vol. 10, pp. 22223; Takira, p. 163; gh Buzurg, abaqt, vol. 6, p. 784) 68. Ya'qb b. Ibrhm al-Bakhtiyr al-uwayz (tuwuya 'ushr alkhamsn) [d. 1147/173435] (al-Amn, A'yn, vol. 10, p. 307; gh Buzurg, Dhar'a, vol. 2, p. 222, vol. 3, p. 374, vol. 6, p. 63; idem, abaqt, vol. 6, pp. 82123; al-Ka la, Mu' jam, vol. 13, p. 240; Ta kira, p. 163)

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The wording of each title corresponds to the wording in the ijza. In square brackets are mentioned alternative titles listed either by al-Tustar in his Takira-i tar (pp. 6061) or by later authors. The sequence of the titles corrresponds to the sequence in which they appear in the ijza; the numbering corresponds to the numbering introduced by the editor. Only in the case of no. 20 has the entry been further subdivided. In addition to other references, the respective number of each title in the authors autobibliographical list in Takira-i tar is also indicated. 1. Risla mukhtaara f 'ilm al-naw [= Madnat al-naw min mutn aljmi'a li-mas"ilihi ka-l-lyya wa-l-tahdhb wa-ghayruhum] (Takira no. 1; gh Buzurg, Dhar'a, vol. 20, p. 254 no. 2835, vol. 24, p. 86) 2. shiyya mudawwana 'al Kitb arba'n adthan Commentary on al-Arba' n adthan of Bah" al-Dn al-'mil (d. 1030/162021 or 1031/162122) (Takira no. 2; gh Buzurg, Dhar'a, vol. 1, pp. 42526 no. 2180, vol. 6, p. 13 no. 35; written at the request of his father and completed in 1135/172223) 3. Risla frisiyya f taqq qiblat baladin [Tustar] [= Risla f qiblat Tustar wa-m wlh/Risla dar taqq-i qibla-yi Shshtar/Taqq qiblat Tustar] (Takira no. 3; gh Buzurg, Dhar'a, vol. 17, pp. 4445 no. 238; see also vol. 20, p. 114 no. 2175; composed following the order of Isndiyr Beg on 7 afar 1140/23 September 1727) 4. Risla ukhr f hdh l-bb [= Risla dar taqq-i qibla-yi uwayza] (Takira no. 4; gh Buzurg, Dhar'a, vol. 17, p. 45 no. 240a; composed following the order of Sayyid 'Al Khn b. Sayyid Muallib, ruler of uwayza) 5. Risla mawsma bi-l-Tufa al-nriyya (Takira no. 5; gh Buzurg, Dhar'a, vol. 3, p. 479 no. 1769; composed at the request of his father and named according to him; completed on 3 Muarram 1144/8 July 1731; in this treatise the author deals with ten questions from ten dierent disciplines, namely tafsr, adth, qh, ul, maniq, i'rb, balgha, nujm, hay"a) 6. Risla mawsma bi-Kshifat al-l f ma'rifat al-qibla wa-l-zawl (gh Buzurg, Dhar'a, vol. 17, pp. 24142 no. 74; cf. also idem,

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sabine schmidtke abaqt, vol. 6, pp. 52627; composed following the order of the governor 'Al Khn al-aghr al-uwayz) Risla frisiyya f l-ilasm [al-suln f l-hay"a wa-l-nujm wa-l-ilasmt] (Takira no. 13; gh Buzurg, Dhar'a, vol. 15, p. 177, vol. 15, p. 178 no. 1188; Munzaw, Fihrist, vol. 1, pp. 32829; composed in 1157/174445 following the order of Ab li Suln alTarshz, wakl mliyt Khzistn wa-Tustar) Risla f istikhrj inirf [al-qibla/Istikhrj inirf jam' al-bild/Risla dar taqq-i awbi-i istikhrj ] (Takira no. 12; gh Buzurg, Dhar'a, vol. 2, p. 20 no. 62) Risla mawsma bi-Lubb al-lubb f shar afat al-usturlb [li-lShaykh al-Bah" (d. 1030/1621 or 1021/1622)] (Takira no. 6; gh Buzurg, Dhar'a, vol. 13, pp. 34445, vol. 13, p. 361, vol. 18, p. 290 no. 149; composed at the request of his student Ibrhm b. 'Abd Allh b. Nir al-uwayz) Risla f l-raml Kitb al-Dhukhr al-r'i" [al-Mab al-lawmi' ] f shar Maft alshar'i" [li-l-Fay al-Kshn] (Takira no. 7; gh Buzurg, Dhar'a, vol. 10, p. 8 no. 47; Hossein Modarressi Tabtab"i, An Introduction to Sh' Law. A bibliographical study, London 1984, p. 86Introduction and volume one completed in 1142/172930) Risla mawsma bi-l-Anwr al-jaliyya f jawbt al-mas"il al-jabaliyya al-l [Risla-yi jabaliyya-yi l] (Takira no. 8; gh Buzurg, Dhar'a, vol. 2, pp. 42324 no. 1671; Modarressi, Introduction, p. 109; GALS, vol. 2, p. 586; responsa to 70 questions of Sayyid 'Al al-Burjird al-Nahwand [alMas"il al-jabaliyya], completed on 28 Jumd I 1149/4 Oktober 1736) Risla ukhr f l-mas"il al-jabaliyya al-thniya [= al-Dhakhra al-bqiya f ajwibat al-mas"il al-jabaliyya al-thniya/Risla-yi jabaliyya-yi thniya (Takira no. 9; gh Buzurg, Dhar'a, vol. 10, p. 15 no. 70; Modarressi, Introduction, p. 109; GALS, vol. 2, p. 586responsa to 30 questions of Sayyid 'Al al-Burjird al-Nahwand [alMas"il al-jabaliyya], completed on 17 Sha'bn 1151/29 November 1738) Rislat al-Maqid al-'aliyya [al-Risla al-'alawiyya] f jawbt [ajwibat] al-mas"il al-'alawiyya [mas"il al-Shaykh 'Al al-uwayz] [al-'Aliyya f ajwibat al-mas"il al-'Alawiyya] (Takira no. 10; gh Buzurg, Dhar'a, vol. 11, p. 210; see also

7.

8.

9.

10. 11.

12.

13.

14.

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15.

16.

17.

18. 19.

20a. 20b.

20c.

20d.

20e.

vol. 20, p. 114 no. 2175; vol. 21, pp. 38182 no. 5565; idem, abaqt, vol. 6, pp. 52021; Modarressi, Introduction, p. 109; GALS, vol. 2, p. 586responsa to 30 questions of 'Al b. 'Abd Allh b. Muammad al-uwayzn [al-uwayz], mostly on qh. Completed on 28 Jumd II 1149/2 November 1736) Rislat al-Dhakhra al-'badiyya f jawbt al-mas"il al-amadiyya [al-Risla al-amadiyya f jawb mas"il al-Sayyid Amad al-Msaw al-Musha'sha'] (Takira no. 11; gh Buzurg, Dhar'a, vol. 10, p. 12 no. 61, vol. 11, p. 37; Modarressi, Introduction, p. 109; GALS, vol. 2, p. 586responsa to 40 questions of Amad al-uwayz alMsaw al-Musha'sha' [al-Mas"il al-amadiyya]; completed in 1155/174243) Juz" min Tadhyl [Dhayl ] salfat al-'ar (gh Buzurg, Dhar'a, vol. 4, p. 54 no. 223, vol. 12, p. 212 no. 1401) Kitb al-Tufa al-saniyya f shar al-nukhba al-musiniyya (Takira no. 14; gh Buzurg, Dhar'a, vol. 3, pp. 44243 no. 1606; Modarressi, Introduction, p. 87; GALS, vol. 2, p. 586; commentary on the Kitb al-Nukhba of Fay al-Kshn on qh, composed at the request of Mawl 'Al b. 'Al al-Najjr alTustar, a student of the father of the mujz) Risla f iat alt mustaib al-dhahab al-mastr f l-kamm wanawahu (gh Buzurg, Dhar'a, vol. 15, p. 12 no. 57) shiya mudawwana 'al [muqaddimt] al-wf f jam' adth alkutub al-arba'a [li-l-Fay al-Kshn] (Takira no. 15; gh Buzurg, Dhar'a, vol. 6, p. 229 no. 1288) shiya ghayr mudawwana 'al al-istibr [li-l-Shaykh al-s] (gh Buzurg, Dhar'a, vol. 6, p. 18 no. 56) shiya ghayr mudawwana 'al al-Madrik [al-akm f shar shar'i" al-islm li-Muammad b. 'Al sib al-Shahd al-thn] (Takira no. 17; gh Buzurg, Dhar'a, vol. 6, p. 197 no. 1085) shiya ghayr mudawwana 'al [al-Rawa al-bahiyya] f Shar alLum'a al-dimashqiyya [li-l-Shahd al-thn] (gh Buzurg, Dhar'a, vol. 6, p. 95 no. 502) shiya ghayr mudawwana 'al Kitb al-rijl al-kabr [= Manhaj almaql f 'ilm al-rijl ] li-Mrz Muammad b. 'Al al-Astarbd (d. 1028/1619) (gh Buzurg, Dhar'a, vol. 6, p. 226 no. 1266) shiya ghayr mudawwana 'al Rijl al-Sayyid Muaf al-Tafrsh

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sabine schmidtke [= Naqd al-rijl li-Mr Muaf b. usayn al-Tafrsh (d. 1021/ 161213)] (gh Buzurg, Dhar'a, vol. 6, p. 228 no. 1278) shiya ghayr mudawwana 'al Aml al-adq (d. 381/991) (gh Buzurg, Dhar'a, vol. 6, p. 25 no. 97) shiya ghayr mudawwana 'al Mughn al-Labb 'an kutub al-a'rb [li-Jaml ad-Dn 'Abd Allh b. Ysuf b. Hishm (d. 761/1360)] (Takira no. 18; gh Buzurg, Dhar'a, vol. 6, p. 212 no. 1186; GAL, vol. 2, p. 23) shiya ghayr mudawwana 'al l-Muawwal (Takira no. 16) shiya ghayr mudawwana 'al Shar al-afa [al-kmila al-sajjdiyya] li-l-Sayyid 'Al Khn [al-Madan al-Dashtak] (d. 1120/17089) (gh Buzurg, Dhar'a, vol. 6, p. 124 no. 669) shiya ghayr mudawwana 'al Khulat al-isb [li-l-Shaykh alBah"] (Takira no. 19) Risla f mas'ala isbiyya min al-mu'ilt Risla frisiyya f ta"rkh baladin Tustar [= Tadhkira-yi Shshtar/ Tadhkira-yi Shshtar f ta"rkh-i Tustar] (C. A. Storey, Persian Literature. A Bio-Bibliographical Survey, London 192739, vol. 1 i, p. 365 no. 486; Munzaw, Fihrist, vol. 6, pp. 28991; gh Buzurg, Dhar'a, vol. 3, p. 24345 no. 900) Edition: Takira-i tar. An account of tar, from the earliest time to A.H. 1169, with notices of its celebrated men and memories of the authors life 12, eds. Khan Bahadur Maula Bakhsh and M. Hidayet Husayn, Calcutta: Asiatic Society of Bengal, 191424 (Bibliotheca Indica; 206) Risla f ml al-nib wa-annahu laysa kull mukhlif niban (gh Buzurg, Dhar'a, vol. 19, p. 27 no. 138)

20f. 20g.

20h. 20i.

20k.

21. 22.

23.

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