1  T H I S B O O K I S U N D E R P R E P A P R A T I O N
SIDDHARTHA MISHRA
QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE By M Siddhartha #09818974743
2  T H I S B O O K I S U N D E R P R E P A P R A T I O N
The following problem is the gateway to this book; try to solve it
without using calculator. See the answer at the last page. If your answer
matches then go through this book, else you should brushup your basics
first.
Hi, this is Siddhartha Mishra, teaching
mathematics and various subjects for more
than 20 year. Hope readers of this book
will find the materials and proceedings
very helpful.
Please help me to improve this
book. Suggestions are welcome.
Siddhartha Mishra,
New Delhi: 23042013.
Mobile: 9818974743
siddhartha691@gmail.com
QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE By M Siddhartha #09818974743
3  T H I S B O O K I S U N D E R P R E P A P R A T I O N
siddhirbhavati karmaj
(Success is born of action)

QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE By M Siddhartha #09818974743
4  T H I S B O O K I S U N D E R P R E P A P R A T I O N
EVERY WEEK WE UPDATE THIS BOOK.
FIND IT AT: http://siddharthamishra.blogspot.in/2013/03/view
quantitativeaptitudeonscribd.html
GO TO YOU TUBE FOR SPEED MATHS VIDEO
AT youtube/siddhartha691
QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE By M Siddhartha #09818974743
5  T H I S B O O K I S U N D E R P R E P A P R A T I O N
Natural numbers: These are the numbers (1, 2, 3 etc.) that are used
for counting. In other words, all positive integers are natural numbers.
There are infinite natural numbers and the number 1 is the least
natural number.
Examples of natural numbers: 1, 2, 4, 8, 32, 23, 4321 and so on.
The following numbers are examples of numbers that are not
natural;
2, 33, 2.37, 0 and so on.
Prime numbers: A natural number, greater than unity, is a prime number
if it does not have other divisors except for itself and unity.
Please keep in mind that unity is not a prime number.
The prime numbers are 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19
Points to be remembered:
The lowest prime number is 2.
2 is also the only even prime number.
The lowest odd prime number is 3.
The remainder when a prime number 5 is divided by
6 is 1 or 5. However if a number on being divided by 6
gives a remainder 1 or 5 the number need not be prime.
The remainder of the division of the square of a prime
number p 5 divided by 24 is 1.
For prime numbers p > 3, p
2
1 is divisible by 24.
If p and q are any two odd primes then (p
2
q
2
) and
(p
2
+ q
2
) are composite.
Composite numbers: The natural numbers which are not prime are called
composite numbers.
QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE By M Siddhartha #09818974743
6  T H I S B O O K I S U N D E R P R E P A P R A T I O N
Co Primes: Two natural numbers a and b are said to be coprime if their
HCF is 1. Ex: (2, 3), (4, 5), (7, 9)are pairs of co primes.
TEST OF DIVISIBLITY
I. DIVISIBLITY BY 2: A number is divisible by 2 if its units digit is
any of 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8.
Ex: 58694 is divisible by 2, while 86945 is not divisible by 2.
II. DIVISIBLITY BY 3: A number is divisible by 3, when the sum of
its digits is divisible by 3.
Ex: In the number 695421, the sum of the digits = 27,
which is divisible by 3
III. DIVISIBILITY BY 9: A number is divisible by 9 only when the sum
of its digits is divisible by 9.
IV. DIVISIBILITY BY 4: A number is divisible by 4 if the sum of its
last two digits is divisible by 4.
V. DIVISIBILITY BY 8: A number is divisible by 8 if the number
formed by hundreds, tens and units digit of the given number is
divisible by 8.
Example: In the number 9683352 the number formed by last
three digits, namely 352 is divisible by 8, hence 9683352 is
divisible by 8.
VI. DIVISIBLITY BY 11: A number is divisible by 11 if the difference
between the sum of its digits at odd places and the sum of its digits
at even places is either 0 or a number divisible by 11.
Example: consider the number29435417
(sum of its digits at odd places) (sum of its digits at even places)
(7 + 4 + 3 + 9) (1 + 5 + 4 + 2) = 23 12 = 11, hence
29435417 is divisible by 11.
VII. DIVISIBILITY BY 7, 11 OR 13: The integer n is divisible by 7, 11
or 13 iff the difference of the number of its thousands and the
remainder of its division by 1000 is divisible by 7, 11 or 13.
Example: consider 40353607
4 0 3 5 3 6 0 7
Here, 40353 607 = 39746 is divisible by 7.
QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE By M Siddhartha #09818974743
7  T H I S B O O K I S U N D E R P R E P A P R A T I O N
Note: Twin primes are a pair of prime numbers when they differ
by 2. (3, 5) and (11, 13) are twin primes.
Perfect numbers: A number is said to be a perfect number if the
sum of all the divisors of is equal to .
Example: 28 = 1, 2, 4, 7, 14, 28 sum is 56 = 228
Hence, 28 is a perfect number.
The concept of LCM
METHOD (A)
LCM means least common multiple. To find LCM of 5, 6 the steps are;
Step1. Find multiples of all,
Step2. Find common in all,
Step3. Find least of all,
Multiples of 5 are: 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60
Multiples of 6 are: 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 42, 48, 54, 60
Common are: 30, 60, 90, 120
Least of all is 30. Hence, LCM of 5 and 6 is 30.
METHOD (B)
Find the LCM of 150, 210 and 375.
Step1. Write down the standard form of the numbers
150 = 5532 = 5
2
3
1
2
1
QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE By M Siddhartha #09818974743
8  T H I S B O O K I S U N D E R P R E P A P R A T I O N
210 = 5273 = 5
1
3
1
2
1
7
1
375 = 5553 = 5
3
3
1
Step2. Write down all the prime factors which are contained in
the standard form separately at least once in each standard form:
5, 3, 2, and 7.
Step3. Raise each of the prime factors to their highest power.
The LCM = 2
1
3
1
5
3
7
1
= 42125 = 5250.
METHOD (C)
When we are to find LCM of numbers having no common factors
among them, other than 1, the LCM will be just product of the
numbers.
LCM of 4, 5, 7 = 457 = 140; *common factor is 1 only +
The concept of HCF (GCD)
METHOD (A)
HCF means highest common factor. HCF of 14 and 16 will be:
Step1. Find all the factors;
Step2. Find common among all factors;
Step3. Find highest among all common factors;
Factors of 14 = 1, 2, 7, 14.
Factors of 16 = 1, 2, 4, 8, 16.
Common factors are 1 and 2.
Highest among 1 and 2 is 2. Hence, the HCF of 14 and 16 is 2.
QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE By M Siddhartha #09818974743
9  T H I S B O O K I S U N D E R P R E P A P R A T I O N
METHOD (B)
Find the HCF of 150, 210 and 375.
Step1. Write down the standard form of the numbers
150 = 5532 = 5
2
3
1
2
1
210 = 5273 = 5
1
3
1
2
1
7
1
375 = 5553 = 5
3
3
1
Step2. Write down all the prime factors that are common to the
standard form. They are 5 and 3.
Step3. Raise each of the common prime factors to their lowest
power.
The HCF = 3
1
5
1
= 15.
HCF and LCM of fractions
a. LCM of .
/=
(, , )
(, , )
;
b. HCF of .
/=
(, , )
(, , )
;
K Ke ee ep p i in n m mi in nd d t th he er re e a ar re e s so o m ma an ny y w wa ay ys s t to o f fi in nd d H HC CF F a an nd d L LC CM M o of f n nu um mb be er rs s. . I I
a am m s sh ho ow wi in ng g y yo ou u f fe ew w o of f t th he em m. . I If f y yo ou u k kn no ow w b be et tt te er r m me et th ho od d t th ha an n t th he e a ab bo ov ve e
p pl le ea as se e f fo ol ll lo ow w t th he em m. .
QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE By M Siddhartha #09818974743
10  T H I S B O O K I S U N D E R P R E P A P R A T I O N
Relation between HCF and LCM
LCM of (p, q) HCF of (p, q) = p q
Points to remember are:
1. LCM of a, b, c means a smallest number which can be
divided by a, b and c all.
2. HCF of a, b, c means a greatest number which can
divide a, b and c all.
HCF can divide (a, b, c) and (a, b, c) can devide LCM
IMPORTANT RESULTS
Find the GREATEST
NUMBER that will exactly
divide x, y, z.
Required number = H.C.F. of x, y, and z
(greatest divisor).
Find the GREATEST
NUMBER that will divide x, y
and z leaving remainders a, b
and c respectively.
Required number =
H.C.F. of (x a), (y b) and (z c).
Find the LEAST NUMBER
which is exactly divisible by
x, y and z
Required number = L.C.M. of x, y
and z .
Find the LEAST NUMBER
which when divided by x, y
and z leaves the remainders
a, b and c respectively.
Then, it is always observed that
(x a) = (z b) = (z c) = K (say).
Required number
= (L.C.M. of x, y and z) K
Find the LEAST NUMBER
which when divided by x, y
and z leaves the same
remainder r each case.
Required number
= (L.C.M. of x, y and z) + r.
Find the GREATEST
NUMBER that will divide x, y
and z leaving the same
remainder in each case
Required number = H.C.F of (x y),
(y z) and (z x).
QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE By M Siddhartha #09818974743
11  T H I S B O O K I S U N D E R P R E P A P R A T I O N
SAMPLE PROBLEMS WITH SOLUTION
Q1. Two numbers, both greater than 29, have HCF 29 and LCM 4147.
What is the sum of the numbers?
Solution: Let the numbers be x and y both greater than 29
HCF of (x, y) = 29 29 can divide x and y both
x = 29m and y = 29n
LCM of (x, y) = 4147 x and y can divide 4147,
As 4147 = 29143 = 291113
LCM of (x, y) HCF of (x, y) = x y
414729 = 29m29n
(291113) 29 = 2929mn
1113 = mn,
Now sum of the numbers; x + y = 29m +29n = 2911 + 2913
Hence, x = 319 and y = 377 both greater than 29 and sum =696
Q2. Find the least number which when divided by 16, 18, 20, and 25
leaves 4 as remainder?
Solution: LCMk = required number 4
k is any integer 1
LCM1 = required least number 4
As LCM of 16, 18, 20 and 25 is 3600.
When 3600 is divided by 16, 18, 20 and 25, there will be no
remainder. To leave remainder 4 we must increase the multiple
QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE By M Siddhartha #09818974743
12  T H I S B O O K I S U N D E R P R E P A P R A T I O N
of 3600 by 4, i.e.(3600m +4) but the least will be
36001 + 4 =3604.
Q3. Find the least number which when increased by 5, is divisible by
24, 32, and 36 and 54?
Solution: LCMk = required number + 5
k is any integer 1
LCM1 = required least number + 5
864 = required least number + 5
8641 5
859 is the required least number.
Q4. Find the greatest number, which on dividing 107 and 120
leaves remainders 5 and 1 respectively.
Solution: As HCF of (x, y) can divide x and y both, hence the
required greatest number will be;
HCF of (107 5 and 1201) = 17.
Q5. Sum of two numbers prime to each other is 20 and their LCM
is 99. What are the numbers?
Solution: Here, sum of two numbers prime to each other
means, the numbers are coprime (no common multiple).
Hence, equations will be + = 20,
. = 99,
{LCMof co }
QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE By M Siddhartha #09818974743
13  T H I S B O O K I S U N D E R P R E P A P R A T I O N
The numbers are 9 and 11.
Q6. When in each box 5 or 6 dozens of oranges were packed, three
dozens were remaining. Therefore, bigger boxes were taken to pack
8 or 9 dozens of oranges. However, still three dozens of oranges
remain. What was the least number of dozens of oranges to be
packed?
Solution: Least number, when only 5 or 6 is 30. To be remainder 3,
it should be 30 + 3 = 33. Least number, when only 8 or 9 is
72. For, to be remainder 3, it should be 72 + 3 = 75.
But, the least number for 5, 6, 8 or 9 is 360 and for to be 3
remainder, least number of dozens of oranges to be packed is
360+3 =363.
Important Note:
There are n numbers. If the HCF of each pair is x and the LCM of all
the n numbers is y, then:
= ( )
()
)
( )
Please keep in mind, mathematical calculations can be done very fast if
basic mathematical tools are well known to you. Let us see some of these
tools.
Tool no. 1. BODMAS (the sequence of simplification),
Tool no. 2. Multiplication table by heart (as much as you can),
Tool no. 3. Division concepts and application,
Tool no. 4. Surds and Indices,
Tool no. 5. Simple and complex algebraic equation,
Tool no. 6. Calm and cool mind
QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE By M Siddhartha #09818974743
14  T H I S B O O K I S U N D E R P R E P A P R A T I O N
HOW TO
Transform a word problem into an algebraic equation.
AGE PROBLEMS
Type (A) Present form
Q1. Ram is 2 years more than Shyam.
Equation: let Shyams present age be
Step1. > ,
Step2. = + 2,
Step3. = + 2,
Q2. Ram is two times the age of Shyam.
Equation: let Shyams present age be
Step1. > ,
Step2. = 2 ,
Step3. = 2 ,
Q3. Ram is two third of the age of Shyam.
Equation: let Shyams present age be
Step1. < ,
Step2. =
2
3
,
Step3. =
2
3
QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE By M Siddhartha #09818974743
15  T H I S B O O K I S U N D E R P R E P A P R A T I O N
Q4. The ages of Ram and Shyam are in the ratio : .
Equation: present age of Ram = 2
Shyam = 3.
Type (B) Past, Present and Future form
Q5. The ages of Ram and Shyam are in the ratio 2:3. Five years ago they
were in the ratio 1:2. What are their ages now?
Solution:
Past(5) present future
Ram 2x5 2x
Shyam 3x5 3x
Five years ago; = 1 2
(2 5): (3 5) = 1 2
2(2 5) = 1(3 5)
4 3 = 10 5
= 5,
Present age of Ram is: 2x = 10 and Shyam is: 3x = 15.
QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE By M Siddhartha #09818974743
16  T H I S B O O K I S U N D E R P R E P A P R A T I O N
Q6. Five years ago the ages of Ram and Shyam were in the ratio 1: 2.
At present, their ages are in the ratio 2:3. What are their ages
now?
Solution:
Past(5) Present Future
Ram X x+5
Shyam 2x 2x+5
Five years after past is present;
= 2 3
(
+ 5
)
:
(
2 +5
)
= 2: 3,
3
(
+5
)
= 2(2 + 5),
4 3 = 15 10,
= 5,
Therefore present age of Ram = (x+5) =10years and
Present age of Shyam = (2x+5) = 15years.
Simple equations
An equation is a mathematical statement in which two
statements are equal.
Statements and corresponding equation:
1. Sum of a number and 5 is 11.
: +5 = 11.
2. 3 subtracted from a number is 8.
QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE By M Siddhartha #09818974743
17  T H I S B O O K I S U N D E R P R E P A P R A T I O N
: 3 = 8.
3. A number subtracted from 5 is 9.
: 5 = 9.
4. 16 times a number is 80.
: 16 = 80.
5. 17 times added to 6 gives 85.
: 17 +6 = 85.
6. 5 subtracted from 2/3 of a number is 7/8.
:
2
3
5 =
7
8
.
Simple algebraic operations
Rule1. Side change Sign change
+
Rule2. Follow BODMAS;
Rule3. Use LCM for fractions.
Please remember (avoid common mistakes):
+ = 2 =
2
; 3 + = 4 3 = 3
2
Equations and solutions:
1. + = , here we have three terms in all. They are 8, 5 and 7.
8 is the term containing variable . Try to keep this term on the
left hand side and change the sides of other terms.
8 +5 = 7 8 = 7 5 8 = 2 =
2
8
=
1
4
2. = 8 7 = 2 +6 = +4
3. 3 1 = 2 11 3 3 = 2 11 3 2 = 11 +3
= 8
QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE By M Siddhartha #09818974743
18  T H I S B O O K I S U N D E R P R E P A P R A T I O N
4.
2
4
+
+1
3
=
2
Here, first of all take LCM of 4 and 3, and it is 12
3((x2))+4(x+1)
12
=
x
2
;
3x6+4x+4
12
=
x
2
;
7x2
12
=
x
2
; Now change the denominator into lowest term
7x2
6
=
x
1
; Then apply cross multiplication
1(7 2) = 6 7 2 = 6
7 6 = 2 = 2
5.
35
4
+
2
3
=
4+3
2
In this type of problems try to make the denominator same by
taking LCM.
LCM of 4 and 3 is 12.
3(35)+4.2
12
=
4+3
2
; here 4.2 means 42=8
915+8
12
=
4+3
2
97
12
=
4+3
2
Now cross multiply
2(97)
1
=
12(4+3)
1
2(9 7) = 12(4 +3)
18 14 = 48 + 36
18 48 = 36 + 14
30 = 50
=
50
30
= 5/3. You can verify the answer by substituting the
value into the problem equation.
QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE By M Siddhartha #09818974743
19  T H I S B O O K I S U N D E R P R E P A P R A T I O N
Linear equation in two variables
The standard form of linear equations in two variables is:
1
+
1
+
1
= 0,
2
+
2
+
2
= 0.
Where
1
,
1
,
1
and
2
,
2
,
2
are arbitrary constants.
Properties:
1. If
a
1
a
2
b
1
b
2
;unique solutions(intersecting lines)
2. If
a
1
a
2
=
b
1
b
2
c
1
c
2
;no solution(parallel lines)
3. If
a
1
a
2
=
b
1
b
2
=
c
1
c
2
;infinite solution(coincident lines)
Few questions and their solutions:
1. + = =
Solution:
+ = 10 = 10
Putting it into second equation
= 6 putting = 8 into any one of the
(10 ) = 6 Equations
10 + = 6 + = 10
2 = 6 + 10 8 + = 10
2 = 16 = 10 8
= 16/2 =
=
QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE By M Siddhartha #09818974743
20  T H I S B O O K I S U N D E R P R E P A P R A T I O N
2. + = =
Solution:
2 + 3 = 12
3 = 12 2
= (12 2)/3
Putting the value of into the second equation
3
(122)
3
= 8
9 12 +2 = 24
11x = 24+12
x = 36/11, putting this value into = (12 2)/3
We get = .12 2
36
11
/ /3 =20/11
Hence, = 36/11 = 20/11 we can verify these
values by substituting them into the problem equations.
QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE By M Siddhartha #09818974743
21  T H I S B O O K I S U N D E R P R E P A P R A T I O N
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
An equation of the form
2
+ + = 0, is called a quadratic equation,
where a, b and c are arbitrary constants.
If
2
4
2
=
+
2
4
2
and =
2
4
2
2
+ +
(
)
( )
Sample problems
1.
+ =, ?
Solution:
Squaring both the sides
+
+ =
2
+ =
2
=
=
2
4
2
.Formula
QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE By M Siddhartha #09818974743
22  T H I S B O O K I S U N D E R P R E P A P R A T I O N
=
(1)(1)
2
4.1.()
2.1
=
1
1+4
2
, this is true only for positive value
Hence, =
4+1+1
2
IMPORTANT
And
=
(21)
2
1
4
IMPORTANT
Try these problems:
a.
20 +
20 +
20 + =
420+1+1
2
= 5
b.
56 +
56 + 56 + =
456+1+1
2
= 8
c.
132 +
132 +
132 + =
4132+1+1
2
= 12
d.
90 +
90 +
90 + =
490+1+1
2
= 10
e.
+ =7, then =
(271)
2
1
4
= 42
f.
+ =13, then =
(2131)
2
1
4
= 156
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23  T H I S B O O K I S U N D E R P R E P A P R A T I O N
2.
=, ?
Solution:
Squaring both the sides
=
2
=
2
+ =
=
2
4
2
.Formula
=
(1)(1)
2
4.1.()
2.1
=
1
1+4
2
, this is true only for positive value
Hence, =
4+11
2
IMPORTANT
And
=
(2+1)
2
1
4
IMPORTANT
Try these problems:
a.
20
20 20 =
420+11
2
= 4
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24  T H I S B O O K I S U N D E R P R E P A P R A T I O N
b.
56
56 56 =
456+11
2
= 7
c.
132
132 132 =
4132+11
2
= 11
d.
90
90 90 =
490+11
2
= 9
e.
=7, then =
(271)
2
1
4
= 42
f.
+ =13, then =
(213+1)
2
1
4
= 182
Let us see some ALGEBRAIC FORMULAE and their uses
INDECES
1.
0
= 1;
2.
= 0;(if a<1)
3.
= ;(if a>1)
4.
=
+
;
5.
;
6.
(
;
7.
=
1
;
8.
;
9.
= ( )
;
10. .
;
11. .
;
There are so many short cuts to solve these types of problems,
once you know the logic behind this; it would be easy for you to
develop new short cuts.
QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE By M Siddhartha #09818974743
25  T H I S B O O K I S U N D E R P R E P A P R A T I O N
Surds:
1.
;
2.
;
3.
=
1
2
;
4.
=
1
+
1
;
5.
= =
1
;
6.
;
BINOMIAL AND TRINOMIAL FORMULAE
1.
2
+ 2 +
2
=
(
+
)
2
=
2
+ 2 +
2
2.
2
2 +
2
=
(
)
2
=
2
2 +
2
3.
(
+
)(
)
=
2
2
=
(
+
)(
)
4.
(
+
)
3
=
3
+ 3
2
+ 3
2
+
3
;
5.
(
)
3
=
3
3
2
+ 3
2
3
;
Or
(
+
)
3
=
3
+
3
+3
(
+
)
And
(
)
3
=
3
3
3
(
)
QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE By M Siddhartha #09818974743
26  T H I S B O O K I S U N D E R P R E P A P R A T I O N
6.
3
+
3
=
(
+
)
3
3
(
+
)
7.
(
+ +
)
2
=
2
+
2
+
2
+ 2 +2 + 2
8.
3
+
3
+
3
3
=
(
+ +
)(
2
+
2
+
2
)
9.
3
+
3
+
3
3
=
1
2
(
+ +
)*(
)
2
+
(
)
2
+
(
)
2
+
10. When + + = 0
3
+
3
+
3
= 3
11. When
3
+
3
+
3
= 3 = =
12. When
*(
)
2
+
(
)
2
+
(
)
2
+
= 0
(
)
= 0
(
)
= 0
(
)
= 0
= =
13.
4
+
2
2
+
4
=
(
2
+ +
2
)(
2
+
2
)
14. . +
1
/
2
=
2
+
1
2
+ 2.
1
=
2
+
1
2
+ 2
15. .
1
/
2
=
2
+
1
2
2.
1
=
2
+
1
2
2
16. . +
1
/
3
=
3
+
1
3
+ 3.
1
. +
1
/
=
3
+
1
3
+ 3 +
1
QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE By M Siddhartha #09818974743
27  T H I S B O O K I S U N D E R P R E P A P R A T I O N
17. .
1
/
3
=
3
3
3.
1
.
1
/
=
3
3
3
1
18.
2
+
2
=
(
+
)
2
2 =
(
)
2
+2
19.
4
+
4
=
(
2
+
2
)
2
2
2
2
20.
2
+
1
2
= . +
1
/
2
2 = .
1
/
2
+2
21.
4
+
1
4
= .
2
+
1
2
/
2
2 = .
2
2
/
2
+ 2
We can manipulate formulae to get desired results.
Let us see some problems
1. Which is greater: 3
2
,
4
3
5
4
.
Solution:
Here the orders are different and they are 2, 3 and 4. We need
to make them same by taking LCM. Since the LCM is 12, hence
3
2
,
4
3
, 5
4
will become 3
6
26
, 4
4
34
, 5
3
43
3
6
12
, 4
4
12
, 5
3
12
729
12
, 256
12
, 125
12
729
12
> 256
12
> 125
12
3
2
>
4
3
> 5
4
QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE By M Siddhartha #09818974743
28  T H I S B O O K I S U N D E R P R E P A P R A T I O N
2. Which is greater: .
1
2
/
1
2
.
2
3
/
1
3
Solution:
Here again orders are different and they are 2 and 3. We need
to make them same by taking LCM which is 6 in this case.
.
1
2
/
1
2
or .
2
3
/
1
3
will become
.
1
2
/
1
2
3
3
or .
2
3
/
1
3
2
2
.
1
2
/
3
6
or .
2
3
/
2
6
.
1
2
/
3
1
6
or .
2
3
/
2
1
6
1
8
1
6
or
4
9
1
6
; since the powers are same we need to see the
bases, i.e.
1
8
4
9
.
As 1 9 < 4 8
1
8
<
4
9
1
8
1
6
<
4
9
1
6
;
.
1
2
/
1
2
< .
2
3
/
1
3
3. Solve : 1 +
25
144
2
= 1 +
12
Solution:
Use BODMAS and proceed
169
144
2
= 1 +
12
13
12
= 1 +
12
= 1
4. Solve : 1 +
64
225
2
= 1 +
15
Solution:
QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE By M Siddhartha #09818974743
29  T H I S B O O K I S U N D E R P R E P A P R A T I O N
Use BODMAS and proceed
289
225
2
= 1 +
15
17
15
= 1 +
15
= 2
5. Find the value of in the following expression:
a. 4 5
3
7 = 0
b.
+1
+
+1
=
61
30
Solution:
a. 4 5
3
7 = 0
4 5
3
= 7
(
4 5
)
1
3
= 7 4 5 = 7
3
4 = 343 + 5 =
348
4
= 87
b.
+1
+
+1
=
61
30
2
++1
2
+1
=
61
30
2
+
2
+2+1
2
+
=
61
30
2
2
+2+1
2
+
=
61
30
; now cross multiply
30
(
2
2
+ 2 +1
)
= 61
(
2
+
)
QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE By M Siddhartha #09818974743
30  T H I S B O O K I S U N D E R P R E P A P R A T I O N
60
2
+60 +30 = 61
2
+ 61
2
+ 30 = 0
(
5
)(
+6
)
= 0 =
6. If = 2 + 3 then find the following:
a.
1
c. +
1
e.
1
2
b.
2
d.
1
f.
2
+
1
2
Solution:
a. Since = 2 + 3
Hence
1
=
1
2+
3
and when we RATIONALISE this we
get
1
=
1
2 + 3
2 3
2 3
= 2 3
=
b.
2
= 2 + 3
2
2
= 4 + 3 +43 = 7 + 43
= +
c. +
1
=2 + 3 +2 3 = 4
d.
1
=2 + 3 2 3 = 23
e.
1
2
= 2
3
2
= 7 4
3
f.
2
+
1
2
=7 + 43 + 7 43 = 14
( + )( ) =
2
2
QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE By M Siddhartha #09818974743
31  T H I S B O O K I S U N D E R P R E P A P R A T I O N
Please remember
1. If
=
;
1
=
+
When = 1
1
=
1
+
2. If
= + ;
1
When = 1
1
=
1
3. If
=
1
;
1
=
+
When = 1
1
= +
4. If
=
1
+
;
1
When = 1
1
=
5. If
+
1
= 2;
+
1
= 2
* , ()+
6. If
+
1
= 2;
+
1
= 2
When, both , are
even.
+
1
= 2
When, both , are
odd.
+
1
= 0
When alternately ,
are odd and even
* , ()+
Please try to get the
reasons behind all.
QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE By M Siddhartha #09818974743
32  T H I S B O O K I S U N D E R P R E P A P R A T I O N
Continuation of page before previous page:
7. Solve:
1
3 8
1
8
7
+
1
7 6
1
6 5
+
1
5 2
Solution:
1
3 8
1
8
7
+
1
7 6
1
6 5
+
1
5 2
The above expression can be written as:
1
9 8
1
8
7
+
1
7 6
1
6 5
+
1
5
4
For each term = 1 hence;
9 + 8 8 +7 + 7 +6 6 + 5 +5 +4
3 +22 22 7 +7 +6 6 5 +5 + 2
5
8. If
+
1
= 2
35
+
1
15
= 2;
what will be the value of
87
+
1
107
Solution:
In any case given condition is true for = 1, hence the value of
87
+
1
107
= 2
QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE By M Siddhartha #09818974743
33  T H I S B O O K I S U N D E R P R E P A P R A T I O N
9. If = 2 + 3, find the value of
3
+
1
3
.
Solution:
As we know
3
+
1
3
= +
1
3
3 +
1
Hence
+
1
= 2 + 3 +2 3 = 4
3
+
1
3
=
(
4
)
3
3
(
4
)
= 52
10. Factorise the following expressions.
a) 3 12
(
)
2
b) 1 2
(
2
+
2
)
c)
4
+
2
+1
d)
4
+5
2
+ 9
e)
4
+4
Solution:
a) 3 12
(
)
2
3
*
1 4
(
)
2
+
3
,
1
*
2
(
)+
2

3
,
1
2
*
2
(
)+
2

3
,
1 + 2
(
),
1 + 2
(
)
b) 1 2
(
2
+
2
)
1 2
2
2
1
(
2 +
2
+
2
)
1
2
(
+
)
2
(
1 + +
)(
1
)
c)
4
+
2
+1
4
+2
2
+ 1
)
2
2
+1
)
2
2
+1 +
)(
2
+ 1
)
2
2
= ( + )( )
2
2
= ( + )( )
QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE By M Siddhartha #09818974743
34  T H I S B O O K I S U N D E R P R E P A P R A T I O N
d)
4
+5
2
+ 9
4
+6
2
+ 9
)
2
2
+3
)
2
2
+3 +
)(
2
+ 3
)
e)
4
+4
4
+4
2
+ 4
)
4
2
2
+2
)
2
(
2
)
2
2
+2 + 2
)(
2
+2 2
)
SOME SPECIAL TYPE PROBLEMS
a.
1
(+1)(+2)
=
1
+1
1
+2
b.
2
(+1)(+3)
=
1
+1
1
+3
c.
3
(+1)(+4)
=
1
+1
1
+4
d.
4
(+1)(+5)
=
1
+1
1
+5
1.
1
12
+
1
23
+
1
34
+
1
45
+ +
1
99100
=
Solution:
1
1
1
2
+
1
2
1
3
+
1
3
1
4
+ +
1
99
1
100
1
1
1
100
=
99
100
QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE By M Siddhartha #09818974743
35  T H I S B O O K I S U N D E R P R E P A P R A T I O N
2.
2
13
+
2
35
+
2
57
+
2
79
++
2
98100
Solution:
1
1
1
3
+
1
3
1
5
+
1
5
1
7
+ +
1
98
1
100
1
1
1
100
=
99
100
Similarly, we can form many patterns.
QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE By M Siddhartha #09818974743
36  T H I S B O O K I S U N D E R P R E P A P R A T I O N
CLOCK PROBLEMS
Important points to remember
1. One hour = 60 minutes
2. One minute= 60 seconds
3. One hour = 6060 sec
Conversion ladder
a. Moving down, multiply 60 for each step
b. Moving up, divide 60 for each step
Examples:
a. 120 min = 12060 Hr =2Hr
b. 120 sec = 12060 min =2min
c. 360 sec = 360(6060)Hr =0.1Hr
d. 2Hr =260 min =120min
e. 2min =260 sec =120sec
f. 2Hr =26060sec =7200sec
Some facts:
1. A clock dial has 12 parts.
2. Each part is equal to five minutes for minutes hand and one hour for
hours hand.
3. Whole circumference is equal to 360, hence each part = 30
4. When minutes hand moves all 12 parts then hours hand can move
only 1 part, this means hours hand lags behind 11 parts for each
time minutes hand moves 12 parts.
5. In 60 minutes, the minutes hand gains 55 minutes on the hour hand.
Examples:
1) What is the angle between H.Hand and M.Hand when it is 12
oclock?
Ans: Zero degree
HOUR
SECOND
MINUTE
60 60
QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE By M Siddhartha #09818974743
37  T H I S B O O K I S U N D E R P R E P A P R A T I O N
2) What is the angle between H.Hand and M.Hand when it is 1
oclock?
Ans: Since the separation is one part 30
3) What is the angle between H.Hand and M.Hand when it is 3
oclock?
Ans: Since the separation is three parts 330 = 90.
4) What is the angle between H.Hand and M.Hand when it is 7
oclock?
Ans: Since the separation is seven parts 730 = 210.
Those were very simple problems. Let us see now some more problems.
Short cut formula:
A.
=
11
12
Where = angle between M.Hand and H.Hand at particular
time.
= angle between M.Hand and H.Hand for whole
hour. (If it is 4:15 whole hour is 4:00 and =120)
= angle to gain/lag by M.Hand over H.Hand.
B.
T
=
T
T
11
12
Where
T
= Minutes between M.Hand and H.Hand at
particular time
T
= Minutes between M.Hand and H.Hand for whole
hour. (If it is 4:15 whole hour is 4:00 and
T
=15 min)
T
= Minutes to gain/lag by M.Hand over H.Hand.
QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE By M Siddhartha #09818974743
38  T H I S B O O K I S U N D E R P R E P A P R A T I O N
Some examples:
1. What is the angle between M.Hand and H.Hand when it is 4:15?
Solution:
= 430=120
= 330=90
=?
= 120 90 .
11
12
/ = 37.5
2. What is the angle between M.Hand and H.Hand when it is 4:30?
Solution:
= 430=120
= 630=180
=?
= 120 180 .
11
12
/ = 45
3. At what time between 4 and 5 Oclock M.Hand and H.Hand
meet?
Solution:
It will be at 4:
T
Here
T
= 0 min,
T
= 20 min for 4 Oclock, hence
0 = 20
T
.
11
12
/
T
=21
9
11
Moreover, it will meet at 4:21
9
11
QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE By M Siddhartha #09818974743
39  T H I S B O O K I S U N D E R P R E P A P R A T I O N
4. At what time between 4 and 5 Oclock M.Hand and H.Hand are at
right angle to each other?
Solution:
15 = 20
T
.
11
12
/
It will be at
4:5
5
11
and 4:38
2
11
%
PERCENTAGE
This topic is very important and it gives us tools, which is used in every
subject.
% =
100
% =
100
% =
100
Now let us examine the formula more.
The above formulae are known to most of us but when dealing with
percentage type problems we find ourselves into trouble.
Reason: 1. Those are written with respect to the original figure.
2. Requirements may be w.r.t. the final figure also.
QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE By M Siddhartha #09818974743
40  T H I S B O O K I S U N D E R P R E P A P R A T I O N
Examples:
1. What % of 5 are 2?
Solution:
% 5 = 2
100
5 = 2
=
2
5
100 = 40%
2. What % of 2 are 5?
Solution:
% 2 = 5
100
2 = 5
=
5
2
100 = 250%
3. Cost price of an article is Rs.200 and it is sold for Rs.250. What is the
Profit %: (a) w.r.t. cost price, (b) w.r.t. selling price?
Solution:
(a)
%=
100
%=
50
200
100 = 25%
(b)
% =
100
%=
50
250
100 = 20%
QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE By M Siddhartha #09818974743
41  T H I S B O O K I S U N D E R P R E P A P R A T I O N
4. Cost price of an article is Rs.250 and it is sold for Rs.200. What is the
loss %: (a) w.r.t. cost price, (b) w.r.t. selling price?
Solution:
(a)
% =
100
% =
50
250
100 = 20%
(b)
%=
100
% =
50
200
100 = 25%
Those were the few examples to show how we should deal with percentage
problems.
Let us see step by step process.
Type A.
1. A quantity, whose initial value is 800, if increased by 10% what will be
the new value?
Solution:
800
10%
800 1 +
10
100
= 800
110
100
= 880
QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE By M Siddhartha #09818974743
42  T H I S B O O K I S U N D E R P R E P A P R A T I O N
2. A quantity, whose initial value is 800, if decreased by 10% what will be
the new value?
Solution:
800
10%
800 1
10
100
= 800
90
100
= 720
3. A quantity, whose final value is 880, after increased by 10% what will be
the initial value?
Solution:
880
10%
880 1 +
10
100
= 880
100
110
= 800
4. A quantity, whose final value is 720, after decreased by 10% what will
be the initial value?
Solution:
720
10%
720 1
10
100
= 720
100
90
= 800
QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE By M Siddhartha #09818974743
43  T H I S B O O K I S U N D E R P R E P A P R A T I O N
Here we can formulate a rule.
The above table says if 110% of a quantity is 880 then what would be its
90%, 100% and 120%.
If we see the table it is clear that source is given and various
destinations are to be calculated.
Formula:
=
%
%
P = 880
90
110
= 720
Q = 880
100
110
= 800
R = 880
120
110
= 960
Type b.
If a quantity is increased by %, then % it should be
decreased to get the original quantity.
%=
differen ce
source
100 =
100x
100
%=
difference
source
100 =
100x
100+x
x% 10%=110% 10%=90% Original=100% 20%=120%
Source% Destination% Destination% Destination%
Value
880
P=?
Q=?
R=?
100 100+x X
Source Destination Difference
100 100+x X
Destination Source Difference
QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE By M Siddhartha #09818974743
44  T H I S B O O K I S U N D E R P R E P A P R A T I O N
Now a quantity is decreased by % then % it should
be increased to get the original quantity.
%=
difference
source
100 =
100y
100
%=
difference
source
100 =
100y
100y
1. The price of sugar having gone down by 10%, a consumer can buy 5kg
more sugar for Rs.270. What is the difference between the original price
and reduced price per kg?
Solution:
METHOD 1.
Step 1. Let the initial price be p/kg.
And quantity be q kg.
: = 270
Step 2. New price 90% =
90
100
New quantity = ( + 5)
:
90
100
( + 5) = 270
+ 5 = 270
100
90
= 300
5 = 30
= 6/kg.
100 100y Y
Source Destination Difference
100 100y Y
Destination Source Difference
QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE By M Siddhartha #09818974743
45  T H I S B O O K I S U N D E R P R E P A P R A T I O N
Step 3. To find the difference between the original price and reduced
price:
90
100
=
10
100
10 6
100
60paise
METHOD 2 (SHORTCUT: Thinking algorithm)
When you read the question patiently you will find that:
p q = 270
After reduction of 10% =
1
10
in the price
The quantity should increase by
11
1
9
% =
1
9
The buyer could buy 5 more kgs. for the same price.
Hence,
1
9
= 5 = 45 = 6
10% of the difference in price = 10% of 6 = 60paise.
2. A sells a bicycle to B at a profit of 20% . B sells it to C at a profit of 25%.
If C pays 225 . What is the cost price for A?
Solution:
A = 100
20%
B = 120 B = 120
25%
C = 150
Cost price for A = cost price for C
100
150
As cost = 225
100
150
= 150
QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE By M Siddhartha #09818974743
46  T H I S B O O K I S U N D E R P R E P A P R A T I O N
3. The marked price of a watch was 720. A man bought the same for
550.80 after getting two successive discounts, the first being 10%. What
was the second discount rate?
Solution:
METHOD 1.
720
90
100
100
100
= 550.80
D = 15%
METHOD 2 (SHORTCUT: Thinking algorithm)
After First discount: 90% of 720 =648
Second discount% =
648550.80
648
100= 15%
4. The cost of manufacturing an article was 900. The trader wants to gain
25% profit after giving 10% discount. What should be the MP?
Solution:
Formula:
=
%
%
Cost
Price(CP)
Marked Price(MP) After Discount Allowed
= Selling Price(SP)
100
Source
Destination
125
100
90
125
900
900125
100
90
100
= 1250
QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE By M Siddhartha #09818974743
47  T H I S B O O K I S U N D E R P R E P A P R A T I O N
TRIGONOMETRY
For a right triangle Pythagoras theorem is to be used.
P
2
+B
2
= H
2
Where,
P = Perpendicular,
B = Base and H = Hypotenuse (longest side)
Hence,
P =
H
2
B
2
B =
H
2
P
2
H =
P
2
+B
2
Trigonometric ratios:
=
Identities:
1.
2
+
2
= 1
2. 1 +
2
=
2
3. 1 +
2
=
2
Derived identities:
1. as,
2
+
2
= 1 1
2
=
2
1
2
=
2
2. as, 1 +
2
=
2
1 =
2
2
2
=
2
1
3. as, 1 +
2
=
2
1 =
2
2
4. = 1
2
and = 1
2
Relation between ratios
= 1
= 1
= 1
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Base
A
B C
Figure 001
QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE By M Siddhartha #09818974743
48  T H I S B O O K I S U N D E R P R E P A P R A T I O N
We can write: TABLE
(90) TABLE
LET US DO SOME SIMPLE PROBLEMS.
1. Solve:
(
2
30 +
2
30
)
(
2
65
2
65)
Solution:
1 1 = 0  (Plz. refer identities)
2. Solve:
2
30 +
2
60
Solution:
2
30 +
2
60
2
30 +
2
(90 30)=
2
30 +
2
30= 1
Sin(90)= cos Cos(90)=sin
Tan(90 )= cot Cot(90 )= tan
Sec(90 )= cosec Cosec(90 )= sec
=
=
1
=
1
0 30 45 60 90
sin 0 1/2 1/2 3/2 1
cos 1 3/2 1/2 1/2 0
Tan 0 1/3 1 3
Cot 3 1 1/3 0
sec 1 2/3 2 2
cosec 2 2 2/3 1
QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE By M Siddhartha #09818974743
49  T H I S B O O K I S U N D E R P R E P A P R A T I O N
3. Solve:
(
90
)
+
65
25
2
Solution:
(
90
)
+
65
25
2
= 1+12 = 0
(Hint: Sin (90) = cos )
Understanding the Trigonometric Identity Hexagon:
1. The two trigonometric functions at the ends of any diameter are
reciprocals of one another.
2. Every trigonometric function is the product of the trigonometric
functions on either side of it.
sin x
tan x
sec x
cos x
cot x
csc x
Trigonometric Identity Hexagon
QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE By M Siddhartha #09818974743
50  T H I S B O O K I S U N D E R P R E P A P R A T I O N
For example:
sin tan cos x x x and cos sin cot x x x
3. Each trigonometric function is equal to either of its adjacent
trigonometric functions divided by its adjacent trigonometric
function.
For example:
sin
tan
cos
x
x
x
and, also
sec
tan
csc
x
x
x
.
4. The product of any three nonadjacent functions is always 1.
For example:
tan cos csc 1 x x x and sin cot sec 1 x x x .
EVERY WEEK WE UPDATE THIS BOOK
GO TO YOU TUBE FOR SPEED MATHS VIDEO
AT http://www. youtube. com/watch? v = Z0mOEndml7o
QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE By M Siddhartha #09818974743
51  T H I S B O O K I S U N D E R P R E P A P R A T I O N
siddhirbhavati karmaj
(Success is born of action)
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