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4.

Influence Line of the Bending Moment


Applicable CivilFEM Product: All CivilFEM Products Level of Difficulty: Difficult Interactive Time Required: 30 minutes Discipline: Influence line Units System: N, m, s CivilFEM Features Demonstrated: Advanced analysis

Problem Description
The aim of this exercise is to plot the influence line of bending moment at left midspan of the beam.

Given
The beam to be calculated has the next geometry.

1N

0.3 m 0.2 m

1m 2m 2m 4m

Exercise 4: Influence line of the bending moment

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Materials Concrete HA-35 (EHE code)

Approach and Assumptions


An influence line is a graphical representation of a function that describes a force at a point, a bending moment in this exercise, when a unit load moves along the beam.

Summary of Steps
1. Specify title 2. Set units 3. Define the element type 4. Define materials 5. Define the geometry 6. Solution 7. Postprocessing

Interactive Step-by-Step Solution

1. Specify title Although this step is not required for a CivilFEM analysis, we recommend that you make it part of all your analysis. Utility Menu: File Change title
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Enter the title: Influence line OK to define the title and close the dialog box.

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Exercise 4: Influence line of the bending moment

2. Set code and units Main Menu: CivilFEM Civil Setup


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Pick on Units tab Select International system units OK to set active code and close the code dialog box

Exercise 4: Influence line of the bending moment

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3. Define element type Main Menu: CivilFEM Civil Preprocessor Element Types Civil Beams
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Select 2D Elast Beam 3 OK

4. Define materials Main Menu: CivilFEM Civil Preprocessor Materials


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Pick on New to define a new material Choose Concrete, EHE and then HA-35 concrete Add to define material 1 Exit OK
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Exercise 4: Influence line of the bending moment

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5.

Define the geometry

First of all we have to define the section of the beam and the beam and shell properties. Main Menu: CivilFEM Civil Preprocessor Cross section
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Pick on Concrete to define the section Enter the number and the name of the section Select the material number Choose rectangular shape Enter the dimensions of the section OK Exit

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Exercise 4: Influence line of the bending moment

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Exercise 4: Influence line of the bending moment

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Main Menu: CivilFEM Civil Preprocessor Beam and Shell Properties


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Pick on New Beam Enter the number and the name of the Beam Enter the element name Choose the cross section number 1 OK Exit

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Exercise 4: Influence line of the bending moment

Main Menu: Preprocessor Modeling Create Nodes In Active CS


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Enter the node number Enter the coordinates of the node: 0, 0, 0 Apply

Do the same with nodes at coordinates 1, 2, 4 and 8 m. These nodes have the numbers 3, 5, 9 and 17, respectively.

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Now, we create the rest of nodes. Main Menu: Preprocessor Modeling Create Nodes Fill between Nds.
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Pick on node number 1 and node number 3 OK Leave default values and pick on OK

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Exercise 4: Influence line of the bending moment

Exercise 4: Influence line of the bending moment

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Do the same and fill between the node numbers 3, 5, 9 and 17. The distance between nodes is 5 mm.

Now we are going to create the elements: Main Menu: Preprocessor Modeling Create Elements Elem Attributes

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Exercise 4: Influence line of the bending moment

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Leave default values and pick on OK Pick on the node numbers 1 and 2 OK

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Main Menu: Preprocessor Modeling Copy Elements Auto Numbered


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Pick on the element OK Enter the number of copies: 16 elements OK

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Exercise 4: Influence line of the bending moment

Exercise 4: Influence line of the bending moment

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6. Solution First we apply the boundary conditions. Utility Menu: Plot Nodes Utility Menu: Select Entities
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Select Nodes Select By Num/Pick Select From Full OK Pick on the first node OK

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Exercise 4: Influence line of the bending moment

Main Menu: Solution Define Loads Apply Structural Displacement On Nodes


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Pick on Pick All Select UY Enter the displacement value: 0 OK

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Utility Menu: Select Everything Utility Menu: Plot Elements

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PUNCTUAL LOAD: To apply a unit punctual load in each node we will use a macro with some simple commands in APDL. This macro applies the punctual load in each node, solves the model and deletes applied loads. Utility Menu: FileRead Input from+
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Select file pload.mac OK And pick on Close when the solution is finished

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Exercise 4: Influence line of the bending moment

7. Postprocessing To plot the influence line we create an array called MZnode3 with 17 rows to store the values of the bending moment in this node when the load moves along the beam. Utility Menu: Parameters Array Parameters Define/Edit
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Pick on Add... Enter the name of the array: MZnode3 Pick on Array Enter the number of rows: 17 OK Close

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To fill the array created before, we use a macro with some simple commands in APDL. This macro reads all load steps, read the value of the bending moment in node 3 and store it in the array. It will then create the element table for further plot and fill the values with the bending moment stored in the array. Each element will have two values, corresponding to each of the ends of the beam. Utility Menu: FileRead Input from+
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Select file MZ.mac OK And pick on Close when the solution is finished

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Exercise 4: Influence line of the bending moment

By last, we plot the influence line. Main Menu: General Postproc Plot Results Contour Plot Line Elem Res
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Choose in LabI: MZIL_I Choose in LabJ: MZIL_J Enter the scale factor: -1 OK

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Main Menu: General Postproc List Results Elem Table Data


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Choose MZIL_I and MZIL_J OK

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Exercise 4: Influence line of the bending moment

8. Log File
FINISH ~CFCLEAR,,1 ~UNITS,SI /TITLE, Influence line

/PREP7 !IMPUT PARAMETRES span=3 L=8 span1=2 span2=2 span3=4 TKY=0.3 TKZ=0.2 !number of spans !beam length (m) !span1 length (m) !span2 length (m) !span3 length (m) !cross section height (m) !cross section width (m)

!ELEMENT TYPE ET,1,Beam3

!MATERIALS ~CFMP,1,LIB,CONCRETE,EHE,HA-35

!SECTION ~CSECDMS,1,REC,1,TKY,TKZ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 ~SECMDF,1,NAME,,,Beam section

!BEAM AND SHELL PROPERTIES ~BMSHPRO,1,BEAM,1,1,,,3,1,0,Beam 1

!MODEL N, 1, N, 3, N, 5, N, 9, 0,0,0 1,0,0 span1,0,0 span1+span2,0,0

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N,17, span1+span2+span3,0,0 FILL,1, 3,1, , ,1,1,1, FILL,3, 5,1, , ,1,1,1, FILL,5, 9,3, , ,1,1,1, FILL,9,17,7, , ,1,1,1,

TYPE,1 MAT, 1 REAL,1 E,1,2 EGEN,16,1,1,

/SOLU !BOUNDARY CONDITIONS NSEL,S,LOC,X,0 NSEL,A,LOC,X,span1 NSEL,A,LOC,X,span1+span2 NSEL,A,LOC,X,span1+span2+span3 D,ALL,UY

ALLSEL

! PUNCTUAL LOAD pload.mac

/POST1

! CREATE AN ARRAY *DIM,MZnode3,ARRAY,17

! Fill the array with values of the bending moment ! when the load moves along the beam. MZ.mac

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Exercise 4: Influence line of the bending moment

! PLOT THE INFLUENCE LINE PLLS,MZIL_I,MZIL_J,-1

! LIST THE ELEMENTS RESULTS PRETAB,MZIL_I,MZIL_J

Punctual load macro

!Punctual load macro INODE=0 *DO,I,1,17 INODE=NDNEXT(INODE) F,INODE,FY,-1 ALLSEL,ALL SOLVE FDELE,ALL,ALL *ENDDO

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*DO,I,1,17,1 ~CFSET,0,I,LAST ~CFGET,MZnode3(I),ELEMENT,2,FORCE,MZ,J *ENDDO

ESEL,ALL

ETABLE,MZIL_I ETABLE,MZIL_J

*DO,I,1,16 DETAB,I,MZIL_I,MZnode3(I) DETAB,I,MZIL_J,MZnode3(I+1) *ENDDO


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