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UNIT4: STANDARDS, VALUESANDSAFETYOF UN PEACEKEEPINGPERSONNEL

TableofContents
Unit4Part1:ConductandDiscipline ........................................................................................... 1 PreparatoryNotesforInstructors............................................................................................ 1 Unit4Part1a:IntroductiontoConductandDiscipline................................................................ 7 SessionNotes........................................................................................................................ 7 Introduction............................................................................................................................ 7 LearningActivity:GroundRules ............................................................................................. 8 StandardsofConduct .......................................................................................................... 10 DefinitionsofMisconduct..................................................................................................... 13 ReportingMisconduct.......................................................................................................... 17 LeadershipandAccountabilityonConduct ........................................................................... 19 Unit4Part1b:SexualExploitationandAbuse ......................................................................... 21 SessionNotes...................................................................................................................... 21 DefinitionsofSexualExploitationandAbuse ........................................................................ 21 LearningActivity:DefiningSexualExploitationandAbuse .................................................... 22 UniformstandardsonSEA ................................................................................................... 25 CommonlyAskedQuestionsonSEA.................................................................................... 26 LearningActivity:GuidelinesandProhibitionsonSEA.......................................................... 27 Unit4Part1c:TheConsequencesofMisconduct .................................................................... 29 SessionNotes...................................................................................................................... 29 LearningActivity:ConsequencesofMisconductintheScenarios ......................................... 29 MeasuresandmechanismstoaddressMisconduct .............................................................. 34 Unit4Part1ac:LearningAssessment............................................................................. 39 QuestionsforScenarios....................................................................................................... 46 Scenarios............................................................................................................................. 47 AnswersforMisconductScenarios....................................................................................... 50 CommonQuestionsfromParticipants .................................................................................. 54 Unit4Part2:HIV/AIDSandUNPeacekeepingOperations........................................................ 55 PreparatoryNotestoInstructors........................................................................................... 55 SessionNotes...................................................................................................................... 59 Introduction.......................................................................................................................... 59 DefinitionofHIV/AIDS.......................................................................................................... 61 HowisHIVSpread?............................................................................................................. 62 Film:HiddenRisk................................................................................................................. 62 TheABCsofPrevention....................................................................................................... 65 LearningActivity:CondomDemonstration ............................................................................ 70 TheImportanceofVoluntaryCounsellingandTesting .......................................................... 72 Unit4Part2:LearningAssessment................................................................................... 76 Unit4Part3:RespectforDiversity............................................................................................. 77 PreparatoryNotestoInstructors........................................................................................... 77 SessionNotes...................................................................................................................... 80 Introduction.......................................................................................................................... 80 WhatisDiversity? ................................................................................................................ 82 DiversityinaPeacekeepingOperation ................................................................................. 84 LearningActivity1:BrainstormonDiversity&CultureWithinMission ................................... 84 CultivatingAnAwarenessofDiversity .................................................................................. 86 LearningActivity2:DiversityIceberg.................................................................................... 87
st UNPeacekeepingPDTStandards,CorePreDeploymentTrainingMaterials,1 ed.(2009)

UNCoreValuesonRespectforDiversity ............................................................................. 91 CommonDifferencesandPracticingRespect....................................................................... 92 LearningActivity3:CaseStudies ....................................................................................... 101 Unit4Part3:LearningAssessment................................................................................. 105 OptionalLearningActivity:DiversityLine............................................................................ 107 Unit4Part4:SafetyandSecurity ............................................................................................. 109 PreparatoryNotestoInstructors......................................................................................... 109 SessionNotes.................................................................................................................... 114 Introduction........................................................................................................................ 114 DesigningSecurityTraining................................................................................................ 114 DesigningRoadSafetyTraining ......................................................................................... 116 Ensuringaccesstohealthinformation,immunizationandappropriateprophylaxispriorto deployment.................................................................................................................. 118 TipsforMaintainingPersonalandFoodHygieneinPeacekeepingEnvironments............... 120 StressManagement ........................................................................................................... 121 Unit4Part4:LearningAssessment................................................................................. 122 Security.............................................................................................................................. 122 Roadsafety........................................................................................................................ 123 Health ................................................................................................................................ 123 CommonQuestionsfromParticipants....................................................................................... 124

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Unit4:CommonQuestionsfromParticipants

Unit4Part1b:SexualExploitationandAbuse
SessionNotes

FNotestoInstructor:Part1bofthisunitemphasizestheuniformstandards
onsexualexploitationandabusethatallpeacekeepingpersonnelare expectedtomaintain,ratherthanparticipantperceptionsofacceptable sexualbehaviour.Responsestocommonlyaskedquestionsonprohibited behaviourhavebeenprovidedfortheinstructorsconvenience(page26).

FItisparticularlyimportantinthissessiontoensurethatitiswellmanaged
andstaysontopic.

FEnsurethatconfidentialityandanonymityaremaintainedinanyexamples
usedduringdiscussions.

FEnsurethatsexualharassmentisnotconfusedwithsexualexploitationand
sexualabuse.Sexualharassmentisaworkplacerelatedoffence,soit involvesstafforrelatedpersonnelandnotmembersofthegeneralpublic.

FSomeissuesoftheSGBonSEAhavebeeninterpreteddifferently.Notethat
aguideisstillforthcomingtoclarifytheSGB.

DefinitionsofSexualExploitationandAbuse
[ Thissessiondealswithoneofthemostwidespreadformsofmisconduct withinpeacekeepingmissions. [ AllegationsofsexualexploitationandabusebyUNpeacekeepingpersonnel hadbeenmadeinmanymissions,from BosniaandHerzegovinaand KosovointheBalkansintheearly1990s,toCambodiaandTimorLestein SoutheastAsiaintheearlyandlate1990sandtoWestAfricaandthe DemocraticRepublicoftheCongo(DRC)inrecentyears. [ Participantsmaywanttotalkaboutsexualexploitationandabusecasesthat theyareawareof.However,confidentialityandanonymitymustbe maintainedandorganizations,victimsandallegedperpetratorsshould NEVERbementionedbyname.

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[ RegardlessofyourperceptionsoftheproblemorthelikelihoodforSEAto occurinyourmissionALLpeacekeepingpersonnelhaveanobligationto createandmaintainanenvironmentthatpreventssexualexploitationand abuseandtoupholdthehigheststandardsofconduct. [ Regardlessoflegalityortheculturalnormsinyourcountryand/orthehost country,thereisazerotolerancepolicyregardingsexualexploitationand abusebyUNpersonnel.

LearningActivity:DefiningSexualExploitationandAbuse
ThisactivityenablesparticipantstounderstandtheUNdefinitionofsexual exploitationandabuse,usingreallifeexamples. TimeRequired: 5 minutestodefineSEAandintroducetheactivity 10 minutesforsmallgroupwork 15 minutesforgroupstoreportback(time allocation/groupwilldependonthenumberofsmall groups) 10 minutesforguideddiscussion 5 minutestowrapupwithkeysummarypoints 45 minutes Slide11

Totaltime:

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FActivityGuidelines:
1. Askaparticipanttoreadslide11DefinitionofSexualExploitationand Abuse(SEA). 2. PuttheflipchartsyouvepreparedwiththedefinitionsofSEAinavisible areaforeasyreference. 3. Askparticipantstosplitintosmallgroups(upto8people).Explainto participantsthattheyhaveupto10minutestolistexamplesofSEAthat occurintheirhomecountryorinpeacekeepingmissions.Explainthata groupspokespersonwillneedtosharetheirexamples.Remindparticipants nottouseanynames. 4. Afterthe10minutes,askeachgrouptosharetheirexampleswiththe widergroup(thenumberofexamplesthatcanbesharedwilldependon thesizeofthetraininggroup).(15minutesmaximum) 5. CorrectanyexamplesgiventhatarenotSEA,forexample,sexual harassmentandotherformsofmisconduct. Examplesofsexualexploitationand/orsexualabusecouldinclude: Providingassistanceoraidofanykind,includingfood,clothingand lodging,inexchangeforsexualfavours Threateningtowithholdassistanceoraidofanykindinexchangefor sexualfavours Buyingsexfromprostitutes,evenwhereprostitutionislegalinthehost country Forcingayoungboytoengageinsexualacts Rape Traffickingofpeopleforprostitution Procuringprostitutesforothers

5. Facilitateashort,guideddiscussiononthefollowingquestions.Providethe answersbelowiftheyarenotgivenbyparticipants.(10minutes)

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Whatmakesmembersofthehostcommunityvulnerableinthe peacekeepingcontext? Collapsedeconomywithmanyfightingforsurvivalindesperate circumstances Lackofawarenessofrightsandobligations Historyofunequalpowerrelationsthatcanbeexploited Prevalenceofsexualandgenderbasedviolence

Whatdoesdifferentialpowermeaninthepeacekeepingcontext? Animbalancebetweeneconomic,socialoreducationstatus Adependencebyoneontheassistanceofanothertosustainliving Apositionofauthorityoveranother

Whyisitimportantthattrustisnotabusedinthepeacekeepingcontext? Furthervictimizesvulnerablepersons Violatesvictimshumanrights Disruptsfamiliesandcommunities

6. Wrapupthediscussionwiththefollowingsummarypoints(5minutes) [ SEAcontradictsthemandateoftheUNingeneral,andthepeacekeeping mandateinparticular. [ TheUNhasazerotolerancepolicytoSEA,thismeansitisclassifiedas seriousmisconductandthatmanagers/commandershavearesponsibilityto prevent,enforceandrespondtoSEA. [ SEAdamagesindividualsandthecredibilityofthepeacekeepingmission. [ Privilegesandimmunitiescanandhavebeenwaivedtoaddressserious misconduct,includingSEA. [ Wecreatethedemand.....wearepartoftheproblem!

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UniformstandardsonSEA
Slide12

[ Slide14outlinesprohibitedactsasstatedintheSecretaryGeneralsBulletin onspecialmeasuresforprotectionfromSEA.Thisprohibitssexualactivity withpersonsunder18exchangeofmoney,employment,goodsorservices forsexorsexualfavoursandtheuseofchildrenoradultstoprocuresexfor others.Italsostronglydiscouragessexualrelationshipswithbeneficiariesof assistance. [ Itshouldbenotedthatallegationsofsexualexploitationhavealsobeen madeaboutconsensualadultrelationships.Peacekeepingpersonnelshould, therefore,beawareofthepotentialrisksofstartingarelationshipwhenon mission. [ ThepreviouslearningactivityandkeysummarypointstodefineSEAshould helpclarifyforparticipantsWHYtheuniformstandardsexist.

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CommonlyAskedQuestionsonSEA

NotetoInstructor:Thefollowingresponseshavebeenprovidedtoassist instructorsintheeventthesequestionsareaskedduringthesession. Responses

QuestionsCommonlyAsked ByParticipants
Doeshavingconsensualsexwith aprostituteautomaticallybecome sexualexploitation? DoesitmatterifSEAoccurs outsideofthemissionareainthe officersowncountry(oranother country)whileonleave? Whoarethebeneficiariesof assistance? Yes,itisprohibited.

Itdoesnotmatter.ThispolicyisapplicabletoUN personnelwherevertheyare.

Beneficiariesincludethosedirectlyreceivingassistance e.g.Refugees,internallydisplacedpeopleanddueto thenatureofpeacekeepingthelocalpopulationofthe hostcountry.Thisisbecausepeacekeepingpersonnel havemoney,foodandshelter,whereasthelocal populationisoftenveryvulnerableandwithlimited accesstotheseessentials,creatingapowerdifferential. Suchcircumstancesincreasetheriskofsexual exploitation,whichiswhyrelationshipsbetween peacekeepingpersonnelandbeneficiariesarestrongly discouraged.

Mynationalstandardsofconduct aredifferenttotheUNstandards. Whichstandardsapplytome?

Regardlessofwhetherthenationalstandardsarehigher orlower,theuniformstandardsonSEAaretheminimum standardsforUNpersonnel.

Whydodifferentcategoriesof staffhavedifferentstandardsof conduct?E.g.UNmilitary observersandmilitarycontingents

Therearespecificdefinitionsofmisconductusedby differentcategoriesofpeacekeepingpersonnel,related todifferentpoliciesandprocedurestheyaregoverned by.Allpeacekeepingpersonnel,however,areexpected tomaintainthehigheststandardsofconductassetoutin thethreekeyprinciples.

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Unit4:CommonQuestionsfromParticipants

WhydoestheUNsupplycondoms whileatthesametimepreach zerotoleranceonSEA?

MakingcondomsavailableispartoftheDPKO comprehensiveHIV/AIDSpreventionstrategy.Thereis nocontradictionbetweencondomprovisionandthe zerotolerancepolicyonSEAsincesexualrelations betweenconsentingadultswhoareUNstaff,UN volunteers,UNpolice,militaryobserversandcontingents arenotprohibited,providedthattheydonotcontravene applicable(national)codesofconductforspecific categoriesofpersonnel.Allcondomdispensersin missionsmustbemarkedwithtextremindingpersonnel oftheprohibitionagainstSEA.

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LearningActivity:GuidelinesandProhibitionsonSEA
Thisactivityhelpsparticipantsapplytheirunderstandingofguidelinesand prohibitionsonSEAbylookingatsevenscenarios,allofwhichdepictSEA. TimeRequired: 5 minutestointroducetheactivity 15 minutesforsmallgroupwork 20 minutesforgroupstoreportback(timeallocation/group willdependonthenumberofsmallgroups) 5 minutestodiscussandwrapupwithkeysummary points Totaltime: 45 minutes

FPreparations: Youwillneed:
1. Flipchartpaperandpens 2. Copiesofthescenariosandthequestions

FActivityGuidelines:
1. Splitparticipantsintogroupsofnomorethaneight. 2. Handoutthescenarioquestions(page48)andtheSEAscenarios(pages 4951). 3. Assigneachsmallgroupatleasttwoscenarios(wheretherearelessthan fivesmallgroupstheycanlookatmorescenarios)andaquestionsheet. 4. Informthesmallgroupsthattheyhave15minutestoreadthescenarios andtoanswerthesixquestions.Notethatthereisroomonthescenario handoutsfortheiranswers. 5. Afterthegroupshavehad15minutes,calltheirattentionbacktothelarge group. 6. Allowupto20minutesforparticipantstogiveresponsestothescenarios. Ifthereareseveralsmallgroups(i.e.morethanfive40participantsin total)decidethemostappropriatewaytofieldresponsese.g.eachgroup answersonequestiononly.Wheretherearelessthanfivesmallgroups (i.e.lessthan40participants)agrouprepresentativecanbrieflygive responsesforeachscenario.

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7. Itmaybeusefultoalsohandouttheanswerstothescenarios(pages52 55). 8. Wrapuptheactivity,makingthefollowingkeysummarypoints: [ Allscenariosconstituteseriousmisconductandprohibitedacts [ Allscenariosshowsexualexploitationastheyalldescribeactualor attemptedabuseofapositionofvulnerability,differentialpowerand/ortrust [ Mostofthescenariosshowsexualabuse,astheydescribeactualor threatenedphysicalintrusionofasexualnature,byforceorunderunequal orcoerciveconditions [ SomescenariosshowthemisuseofUNvehiclesandsupplies.Theseacts arelikelytobreachmissioncodesofconduct [ Allscenarioshavenegativeconsequencesforthoseinvolved.

FNotetoInstructorregardingabreak:Ifyouhavenotalreadycalleda
break,thisisagoodpointtotakeone.

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Summaryofkeymessages
Inthissessionwehavediscussedthethreekeyprinciplesgoverningthe conductofpeacekeepingpersonnel.Theseare:1)Higheststandardsof efficiency,competenceandintegrity2)Zero tolerancepolicyonsexual exploitationandabuseand3)Accountabilityofthoseincommandwho failtoenforcethestandardsofconduct Wehavediscussedexamplesofmisconductandyourdutytoreport suspectedmisconduct Wehavealsoidentifiedthemainentitiesthatdealwithmisconduct Wehaveexaminedleadershipsresponsibilityintermsofmaintainingthe higheststandardsofconduct WehaveclarifiedtheUNdefinitionofSexualExploitationandAbuse, examinedparticularcasesofSEAandconsideredtheserious consequencestoallinvolved Finallywehavelookedattherangeofmeasuresinplacetoaddress misconduct.

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Unit4Part1ac:LearningAssessment
Aselectionofthequestionscanbeinformallyaskedofthewholeparticipantgroupat theendofthesessionorcanbeusedinwrittenform.Attheendoftheentireunit and/ortheconclusionofthetraining,instructorsmaywanttoagainchoosesomeof thefollowingquestionsforreview.

Questions
1. Listthethreekeyprinciplesgoverningtheconductofpeacekeepingpersonnel. 2. Giveatleasttwoexamplesofseriousmisconduct. 3. Giveatleasttwoexamplesofmisconduct. 4. Sexualexploitationinvolvestheabuseorattemptedabuseofwhatforsexual purposes? 5. Sexualabuseisdefinedasactualorthreatenedphysicalintrusionofasexual nature,underwhichconditions: 6. WhatarethefouruniformstandardsonSEA? 7. Giveatleastthreeconsequencesofmisconductforpeacekeepingpersonnel: 8. Giveatleastthreeconsequencesofsexualmisconductforthevictimandthe widerhostpopulation: 9. Giveatleastthreeconsequencesofmisconductforthemission: 10. WhatistheUNthreeprongedapproachtoaddressingsexualexploitationand abuse?

Answers
1. Listthethreekeyprinciplesgoverningtheconductofpeacekeepingpersonnel: Higheststandardsofefficiency,competenceandintegrity Zerotolerancepolicyonsexualexploitationandabuse Accountabilityofthoseincommandwhofailtoenforcethestandardsof conduct 2. Giveatleasttwoexamplesofseriousmisconduct: Sexualexploitationandabuse

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Seriousorcomplexfraud Otherseriouscriminalactoractivity Conflictofinterest Grossmismanagement Wasteofsubstantialresources Allcasesinvolvingriskoflossoflifetostaffortoothers,includingwitnesses SubstantialviolationofUnitedNationsregulations,rulesoradministrative issuances 10. Giveatleasttwoexamplesofmisconduct: Discrimination,harassment,includingsexualharassmentandabuseof authority Trafficrelatedinquiries Simplethefts Contractdisputes Officemanagementdisputes Basicmisuseofequipmentorstaff Basicmismanagementissues Infractionsofregulations,rulesoradministrativeissuances 11. Sexualexploitationinvolvestheabuseorattemptedabuseofwhatfor sexualpurposes? Apersonsvulnerability Differentialpower Apersonstrust 12. Sexualabuseisdefinedasactualorthreatenedphysicalintrusionofa sexualnature,underwhichconditions: Force Unequalorcoerciveconditions 13. WhatarethefouruniformstandardsonSEA? Sexualactivitywithchildren(personsundertheageof18)isprohibited. Exchangeofmoney,employment,goods,assistanceorservicesforsex,e.g. sexwithprostitutes,isprohibited. Useofchildrenoradultstoprocuresexualservicesforothersisprohibited. Sexualrelationshipswithbeneficiariesofassistancearestronglydiscouraged.
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14. Giveatleastthreeconsequencesofmisconductforpeacekeeping personnel: Disciplinaryaction Repatriation Terminationofcontract Criminalproceedings Financialliability 15. Giveatleastthreeconsequencesofsexualmisconductforthevictimand thewiderhostpopulation: Violatesvictimshumanrights Furthertraumatisespeoplewhomayhaveexperiencedconflict/sexual violence,etc. Victimsofsexualexploitationandabusemaybestigmatisedwithintheir community Unwantedpregnancy Sexuallytransmittedinfections(STIs) ErodestrustandconfidenceintheUN 16. Giveatleastthreeconsequencesofmisconductforthemission: MisconductcontrarytoUNPrinciples Violatesintegrityandimpartiality ReducescredibilityandimageofUN Threatenssecurity Underminesruleoflawandfosterscrime 17. WhatistheUNthreeprongedapproachtoaddressingsexualexploitation andabuse? 1. Prevention 2. Enforcement 3. Remedialaction

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Handout

WEAREUNITEDNATIONS PEACEKEEPINGPERSONNEL
TheUnitedNationsOrganizationembodiesthe aspirationsofallthepeopleoftheworldforpeace.In thiscontexttheUnitedNationsCharterrequiresthatall personnelmustmaintainthehigheststandardsof integrityandconduct. WewillcomplywiththeGuidelinesonInternational HumanitarianLawforForcesUndertakingUnited NationsPeacekeepingOperationsandtheapplicable portionsoftheUniversalDeclarationofHumanRightsas thefundamentalbasisofourstandards. We,aspeacekeepers,representtheUnitedNations andarepresentinthecountrytohelpitrecoverfromthe traumaofaconflict.Asaresultwemustconsciouslybe preparedtoacceptspecialconstraintsinourpublicand privatelivesinordertodotheworkandtopursuethe idealsoftheUnitedNationsOrganization. Wewillbeaccordedcertainprivilegesandimmunities arrangedthroughagreementsnegotiatedbetweenthe UnitedNationsandthehostcountrysolelyforthe purposeofdischargingourpeacekeepingduties. Expectationsoftheworldcommunityandthelocal
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populationwillbehighandouractions,behaviourand speechwillbecloselymonitored.

Wewillalways:

Conductourselvesinaprofessionalanddisciplinedmanner, atalltimes DedicateourselvestoachievingthegoalsoftheUnited Nations Understandthemandateandmissionandcomplywiththeir provisions Respecttheenvironmentofthehostcountry Respectlocalcustomsandpracticesthroughawarenessand respectfortheculture,religion,traditionsandgenderissues Treattheinhabitantsofthehostcountrywithrespect, courtesyandconsideration Actwithimpartiality,integrityandtact Supportandaidtheinfirm,sickandweak ObeyourUnitedNationssuperiors/supervisorsandrespect thechainofcommand Respectallotherpeacekeepingmembersofthemission regardlessofstatus,rank,ethnicornationalorigin,race, gender,orcreed Supportandencourageproperconductamongourfellow peacekeepingpersonnel Reportallactsinvolvingsexualexploitationandabuse Maintainproperdressandpersonaldeportmentatalltimes

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Properlyaccountforallmoneyandpropertyassignedtous asmembersofthemissionand CareforallUnitedNationsequipmentplacedinourcharge.

Wewillnever:

BringdiscreditupontheUnitedNations,orournations throughimproperpersonalconduct,failuretoperformour dutiesorabuseofourpositionsaspeacekeepingpersonnel Takeanyactionthatmightjeopardizethemission Abusealcohol,useortrafficindrugs Makeunauthorizedcommunicationstoexternalagencies, includingunauthorizedpressstatements Improperlydiscloseoruseinformationgainedthroughour employment Useunnecessaryviolenceorthreatenanyoneincustody Commitanyactthatcouldresultinphysical,sexualor psychologicalharmorsufferingtomembersofthelocal population,especiallywomenandchildren Commitanyactinvolvingsexualexploitationandabuse, sexualactivitywithchildrenunder18,orexchangeofmoney, employment,goodsorservicesforsex Becomeinvolvedinsexualliaisonswhichcouldaffectour impartiality,orthewellbeingofothers Beabusiveorunciviltoanymemberofthepublic WillfullydamageormisuseanyUnitedNationspropertyor equipment Useavehicleimproperlyorwithoutauthorization Collectunauthorizedsouvenirs

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Participateinanyillegalactivities,corruptorimproper practicesor Attempttouseourpositionsforpersonaladvantage,tomake falseclaimsoracceptbenefitstowhichwearenotentitled.

Werealizethattheconsequencesoffailuretoact withintheseguidelinesmay: ErodeconfidenceandtrustintheUnited Nations Jeopardizetheachievementofthemission Jeopardizeourstatusandsecurityas peacekeepingpersonneland Resultinadministrative,disciplinaryorcriminal action.

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QuestionsforScenarios
Pleasereadthescenario/sandanswerthefollowingquestions: a. HastheUNpersonnelactuallyabusedorattemptedtoabuseaposition ofvulnerabilityforsexualpurposes?

Yes/No b. HastheUNpersonnelactuallyorattemptedtoabusedifferentialpower forsexualpurposes?

Yes/No c. HastheUNpersonnelinthisscenarioactuallyorattemptedtoabuse trust,forsexualpurposes?

Yes/No d. Doesthisscenarioconstituteprohibitedact(s)?

Yes/No e. Whichuniformstandardsonsexualexploitationandabusehavebeen violated?Listasmanyasapply.

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Scenarios
EXAMPLEOFPROHIBITEDACT
1.Bettyisa16yearoldgirllivinginasmall a. Yeso Noo village.Bettyhasfouryoungerbrothersand c. Yeso Noo sisters.Herparentsdonothaveverymuch moneyandfinditverydifficulttoprovidethe e. costsforeducation,clothingandfoodforall ofthechildren.Therehadevenbeensome discussionaboutBettydroppingoutofschool toassisthermotherinworkingatthemarket. However,alltheproblemshavebeensolved asBettyhasstartedasexualrelationship withJohnson,aseniorUNHCRofficer.He haspromisedtopayforherschoolfeesand helptopayforherbrothersandsistersto continuewiththeireducation.Bettysparents areveryrelievedthatthisopportunityhas comeandencourageBettytomaintainthe relationship.Ithasreallyhelpedthefamily andnowallthechildrencancontinuein school. 2.Carlos,amilitarycommanderpostedinthe a. Yeso Noo southerndistrict,hashelpedsetupaboys c. Yeso Noo soccerclubinthetownwherehisnational contingentisdeployed.Carlosenjoysthe e. soccergames,butheparticularlyenjoysthe accesstheclubgiveshimtolocal adolescents.Hegivespresents(magazines, candy,sodas,pens)tovariousboysin exchangeforsexualacts.Hethinkstheres nothingwrongwiththis,sincetheboyslike thepresentshegivesthem.

ANSWERS
b. Yeso Noo d. Yeso Noo

b. Yeso Noo d. Yeso Noo

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3.JoeyisalocallyhireddriverforaUN a. Yeso Noo agency,whotransportsreliefitemsfromthe c. Yeso Noo warehousetotherefugeecampwherethe itemsaredistributed.Ononeofhistripshe e. recognizeda15yearoldrefugeegirlwalking onthesideoftheroadandgaveheralift backtothecamp.Sincethen,toimpressher andwinherover,hefrequentlyofferstodrive herwhereversheisgoingandsometimes giveshersmallitemsfromtherelief packagesinhistruck,whichhethinksshe andherfamilycoulduse.Thelasttimehe droveherhomesheaskedhiminsideher housetomeetherfamily.Thefamilywas pleasedthatshehadmadefriendswithaUN worker.Joeyreallylikesthegirlandwantsto startasexualrelationshipwithher.Heknows herfamilywillapprove. 4.Marieisa30yearoldrefugeewhose a. Yeso Noo desperatecircumstanceshaveforcedher intoprostitution.OnSaturdaynightshewas c. Yeso Noo pickedupbyJohn,aUNICEFstaffmember e. inaUNcar,ashewasdrivingbackhome afterdinner.Johntookherhomeandpaid herforsex.Asprostitutionisnotillegalinthe countrywhereheisposted,hefiguredhe wasdoingnothingwrong.

b Yeso Noo d. Yeso Noo

b Yeso Noo d. Yeso Noo

5.Josieisanadolescentrefugeegirlinone a. Yeso Noo ofthecamps.Pieter,oneofthefood c. Yeso Noo distributionstaff,whoworksforWFP,has offeredtogiveheralittleextraduringthe e. distributionifshewillbehisspecialfriend. Sheagreeswillingly.Bothofthemagreethat theyshouldstartasexualrelationshipand neitheroneofthemthinkthatanythingis wrong.Josiehopesthattherelationshipwill beapassporttoanewlifeinanother country,andPieterdoesnothingto discouragethesehopes.

b Yeso Noo d. Yeso Noo

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6.DarleneisaCIVPOL.Shesalwaysonthe a. Yeso Noo lookoutforgoodbusinessopportunitiessince shehastosupportherfamilybackhome.Shes c. Yeso Noo askedbyanotherCIVPOL,Stanislas,to e. contributesomeofherMSAtowards renovatingabarinthetown,inreturnforacut ofthebarsprofits.Darlenesoonfindsshes gettingasteadyincomefromthebar,andgives moremoneytohiremorestaff,including security,andsoon.Sheherselfdoesntgoto thebar,butsheknowsthatthereisalotof prostitutiongoingonthereandthatseveral peacekeepersandCIVPOLsusethebaroften. However,shedoesntthinkthatconcernsher, sincesheisntdirectlyinvolvedinthoseissues. Shesjustgladoftheextramoney. 7.SvenisaMilitaryObserver.Hehas a. Yeso Noo developedacloserelationshipwithhis landlady,Amanna,whoalsodoeshiscleaning. c. Yeso Noo Theyeatmealstogetherandtalkinbroken e. English.Amannasfamily(herhusbandand threeyoungchildren)waskilledintheviolence thatengulfedthecountryfiveyearsago,soshe isverylonelyandenjoystheopportunitytotalk. OnenightSvenreturnsfromareceptionforthe ForceCommanderwhohasbeenvisitingthe districtwhereheisdeployed.Svenisdrunk.He hasnothadsexforeightmonths.Hepresses Amannatocometohisbedroom,urgingherto makelovewithhim.Amannalooksextremely embarrassed,andtriestoleavetheroom. Svenssureshelikeshim,butisjustbeingshy. Thenhechangestactics,andtellsherhewill havetothinkofleavingherhouseandfindinga newhomeifshewontcometobedwithhim. Amannaishorrifiedattheprospectoflosing heronlysourceofincome,soshecomplies withhisdemands.Afteralltheviolenceshehas seen,shehascometoexpectthiskindof behaviourfrommen,butshehadthoughtthat Svenwouldbedifferent.Shewaswrongabout that.

b Yeso Noo d. Yeso Noo

b Yeso Noo d. Yeso Noo

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AnswersforMisconductScenarios
ScenarioscoveringprohibitedactsofSexualExploitationandSexual AbuseforthevariouscategoriesofUnitedNationspersonnel Thefollowingscenariosdemonstrateexamplesofprohibitedactsunderthecurrent standardsofconductexpectedofallcategoriesofUNpersonnel(civilian,civilian police,militaryobserversandmilitarymembersofnationalcontingents)assetoutin theUNStaffRulesandRegulationsand/ortheDPKODisciplinaryDirectives (includingtheTenRules:CodeofPersonalConductforBlueHelmets).Theseacts alsospecificallyviolatestandardslistedin:ST/SGB/2003/13onSpecialMeasuresfor ProtectionfromSexualExploitationandSexualAbuseandST/SGB/1999/13on ObservancebyUnitedNationsForcesofInternationalHumanitarianLaw.N.B. Allegationsandreportsofsexualharassmentarecoveredbyseparateprocedures describedinST/SGB/253andST/AI/379(asmaybeamended). Theactsdescribedbelowconstitutemisconductandcouldleadtotheappropriate disciplinaryandadministrativemeasures,suchassummarydismissalor recommendationtorepatriate.Moreinformationondeterminingtherelevant procedurestobefollowedwhenallegedactsofmisconductoccurshouldbeobtained fromtherelevantDepartment/AgencyHeadquarters. EXAMPLEOFPROHIBITEDACT
1.Bettyisa16yearoldgirllivinginasmall village.Bettyhasfouryoungerbrothersand sisters.Herparentsdonothaveverymuch moneyandfinditverydifficulttoprovidethe costsforeducation,clothingandfoodforall ofthechildren.Therehadevenbeensome discussionaboutBettydroppingoutofschool toassisthermotherinworkingatthemarket. However,alltheproblemshavebeensolved asBettyhasstartedasexualrelationship withJohnson,aseniorUNHCRofficer.He haspromisedtopayforherschoolfeesand helptopayforherbrothersandsistersto continuewiththeireducation.Bettysparents areveryrelievedthatthisopportunityhas comeandencourageBettytomaintainthe relationship.Ithasreallyhelpedthefamily andnowallthechildrencancontinuein school.

WHYITCONSTITUTESMISCONDUCT
a. Yes Noo c. Yes Noo b Yes No o d. Yes Noo

e.Sexualactivitywithchildren(persons undertheageof18)isprohibited. Exchangeofmoney,employment,goods, assistanceorservicesforsex,e.g.sexwith prostitutes,isprohibited. FullExplanation: Undersection3.2(b)oftheSecretary GeneralsBulletinST/SGB/2003/13,Johnson isprohibitedfromsexualactivitywithanyone under18,regardlessofthelocalageof consent.Thisencounteralsoconstitutes sexualexploitationasdefinedinsection3.2 (c)ofST/SGB/2003/13:Johnsonhasabused apositionofdifferentialpowerforsexual purposes,byexchangingmoneyforsexual access.

nd UNPeacekeepingPDTStandards,CorePreDeploymentTrainingMaterials,2 ed.(2009)

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2.Carlos,amilitarycommanderpostedinthe southerndistrict,hashelpedsetupaboys soccerclubinthetownwherehisnational contingentisdeployed.Carlosenjoysthe soccergames,butheparticularlyenjoysthe accesstheclubgiveshimtolocal adolescents.Hegivespresents(magazines, candy,sodas,pens)tovariousboysin exchangeforsexualacts.Hethinkstheres nothingwrongwiththis,sincetheboyslike thepresentshegivesthem.

a. Yes Noo c. Yes Noo

b Yes No o d. Yes Noo

e.Sexualactivitywithchildren(persons undertheageof18)isprohibited. Exchangeofmoney,employment,goods, assistanceorservicesforsex,e.g.sexwith prostitutes,isprohibited. Fullexplanation: CarlosactsareinviolationoftheTenRules: CodeofPersonalConductforBlueHelmets andST/SGB/1999/13onObservancebyUN ForcesofInternationalHumanitarianLaw.He hasabusedapositionofdifferentialpower forsexualpurposes,byexchangingmoney andgoodsforsexualfavours.Suchacts constituteseriousmisconduct.Inaddition, Carlosisinbreachofthesamepolicyfor performingsexualactswithchildren(anyone under18,regardlessofthelocalageof consent).

3.JoeyisalocallyhireddriverforaUN agency,whotransportsreliefitemsfromthe warehousetotherefugeecampwherethe itemsaredistributed.Ononeofhistripshe recognizeda15yearoldrefugeegirlwalking onthesideoftheroadandgaveheralift backtothecamp.Sincethen,toimpressher andwinherover,hefrequentlyofferstodrive herwhereversheisgoingandsometimes giveshersmallitemsfromtherelief packagesinhistruck,whichhethinksshe andherfamilycoulduse.Thelasttimehe droveherhomesheaskedhiminsideher housetomeetherfamily.Thefamilywas pleasedthatshehadmadefriendswithaUN worker.Joeyreallylikesthegirlandwantsto startasexualrelationshipwithher.Heknows herfamilywillapprove.

a. Yes Noo c. Yes Noo

b Yes No o d. Yes Noo

e.Exchangeofmoney,employment,goods, assistanceorservicesforsex,e.g.sexwith prostitutes,isprohibited. Fullexplanation: Undersection3.2(b)oftheSecretary GeneralsBulletinST/SGB/2003/13,Joeyis prohibitedfromsexualactivitywithanyone under18,regardlessofthelocalageof consent.Moreover,therulesalsostrongly discouragesexualrelationshipsbetweenUN staffandbeneficiariesofassistance,since theyarebasedoninherentlyunequalpower dynamicsandunderminethecredibilityand integrityoftheworkoftheUN(seesection 3.2(d)ofST/SGB/2003/13).

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4.Marieisa30yearoldrefugeewhose desperatecircumstanceshaveforcedher intoprostitution.OnSaturdaynightshewas pickedupbyJohn,aUNICEFstaffmember inaUNcar,ashewasdrivingbackhome afterdinner.Johntookherhomeandpaid herforsex.Asprostitutionisnotillegalinthe countrywhereheisposted,hefiguredhe wasdoingnothingwrong.

a. Yes Noo c. Yes Noo

b Yes No o d. Yes Noo

e.Exchangeofmoney,employment,goods, assistanceorservicesforsex,e.g.sexwith prostitutes,isprohibited. Fullexplanation: Theexchangeofmoneyforsexualservices violatesthestandardsofconductexpectedof anycategoryofUNpersonnel.Inthiscase, (involvingacivilianstaffmember)theact violatessection3.2(c)oftheSecretary GeneralsBulletinST/SGB/2003/13. a. Yes Noo c. Yes Noo b Yes No o d. Yes Noo

5.Josieisanadolescentrefugeegirlinone ofthecamps.Pieter,oneofthefood distributionstaff,whoworksforWFP,has offeredtogiveheralittleextraduringthe distributionifshewillbehisspecialfriend. Sheagreeswillingly.Bothofthemagreethat theyshouldstartasexualrelationshipand neitheroneofthemthinkthatanythingis wrong.Josiehopesthattherelationshipwill beapassporttoanewlifeinanother country,andPieterdoesnothingto discouragethesehopes.

e.Exchangeofmoney,employment,goods, assistanceorservicesforsex,e.g.sexwith prostitutes,isprohibited. Fullexplanation: PietersrelationshipwithJosieconstitutes sexualexploitation:exchangeofgoodsfor sexorsexualfavoursisexplicitlyprohibited undersection3.2(c)ofST/SGB/2003/13. Thisincludesanyexchangeofassistance thatisduetobeneficiariesofassistance. Moreover(andirrespectiveofthelocalageof consent)ifJosieisunder18,Pieterisin violationofsection3.2(b)of ST/SGB/2003/13. a. Yes Noo c. Yes Noo b Yes No o d. Yes Noo

6.DarleneisaCIVPOL.Shesalwaysonthe lookoutforgoodbusinessopportunitiessince shehastosupportherfamilybackhome. ShesaskedbyanotherCIVPOL,Stanislas, tocontributesomeofherMSAtowards renovatingabarinthetown,inreturnfora cutofthebarsprofits.Darlenesoonfinds shesgettingasteadyincomefromthebar, andgivesmoremoneytohiremorestaff,

e.ThepeacekeepersandCIVPOLsusing prostitutesareexchangingmoneyforsex, andsexwithprostitutes,isprohibited. Fullexplanation: DarleneandStanislasareaidingsexual

nd UNPeacekeepingPDTStandards,CorePreDeploymentTrainingMaterials,2 ed.(2009)

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includingsecurity,andsoon.Sheherself doesntgotothebar,butsheknowsthat thereisalotofprostitutiongoingonthere andthatseveralpeacekeepersandCIVPOLs usethebaroften.However,shedoesntthink thatconcernsher,sincesheisntdirectly involvedinthoseissues.Shesjustgladof theextramoney.

exploitation.ThisviolatestheTenRules: CodeofPersonalConductforPeacekeepers. ThepeacekeepersandCIVPOLswho frequentthebarareengagedinsexual exploitation.Forthesecategoriesof personnel,usingaprostituteviolatestheTen Rules:CodeofPersonalConductforBlue HelmetsandtheST/SGB/1999/13On ObservancebyUNForcesofInternational HumanitarianLaw. a. Yes Noo c. Yes Noo b Yes No o d. Yes Noo

7.SvenisaMilitaryObserver.Hehas developedacloserelationshipwithhis landlady,Amanna,whoalsodoeshiscleaning. Theyeatmealstogetherandtalkinbroken English.Amannasfamily(herhusbandand threeyoungchildren)waskilledintheviolence thatengulfedthecountryfiveyearsago,soshe isverylonelyandenjoystheopportunitytotalk. OnenightSvenreturnsfromareceptionforthe ForceCommanderwhohasbeenvisitingthe districtwhereheisdeployed.Svenisdrunk.He hasnothadsexforeightmonths.Hepresses Amannatocometohisbedroom,urgingherto makelovewithhim.Amannalooksextremely embarrassed,andtriestoleavetheroom. Svenssureshelikeshim,butisjustbeingshy. Thenhechangestactics,andtellsherhewill havetothinkofleavingherhouseandfindinga newhomeifshewontcometobedwithhim. Amannaishorrifiedattheprospectoflosing heronlysourceofincome,soshecomplies withhisdemands.Afteralltheviolenceshehas seen,shehascometoexpectthiskindof behaviourfrommen,butshehadthoughtthat Svenwouldbedifferent.Shewaswrongabout that.

e.Exchangeofmoney,employment,goods, assistanceorservicesforsex,e.g.sexwith prostitutes,isprohibited. Fullexplanation: SvenhasbreachedtheTenRules:Codeof PersonalConductforPeacekeepers,by usinghisdifferentialpositionofpowerto coerceAmannaintohavingsexwithhim.

ProducedbytheInterAgencyStandingCommitteeTaskForceonProtectionfromSexualExploitation andAbuse Acknowledgement:Anumberofthescenariosabovehavebeenadaptedfrommaterialscontainedin theFacilitatorsGuide:UnderstandingHumanitarianAidWorkerResponsibilities:SexualExploitation andAbusePrevention,producedbytheCoordinationCommitteeforthePreventionofSexual ExploitationandAbuseinSierraLeone.

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CommonQuestionsfromParticipants
PossibleQuestions 1. Wherecanonefindnumbers forinvestigatedandresolved casesofSEA? Responses AnnualGeneralAssemblyreportson investigations(OIOSreport). InformationcircularonDisciplinary MeasurestakenbytheSecretaryGeneral. AnnualreportonSpecialMeasuresfor ProtectionfromSexualExploitationand Abuse. 2. WhydoestheUnitedNations MemberStatesaresovereign,accordingto nothaveauthorityoverMember Stateswithregardstoindividual Article2intheUNCharter. SEAcases? UniformedpersonnelsentbyMember Statesremainunderthejurisdictionofthese states. CivilianstaffmembersworkingfortheUN haveacontractualemploymentrelationwith theUNandthisprovidesadegreeof administrativejurisdictiontotheUNonthese staffmembers. 3. Howismisconductlinkedtothe domesticjurisdictionofthehost countryandthehomecountry ofthestaffmember? ThepresenceofUNpersonnelinthehost countrygivesthatcountrythejurisdiction overUNpersonnel,otherthanmembersof nationalcontingents,formisconductthat amountstobreachesofthelawinthathost country,subjecttoliftingoftheUNprivileges andimmunities. Formembersofnationalcontingents,they remainsubjectedtothelawsoftheirown country.UNpersonnel,otherthanmembers ofnationalcontingents,couldalsobe prosecutedforbreachestothenationallaws oftheirowncountryevenifthosebreaches arecommittedoutsideoftheirowncountry.

nd UNPeacekeepingPDTStandards,CorePreDeploymentTrainingMaterials,2 ed.(2009)