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GENERATION, TRANMISSION & DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRICITY LESSON OUTCOMES By the end of this session, students should be able to:

List, describe and illustrate Energy conversion and energy resources Renewable and nonrenewable energy Describe and illustrate fossil fuel and hydroelectric power plant List, describe and illustrate Dam, penstock, turbine, generator and transformer ENERGY Energy is defined as "the ability to do work." In this sense, examples of work include moving something, lifting something, warming something, or lighting something. Scalar quantity measuring capacity of work (W) & is measured in joule for SI (unit) Many different form :1. Chemical energy the potential of a chemical substance to undergo a transformation through a chemical reaction or, to transform other chemical substances (i.e. fossil fuel & dry cell) 2. Potential energy Potential energy is the energy stored in a body due to its position in a force field (i.e. water reservoir) 3. Kinetic energy an object is the energy which it possesses due to its motion. It is defined as the work needed to accelerate a body of a given mass from rest to its stated velocity. (i.e. moving part of engine , turbine also call mechanical energy) 4. Thermal energy is the part of the total internal energy of a thermodynamic system or sample of matter that results in the system's temperature (i.e. heated air or vapour result in high pressure)

ENERGY CONVERSION Energy can be converted from one form to another, but the total quantity stay the same. Example: 1. An object rise to a height above the earths surface or the water in an elevated reservoir. Gravitational potential energy (PE) 2. As water falls, it loses Potential Energy but gains Kinetic Energy (KE) 3. A lump of coal & a tank of petrol, together with the oxygen ( needed for the combustion ) Chemical energy (CE) 4. Both PE & CE can converted to Electrical Energy by applying Mechanical Energy or KE a turbine rotating armature in the generator CONVERSATION OF ENERGY PRINCIPLE Energy can be converted from one form to another, but the total quantity stay the same. Example: As water falls, it loses gravitational PE but gains KE & loses KE but gains Electrical Energy in generator. RESOURCES OF ENERGY (NATURAL) Energy resources 1. Non- renewable resources (these are natural resources that cannot be replenished) Fossil fuels ( coal, oil, gas ) Nuclear fission ( uranium 325 ) 2. Renewable resources (these sources are constantly renewed or restored) Wind (wind power) Internal heat of the earth (geothermal power) Vegetation (biomass) Water (hydroelectric) Sun (solar)

EDITED BY AZUAN AHMAD FAUZI 2011803188 UITM PULAU PINANG MAC 2013

GENERATION OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY Nowadays, simplest form of EE resources can be obtained from : Dry or wet cell batteries Bicycle dynamos Mini generator. etc.

ELECTRIC POWER SUPPLY Power supply for a building or for the use of community can be provided with an on-site power generation. In peninsular Malaysia, The national energy grid by Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) controlling the power supply in this country. POWER PLANT Types of power plant: 1. HYDROELECTRIC 2. DIESEL 3. LNG 4. COAL 5. WIND 6. WAVE 7. NUCLEAR 8. GEOTHERMAL 9. SOLAR 10. BIOMASS 1. HYDROELECTRIC

Souce of this system comes from hi jet water Operation depends on the hydraulics turbine, which rotates by the force of moving water. The turbine is connected to the shaft of a generator and produces electric power Relatively inexpensive. Hydraulics is easier to start up and stop compare to others in use at present

EDITED BY AZUAN AHMAD FAUZI 2011803188 UITM PULAU PINANG MAC 2013

5 IMPORTANT PART OF HYDROELECTRIC POWER PLANT 1. DAM Built across the river to impound water and raised its level Barrier made of concrete / other impermeable material that reduce the seepage (leaking) Accumulated the water in the reservoir created the source of potential energy Types of Dam 1. Gravity dam 2. Arch dam 3. Embankment dam 4. Buttress dam 2. PENSTOCK Channel Built underground from the reservoir through the dam towards the plant To convey very high velocity of water due to different of altitude Sluice gate control the flow of the water in the penstock to direction of turbine 3. TURBINE Rotating mechanical components that receive the flowing water trajectory and spins thus giving mechanical truss/torque and covert to mechanical energy. It basic element is wheel or rotary with paddle, propellers, blades or buckets This mechanical energy then transferred through a drive shaft / belting to spin electric generator / armature Turbine can be classified as hydraulic/water turbines, steam turbine/gas turbine. Two types are available due the axis of rotation, most commonly used are Kaplans (rotates vertical axis and Pelton (rotates horizontally) 4. GENERATOR Machine that produce electrical energy from mechanical energy The movement in the armature in the magnetic field or flux induces current in coil and flow into external circuit 5.

TRANSFOMER Electrical device consist of one or more coil of wire placed in close proximity to one or more other coil Use to couple two or more alternating current circuit together by employing the induction between the coils. Coil connected to power source called primary and the other is secondary Transformer which secondary voltage is higher than primary called step up transformer and secondary voltage less than primary called step down transformer. ADVANTAGES USING HYDROELECTRICAL DISADVANTAGES USING ENERGY HYDROELECTRICAL ENERGY Renewable, clean, non-polluting, and prevents floods. Not all dam produce electricity, but it prevent flooding and other do both. Dams can harm many species that live at that area, the land around dam cam destroy and furious turbines will kill the fish

REASONS OF HYDROELECTRIC POWER DEVELOPMENT 1. To reduce dependency on fossil fuels in the future due to: Fossil fuel prices which are high and uncertain especially for coal; The possibility that coal supply may be interrupted; Limited and interruption in gas supply; Intense competition and increase in demand for fossil fuels 2. To ensure system stability for the supply of electricity 3. To diversify sources of electric power with the use of locally available sources 4. Hydro power is a renewable energy 5. To reduce impact of global warming 6. To reduce the carbon foot prints in the national electric supply industry.

EDITED BY AZUAN AHMAD FAUZI 2011803188 UITM PULAU PINANG MAC 2013

1. COAL

Wind power is the conversion of wind energy into a useful form of energy, such as using wind turbines to make electricity. A large wind farm may consist of several hundred individual wind turbines which are connected to the electric power transmission network. In a wind farm, individual turbines are interconnected with a medium voltage (often 34.5 kV), power collection system and communications network. At a substation, this medium-voltage electric current is increased in voltage with a transformer for connection to the high voltage electric power transmission system.

Understanding Coal fired Thermal Power plants Power generating units are mega projects Require huge capital investment Require natural resources like, fossil fuels Large amount of water Changes the local eco system Huge Impacts on the Environment and Health Advantages of Thermal Power Plant require less space as compared to Hydro power plants. It can beinstalled at any place iirespective of the existence of coal. The coal can be transported to the site of the plant by rail or road initial cost as compared to other generating plants. fuel used is quite cheap. Cost of generation is less than that of diesel power plants

2. WIND

EDITED BY AZUAN AHMAD FAUZI 2011803188 UITM PULAU PINANG MAC 2013

Advantage Wind energy system are energized by the naturally flowing wind, therefore it can be considered as a clean source of energy. Wind energy does not pollute the air like power plants that rely on combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal or natural gas. Wind turbines do not produce atmospheric emissions that cause acid rain or greenhouse gases. Wind energy is available as a domestic source of energy in many countries worldwide and not confined to only few countries, as in case of oil. Wind energy is one of the lowestpriced renewable energy technologies available today. Wind turbines also can be built on farm or ranches, thus benefiting the economy in rural areas, where most of the best wind sites are found. Farmers and ranchers can continue to use their land because the wind turbines use only a small fraction of the land. Wind power plant owners make rent payments to the farmer or rancher for the use of the land. Wind energy is ample.

Disadvantages Wind power have to compete with conventional power generation sources on a cost basic. Depending on the wind profile at the site, the wind farm may or may not be as cost competitive as a fossil fuel based power plant. Even though the cost of wind power has decreased in the past 10 years, the technology requires a higher initial investment than fossil-fueled solutions for power supply. The major challenge to using wind as a source of power is that the wind is inter-mitten and it does not always blow when electricity is needed. Wind energy cannot be stored and not all winds can be harnessed to meet the timing of electricity demands The option of energy storage in battery banks is much beyond economically feasible limits for large wind turbines. Good wind sites are often located in remote locations, far from cities where the electricity is needed. In developing countries, there is always the extra cost of laying grid for connecting remote wind farms to the supply network. Wind resource development may compete with other uses for the land and those alternative uses may be more highly valued than electricity generation.

3. NUCLEAR Energy stored in atomic nuclei that can be transformed into other forms of energy by complex power plants. The main purpose is to produce electricity Nuclear energy is the cleanness energy of all energy. It does not pollute the environment as the energy will vanish after being used. Although it is clean, it can leave dangerous effect to the human if we are expose to the nuclear radiations The process 1. Uranium Uranium is the main substance that nuclear power plants use to create energy. A specific isotope of uranium, known as U-135, is used and to get that from uranium the substance must go through an enrichment process 2. Nuclear reactor Once the uranium is separated, the "good" uranium is placed into a nuclear core that is inserted into a nuclear reactor. Because the uranium is radioactive, this is a very dangerous process that requires a lot of safety precautions

EDITED BY AZUAN AHMAD FAUZI 2011803188 UITM PULAU PINANG MAC 2013

3. Fission A neutron is blasted into the uranium to create a chain reaction fission process. This process causes the uranium to break down and split apart. The chain reaction creates heat

4. Water The heat from the fission process heats a water tank that sits above the uranium. The heated water turns into steam and travels through highpressured pipes The steam pipes blast out onto turbines that spin from the steam. The turbines are connected to a generator that turns and produces power. The radioactive water is either dumped or reused and more energy is created Disadvantages If exposed can cause deformation, disease and even death Nuclear power can also be used for producing nuclear weapons

5. Energy

Advantages Can produce substantial amount of energy Does not release C02 Produce more power than conventional energy sources Does not contribute global warming

EDITED BY AZUAN AHMAD FAUZI 2011803188 UITM PULAU PINANG MAC 2013

EDITED BY AZUAN AHMAD FAUZI 2011803188 UITM PULAU PINANG MAC 2013