Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 4

ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS LESSON OUTCOMES Describe generation, transmission and distribution of electrical supply and voltage drop

p Describe and illustrate electricity distribution from generating power plan to the various stages depend on end user Illustrate distribution of single phase supply for a single storey house. Describe theory of generator, alternator, dynamo, rectifier alternating current and direct current. List, describe and illustrate single phase basic ac generator and basic dc generator and it components TYPES 1. 2. 3. OF SUBSTATIONS Transmission substations Distribution substations Interconnecting substations

Transmission Substation Change the line voltage by means of step-up and some instances step-down transformers and regulate it by means of static. The step-up transformers normally are associated with the generation-side where the voltage is brought to transmission voltage 275kV or even higher voltages dependent on the transmission voltage in operation. Distribution substations Change the magnitude of the voltage from the medium voltage (MV) to low voltage (LV) by means of step-down transformers, which may have automatic tap-changing capabilities to regulate the output low voltage. The low voltage ranges from 240V (1-) to 415V (3-) 50Hz in Malaysia. It serves to provide energy to private residences, commercial, institutional establishment and small house and industry. Interconnecting Substations Tie different power systems together, to enable for power to be exchanged between the and to increase the stability of the overall network Examples of interconnecting substations are those between Malaysia and Singapore as well as Malaysia to Thailand These substations contain circuit breaker, fuses and lightning arrester to: protect expensive apparatus, provide for quick isolation of faulted lines from systems

TERM DEFINITION Term Definition National (in Malay: Grid Nasional) is the high-voltage electric power Grid, transmission network in Peninsular Malaysia. It is operated and owned Malaysia by Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) by its Transmission Division. There are two other electrical grids in Sabah and Sarawakoperated by Sabah Electricity Sdn Bhd and Sarawak Electricity Supply Corporation respectively. The system spans the whole of Peninsular Malaysia, connecting electricity generation stations owned by TNB and Independent Power Producers (IPPs) to energy consumers. A small number of consumers, mainly steel mills and shopping malls also take power directly from the National Grid. Step down can step down incoming voltage, which enables you to have the correct transformers voltage input for your electrical needs. For example, if your equipment has been specified for input voltage of 110 volts, and the main power supply is 220 volts, you will need a step down transformer, which decreases the incoming electrical voltage to be compatible with your 110 volt equipment. A short is an abnormal low-resistance connection between two nodes of circuit an electrical circuit that are meant to be at different voltages. This results in an excessive electric current (overcurrent) limited only by the Thvenin equivalent resistance of the rest of the network and potentially causes circuit damage, overheating, fire or explosion. Although usually the result of a fault, there are cases where short circuits are caused intentionally Voltage is the reduction in voltage in the passive elements (not containing drop sources) of an electrical circuit. a cross conductors, contacts, connectors and source internal resistances are undesired as they reduce the supplied voltage while voltage drops across loads and other electrical and electronic elements are useful and desired. Power Termed as blackout Failures Hospitals, public buildings & other facilities have installed backup generators to protect against power failure. Very efficient backup system can restore supply within second.

EDITED BY AZUAN AHMAD FAUZI 2011803188 UITM PULAU PINANG MAC 2013

ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM CONSIST OF 5 MAIN ELEMENT 1. POWER PLANT GENERATING FACILITIES all types of power plant sources can be renewable or non-renewable eg. Hydroelectric power plant, Nuclear reactors ( fission/ fussion) Thermal power plants fossil fuel(diesel, coal, gas, bio- mass) Wind power plants (wind farm), Solar power plants (solar farm), Tidal power plant, Teresstrial power plant sources convert to mechanical energy (turbine) spinning alternator to produce electrical energy 4 methods to generate electricity 1. Prime mover 2. Magneto-hydro-dynamic 3. Thermionic electric generator 4. Thermo electric generation Generally consists of turbines, axles, generator (DC)/ alternator (AC) produced power rated between 11-25KV AC. Generate 3 phase, that is 3 different output production cables : red, yellow & blue phase situated at the outside of alternator 2. PRIMARY TRANSMISSION A set of transformer at bulk transmission station raise the generated power (11-25kv ) to the high voltage (500KV) transmission lines called the National Grid. Connection in the transformer from power generated by alternator to the power supplied to the high power lines : Delta to Delta or Delta to Star (wye) or other combinations Delta Star is commonly uses because safety of neutral lines can be incorporated. High Transmission Cable on Large Pylon at National Grid consists of high voltage overhead cable hung between series of porcelain insulators on steel latticework tower structures called Pylon. some countries preferred underground cable cable : highly durable materials (copper or aluminum) or both to provide less resistance to flowing of current for long distance & light in weight

3. SECONDARY TRANSMISSION Secondary high transmission substation consist of step down transformers from 500 kV to 33 KV . the power will supply to large heavy industries & various streets. ex : steel mills, automobile & heavy machinery industries. High transmission cable on pylon - the pylon are less smaller due to much smaller transmission cable. 4. PRIMARY DISTRIBUTION Primary distribution substation consist of step down transformer from 33KV 11KV. supply the heavy consumption of high rise commercial buildings, factories of to medium consumption & large cities or suburban areas. Distribution cables on large unipole consist of single pole of either reinforced concrete or CHS steel pole with supporting branches on both sides to support hanging cables. other method used is by underground due to heavy traffic and aesthetic value. 5. SECONDARY DISTRIBUTION Secondary distribution substations consist of step down transformers from 11KV to 415/240V. theses substation usually located within the housing areas, village or town. Distribution cables on Unipole similar to the pole of primary distribution but used much shorter and smaller poles. nowadays underground practiced is much more common

EDITED BY AZUAN AHMAD FAUZI 2011803188 UITM PULAU PINANG MAC 2013

EDITED BY AZUAN AHMAD FAUZI 2011803188 UITM PULAU PINANG MAC 2013

EDITED BY AZUAN AHMAD FAUZI 2011803188 UITM PULAU PINANG MAC 2013