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FIRE FIGHTHING Classes of fire The definition of Fire Fighting Class Firefighting consists of removing one or more of the

e three elements essential to combustion-fuel, heat, and oxygen-or of interrupting the combustion chain reaction. A Fire Fighting, techniques and equipment used to extinguish fires and limit the damage caused by them. B The Purposes Of Fire Fighting System C Providing equipments, man power for safe guarding building occupants against fire Providing the building materials, structure, mechanical and electrical appliances from burning or weaken D

Classification Fires in solid fuel, eg; wood, cloth, paper, coal Fires in Inflammable liquids, eg; petrol, oils, kerosene Fires in Inflammable gases, eg; LNG, propane, butane Fires in Inflammable metals, eg; uranium, zinc, aluminum,

magnesium Fighting the Fire Most firefighting consists of applying water to the burning material, cooling it to the Fires caused by an Electrical or Electronic equipments, eg; E point at which combustion is no longer self-sustaining. short-circuit, lighting Fires involving flammable liquids, certain chemicals, and combustible metals often require special extinguishing agents and techniques. With some fuels the use of water may actually be dangerous. Fire Extinguisher Regardless of other types of fire extinguisher systems provided, it is essential that Method applied in Fighting Fire System every records storage facility be provided with an adequate supply of well-distributed Prevention against occurrence of fire portable fire extinguishers suitable for extinguishing fires in paper and plastic Prevention against spreading of fire records. o Passive fire prevention system It is desirable that the type of extinguisher provided be the trigger action type in o Active fire prevention system which the flow can be started and stopped by the operator. Passive fire prevention system Gaseous extinguishers are not effective for extinguishing deep-seated fires in paper o Refers to the means by which the design of the building, its structure, fabric, materials. components and their installment, resist fire. The presence of the proper extinguishers would enable the working or guard force, on o Example fire rated door, building material and fire rated wall discovering a fire or responding to an alarm from an early warning detection system, to o Signage (Exit/Staircase/Lift) attack and extinguish the fire while it is small, with minimum damage to the records. Active fire prevention system It is important that staffs are properly instructed in the use of small fire o Portable extinguisher extinguishers. o Alarm detection o Hose reel & hydrants o Automatic extinguisher o Heat & smoke detection o Dry and wet riser.

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Fire Extinguishing Agents Agent Advantages Always Available Excellent cooling properties Provides protection for fire party Best choice for Class A Forms air-tight blanket over burning liquids Minimal chance of re-flash Can be used from distance-around corners, from upper decks Knocks down flames Fast and effective 15' range Rated for Class B and C fires Disadvantages Not to be used on Electrical Fires Can reduce stability Can spread Class B fires Damages/destroys equipment Not to be used on Electrical Fires Damages/destroys equipment

Water

Foam

DryChemical

Minimal Protection against reflash Highly corrosive to electronic equip. Agent can cake and solidify in container Displaces oxygen - can kill firefighters No re-flash protection in open spaces

Carbon Dioxide

Safe for Class C Non-corrosive, non damaging to equip. Minimal chance of re-flash in sealed space Effective on small Class A & B fires in open spaces Safe for Class C Non-corrosive, non damaging to equip. Minimal chance of re-flash in sealed space Effective on small Class A & B fires in open spaces

Halon

No re-flash protection in open spaces In very hot fires, can generate deadly phosgene gas No longer available after 2000 AD

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Fire Extinguisher Agents Water A 9 l water extinguisher is installed for each 210m2 floor area, with a minimum of two extinguishers per floor. A high-pressure CO2 cartridge is punctured upon use and a 10m jet of water is produced for 80s. Water must not be used on petroleum, burning liquids or in kitchens as it could spread the fire.

Carbon dioxide Pressurized CO2 extinguishers leave no deposit and are used on small fires involving solids, liquids or electricity. They are recommended for use on delicate equipment such as electronic components and computers. The CO2 vapour displaces air around the fire and combustion ceases. There is minimal cooling effect, and the fire may restart if high temperatures have become established. Water-cooling backup is used where appropriate.

Dry powder Dry powder extinguishers contain from 1 to 11 kg of treated bicarbonate of soda powder pressurized with CO2, nitrogen or dried air. A spray of 27m is produced for 1024s depending on size. The powder interrupts the chemical reactions within the flame, producing rapid flame knockdown. The powder is non-conducting and does little damage to electric motors or appliances. A deposit of powder is left on the equipment. Chemical foam is formed by chemical reaction between sodium bicarbonate and aluminium sulphate dissolved in water in the presence of a foaming agent. When the extinguisher is inverted the chemicals are mixed to create foam under pressure which is forced out of the nozzle.
EDITED BY AZUAN AHMAD FAUZI 2011803188 UITM PULAU PINANG MAC 2013

The type of Fire-Fighting equipment for building Non-fixed type Example; Fire extinguisher, fire blanket, sand, pails etc Fixed type Example; Sprinkler, heat & smoke detectors, fire alarm & break glass, hydrants, wet & dry riser

Alternate wet and dry system o Used in buildings where freezing is likely occurred during winter months.

Various Types of Fire-Fighting Systems Equipment Buildings are protected against fire most effectively by protective sprinkler systems. In most sprinkler systems, water circulates through overhead pipes whose outlets are normally closed; at high temperatures the outlets open, spraying water on the fire. Most large buildings also provide water for fire fighting through a standpipe system with hose connections on each floor A. Sprinkler System A fixed water spray nozzle mounted on the ceiling with a series of water piping connected to it. 3 systems: Wet System o o o o o o o The simplest and most widely used application. The pipework is permanently charged with water. It is only suitable in premises, where temperatures remain above zero, although small sections of exposed pipework could be protected by trace element heating. The maximum number of sprinklers on one control valve is 1000. Used in unheated buildings(<0oc) such as warehousing charged with compressed air at moderate pressure The maximum number of sprinklers on one control valve is 250, but this may increase to 500 if the air controls include an accelerator. Dry System

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TYPE OF SPRINKLER HEADS: i) Quartzoid bulb o o o

B. Drencher System

Provide water over roof/walls prevent fire spreading a glass tube is used to retain a water valve on its seating. 2 systems: The bulb or tube contains a coloured volatile fluid, which when heated to a specific o Automatic drencher temperature expands to shatter the glass and open the valve. o Non-automatic: manually controlled valve is opened to bring them into operation Water flows on to a deflector, dispersing as a spray over the source of fire. Operating Types of drenchers: temperatures vary with a colour coded liquid: Window drencher Roof drencher Wall drencher

Fusible strut o o o Has two metal struts soldered together to retain a water valve in place. A range of solder melting temperatures are available to suit various applications. Under heat, the struts part to allow the valve to discharge water on the fire.

Duraspeed solder type o Contains a heat collector which has a soldered cap attached. When heat melts the solder, the cap falls away to displace a strut allowing the head to open. o Produced in a range of operating temperatures.

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C. Wet and Dry Riser 1. Supply water during fire Allow connection of firemen hose to this big tap. Divided into 2 types: Dry Riser o Charged with water by the fire brigade during fire. o Only be installed where prompt attention can be relied upon from the local fire brigade. Buildings < 60m

2. Wet Riser Buildings > 20 storey/ >60m Always charged with water under pressure, fed by pumping sets from a break tank. Duplicate pumps-to ensure adequate supply of water to each riser at all time

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D. Hose Reel Use by the occupants of the building at early fire only. Discharge 0.4 l/s or more at distance 6m(3 reels operating simultaneously). Pressure of 200 kPa is required at each nozzle.

E. Fire-Rated Door Installed at building exists against spreading of fire and heat to the opposite area. Non-combustible material internally and higher grade of timber externally.

F. Automatic Fire Detectors To sense of fire at the earliest possible moment and give an alarm signal by sending the siren/signalling at control panel in a control room. Alert persons inside & near building also connected to the local fire bridge. Groups of fire-detectors system: Heat detector Visible smoke detectors Ionization smoke detectors Detectors for hazardous situations

Ionisation smoke detector positive and negative charged plate electrodes attract imposingly charged ions. An ion is an atom or a group of atoms which have lost or gained one or more electrons, to carry a predominantly positive or negative charge. The movement of ions between the plates reduces the resistance of air, such that a small electric current is produced. If smoke enters the unit, particles attach to the ions slowing their movement. This reduction in current flow actuates an electronic relay circuit to operate an alarm. Light scattering or optical smoke detector a light beam projects onto a light trap into which it is absorbed. When smoke enters the detector, some of the light beam is deflected upwards onto a photoelectric cell. This light energises the cell to produce an electric current which activates the alarm relay

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Heat detectors are used where smoking is permitted and in other situations where a smoke detector could be inadvertently actuated by process work in the building, e.g. a factory. Detectors are designed to identify a fire in its more advanced stage, so their response time is longer than smoke detectors. Types of heat detector: 1) Fusible type has an alloy sensor with a thin walled casing fitted with heat collecting fins at its lower end. An electrical conductor passes through the centre. The casing has a fusible alloy lining and this functions as a second conductor. Heat melts the lining at a pre-determined temperature causing it to contact the central conductor and complete an alarm relay electrical circuit.

2) Bi-metallic coil type heat passes through the cover to the bi-metal coils. Initially the lower coil receives greater heat than the upper coil. The lower coil responds by making contact with the upper coil to complete an electrical alarm circuit.

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G. Automatic Fire Ventilation To remove smoke, heat & toxic gasses Smoke, heat & gasses flow upwards and out of the building. Prevents smoke logging, risk of explosion, flash over and distortion of steel trust Open automatically with a fusible link incorporated.

CONCLUSION Most firefighting consists of applying water to the burning material, cooling it to the point at which combustion is no longer self-sustaining. Fires involving flammable liquids, certain chemicals, and combustible metals often require special extinguishing agents and techniques. With some fuels the use of water may actually be dangerous. The three main goals in firefighting are life safety, incident stabilization, and property conservation.

EDITED BY AZUAN AHMAD FAUZI 2011803188 UITM PULAU PINANG MAC 2013