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LIFT AND ELEVATOR Introduction Lift has been used widely to building that has more than 4 story.

. We know that lift is a machine that provides comfort to people where it provides vertical transportation in a building with ease and fast. Lift can be categorized as a sophisticated machine which applies on various system. Fortunately, in these modern days the lift has been upgraded technically on by program devices, safety practices and even on its regulation. Several main components helps the lift works efficiently which will be discuss on this presentation. All of these components should also be exposed to civil engineering field to give the idea to them on what event about this machine and how they can apply it to their work. Not only about the lift itself, the regulations that has to be followed by the owner of the lift and engineers. How does the lift work?? The lift car moves in a specially constructed vertical chamber within a building. The lift car is driven up and down along guide rails by a drive machine which is connected to an electric motor. The direction in which the lift car moves is controlled by a drive controller. The drive controller determines the direction of the car movement according to the position of the car, the call button and the floor button pressed by the user When the lift car arrives at a floor where a stop is required, the sensing circuits will inform the drive controller to stop the car there. After the lift car is stopped, the car door and the landing door open together automatically. One lift car can transport up to about 20 passengers from one floor to any other floor at one time. They are suitable for high-rise buildings.

Requirement for lifts installation Necessary in all buildings over three stories high. Essential in all buildings over a single story if they are accessed by the elderly or disabled. Minimum standard-one lift per four story Floor space and lift car capacity can be estimated at 0.2m2 per person. TYPE CAR SPEED (M/S) 0.2- 1 0.3-0.8 0.8-1.2 1.2-1.5 1.5-1.7 <0.4

Good ( Electric or Hydraulic Electric passenger <4 floor <4-6 floors <6-9 floors <9-15 floors paternoster

TYPES OF LIFT SYSTEM 1. Traction lift is powered by an electric motor (AC or DC) which is coupled to the hoisting mechanism through a reduction (worm) gear. The motion of the car is obtained through traction between the suspension ropes and the driving sheave. Otherwise known as a cable lift. 2. Hydraulic lift is driven by a pump which raises or lowers the lift car by varying the oil pressure in a ram. The pump is driven by an electric motor.

EDITED BY AZUAN AHMAD FAUZI 2011803188 UITM PULAU PINANG MAC 2013

TYPES OF ELECTRIC TRACTION LIFT (1) Geared: The car is supported in a hoistway by steel hoist ropes, a sheave, and a counterweight. The car and counterweight ride along vertical guide rails. In a geared machine, the drive sheave is connected to the motor shaft through gears in a gearbox. This equipment is designed for mid-rise applications of five or more floors requiring typical speeds up to 350 feet per minute. (2) Gearless: The car is supported in a hoistway by steel hoist ropes, sheaves,and a counterweight. The car, counterweight and guide rails operate like those in a geared system. The gearless machine has a motor that connects directly to the shaft of the drive sheave. The equipment is designed for high-rise applications of 10 or more floors requiring typical speeds of 500 or more feet2-3 per minute.

EDITED BY AZUAN AHMAD FAUZI 2011803188 UITM PULAU PINANG MAC 2013

HYDRAULIC LIFTS Hydraulic elevators are one of the two types of elevator which are used in the modern world; the other being the rope-system elevator. Hydraulic elevators work on the simple system of a hydraulic ram. This ram, which incidentally gives the type of lift its name, has a fluid-driven piston mounted inside its outer cylinder. This cylinder is connected to a fluid pumping system. This incompressible fluid is generally oil but other variations are sometimes found (although these are much rarer). The fluid is pumped into a pipe leading to the cylinder, and, after various mechanical happenings, the fluid ultimately begins to collect in the cylinder and this begins to push the piston up; this is what moves the elevator car which has the passengers inside. To lower the elevator car, the reverse happens and the fluid is slowly leaked out; this causes the car to slowly descend and, when the elevator has reached its destination, the valve is closed and the fluid level stays constant. Type of hydraulic lift (1) Direct plunger: A car is connected to the top of a single section piston, that moves up and down in a cylinder, which is below ground level. The car moves up when hydraulic fluid is pumped into the cylinder from a reservoir, raising the piston. Hydraulic systems are used primarily in low-rise installations where moderate car speed is required, up to 150 feet per minute. The typical extent of travel is 40 feet (12192 mm), do not exceed a maximum travel length of 44 feet (13411 mm) or a maximum building height of four floors for (2) Holeless: The car is connected on each side with a single section piston that moves up and down in a cylinder, which is mounted on top of the pit floor. The car moves up when hydraulic fluid is pumped into the cylinder from a reservoir, raising the piston. Car speed up to 125 feet per minute (38.1 meters per minute) is attained and maximum travel length is 12 feet (3658 mm). (3) Roped: The car is supported by steel hoist ropes and sheave, which are moved up and down by a holeless single section piston in a cylinder. Car speed up to 150 feet per minute is attained and maximum travel length is 48 feet (14630 mm). The use of roped hydraulic elevators

Paternoster A paternoster or paternoster lift is a passenger elevator which consists of a chain of open compartments (each usually designed for two persons) that move slowly in a loop up and down inside a building without stopping. Passengers can step on or off at any floor they like.

EDITED BY AZUAN AHMAD FAUZI 2011803188 UITM PULAU PINANG MAC 2013

ESCALATOR AND TRAVELATOR ESCALATOR is a conveyor transport device for transporting people, consisting of a staircase whose steps move up or down on tracks that keep the surfaces of the individual steps horizontal. Most escalators have moving handrails that approximately keep pace with the movement of the steps. The direction of movement (up or down) can be permanently the same, or be controlled by personnel according to the time of day, or automatically be controlled by whomever arrives first, whether at the bottom or at the top. In low to medium rise buildings they will compete favorably with lift, even though they only move at between 0.5-0.65m/s. In high-rise buildings the space will not be justified and the modern high speed lift provides a superior service. Where large number of people are anticipated, such as airports and railway terminals. The angle of indication is normally 30o and can increased to 35o if the vertical rise does not exceed 6m and the sped is limited to 0.5m/s. Designs Modern escalators have metal steps in a continuous loop that move on tracks. Escalators are typically used in pairs with one going up and the other going down. Some modern escalators in stores and shopping malls have glass sides that reveal their workings. Most escalators are straight, some shopping malls use curved versions. Various arrangement of escalator: 1. Single bank traffic in one direction 2. Double bank traffic in two direction 3. Criss-cross 4. Parallel 5. Spiral

EDITED BY AZUAN AHMAD FAUZI 2011803188 UITM PULAU PINANG MAC 2013

TRAVELATOR A moving walkway, moving sidewalk, travelator is a slow conveyor belt that transports people horizontally or on an incline in a similar manner to an escalator. In both cases, riders can walk or stand. The walkways are often supplied in pairs, one for each direction

RAMP

An inclined plane is not a machine that does not move. Many devices based on the principles of the inclined plane allow expending less force to achieve a task. Ramps enable accessing heights that would be too difficult to scale vertically. Ramps allow heavy objects to ascend to, and descend safely from, a high-level bridge.

Designs Moving walkways are built in one of two basic styles: Pallet type a continuous series of flat metal plates join together to form a walkway. Most have a metal surface, though some models have a rubber surface for extra traction. Moving belt these are generally built with mesh metal belts or rubber walking surfaces over metal rollers. The walking surface may have a solid feel or a "bouncy" feel. Both types of moving walkway have a grooved surface to mesh with comb plates at the ends. Also, nearly all moving walkways are built with moving handrails similar to those on escalators. Pallet-types consists of one-piece, die-cast aluminium pallets. Example dimensions are: widths (between balustrades): between 32 inches (800 mm) and 56 inches (1200 mm), with a speed of 100 feet per minute (.5 meters per second), powered by an AC induction motor

EDITED BY AZUAN AHMAD FAUZI 2011803188 UITM PULAU PINANG MAC 2013