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Steam engine

A steam engine is a heat engine that performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluid. Steam engines are external combustion engines, where the working fluid is separate from the combustion products. Non-combustion heat sources such as solar power, nuclear power or geothermal energy may be used. Water is heated into steam in a boiler until it reaches a high pressure. When expanded through pistons or turbines, mechanical work is done. The reduced-pressure steam is then released into the atmosphere or condensed and pumped back into the boiler. The ideal thermodynamic cycle used to analyze this process is called the Rankine cycle. Most mobile steam engines and some smaller stationary engines discard the low-pressure steam instead of condensing it for reuse. The idea of using boiling water to produce mechanical motion has a very long history, going back about 2,000 years. Early devices were not practical power producers, but more advanced designs producing usable power have become a major source of mechanical power over the last 300 years, beginning with applications for removing water from mines using vacuum engines. Subsequent developments used pressurized steam and converted linear to rotational motion which enabled the powering of a wide range of manufacturing machinery. These engines could be sited anywhere that water and coal or wood fuel could be obtained, whereas previous installations were limited to locations where water wheels or windmills could be used. Significantly, this power source would later be applied to vehicles such as steam tractors and railway locomotives. The steam engine was a critical component of the Industrial Revolution, providing the prime mover for modern mass-production manufacturing methods. Modern steam turbines generate about 90% of the electric power in the United States using a variety of heat sources. In general usage, the term steam engine can refer to either the integrated steam plants (including boilers etc.) such as railway steam locomotives and portable engines, or may refer to the piston or turbine machinery alone, as in the beam engine and stationary steam engine. Specialized devices such as steam hammers and steam pile drivers are dependent on steam supplied from a separate boiler.

Motorul cu aburi
Motorul cu aburi este un motor termic care efectueaz lucru mecanic prin utilizarea aburului ca fluid de lucru. Motoarele cu abur sunt motoare cu ardere extern, unde fluidul de lucru este separat de produsele de combustie. Surse de cldur care pot fi uti lizate sunt noncombuste, cum ar fi energia solar, energia nuclear sau energia geotermal. Apa este nclzit transformndu-se n abur, ntr-un cazan, pn cnd ajunge la o presiune nalt. Extinznd-o prin pistoane sau turbine, se efectueaz lucrul meca nic. Aburul cu presiune redus este apoi eliberat n atmosfer sau condensat i pompat napoi n cazan. Ciclul termodinamic ideal utilizat pentru a analiza acest proces se nume te ciclu Rankine. Cele mai multe motoare mobile cu abur i unele motoare mai mici staionare se debaraseaz de aburul de joas presiune n loc de condensarea lui pentru reutilizare. Ideea de a folosi apa fiarta pentru a produce micare mecanic are o istorie foarte ndeprtat, ea merge napoi aproximativ 2.000 de ani. Dispozitivele timpurii nu au fost productori practici de energie, dar mai multe modele avansate de producere a energiei utilizabile care au devenit o surs major a puterii mecanice n ultimii 300 de ani, ncepnd cu utilizarea pentru eliminarea apei din mine folosind motoarele de vid. Evoluiile ulterioare au folosit abur sub presiune i transformate liniar n miscarea de rotatie care a permis dezvoltarea unei game largi de utilaje de productie. Aceste motoare pot fi amplasate oriunde deoarece apa i crbunele sau lemnul combustibil pot fi obinute, n timp ce instalaiile anterioare se limitau la locaii unde roile de ap sau morile de vnt putea fi amplasate. Semnificativ, aceasta sursa de energie a fost mai tarziu aplicata vehiculelor, cum ar fi tractoarelor de aburi i locomotivelor de cale ferat. Motorul cu aburi a fost o component esenial a Revoluiei Industriale, oferind motorul primar pentru metodele moderne de producie n mas . Turbinele cu abur moderne genereaz aproximativ 90% din energie electrica in Statele Unite, folosind o varietate de surse de cldur. n general, utilizarea termenului de motor cu aburi poate desemna fie instalaii integrate cu abur (inclusiv cazanele etc), cum ar fi locomotivele cu abur i a motoarelor portabile, sau se poate referi la maini cu piston sau turbine singure, la fel ca n motorul de faz sau motorul staionar cu abur. Dispozitive specializate, cum ar fi ciocane sunt dependente de abur alimentat de la un cazan separat.

Definitions
Steam engine - (motor cu aburi) an engine in which the energy of hot steam is converted into mechanical power, especially an engine in which the force of expanding steam is used to drive one or more pistons. The source of the steam is typically external to the part of the machine that converts the steam energy into mechanical energy. Piston (piston) a solid cylinder or disk that fits snugly into a larger cylinder and moves under fluid pressure, as in a reciprocating engine, or displaces or compresses fluids, as in pumps and compressors. Turbine (turbin) any of various machines in which the kinetic energy of a moving fluid is converted to mechanical power by the impulse or reaction of the fluid with a series of buckets, paddles, or blades arrayed about the circumference of a wheel or cylinder. Boiler (cazan) an enclosed vessel in which water is heated and circulated, either as hot water or as steam, for heating or power. Vacuum (vacum) a space empty of matter. Windmill - (moar de vnt) a machine that runs on the energy generated by a wheel of adjustable blades or slats rotated by the wind. Beam engine (motor de faz) an early type of steam engine, in which a pivoted beam is vibrated by a vertical steam cylinder at one end, so that it transmits motion to the workload, such as a pump, at the other end

Pile driver (sonet) a machine that drives a pile by raising a weight between guideposts and dropping it on the head of the pile.

Maglev Trains
Maglev (derived from magnetic levitation) is a system of transportation that uses magnetic levitation to suspend, guide and propel vehicles with magnets rather than using mechanical methods, such as wheels, axles and bearings. With maglev a vehicle is levitated a short distance away from a guideway using magnets to create both lift and thrust. High-speed maglev train solutions promise dramatic improvements for human travel if widespread adoption occurs. Maglev Trains work with an electro magnet so they move more smoothly and somewhat more quietly than wheeled mass transit systems. Their non-reliance on friction means that acceleration and deceleration can surpass that of wheeled transports, and they are unaffected by weather. The power needed for levitation is typically not a large percentage of the overall energy consumption; most of the power is used to overcome air resistance, as with any other high-speed form of transport. Although conventional wheeled transportation can go very fast, maglev allows routine use of higher top speeds than conventional rail, and this type holds the speed record for rail transportation. Vacuum tube train systems might hypothetically allow maglev trains to attain speeds in a different order of magnitude, but no such tracks have ever been built. Compared to conventional wheeled trains differences in construction affect the economics. With wheeled trains, at very high speeds, the wear and tear from friction along with the concentrated pounding from wheels on rails accelerate equipment deterioration and prevent mechanically-based train systems from routinely achieving higher speeds. Conversely, maglev tracks have historically been found to be much more expensive to construct, but require less maintenance and have low ongoing costs. Despite decades-long research and development, there are presently only two commercial maglev transport systems in operation, with two others under construction. In April 2004, Shanghai began commercial operations of the high-speed Transrapid system. In March 2005, Japan began operation of the relatively low-speed HSST "Linimo" line in time for the 2005 World Expo. In its first three months, the Linimo line carried over 10 million passengers. South Korea and the People's Republic of China are both building lowspeed maglev lines of their own design, one in Beijing and the other at Seoul'sIncheon Airport. Many maglev projects are controversial, and the technological potential, adoption prospects and economics of maglev systems have often been hotly debated. The Shanghai system has been accused of being a white elephant.

Trenurile Maglev
Maglev (derivat de la levitaie magnetic) este un sistem de transport care utilizeaz levitatia magnetica pentru a suspenda, ghida i a asigura propulsia vehiculelor cu magnei, mai degrab dect folosirea metodelor mecanice, cum ar fi roti, osii i rulmeni. Utilznd sistemul maglev un vehicul este levitat la o distan scurt de un ghidaj, folosind magneii pentru a crea att ridicare ct i traciune. Trenurile de mare vitez Maglev promit soluii dramatice pentru cltoriele umane n cazul n care sunt adoptate pe scar larg. Trenurile Maglev funcioneaz cu un magnet electric, astfel ele se misca mult mai lin i ceva mai linitit dect sistemele de tranzit n mas pe roi. Independena lor de frecare nseamn c accelerare i decelerare poate depasi cea a transporturilor cu roi, nefiind afectate de vreme. Puterea necesar pentru levitatie nu este de obicei un procent mare din consumul total de energie, cea mai mare parte a puterii este folosit pentru a depi rezistena aerului, ca i orice alt form de transport de mare vitez. Dei transportul convenional cu roi poate merge foarte repede, Maglev permite utilizarea vitezei mari ca o rutin ceea ce nu poate oferi transportul feroviar convenional, deasemenea acest tip deine recordul de vitez a transportul feroviar. Tuburile de vid a sistemelor trenurilor ipotetic ar putea s permit trenurilor Maglev s ating viteze ntr-o ordine diferit de magnitudine, dar astfel de piese nu au fost construite vreodata. n comparaie cu trenurile cu roi convenionale diferenele de constructie afecteaz economia. Trenurile cu roi, la viteze foarte mari, din cauza uzurii de frecare, mpreun cu btile concentrate ntre roi i ine accelereaz deteriorarea echipamentelor i previne ca trenurile ce au sisteme bazate pe mecanic s ating viteze mari ca fiind aceasta o rutin. n schimb, piesele Maglev sunt istoric dovedite a fi mult mai costisitoare de a construi, dar necesit mai puin ntreinere i au costuri mici pentru ntreinere. n ciuda decenilor de-a lungul crora s-au efectuat cercetrii i dezvoltrii, exist n prezent doar dou sisteme de transport Mglev n funciune, iar alte dou aflate n construcie. n aprilie 2004, Shanghai a nceput operaiunile comerciale ale sistemului de mare vitez Transrapid. n martie 2005, Japonia a nceput s utilizeze sisteme de vitez redus HSST "Linimo" linie pregtit pentru World Expo 2005. n primele trei luni, linia Linimo a dus peste 10 milioane de pasageri. Coreea de Sud i Republica Popular Chinez construies liniile de transport Maglev cu design propriu, unul la Beijing i altul la Aeroportul Seoul'sIncheon. Multe proiecte Maglev sunt controversate, avnd potenial tehnologic, astfel perspectivele economice a sistemelor Maglev au fost adesea subiectul unor dezbateri aprinse. Sistemul Shanghai a fost acuzat d c este un elefant alb.

Definitions
Bearings (rulmeni) a. A machine or structural part that supports another part.b. A device that supports, guides, and reduces the friction of motion between fixed and moving machine parts. Friction (frecare) a force that resists the relative motion or tendency to such motion of two bodies or substances in contact. Resistance (rezisten) the opposition of a body or substance to current passing through it, resulting in a change of electrical energy into heat or another form of energy. Rail (in) a steel bar used, usually in pairs, as a track for railroad cars or other wheeled vehicles. Levitation (levitaie) to rise or cause to rise into the air and float in apparent defiance of gravity. Wheeled transports (transport cu roi) transport having or equipped with a wheel or wheels. Magnet (magnet) an object that is surrounded by a magnetic field and that has the property, either natural or induced, of attracting iron or steel. Transit system (sistem de transit) a system of buses, trains, etc., running on fixed routes, on which the public may travel.