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CENGAGE Learning





The Outcomes Vocabulary Builder booklet contains key language from the Student's Book and is organised by unit so that learners can easily refer to the words they need while they are studying. The Outcomes Vocabulary Builder contains: A short explanation for each word Common collocations and phrases Practice activities Regular language boxes for extra information on word families, word-building and phrasal verbs Answer key Also available Workbook Developing Vocabulary for the student: - additional language and skills practice, a Writing section, extra activities for the Outcomes Builder and audio CDs for the listening activities.

MyOutcomes - online practice for grammar, vocabulary and all four skills. Use for self study or interact w i t h your teacher and get feedback on your progress. Pin code available at the front of the Student's Book.

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Guide to Pronunciation Symbols

Consonant Sounds pet bed time dog king garden fox, leaf van same zebra, is light mat name hot red young what bath weather fashion television c h e a p , catch jumper spring /pet/ /bed/ /taim/ Vowel /I:/ /i/ see win very every cat farm clock wall book moon cup world letter /si:/ /win/ / ' veri/ / ' evri/ /kaet/ /fa:m/ /kbk/ /WD:I/ /mu:n/ /kA / /W3:ld/ /'lets/


Learning vocabulary in collocations and phrases will develop your fluency. And doing a little revision regularly is t h e best way t o learn vocabulary. That's w h a t the Outcomes Vocabulary Builder (OVB) will help you w i t h . It has been w r i t t e n t o provide you w i t h the important vocabulary in t h e Student's Book and t o show you h o w these words are commonly used. It does not include easier words which you should know from lower levels such as boring, or unusual words, which you probably don't need t o remember at this level.





Ik/ (91 m

/dog/ /kin/
/ ' g a dan/ /fDks/, /li.f/ /vaen/ /seim/ / ' zebra/, / i z / /tat/ /maet/ /neim/ /red/


la 1

What each entry contains

Each entry has a short explanation of t h e word's meaning and often gives information on other forms or opposites.




lu 1
IM 13 I /a/


There is then a list of up t o six typical collocations and phrases that the word is used w i t h . Regular language boxes provide extra information on word families, phrasal verbs etc.


How the OVB is organised

It is organised t o make it quick and easy t o use in class and t o revise at home. Each unit in t h e OVB contains the most important new words from exercises, texts and listenings in t h e unit of the Student's Book. The units are then divided according t o each double page of t h e Student's Book and t h e words w i t h i n those pages are written in alphabetical order. At the end of each unit there are exercises t o do. There is an answer key at the back of t h e book.

/w/ /e/ /a/

HI 111


Hi in

/JATJ/ /WDt/ /ba 8/ /we&a/ / faejan/ / , tell' v g a n /

Diphthong (two vowels together)

teil /sal

/ea/ /o/



/fl:p/, /kaetf/ / ' djAmpa/



wait phone mine house noise near hair pure

/weit/ /faun/ /main/ /haus/ /naiz/ /ma/ /hea/


Ways you can use the OVB

Read t h e word list before you study t h e unit in the book. Translate all the words you don't know based on t h e explanation. Check t h e collocations for each word. Do they make sense? Are any different t o your language? In class, if you have forgotten a word, look it up again. Write out the collocation list and add one of your o w n . Cover words in the list and say or write phrases w i t h the word.Then compare w i t h t h e collocation list. Choose five t o ten words from the list t o learn each day. Put eight new words in a story using t h e collocations listed. Do t h e exercises at the end of each unit s o m e t i m e after you've done it in class. Then check the answers in the key. Write a list of the words you find difficult t o remember and w r i t e sentences using t h e words.

Remember: Sound is not the same as spelling, for example, the word 'is' finishes with the letter's' but the sound is Izl.

I-a. I


When writing the sound of a word (its phonemic transcription), always put lines like these //on either side of the word: /vasn/ (JOH Stress is shown with marks like these ' shows the primary stress in a word. For example, / ' go dan/ <fonden . shows the secondary stress. For example, / . tell' vr$an/ tel&tUAMm

flatmate a flatmate is someone you live in a flat w i t h : she's one of my ~s / I'm looking for a new frustrating something t h a t is frustrating makes you feel angry because you can't do w h a t you want to do. Something t h a t is frustrating makes you feel frustrated: It can be ~ or annoying for the

- now / he really enjoys being - / when are you planning to retire? / he retired last year
strict someone w h o is strict has rules about how people should behave, and expects other people to obey these rules. The opposite is liberal: my

exam: Dutch parents don't worry about their children's ~s /1 usually get good ~s /1 got an A - in maths
grow t o grow means t o get bigger or older.The adjective is growing: Japan is the best country to -

listener /1 had to wait for half an hour- it was so -1/1 sometimes get frustrated if things go wrong / I was starting to get a bit frustrated with him
generous someone w h o is generous is kind, and likes giving things t o people or helping t h e m . The adverb is generously: he's very caring and ~ /

parents are quite - / a ~ teacher / they're very with the children / a - society / he grew up with quite liberal parents
teenager a teenager is someone w h o is between 13 and 19 years old. The adjective is teenage: a ~

old in / children - so quickly! / there are some tomatoes ~ing in the garden / the number of retired people is growing / a growing number of people are moving out of the city
health your health is the condition of your body. If you are healthy, your body is in good condition

thank you - that's very - of you / thank you for your ~ offer of help / a very - present / please give generously to the Appeal for Africa

of sixteen / a youth club for ~s / a group of ~s / dealing with a difficult - / a teenage magazine / teenage problems
P A C E S 10-11 according to according t o a document means that something is written in t h e document. According t o a person means t h a t a person has said something: - a recent UNICEF report, the



gran your gran is your grandmother (the mother of your father or mother): I'm going to see my - at

and you are not ill: The report looked at areas like and education / I'm lucky I still have my - / I'm in good - / he's in poor - / my dad retired early because of ill - / living a long time means nothing if you're not healthy /1 try to keep fit and healthy /
eating healthy food (food that will keep you healthy) income your income is t h e amount of money that you get regularly from your work: The report

the weekend / hi, -I

housewife a housewife is a w o m a n w h o stays at home to look after her family and doesn't go out to work.The plural is housewives: she's a ~ / not

many woman nowadays choose to be housewives

annoying someone w h o is annoying makes you feel angry: no, we do not really get on. He's quite - / lucky if you are lucky, good things happen t o you. The adverb is luckily: some people are so ~l/ I'm ~ I still

Netherlands is the best place in the world to be a child / - Mia, they're going to live in Australia
argue if you argue w i t h someone,you shout at t h e m because you are angry w i t h them.The noun is

looked at areas like health, - of parents and education / an - of $50 a day / what's your annual (your income each year) / a lot of families are on low ~s (they don't get much money) /families on

she's got some - habits / that noise is really caring someone w h o is caring is kind t o people and tries t o help t h e m : he's very - and generous / a

have my health / that was really ~! / this week's winner /1 think we're all - to be alive / luckily, no one was at home when the fire started
neat someone w h o is neat likes to keep things tidy. Something t h a t is neat is tidy.The adverb

very - person
clever someone w h o is clever can learn things easily and understands things quickly: she's studying

argument: do you - with the people you live with? / what are you arguing about? / stop arguing,you two! / these teenage issues can cause arguments / we had a big argument last night / an argument with my parents / an argument about money
behaviour your behaviour is the way you do things. The verb is behave: / was always in trouble for

high ~s / most students don't have an look after t o look after someone means to care for t h e m : now I'm older, my parents want me to -

myself more / who's going to ~ the children? / don't worry-I'll -you!

pressure pressure is a feeling of worry, or a feeling t h a t you must do something: Dutch parents - and

here - she's really - / he's not very - / some very children / she's ~ with her hands (good at making things) / that's a ~ idea
close if people are close, they love each other a lot:

is neatly: she's very ~ and tidy I put the books in a ~ pile on the desk /1 like to keep the house - and tidy /foldyour clothes neatly
neighbouryour neighbours are t h e people w h o live near you: my next-door - (the person w h o lives in t h e house next t o mine) / we've got good ~s (friendly) / very friendly ~s / we don't get on

we get on well - we're quite - / we're very friends / are you - toyour brother?
colleague a colleague is someone you work w i t h : we

bad - at school / criminal - / / can't understand his violent - / this ~ is not acceptable / a reward for good - /you need to change your - / how did the children behave? / he didn't behave very well
comment if you make a comment about something, you say something about it and give your opinion:

teachers - put less - on their children at school / my family put a lot of - on me to go to university / there's a lot of - on children now / I'm under a lot of ~ at work
report a report is a piece of w r i t i n g t h a t gives facts and information about a subject: according to

with our ~s
open someone w h o is open is honest, talks about everything and doesn't keep things secret: Dutch

met at work - she's a ~ /one of my ~s at the bank

cousin your cousin is a child of your uncle or aunt:

can I make a -? / he made some interesting ~s / that's a fair - (I agree with it)
facilities facilities are places or equipment that are available for people to use: there are a lot of-for

I've got a ~ who lives in New York / I'm going to visit one of my -s / / stayed with my - Jack / a ~ on my mother's side (related to my mother, not
my father) creative someone who is creative is good at thinking of new or interesting ideas.The noun is creativity: she's

families are generally very - and they talk about everything / we're quite - with each other / we had an - discussion /1 think he's - to new ideas
(willing t o listen t o them) patient someone w h o is patient stays calm and doesn't get angry when something takes a long time. The opposite is impatient: I'm quite

a recent UNICEF ~, the Netherlands is the best place in the world to be a child / a new - on health in the EU / a government ~ on education / to write a research if you do research,you study a subject in detail t o find new information: the report also did ~

young people / the sports centre has excellent - / hotel guests can use all the hotel's field a field is an area of land in t h e country where there are animals or plants growing: most days

very ~ / a very ~ artist / he's got some very - ideas / I work with children to develop their creativity
dark someone w h o is dark has black or brown hair. You can also describe someone's eyes, hair or skin as dark: we're not very similar - he's quite ~

a - person / he's very - with the children /just be - - it won't take long! /1 was starting to get a bit impatient / don't be so impatient!
pretty a w o m a n or girl w h o is pretty has an attractive face: wow! She's very -I /you look

I go for a walk in the ~s near my house / we walked through the ~s / a - with cows in / a - of potatoes
force t o force someone t o do something means to make t h e m do it when they don't want to: my

into how children felt about their lives / some new ~ into the causes of cancer / people who do medical society a society is all the people w h o live together

but I'm not / she's got - hair / lovely - eyes / my skin's quite ~
fit if you are fit, your body is strong and healthy because you do a lot of exercise. The opposite is unfit: / walk a lot to keep - / I'm not very ~ at the

really - in that dress / a - little girl

religious someone w h o is religious believes in

parents never - me to do things I don't want to do / I don't want to come, and you can't ~ me! /1 ~d myself to get out of bed
fresh food that is fresh is not very old, and is not frozen or in a can: / eat a lot of ~ fish / ~ fruit and

in a country: these teenage issues sometimes cause arguments in stricter societies / we live in a modern - / doctors are important members of our ~
P A C E S 12-13 active someone w h o is active does a lot of exercise and doesn't spend much t i m e sitting down: I'm

a god: are you -? / I'm not - / a deeply - man

(with a very strong belief) retired someone w h o is retired does not work any more, usually because they are old.The verb is

moment /1 want to get - for the summer / he's over 60, but he's still - and healthy /1 need to do more exercise - I'm so unfitl

vegetables / some lovely - mushrooms /1 don't think the meat is very - / put it in the fridge to keep it grade a grade is a number or letter that you get, which shows how well you did in a test or

retire: he's a - nurse / she was a teacher, but she's

very fit and - / my granddad's 80, but he's still very ~ /you should try to keep ~ as you get older



advice if you give someone advice, you tell them what you think they should do: / always go to him for - / let me give you some - / my - is to travel by plane /1 think that's very good - /1 think he gave you bad characteristic a characteristic is one part of someone's appearance or personality: where do we get our -s and habits? / which ~s do you get from your father? childhood your childhood is the time when you are a child: / had a very happy - /1 spent my - in tondon /your - experiences confident someone who is confident is sure of their own abilities and doesn't feel shy or nervous.The noun is confidence: I'm ~, I go out, I'm captain of the football team, but he's really quiet / she seems very - / we're - that we can win /1 haven't got much confidence /you should have more confidence in yourself criminal criminal behaviour is doing things that are not allowed by law. Something that is not allowed by law is a crime: - behaviour / he's got a - record (he has done things that are against the law) / it's a - offence to drive after drinking alcohol (it's against the law) / he's committed some serious crimes / the crime of murder debates a debate is a discussion about a subject that continues for a long time, and in which people express different opinions: it is one of the oldest ~s in science / there's been a lot of - about this subject / we should have a proper - about this determined someone who is determined has strong feelings that they want to do something, and doesn't let anything stop them: people say the Chinese are good students and very ~ / I'm - to win disease a disease is a serious illness: genes play a part in heart - and other illnesses / thousands of people suffer from this - / how long have you had the -I / a rare killer - (that can kill people) gene your genes are the parts in the cells of your body that control what you look like and other characteristics. You get your genes from your parents. The adjective is genetic: ~s play a part in heart disease and other illnesses / scientists have found the - that causes this cancer / we pass on our ~s to our children / the disease is caused by a genetic defect (a problem in someone's genes) keep to keep doing something means to continue it in the same way: she just ~s going (continues trying) till she succeeds 11 walk a lot to -fit (continue being fit) /she always puts things away and -s things organised (makes them organised) / we sat by the fire to - warm / trying to - the children happy / try to - still (not move)/or a minute messy someone who is messy doesn't keep things tidy. A messy place is untidy: all her family are - / a really - room / it's a bit - in here

Many adjectives ending in -y are based on nouns. For example: He's quite messy. It's lucky you're here. I eat a lot of healthy food. I like spicy food. My car's dirty. Clear the mess in the kitchen. Good luck with the exam! He's in good health. Add some spices to the dish. He has dirt on his jeans. PREPOSITIONS A Complete the sentences with the correct preposition. 1 Are you close your sister? 2 My best friend lives the house next door. 3 I have three cousins my father's side. 4 All of my family are good sport. 5 I'm not really patient small children. 6 Teenagers often argue their parents. B Choose the correct preposition 1 Children should treat their parents with /of respect. 2 It's usually a bit messy at / in my bedroom. 3 She doesn't have a lot of confidence to / in herself. 4 I usually go to my father for / on advice. 5 I got my blond hair from / by my mother. 6 I live by / with my best friend from high school.

1 I swim twice a week to fit. 2 She's in her eighties but she still her health. 3 I need to make a call. It won't long. 4 Parents a lot of pressure on children these days. 5 Teachers a part in child development. 6 Please generously to animal charities. B Complete the sentences with the adjectives. Look up the adjectives if you need help. | good open close lucky bad great

put things away to put things away means to put them into their correct place when you have finished using them: she always puts things away and keeps things organised / can you put the scissors away when you've finished with them? / put it away in the cupboard shout if you shout,you say something in a very loud voice, for example because you are angry: we get frustrated quickly and start -ing /you don't have to - / he started -ing at me sight your sight is your ability to see: he's got poor (he can't see very well) 11 was scared that I might lose my - / she lost the - in one eye after the accident / doctors managed to save my succeed if you succeed, you do what you wanted to do. The noun is success: she just keeps going till she -s / we are determined to - /1 -ed in getting a job in London / there are several reasons for the country's success / the party was a great success surprise if something surprises you, you did not expect it to happen.The adjective issurprised: does anything - you about their opinions? / that doesn't - me at all /1 was quite surprised when she told me she was leaving / he looked surprised treat to treat someone in a particular way means to behave towards them in that way: my parents don't - us as 'the twins',you know, as one person / they -ed me as one of the family / her family -ed her very badly /you should - him with respect wise someone who is wise knows and understands a lot of things: My granddad's very - / I think that's a - decision

W O R D FAMILIES A Complete the expressions with the correct form of the word in bold. 1 She's very creative. You can't teach 2 My brother often He makes me fee frustrates me He contributed 3 a generous contribution 4 a neat house Always dress for a job interview. 5 a retired school I will at teacher age 65. 6 a badly behaved That child should change his child

1 I've known her for many years. We're friends. 2 We're to be alive after that car accident. 3 I had an discussion with my teacher. 4 I was always in trouble for behaviour at school. 5 He exercises, so he's in health. 6 My sister's wedding was a success. C Match the two halves of the sentences. 1 She's like one of a) father's side. 2 He's my next-door b) an hour. 3 My cousin on my c) the family. 4 He's good with d) his hands. e) neighbour. 5 We waited for half 6 That is a wise f) decision.

PHRASAL VERBS A Choose the correct word to complete the phrasal verb. 1 Please put the dishes out / away after using them. 2 I passed my cold over/onto my family. 3 My mother works and my father looks into/after the children. 4 I'm moving out /by of my old house into a new one. 5 It's difficult to get out / up of bed in the winter! 6 She gets by / on well with her classmates.

WORD-BUILDING A Complete the sentences with adjectives formed from the nouns. dirt 1 2 3 4 5 health spice luck

Do you like food? Americans think the number 13 is My sister is tidy but I'm My car needs a wash. It's very She's because she smokes.

PATTERNS Put the verb in brackets in the correct form (to + infinitive or -ing). 1 I'm really tired but I need to keep (go) 2 My brother was angry and started at me. (shout) 3 My sister tried me with my homework. (help) 4 My father told us to stop (argue) 5 I'm going my cousin next week, (visit) 6 You can't drive after alcohol, (drink)

COLLOCATIONS A Complete the sentences with the correct verb. Look up the verbs if you need help. play keep take has put



PACES 1 4 - 1 5 bright bright colours or lights are strong and easy to see. A place that is bright is full of light or colours: what lovely flowers! They're so - and colourful / she was wearing a - red jumper / switch the lights off- they're too - / a lovely - room / a - sunny day (with a lot of sunshine) complicated something that is complicated is difficult to understand because it has a lot of different parts: it's - to use and the instructions don't make things any easier / the situation is quite - / / can't explain - it's very design the design of something is what it looks like and the way it is made: we often say a thing looks cool if it has a modern -I1 love the - of the house / the car has got a completely new fit if a piece of clothing fits you, it is the right size for your body: / didn't find anything that fitted me in the shop I1 love these shoes, but they don't -me/ those jeans-you perfectly / try it on to see if it ~s last if something lasts for a particular length of time, it continues to exist for that time: their shoes are good quality - they really - / the film ~s over three hours / their relationship didn't very long light something that is light doesn't weigh very much, and isn't heavy: It's very - and it's got all the latest software / it's quite - and easy to carry / your bag is very neat you can say that something is neat if it is nice or good: / got a really - laptop / hey, that's -I / that's a - idea! quality the quality of something is how good it is and how well it is made: I'm really pleased with it. It's really good - / their shoes are good - / they sell top - fruit and vegetables (the best quality) / some of their clothes are quite poor - (not good)

reliable if something is reliable, you can trust it and know that it will be good every time. If someone is reliable,you can trust them and depend on them: The opposite is unreliable: their service is much more - / goto Globe PC. They're very - / it's an old car, so it's not very - / she's a very babysitter / Tony's a lovely man, but he's so unreliable! second-hand something that is second-hand belonged to someone else before you bought it: where can you buy - things? / have you ever bought anything -1/1 bought a -car / they sell - clothes selection a selection is a group of things that you can choose from: / usually go to Davy's for food. They've got a really wide - / they've got a good of different cheeses / there's a huge - of wines to choose from shut when something is shut, it is not open. Shut is also a verb: the only day they're - is Christmas Day! / I'm afraid we're - on Mondays / hurry up - they shut at five! smart smart clothes are clean and nice. You can also say that a person is smart if they are wearing clean, nice clothes: / bought a - pair of trousers and a couple of shirts for work /you should wear something - /1 wear quite - clothes to work /you look very - today suit if something suits you, it makes you look nice: yellow doesn't really - me /1 like your new hairstyle - it -syou I that dress really -syou / short skirts don't - me

were really - /1 felt cold and - /your boots look really comfortable / a comfortable chair value if something is good value, it is worth the amount of money you paid for it. The value of something is the amount of money it is worth: / think their clothes are really good - I their shoes are excellent - / their food is quite cheap, and great - for money / the - of the house has gone up warm if you are warm.you are slightly hot, in a pleasant way. Warm weather is quite hot: / bought this nice thick coat to keep me - in the cold weather / we were lovely and - by the fire /1 had a nice bath / the weather was quite - / a lovely - day wide a wide selection of things is a lot of different things to choose from: / usually go to Davy's for food. They've got a really - selection / the department store has a wider selection of clothes / there's quite a - choice of dishes PACES 1 6 - 1 7 brand a brand is a product that has its own name and is made by one particular company: which shops or ~s do you prefer? / there are lots of different ~s of trainers /1 refuse to buy expensive -s /you pay a lot more for designer -s button a button is a small round thing on a piece of clothing, that you put through a hole to fasten the clothing: when I got it home, I found the - was loose /a smart shirt with small white ~s / one of the -s has come off /1 can't do the - up (fasten it) / can you help me undo the ~s (unfasten them)? damaged something that is damaged is broken in some way. The verb is damage: when I took it out of the box it was already - /1 took it back to the shop because it was - / some buildings were badly - in the storm / be careful -you'll damage it! / smoking can damage your health discount if something is sold at a discount, the price is lower than usual: all the items in the shop had a 50% - / they're offering huge ~s /1 got a 20% because it was slightly damaged fault a fault is something that is wrong with a product: it's not a manufacturing - / there's a - in one of the speakers / it's got a design - (a problem with the way it is made) / the car has got some serious ~s fold if you fold something,you bend it and press one part over another to make it smallenyou can - it easily and put it away /-your clothes neatly / the paper in half / - up the sheets / a bike which -s up loose something that is loose is not firmly fixed in place. Loose clothes are big, and don't fit your body tightly. The opposite is tight: I found the button was - / the string has come ~ /1 put on a shirt and a pair of jeans / these jeans are too tight

plain something that is plain is simple, without any extra parts or decorations. Someone who is plain is not very pretty: it's a bit -. Doyou have anything a bit prettier? /1 put on a - white shirt / the furniture was all very - / a piece of - paper (with no lines on it) /she's a lovely girl, but she's a bit practical something that is practical is useful and easy to use: it's a bit heavy and it'll be difficult to carry up and down stairs. Have you got something more - ? /you can fold it and put it away, so it's very - / it's a cheap and - car for families receipt a receipt is a small piece of paper that shows where and when you bought something: have you got a - and the box? /you should always keep the - / can I have a -, please? / have you got a - for the shoes? silly someone or something that is silly is a bit stupid: don't be -. You look lovely! /1 felt a bit - / do I look - in this hat? /1 think that's a - idea /1 made some - mistakes stock a shop's stock is all the products that it has available for people to buy: / just want to find out if they have something in - (in the shop and available for people to buy) / we haven't got that computer game in -yet / I'm afraid that size is out of ~, but we can order it for you wrap to wrap something means to put paper around it. The adjective is wrapped: what was the last present you bought? Did you - it? /1 wrapped it in gold paper / would you like it wrapped? /the presents were all beautifully wrapped PACES 1 8 - 1 9 accuse if you accuse someone of doing something bad, you say that you think they did it: Primark was ~d of exploitation in the report / he ~d me of lying /she was wrongly -d of stealing from the shop arrest if the police arrest someone, they take them away as a prisoner because they think the person has done something wrong: man -ed after stealing 10 kilos of bananas / she was -edfor dangerous driving / the police arrived and -ed two men competitor your competitors are the people or companies that are competing against you: the company pays its staff the same as most of its ~s / they are cheaper than all their main ~s employ if a company employs people, it gives them a job. A company that employs people is an employer: some of their suppliers were -ing children / he was -ed as a cleaner / she was -ed to look after the children / Ford is a big employer in this city (it gives jobs to a lot of people) exploitation exploitation is treating people in an unfair way, for example by making them work too hard or not paying them enough money.The verb is

Many words in English have more than one meaning. For example: That shirt really suits you. (It makes you look nice) / usually wear a suit to work, (jacket and trousers) The light's not very bright (strong and easy to see) Her son's very bright (intelligent) I saw her last week, (most recent) The clothes they make don't last long. They're very poor quality, (continue for a time) Words appear more than once in the VB when there is a different meaning. They will have different collocations! thick something that is thick is wide. Thick clothes are made of wide, heavy cloth and will keep you warm: it's pure wool and it's nice and - /a nice coat for the winter /1 cut a - slice of bread / a stone wall uncomfortable something that is uncomfortable does not feel nice on your body. The opposite is comfortable: they're nice shoes, but they're a bit - to walk in! /1 hate wearing - clothes / the beds



exploit: Primark was accused of - in the report / they are calling for an end to the - of factory workers / children are exploited in many parts of the world fined if you are fined,you have to pay an amount of money because you have done something wrong. The verb is fine. Fine is also a noun: woman - after calling ambulance to help her home with shopping /1 was - 50 for speeding /1 had to pay a 100 fine I1 got a parking fine gather if people gather, they come together in one place: hundreds of people -ed outside Primark in Oxford Street / a large crowd -ed outside the shop / can everyone - round and listen? guide a guide is someone whose job is to show a place to tourists: they started a mini riot because the tour ~s were trying to take them to too many shops / he offered to come with us and act as our /a - showed us round the castle huge something that is huge is extremely big. The adverb is hugely: they're offering - discounts / it's a - building / the bedrooms are all - / a - dog / Primark has become a hugely successful company injured if you are injured,you are hurt, for example in an accident.The verb is injure: luckily, no one was - / shop pays $20,000 to woman - in changing rooms / two people were seriously - in the accident / no one was badly - /1 injured my back last year inspection if you do an inspection of a place, you visit it to check that people are following all the rules. The verb is inspect: better -s were introduced at all the factories / they carry out regular ~s / there are safety -s every month / all our factories are inspected regularly introduce if you introduce something, you start doing it: better inspections were -d last year / the government wants to - a new drugs law / they are planning to - a new computer system next month locked if something is locked, it is closed and fastened with a key. The verb is lock: the coaches were - / all the doors were - / we keep all the windows - / / can't open it - it's - / don't forget to lock the door when you go out minor something that is minor is not very bad or not very important: two people were taken to hospital for - injuries / I've had a - operation on my knee / we had a few - problems mixture a mixture of different things is a lot of different things all together: there's an interesting - of styles / a strange - of old and modern paintings / a - of Chinese and Portuguese buildings

occupy if people occupy a place, they go there and take control of it: Macau was previously occupied by Portugal / the city was occupied by government soldiers / students have occupied several university buildings as part of a protest operate to operate something means to control and manage it: the company ~s 170 stores in the UK / he ~s a small business from his home persuade if you persuade someone to do something, you talk to them and make them believe that it is a good idea: the guides were only interested in persuading them to buy things /1 tried to - him to come with us /1 finally -d her to let me in protest if there is a protest, people show that they are angry or upset about something. Protest is also a verb: police stop tourists' - about 'too many shops'/ the announcement led to -s by university students I they are planning to organise a mass - (involving a large number of people) / there have been anti-government ~s in the capital city / a - about climate change / -s against more tax increases / hundreds of people protested in the streets riot if there is a riot, a lot of people behave in a violent way. Riot is also a verb: there was a - at the opening of the Primark store in London / -s cause damage to city centre shops / rising prices sparked ~s in the streets (caused them) / soldiers were brought in to quell the riot (stop it) / people rioted for three days and nights rumour a rumour is a piece of news or information that people tell each other, which may not be true: -s of sale cause shop chaos / someone has been spreading false -s /1 don't believe the ~s / there's a - on the internet that the men are already dead / I've heard a few ~s about her recently supply if you supply something, you give it or sell it to someone when they need it. A person who supplies things to shops is a supplier: most of Pnmark's clothes are supplied by factories in Bangladesh and Indonesia / the farm supplies fresh vegetables to shops in the area / they supplied us with pens and paper / Primark stopped using the suppliers employing children temple in some religions, a temple is a building where people go to pray: the tourists wanted to see some of the old -s / a Hindu - / an ancient (a very old one) / can we visit the ~? /people go to the - to pray I women aren't allowed in the -

PREPOSITIONS A Complete the sentences with the correct preposition. 1 That cafe has a great selection coffees. 2 The sports shop is shut Sundays. 3 I want to buy a new pair jeans. 4 Where can I buy some shoes work? 5 How much did you pay your phone? 6 You look great that shirt. 7 I'd like 2 kilos potatoes, please. 8 The post office closes 5 pm. B Choose the correct preposition. 1 I bought my computer by / at a discount. 2 There's something wrong to / with my new stereo. 3 Did you get a receipt/or / about your boots? 4 They said they would order it for / to me. 5 Let me help you with /for your shopping. 6 I run a small business on /from my home.

I wanted some sandals but they're out of

6 i had to pay a 120 parking. B Complete the missing adjectives. 1 Somebody has been spreading f e rumours. 2 Paris is the c __ __ I city of France. 3 Unhappy workers are planning a m _ _ s protest. 4 I don't think that's a very g _ _d idea. 5 Some people suffered m r injuries in the accident. 6 We hired a t r guide to show us the city. 7 They sell good q _ _ __y shoes in that clothing store. C Match the two halves of the collocations. Look up the nouns (a-g) if you need help. 1 buy a second hand a) change 2 cut a slice of b) size 3 a pair of c) bread 4 a factory d) centre 5 climate e) car 6 the city f) worker 7 find the right g) jeans

W O R D FAMILIES A Complete the expressions with the correct form of the word in bold. 1 1 employ five people. should pay for training. 2 1 have a back injury. I've my back. 3 The police inspected a safety the house. 4 The house is locked. Did you the door? 5 a local vegetable Who your supplier vegetables? 6 My boss exploits me. 1 accused him of 7 a huge supermarket 8 book a flight The business is successful make a PHRASAL VERBS A Choose the correct word to complete the phrasal verb. 1 Please lock the door when you go out / by. 2 We don't let customers over / in after 5 pm. 3 Switch out / off the lights before you go to bed. 4 1 tried on / out some jeans but they were too big. 5 Hurry on / up\ The shops close in ten minutes. 6 The price of milk has gone up / away again. 7 1 took the shoes away / back because they didn't fit me. 8 One of the buttons has come into / off my shirt.

PATTERNS A Put the verb in brackets in the correct form [to + infinitive or -ing). 1 I hate tight jeans, (wear) 2 is bad for your health, (smoke) 3 I find it difficult when she speaks. (understand) 4 She was accused of from the shop. (steal) 5 Try it on if it fits you. (see) 6 prices are making life difficult, (rise) 7 It's not comfortable in these shoes. (walk)

COLLOCATIONS A Complete the sentences with the nouns. Look up the nouns if you need help. 1 There is a wide of jeans in that store. stock selection money fine receipt Day

2 The shops are closed on Christmas 3 The food in that restaurant is good value for 4 When I buy something, I always keep the



PAGES 2 0 - 2 1 book if you book something,you arrange to have it or use it at a particular time in the future. The noun is booking: maybe we should phone and - a table / the restaurant gets busy, so you need to ~ in advance /you can ~ tickets online / I've ~ed my flight to New York / we haven't ~ed our holiday yet / can I make a booking for next Saturday? busy if a place is busy, there are a lot of people in it: the restaurant gets really -, so it's a good idea to book / the shops are usually very - on Saturdays / a - airport choice if there is a choice, you can choose between different things: the food is OK, but there isn't much choice / there's a - of three desserts / there's a good ~ of hotels on the island / it's not my first of restaurant (not the first one I would choose) delicious food that is delicious tastes very nice: the food was -I/a - meal / thank you - that was ~l disgusting something that is disgusting is horrible and makes you feel sick: the food was -! / what's that - smell? / that fish smells -I / it looks -.' / that's absolutely ~! dish a dish is food that is cooked in a particular way: there's a good selection of ~es / my favourite - is roast lamb / they serve some wonderful vegetarian ~es / I've never cooked this - before gallery a gallery is a room or building where you can look at paintings or other works of art: we could visit one of the galleries / a modern art ~ / the National Gallery in London incredible something that is incredible is very good or very big. The adverb is incredibly:j/ou get an view of the city / it was an - journey / some of the paintings were ~ / visiting India was an - experience / the food was incredibly cheap / it was incredibly hot option an option is something that you can choose: they don't have any vegetarian ~s / there are

several different ~s / we have two -s - to walk, or go by bus / this one looks like the best outside if you are outside,you are not in a building: you can sit - on the terrace / there are some tables - / shall we go-? / I'll wait painting a painting is a picture that someone has made with paint: we went to look at the ~s in the gallery / a - by Rembrandt / a collection of famous -s portion a portion is an amount of food for one persomyou get really big -s / a half portion for the kids /1 ordered a small - of ice cream /1 asked for a double - of chips properly if you do something properly, you do it well or in the correct way: the food wasn't cooked - / my phone isn't working - / if I'm going to get married, I want to do it recipe a recipe is a set of instructions for making a particular dish: have you tried any of his -s?/ a - for tomato soup / I've got a delicious - for chocolate pudding / I'm going to try a new - /1 never follow ~s seafood seafood is fish and other animals from the sea that you can eat: do you like-? / they're a kind of - /1 love - / a - restaurant seat a seat is a chair, or a place to sit:you sometimes have to wait to get a - / there's a - over there / come in and take a - (sit down) / / was sitting in the back - of the car (a seat behind the driver) spicy spicy food has a strong flavour because it Is cooked with special seeds or powders called spices: do you like - food?/ it's too - for me / lamb with fried rice / it's nicer ifyou add a few spices staff the staff are the people who work in a place: the - are really friendly / the company has more than 200 - /1 talked to a member of - (one of the staff) steak a steak is a large piece of beef or other meat that you fry or grill: my - wasn't cooked enough / how would you like your ~? (how long do you want us to cook it for) / / like my - rare (not cooked very much) / the - was delicious / there's a good steak restaurant in town /1 ordered a tuna terrace a terrace is an area outside a building, where you can sit:you can sit outside on the - / there's a lovely sunny - behind the restaurant vegetarian vegetarian food does not have any meat in it. Someone who does not eat meat is a vegetarian: they don't have any - options / a delicious - dish / a - curry / are you a vegetarian? view the view from a place is everything that you can see from there:you get an incredible - of the city / we've got a lovely - of the sea from our window / we sat down to admire the PAGES 2 2 - 2 3 adventurous if you are adventurous, you try new or exciting things: We aren't usually - enough to

experiment with food /you should be more -I / I'm quite an - cook / people who are - would love this holiday boiled food that is boiled is cooked in water. The verb is boil: o egg / some plain - potatoes / boil the carrots for about ten minutes cereal cereal is a food made from a grain such as wheat, that people eat for breakfast with milk: they just grab a quick cup of coffee and some - 11 had a bowl of- and some orange juice /a packet ofconsist of if something consists of different things, it is made from those things: the breakfast consists of bacon, black pudding and sausages / each team consists of five players

Many words commonly go with prepositions. consist of water, sugar and fruit experiment with different ingredients be interested in art have an allergy to nuts Notice any prepositions when you learn words and expressions. There are exercises at the end of each unit in the VB that test you on prepositions. cool down if something cools down, it becomes colder and less hot: it's too hot - it needs to - / I'll leave it to - for a few minutes / I'm going for a swim to experiment if you experiment, you try new or different things. An experiment is something new or different that you try: we aren't usually adventurous enough to - with food /1 gradually began to - with different dishes /1 decided to buy some squid as an experiment fattening food that is fattening contains a lot of fat and sugar, and might make you fat: chocolate is too ~ to eat all the time / it's delicious, but it's really /1 try to avoid - foods such as cheese and cream flat something that is flat is smooth and level, with no high parts: - bread / it's better if you play on a - surface / the countryside is very fried food that is fried is cooked in hot oil or butter. The verb is fry: a - egg / chicken with - rice /you can have your fish - or grilled / mushrooms - in butter/fry it lightly in olive oil grilled food that is grilled is cooked under a strong heat. The verb is grill: - fish / some delicious ~ salmon /you can have it fried or - /1 usually grill sausages lightly if you cook or flavour something lightly, you do it not very strongly, or not for very long: it's spiced and often served with fried plantain / some - cooked vegetables / a- boiled egg

rock a rock is a large heavy stone: they say the dish is 'a rock in the stomach' / we climbed over the ~s to get down to the sea / a huge lump of ~ secret a secret is something that not very many people know about because people do not talk about it. Secret is also an adjective: many Bulgarians believe that the - behind their long life is their yoghurt /1 can't tell you any more it's a - / shall I tell you a ~? / can you keep a -? (not tell anyone) /1 finally discovered his - / this information is top - (a very important secret) serve when you serve food, you give it to someone. When food is served in a restaurant, it is brought to you: steak ~d with chips and peas / salad is -d as a side dish / - the soup with fresh bread space space is the area up in the sky, where the moon and stars are. A space station is a small building in space: the first Korean astronaut took special kimchi with him to his - stationl / who was the first person to travel in -? / a journey into outer - (the area very far away from the Earth) stall a stall is a small shop in a street-.you'llfind street -s selling foul medames /1 never buy food from market ~s / a book -la cake - / a - selling fresh flowers stomach your stomach is the part of your body where food goes when you eat it: they say the dish is a rock in the - I don't eat this on an empty - / my - was rumbling (making a noise because I was hungry) / I've got an upset - (a slight illness in my stomach) well-done meat that is well-done is cooked until it is not red any more. Meat that is still slightly red is medium-rare, and meat that is still very red is rare: / wanted my steak -, but they cooked it mediumrare / a - steak / I'd like my steak medium-rare, please PAGES 2 4 - 2 5 allergic if you are allergic to something, it makes you feel ill if you eat it or touch it. The noun is allergy: I'm - to tomatoes I are you - to anything? I've got a nut allergy / a lot of people suffer from allergies bitter something that is bitter has a strong taste that is the opposite of sweet: fiiey taste quite - / it had a horrible - taste cloth a cloth is a small piece of material that you use for cleaning things: could you get us a ~, please? / wipe the table with a damp - (one that is slightly wet) contain to contain something means to have it inside: does the dish - meat? / this product may nuts / the wallet didn't - any money/films that violence dessert a dessert is a sweet food that you eat at the end of a meal: would you like to see the - menu? / what would you like for -? /1 had chocolate mousse for - / the -s were delicious!



drop if you drop something that you are holding, you let it fall to the ground: he's dropped some water on the floor / be careful you don't - that / / dropped the letter into the rubbish bin full if you are full,you have eaten enough food and do not want to eat any more: I'm really - / no thanks, I'm herb a herb is a plant with strong-tasting leaves that you can use in cooking to make food taste nice: lamb cooked with -s / add some mixed -s / / love cooking with fresh -s included if something is included in a price, it is part of the price. The verb is include: service is ~d / the accommodation is - in the price / the price includes the flight, hotel and all meals jug a jug is a container for holding and pouring water: can we have a ~ of tap water, please! / there's some water in the - / shall I fill the - with water? lamb lamb is the meat from a young sheep: roast leg of ~ / ~ curry /1 love -I / a delicious - stew mild something that is mild is not very bad or serious: a - illness I1 had the flu, but it was quite /1 thinkyou've had a - case of food poisoning order when you order in a restaurant, you tell the waiter what you would like to eat: are you ready to -? /1 can't decide what to - 11 ~ed fish for my starter plate a plate is a flat dish that you put food on: can we have a small -for our son? I a - of cheese fa full of food / a dinner - / he ate everything on his raw food that is raw is not cooY.e&.you can eat them - or cooked / a dish made with - fish 11 can't eat this meat-it's still -I ready if you are ready to do something, you are prepared and able to do it: are you - to order? / at sixteen, I was - to leave home / it takes me hours to get - when I'm going out! reasonable something that is reasonable is not too expensive: the meal was very -, wasn't it? / the prices are quite - / it's difficult to get a good meal for a ~ price here / / think 15 is roasted food that is roasted is cooked in an oven. The verb is roast: - leg of lamb /a spicy pork dish with vegetables /you can grill them or roast them salty food that is salty has a strong taste of salt: the meat was too ~ / it's nice, but it's quite ~ / don't eat too many - snacks

sauce a sauce is a liquid that is served with food to give it a nice taste: grilled fish with lemon ~ / grilled pork with sweet and sour - / would you like some more -? / a delicious creamy - / pour the over the rice service the service in a restaurant is the way in which the staff help you and serve your food. Sometimes you have to pay an extra amount of money for the service: - is included in the bill / the - was excellent / the food was disgusting and the - was terrible! / I'm going to complain about the ~ shell a shell is the hard part on the outside of some small sea animals:you cook them in their -s / we collected some -sfrom the beach skin the skin on a fruit or vegetable is the part on the outside: leave the - on /1 usually peel the - off 7a banana soft something that is soft is not hard: the fruit should be - and sweet / cook the potatoes until they are - / a lovely - bed sparkling a drink that is sparkling has bubbles of air in it: do you want still water or ~? / a bottle of mineral water / - wine stew a stew is a dish of meat, fish or vegetables cooked slowly in liquid: country - / beef ~ / lamb ~ / a lovely vegetable stone the stone in a fruit is the hard part in the middle: it's a big green fruit with a - in the middle / cut the fruit in half and remove the -s stuffed food that is stuffed is filled with another type of food in the middle. The verb is stuff. The food in the middle is the stuffing: aubergines ~ with rice I a dish of - peppers /you can bake tomatoes whole, or stuff them with cheese / roast chicken with a fresh herb stuffing tap a tap is an object that controls the flow of water. Tap water is water from a tap, not from a bottle: just tap water please / turn the cold - on (the tap that controls the flow of cold water) / turn the hot off if the water's getting too hot tip a tip is an extra amount of money that you give when you have a meal in a restaurant or pay someone: shall we leave a ~? / we left a generous (a large amount of money) /1 don't usually give -s to taxi drivers <

PREPOSITIONS A Complete the sentences with the correct preposition. 1 I ordered a medium portion chips. 2 Do you have a recipe chocolate cake? 3 Lobster is a kind seafood. 4 Curry is too spicy me. 5 Put it in the oven about 20 minutes. 6 My breakfast consists cereal and coffee. 7 The fish is served chips or rice. 8 The service charge is included the bill. 9 Can I have a glass tap water, please? B Choose the correct preposition. 1 The menu has a good choice in /of vegetarian food. 2 Are there any Korean restaurants at /in town? 3 This table has a lovely view of I by the sea. 4 Fried food contains a lot in / of'fat. 5 I love all kinds about / of seafood. 6 I love baked potato stuffed with / in cream cheese.

3 4 5 6 7

My computer isn't properly. Please a seat. Can you a secret? I a 20% tip. One table about the service.

B Complete the missing adjectives. 1 We went to a m n art gallery. 2 I'll have a g n salad, please. 3 I like my steak m m-rare. 4 Clean the table with a d _ _ p cloth. 5 Let's add some m d herbs to the stew. 6 I love pork with sweet and s r sauce. C Match the two halves of the collocations. Look up the nouns (a-h) if you need help. 1 a taxi a) water 2 tap b) stall 3 food c) driver 4 a street d) secret 5 top e) view 6 olive f) poisoning 7 admire the g) staff 8 a member of h) oil

PHRASAL VERBS W O R D FAMILIES A Complete the expressions with the correct form of the word in bold. 1 an incredible view She is an hard-working student. 2 boiled potatoes He can't even an egg. 3 fresh-roasted coffee Let's some lamb for dinner. 4 Fry the onions in butter. I don't like food. 5 a grilled fish You can fry it or it. 6 a penicillin allergy She is to penicillin. A Choose the correct word to complete the phrasal verb. 1 We sat down / on and had a cup of coffee together. 2 Turn the oven off7 out when you finish cooking. 3 Follow that path to get over /down to the beach. 4 Please come on / in. I'll be with you in a moment. 5 Look at / over that delicious chocolate cake! 6 I'm really hot. I need to cool up / down.

PATTERNS A Put the verb in brackets in the correct form (to + infinitive or-ing). 1 Rome was a fantastic experience. (visit) 2 What do you want ? (do) 3 I found a stall kebabs, (sell) 4 I love Indian food, (cook) 5 We couldn't find a place (sit) 6 The soup is very hot. It needs down. (cool)

COLLOCATIONS A Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs. Look up the verbs if you need help. take work get keep complain leave book in advance for that married?

1 You have to restaurant. 2 When are you going to



PACES 2 6 - 2 7 accounts accounts are records of how much money you receive and spend: I'm doing the - / we do the annual -for the business in September / try to keep accurate - / the - show that the business has made a profit this year / the - are all in order (the numbers are correct) airline an airline is a company that organises flights and carries passengers by air: / work for an - / a large international - / the - industry appointment an appointment is an arrangement to meet someone at a particular time: make an - to see the dentist /1 have an - with a client at three o'clock awful something that is awful is very bad: The money's -I She only gets 6 an hour/the weather was - / what's that - smell? block a block is a big building that is divided into different homes or offices: They're building a - of flats opposite my house /anew apartment -/1 work in a large office conference a conference is a large meeting where people come together to talk about their work: I'm helping to organise a - / a three-day - / a - on climate change /I'm going to a - next week/over 50 people attended the construction construction is the work of building something: do you know any - work that's happening where you live? / a group of - workers / the - of the new school is due to start next month / the airport is still under - (being built) develop to develop something means to think of new ideas or make a new product over a period of time. The noun is development: I'm working on -ing social policy / scientists have -ed a new drug to treat cancer / we're -ing some new products at the moment / the development of new policies

firm a firm is a business or company: / work for a big law - / he runs his own building -/ she set up a successful computer install to install something means to put it in place and make it work. The noun is installation: we're planning to - a new computer system / we need to - some heating / they've -ed security cameras in the car park / the installation of a new security system motorway a motorway is a big fast road: they're doing repairs to the - I there are plans to build a new - / we were driving along the - / a busy - / you can join the - at Birmingham / we were only on the - for a few miles / leave the - at Junction 10 negotiate to negotiate means to talk about something in order to reach an agreement with someone. The noun is negotiation: we need to a price / management are refusing to - with the trade unions / the government is not willing to - with terrorists / they are refusing to enter into negotiations with the workers paperwork paperwork is work such as writing letters or reports: we have to do too much - /1 hate -I / does the job involve a lot of-? policy a policy is a set of ideas that shows how a government or organisation deals with something: developing social - / what's the school's - on homework? / the government's foreign - (its ideas for dealing with other countries) product a product is something that is made and sold: I'm working on a new - / all their ~s are good quality I you need to market the - properly if you want people to buy it / they sell a range of computer software -s project a project is a piece of work that you plan and do over a long period of time: I'm working on a for my class / a six-month building - / a scientific research - / it's a big - / we set up the - two years ago / who's going to manage the -? property property is buildings or land: we're studying - law / he decided to invest in - / they want to buy their own - /you have no right to be on my rent if you rent a house or flat, you pay money to the owner so that you can live in it: I'm -ing aflat in Glasgow I we - the house from some friends of the family research if you do research, you study a subject very carefully to learn something new. Research is also a verb: we need to do more - into the disease / some important medical - / an exciting piece of - / a - project / scientists are researching new types of fuels right a right is something that you are allowed to have or do: they're fighting for their -s / they want equal -sfor women / campaigning for basic human -s I the police don't have the - to come into your house / everyone has the - to a fair trial

run if you run something,you are in control of it: / - my own business / we - a small restaurant in London / who's going to - the company while you're away? shift a shift is one of the periods of time when people who work in factories, hospitals etc work: / work night ~s / I'm on the early - tomorrow /1 hate working the late - / I've just finished an eight-hour social social things are related to the way in which people live together in society: developing policy / homelessness is a huge - problem / it's important to understand the - conditions that lead to crime sort out if you sort something out, you deal with it or make a decision about it so that it is no longer a problem: we need to sort out this problem / don't worry - I'll sort it out / can we sort out which jobs everyone is doing? studioa studio is a room where a photographer or painter works: / run my own - / an artist's -/ a photographic - / the photo was taken in the survive if you survive, you manage to live: it's difficult to - on that money /you can't -for long in these freezing temperatures / no one ~d the crash system a system is a group of different parts that work together: install a computer - / we need to improve the security - / the heating - has broken down / a sophisticated phone - (a very complicated one) trainingtraining is teaching or learning skills to do a job: do a - course /you get three weeks of before you start work / everyone has to do the basic - / the company provides - for new workers I a teacher - college unemployed if you are unemployed you do not have a job: I'm - at the moment / the factory closed, leaving hundreds of people - /1 lost my job two years ago, and I'm still weight your weight is how heavy you are: I'm trying to lose - / I've put on a lot of - recently / I'm still trying to get down to my target PACES 2 8 - 2 9 attend if you attend an event, you go to it: / have to a training course / are you planning to - the party? / over 200 people -ed the conference attitude your attitude is how you think and feel about something: it's important to have a positive - towards your exams / she has a really negative - / the experience has changed my - towards religion / the government has had a change of belong if you belong to a group, you are part of the group. If you belong in a place,you feel happy and comfortable there: I-to a human rights organisation /1 -to a tennis club /1 felt I didn't - in the city circumstances your circumstances are the conditions in which you live, and how much

money you have: they live in very difficult - / my - worsened when I lost my job / they now live in comfortable competitive if a situation is competitive, a lot of people are trying to be successful at the same time: TV is a - area for jobs / advertising is a very - industry / the housing market is quite - at the moment

One way to improve your English is to learn the different forms of a new word. My sister's very competitive She always wants to win. (adjective) / entered a writing competition (noun) He competed in the Olympics, (verb) There were 10,000 competitors in the race and I came 7964'". (noun - person) The VB often gives information on other forms. Remember to notice and learn collocations of each form in the word family. consultanta consultant is someone whose job is to give people advice about something: she works as a marketing - in the fashion industry / a business - / a design - / I'm happy to act as a - foryou contracta contract is an official agreement between people: my job - ends next month / have you signed the -yet? I most of the workers don't have written -s / we're drawing up a new - / they said I was breaking my - (not doing what was in the contract) depressing if something is depressing, it makes you feel sad or upset. You can also say that you feel depressed: it was - trying to get a job / a - film / very - news /1 felt very lonely and depressed end if something ends, it stops: my contract ~s in three months / how does the film -? / one in three marriages -s in divorce launch if you launch a new product, you start to sell it for the first time. Launch is also a noun: they're going to - a new car soon / - a new website / a launch party for the new book / the official launch of the car is next week nation a nation is a country. The adjective is national: women play an important part in building the - / one of the world's poorest -s / a leading industrial - / a national competition (involving all parts of a country) / the national government part-time if you work part-time,you work for part of each week. Part-time is also an adjective: I'm working - as a waitress /1 got a - job in a supermarket I looking for - work pension a pension is money that a government or company pays to someone regularly when they



do not work anymore because they are old: we're hoping the government will pay us a - / everyone gets the state - (from the government) / /'// receive a small - when I retire / he gets quite a generous from the bank /you can start to draw your - when you're 65 (receive it) salary a salary is an amount of money that you receive each month for a job: the government pay us a - / they pay us a fixed - / he gets a good - / a - of 60,000 a year / people on low salaries / they're asking for an increase in their basic strike if there is a strike, people refuse to work because they are unhappy about their work in some way. Strike is also a verb: we're thinking of stopping work and going on - / a - over pay and working conditions / a - for better pay / 200 workers have come out on - / more people have now joined the - / they are striking for a shorter working week voluntary if a job is voluntary, you do not receive any money for it: / applied for Voluntary Service Overseas /1 do quite a lot of - work PACES 3 0 - 3 1 advertisement an advertisement is a picture or short film that gives information about something such as a job or product. The short form is advert. The verb is advertise: / saw a job - in the newspaper / have you seen the -for their new phone? /a TV advert / helping to advertise a new film apply if you apply for a job, you write to ask if you can have the job. The noun is application: / applied for jobs in film and television / I've applied to work in the London office/fill in the application form / we've had over 200 applications for the job camp when you camp,you sleep in a tent.The noun is camping: a pink jersey which is big enough to - in / we can - down by the river /1 don't enjoy camping / a camping holiday concentrate if you concentrate, you make an effort to think carefully about what you are doing. The noun is concentration: it's hard to - with all that noise / be quiet - 1 can't -! / I'm trying to - on reading this report I it's a job that requires a lot of concentration / ifyou get tired,you might lose concentration contribute if you contribute something, you give it. The noun is contribution: more people can - their ideas / they -d $30,000 to the hospital building fund / make a big contribution to the project crash if a car or plane crashes, it has an accident. If a computer crashes, it stops working suddenly. Crash is also a noun: / nearly -ed when I was driving home / he -ed into a tree / the plane -ed just as it was coming in to land / my computer keeps -ing / there's been a serious crash on the motorway / a plane crash

efficient if something is efficient, it works well, without any problems, and without wasting energy. The adverb is efficiently: it's not a very - system / it was all very - / the new machines are more - (they use less energy) / the system works very efficiently enemy an enemy is someone who you hate and want to harm: sfie's still - number one /1 don't really have any enemies / they are bitter enemies (they hate each other a lot) figure a figure is a number that shows an amount of something: she was presenting some -sfor her marketing proposal / this month's sales ~s look very good / the latest crimes -s show that there has been an increase in crime impress if you impress someone, you give them a good idea about you. If someone is impressed, they get a good idea about someone or something.The noun is impression: / saw a chance to - him /1 really want to - the judges /1 was really impressed with her singing /1 want to make a good impression link a link is a connection between different things. On the internet, a link is a part of a website that connects to a different website: there's a - to the site from the BBC website I check out this - / go to the website and click on the - / is there a between poverty and crime? management management is the job of controlling a company or group of people.The management of an organisation are the people who control it.The verb is manage: the company has good - /1 work in - / he's got good - skills / the company is now under new - (with new people in control) / it's not easy to manage a big company / the business is well managed pick up if you pick something up, you lift it up: /'// - your papers for you /1 bent down to pick the money up present if you present something, you show it and explain it to other people.The noun is presentation: she was -ing some figures for her marketing proposal /1 -ed my ideas to the management committee / I've got to do a presentation tomorrow / I'm giving a presentation to the sales team proposal a proposal is a plan that someone has suggested: she was presenting somefigures for her marketing - / the government has put forward a new - (suggested it) / we need to discuss these -s very carefully skill a skill is something that you can do well: his communication ~s are improving / I've got good computer ~s/it's important to keep learning new ~s stressed if you are stressed,you feel that you are under a lot of pressure.The noun is stress: he looked very /1 feel really - / moving house causes a lot of stress / I'm suffering from too much stress at the moment

PREPOSITIONS A Complete the sentences with the correct preposition. 1 We do our annual accounts September. 2 I have a meeting a client this afternoon. 3 We're working a new product. 4 They're campaigning equal rights. 5 I'm unemployed the moment. 6 You've lost a lot weight. B Choose the correct preposition 1 She manages a large group with /of people. 2 There's been an accident on /by the motorway. 3 We've received a lot of applications/or/to the job. 4 He does a lot in /o/travelling in his job. 5 I'm going to ask/or/o/a salary increase. 6 The company provides training with /for new workers.

official bitter

basic voluntary

new good

1 The restaurant is under management. 2 It's important to make a impression in a job interview. 3 The two managers are enemies. 4 I do some work in my free time. 5 Many sales jobs have small salaries. 6 The launch of the product is next week. C Complete the collocations with nouns from the unit. 1 She suffers from s s. 2 I'm giving a p _ _ _ _ n. 3 a fixed s y 4 the fashion i _ _ _ _y 5 a teacher training c __ __e D Match the two halves of the sentences. 1 He works for a law a) 2 A conference on climate b) 3 Her work involves scientific c) 4 I live in a block d) 5 The company accounts are all e) 6 Everyone has the right to a fair f)

W O R D FAMILIES A Complete the expressions with the correct form of the word in bold. 1 The installation was a success. 2 an industrial nation 3 I can't concentrate. 4 She works in management. 5 I presented my ideas. 6 develop a new product We a new computer system. Support your team. I lost my She ten people. I did a Share costs.

of flats. trial. firm. research. change. in order.

PHRASAL VERBS A Choose the correct word to complete the phrasal verb. 1 She set up / on her own marketing company. 2 The technician sorted out / away my computer problem. 3 My car has broken in /down. 4 I eat a lot but I don't put on / up weight. 5 I'm going to draw on / up a shopping list. 6 Please fill over / in this application form. 7 Did you check in / out that link I sent you?

COLLOCATIONS A Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs. Look up the verbs if you need help.

PATTERNS fight run make work enter involve Put the verb in brackets in the correct form (to + infinitive or ing). 1 I hate at weekends, (work) 2 We've arranged you at the airport, (meet) 3 I'm concentrating on formyexams. (study) 4 The two companies are trying a deal. (negotiate) 5 I need to you about something, (talk) 6 Everybody in the office has some basic training, (do)

1 The company has a profit this year. 2 The two governments have into negotiations. 3 I don't like jobs that a lot of paperwork. 4 Around the world, groups of people are for their rights. 5 She her own business. 6 I'm the night shift this week. B Complete the sentences with the adjectives. Look up the adjectives if you need help.



PAGES 3 6 - 3 7 bat a bat is a piece of wood that you use to hit a ball in games such as baseball.Bat is also a verb: a baseball ~ / a cricket - / who's going to bat first? cards cards are a set of 52 pieces of thick paper with shapes and pictures on, which you use for playing games: he cheats when we play - / let's have a game of - / a pack ofclear something that is clear is easy to see through: the water's really - / a - glass bottle club a club is a stick that you use to hit a ball in a game of golf: a set of golf -s /I'vejust bought some new ~s conservative if you are conservative, you don't like accepting changes or new ideas: I'm quite - / he's old-fashioned and deeply - / very - attitudes court a court is an area of hard ground where you play sports such as tennis: a tennis - / a basketball - / she plays much better on grass -s / they've been on - for over two hours now (playing) / I've met her a few times off the - (not playing) cycling cycling is riding a bicycle. The verb is cycle: do you want to go - at the weekend? /1 love - / a holiday / he was wearing his - gear /1 often cycle to work fishing fishing is trying to catch fish in a river or the sea: do you want to go - on Sunday? /1 don't like - / a - rod forecast a forecast is a description of what you think will happen in the future: what's the weather -for tomorrow? / the - is really good for Sunday /the latest -for the economy lend if you lend something to someone, you allow them to have it for a short time, and then they give it back to you. The past tense and past participle is lent: / can -you some clothes I can you - me some money? / I've lent my bike to my cousin

loser a loser is someone who does not win a game or competition.The verb is lose: are you a bad ~? (someone who gets angry if they lose a game) / there are no prizes for the -s /you're such a -I (someone who never wins or does well) / we're determined not to lose this game net in tennis, the net is the thing that you hit the ball over. In football, the net is the part at the back of the goal, where you kick the ball to score a goal: a tennis - / hit the ball over the - / my first serve went into the - / the goalkeeper dived, but the ball went into the back of the pitch a pitch is an area of land where you play a game such as football: a football - / a rugby - / there has been violence on and off the - in this game pool a pool is an area of water where people can swim: a swimming - / the hotel doesn't have a - / we spent the afternoon in the - /1 dived into the racket a racket is a the thing that you use to hit the ball in games such as tennis: a tennis - / a squash - /1 stuck my - out, but missed the ball shorts shorts are short trousers, which end above your knees: running - / he was wearing - and a T-shirt /a pair oftrack a track is a place with marks on the ground, where people can run races: go running at the running - / a race - / - events (races that take place on running tracks) trainers trainers are soft shoes that you wear for sport: a new pair of - /you need to wear PAGES 3 8 - 3 9 aim if you aim to do something, you try to do it. Aim is also a noun: they - to pass or kick the ball over the net / the campaign ~s to inform people about healthy living / what are the main aims of the project? attract if something attracts people, it makes them come to a place to see it: the sport doesn't - big crowds / the museum -s thousands of visitors every year / the show -s large audiences average if something happens on average, it usually happens in this way. An average is a.^umberyou get when you add several numbers together and then divide the result by how many numbers you have added: people are married on - for 11 years / the - of 4,11 and 6 is 7 banned if something is banned, it is not allowed to happen. The verb is ban. Ban is also a noun: the sport was - for a while because of violence / smoking is - in the school /1 was - from driving for two years / there are plans to ban advertising of alcohol / there is a ban on fishing in the river beat if you beat someone in a game, you win. If you beat a record, you do better than it. The past tense is beat and the past participle is beaten: my brother always -s me when we play cards / Liverpool - Chelsea 3-011 think the Democrats will

- the Republicans in the next election / he's -en the world record

Some words like win and beat have a similar meaning and may be translated with one word in your language.The difference is sometimes to do with grammar. For example,you can't 'win someone', you 'beat them'. Sometimes the difference is to do with collocation. That's why it's important to look at and learn the examples in the VB. bet if you bet, you try to win money by saying who you think will win a game or race. Bet is also a noun: people - a lot of money on the outcome of the races / a lot of people - on the results of football matches /1 - 50 that Arsenal would win / I put a 20 bet on the race bounce if you bounce, you jump up and down on a soft surface. If a ball bounces, it comes back when it hits a surface: players - up and down and try to get the ball over the net / bouncing on a trampoline / the ball ~d off the wall into the road catch if you catch something that is moving through the air,you stop it and take it in your hands. The past tense and past participle is caught: don't throw it to me- I'm terrible at -ing / - the ball! /1 threw the ball to her and she caught it cheat if you cheat, you behave in a dishonest way in order to do well in a game or an exam: I'm sure he ~s when he plays cards / he -s at most games / have you ever-ed in an exam? draw if you draw in a game, you finish with the same number of points as someone else. The past tense is drew and the past participle is drawn. Draw is also a noun: we drew 1-1 / Liverpool drew with Arsenal on Saturday / it was a nil-nil draw handle a handle is a part of something that you hold when you use it: the 'duck'is now a ball with ~s / I've broken the - on my cup / turn the door home when a team plays a game at home, it plays on its own pitch, rather than travelling to the other team's pitch.The opposite is away they're playing at - this week /1 go to all their - games / the team won / we've got an away match next week invent if you invent something new, you make or design it. Something new that you invent is an invention: the sport was -ed in the IT " century / who -ed the television? / the telephone was a very important invention kick if you kick something, you hit it with your foot. Kick is also a noun: - the ball over the net / stop -ing my chair! / he got -ed by a horse /1 gave the door a kick and it opened lap a lap is once around the track in a race: they can race each other for the remaining two ~s / they've still got three ~s to go / he took the lead in the last 1

opponent your opponent in a game is the person or team you are playing against: they try to score in their -'s net / they beat their -s 3-0 / she's facing a tough - in the final outcome the outcome of a game or race is the final result: they bet money on the - of the races / what was the - of the match? / a draw was a good -for us /1 don't know if that goal will affect the - of the game pace the pace of something is how fast it moves or changes: a cyclist sets the - at about 50 km/h / the others were running, and I couldn't keep up with the - /1 was walking at a brisk - (walking quite quickly) / / was looking for a slower - of life prevent if you prevent something,you stop it from happening: they tried to - each other from carrying a duck to a farmhouse / we do everything we can to - accidents score if you score, you get a point in a game.The score is the number of points that each player or team has: I ~d 185 / try to - in your opponent's net / he's -d over 30 goals this season / he ~d in the last minute / what was the score? season ticket a season ticket is a ticket that allows you to do something several times during a period of a year or several months: I've got a - to watch my team / travelling by train is much cheaper if you buy a shortage if there is a shortage of something, there is not enough of it: there's a - of places to stay / there's an acute - of water (a very serious shortage) / there are food -s in many areas spectator a spectator is someone who watches a sports event: there were over 25,000 ~s at the match I it's one of Japan's biggest - sports (a sport that people like watching) support if you support a sports team or player, you watch them and want them to win. Support is also a noun. Someone who supports a person or team is a supporter: what team do you ~? /1 Arsenal / there's growing support for the game / thousands of supporters came to watch him play time if you time something,you measure how long it takes: I don't usually - myself when I'm running /1 think we should - the journey violence violence is behaviour in which people fight or hit each other. The adjective is violent: the sport was banned because of the - / there were several outbreaks of - after the game (events in which people used violence) / victims of - la violent attack on a student / a very violent film (showing a lot of violence) win if you win a game or competition, you are the best or most successful.The past tense and past participle is won. Someone who wins is the winner: they might - 5-4 / who won the match last night? / they try to - money / they can millions of dollars /1 won a medal / who's going to



- the World Cup?/ who do you think will - the next election?/ the winner will get $25,000 PACES 4 0 - 4 1 awake if you are awake,you are not asleep: if you nap during the day,you can stay - in the evenings / are you -? /1 was still wide - at three in the morning /1 was only half - /1 was struggling to keep aware if you are aware of something, you know about it. The noun is awareness: we're - of the problem / they didn't seem to be - of the danger / are you - that the museum closes at five? / the campaign aims to raise awareness of the benefits of napping benefit a benefit is an advantage that you get from something: he wants to inform people about the -s of napping / there are definite health -s / I had the - of a happy family background campaign a campaign is a series of actions that you do in order to give people information about something or change their opinion of something: they've launched a - called National Nap at Work Week / a government anti-smoking - / they are running a - to tell people about the dangers of being overweight / a major advertising conscious if you are conscious, you are awake and can see what is happening around you.The noun is consciousness: / was - during the operation /1 was fully - when I arrived at the hospital /1 lost consciousness (was no longer conscious) energy if you have energy, you feel strong and able to do things without getting tired: a short nap can increase your - levels / children have got so much ~! / he's full of - 11 haven't got the - to do any more fall asleep if you fall asleep, you start sleeping: I'm always falling asleep in front of the TV /1 fell asleep on the sofa homeless someone who is homeless has nowhere to live. The noun is homelessness: a lot of people become - after losing their jobs / she ran away from home, and ended up - in London / a hostel for - people / homelessness is a big problem in the city ill if you are ill, you don't feel well or you are suffering from a disease. The noun is illness: / can't come out-I'm too - /1 feel really - / she's still seriously in hospital / he was taken - last night (he suddenly became III)/a lot of people suffer from mental illness/flu is a serious illness

inform if you inform someone of something, you tell them about it: they aim to - people of the benefits of napping / they didn't - me about their plans / I regret to-you that your application has not been successful level the level of something is the amount that there is: a short nap can increase your energy ~s / the city has high ~s of pollution / there is only a low of radiation mood your mood is the way you feel, for example how happy you are: a short nap can improve your - / I'm in a really good - today/getting that letter has put me in a bad nightmare a nightmare is an unpleasant or frightening dream: doyou ever have ~s? /1 suffer from ~s /1 often have -s about dying / watching horror films gives me -s productive if you are productive, you work hard and achieve a lot: people are less - if they're tired / that was a very - meeting related if one thing is related to another, it is connected to it in some way: sleep problems are the biggest health problems in many countries / some illnesses are directly - to stress / the police believe the two crimes are - in some way stay if you stay awake, asleep, calm etc, you remain in that state: ifyou nap during the day,you can awake in the evenings / please try and - calm /1 need to - focused on my exams /1 hope we can friends suffer if you suffer, you feel the bad effects of something: a lot of people - from not having enough sleep / people who - from heart problems / they -from mental illness / a lot of companies are -ing financially at the moment survey if you survey people, you ask them questions in order to learn their opinions. Survey is also a noun: 33% of adults -ed said they would like to sleep at work / they -ed over 20,000 students / we conducted a survey of people's attitudes to their health / a national survey weak if something is weak, it is not very strong. The noun is weakness: / can't use my'phone - the signal is too - /1 felt too - to get out of bed /1 didn't want to show my weakness /1 have a real weakness for chocolate (I like it a lot)

PREPOSITIONS A Complete the sentences with the correct preposition. 1 Would you like to play a game tennis? 2 The weather forecast says rain tomorrow. 3 The World Cup attracts thousands spectators. 4 He bets money horse racing. 5 I need a new set golf clubs. 6 I'm terrible sports. 7 The game ended a draw. 8 I can't say what will happen the future. B Choose the correct preposition 1 I have nightmares about/for losing my job. 2 My illness is related with / to stress. 3 She's always in / with a bad mood. 4 There's a lot oyer/o/violence in that movie. 5 There's a lot of support about/for the national team. 6 They scored in /on the last minute of the game. 7 Smoking is banned in /about this restaurant.

4 The university is campaign. 5 I'm afraid of 6 The weather game. 7 Writing exams

an anti-smoking my job. the outcome of the me nightmares.

B Complete the sentences with the adjectives. Look up the adjectives if you need help. away weak wide main final bad

1 You're such a loser! 2 What are the aims of the project? 3 My team is playing an game this Saturday. 4 What was the result of the football game? 5 My phone has a signal in this part of town. 6 I was still awake at 3 am this morning. C Complete the collocations with nouns from the unit. 1 at the m t 2 run a c__ n 3 your family b__ __d 4 an outbreak of v__ __e 5 a water s _ _ __e 6 a spectator s t

W O R D FAMILIES A Complete the expressions with the correct form of the word in bold. 1 a nil-nil draw The game was 2 Are you aware of the problem' 3 a new invention an campaign Alexander Bell the telephone. a film with a lot of a a serious a signal child

PHRASAL VERBS A Choose the correct word to complete the phrasal verb. 1 I have too much work. I can't keep on / up. 2 I played well but I ended up / on losing the game. 3 I'm sorry, but I can't come on I out. I'm too busy. 4 At weekends I get away / out of bed at about 10 am. 5 I was happy before you put me on / in a bad mood.

4 a violent film 5 Homelessness is a big problem. 6 I'm feeling ill. 7 a muscle weakness


COLLOCATIONS A Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in the list. Look up the verbs if you need help. | lose conduct lose run affect give launch

1 We're a health survey. 2 I consciousness in the car accident. 3 My friend's daughter away from home.

A Put the verb in brackets in the correct form (to + infinitive or -ing). 1 In baseball,you use a bat the ball, (hit) 2 The campaign aims people about the benefits of exercise, (tell) 3 I like tennis on TV. (watch) 4 I started golf when I was a teenager. (play) 5 She works overtime in order more money, (make) 6 There are plans alcohol advertising. (ban)



PACES 4 2 - 4 3 agriculture agriculture is the work of growing crops and keeping animals to produce food: a rural area with a lot of farms and ~ I modern intensive - I traditional - / over 80% of the population work in bank the banks of a river are the areas of land along the sides of it: we walked along the river ~ I their house is on the south ~ of the river I the ~s of the River Ouse boat a boat is a vehicle that travels across water: we took a - along the coast and went fishing /you can get to the island by - / a small rowing - I a motor - / the ~ sank in a storm border the border between two countries is the line that separates them: it's by the Mexican - I the between the USA and Canada I we crossed the into Spain I they managed to escape across the into Switzerland bridge a bridge is something that is built over a river, road or railway so that people can cross it: a - over the river I a road - I the road goes under a railway - I cross the - and then turn right climate the climate is the typical weather in an area: a place on the coast with a warm - / the- s lovely I the - is quite cold and wet I a tropical - I the island has a mild - (quite warm) / the dangers of change coast the coast is the land next to the sea: a place on the - with a warm climate I they live on the south - of England I we decided to go to the - for the day I we spent a week at the - / we drove along thecoincidence a coincidence is a situation in which two things happen that are separate but seem to be similar or connected: have you ever experienced a strange ~? I it was pure - that we went to the same university I it was an amazing -

countryside countryside is land that is not in a city or town: the hotel is surrounded by nice - / some beautiful open - I it's important to protect the - I this could destroy an area of lovely desert a desert is an area where there is very little rain: the Sahara - /you can't survive for long in the - / to the south is an arid - (very dry) / a landscape doubt if you doubt something, you think that it may not be true: / - if you'll know it /1 - that he's telling the truth I1 suppose he might come, but I - it dry a place that is dry has very little rain: the south of Spain is very - l a - climate I a very - summer I plants that will grow in - conditions exciting if something is exciting, it makes you feel happy and interested. You can also say that you feel excited: a very - city I living away from home can be very - / an - adventure story I I'm really excited about the holiday factory a factory is a building where things are made: an industrial city with a big steel - / he works at a small shoe - / a modern clothing - / when did the - open? I a lot of factories are closing down now farm a farm is a business that produces food by growing crops or keeping animals. Someone who has a farm is a farmer: a rural area with a lot of ~s and agriculture / a pig - / a large dairy - (with cows for milk) / my parents lived on a - / a fruit farmer financial things that are financial are related to money. The adverb is financially: we're having - problems la- advisor I his first book was a success I the project was a - disaster I he's been very successful financially forest a forest is a large area of land that is covered with trees: walking through the - I a tropical - I they are clearing the - to make way for roads and houses geography geography is the study of different countries and areas in the world: who knows the most about -? I my - isn't very good (I don't know much about it) / / studied - at univer, ty green an area that is green is covered with grass and other plants: the area is very - I there are lots ofspaces in the city I -fields industrial an area that is industrial has a lot of factories. An industry is all the businesses that produce one type of thing: an - area in the west of Germany Ian - city I the north of the country is very -1 a town by the sea with a fishing industry I the car - is facing a lot of problems I the country's steel lovely something that is lovely is very nice or pleasant: the food was - I it's a - place I the climate's - l a - house I she's a - girl Middle East the Middle East is the area that includes countries such as Iran, Egypt, Syria, Jordan and Israel: it's in the ~, near Saudi Arabia I have you ever been to the-? I the problems in the -

murder a murder is a crime in which someone is killed. Murder is also a verb: a horrible - I the person who committed this terrible - I he's been charged with - l a - victim I he murdered his wife ocean an ocean is a very large area of sea: the Indian - I the Pacific - I they crossed the Atlantic - in a small boat plant a plant is a factory where things are made: an industrial city with a big car -la steel -la nuclear power COMPOUND NOUNS

Two nouns used tog ether can make a new noun - for example, a car plant (a factory for making cars). The first noun describes the second noun. do housework set you r alarm clock go to the cycle track work for a TV company make TV adverts have satellite TV

pollution pollution is chemicals and other things that cause damage to the air, water or land: there's a lot of - in the city I the problem of air -Ian effort to reduce -1 new laws to limit -1 the government should do more to tackle - (deal with it) port a port is a place near the sea where boats arrive and leave from: it's a big - in the north east I a small fishing - I - Isabel rural a rural area is in the country, not in a city: a area with a lot of farms and agriculture I a small community I the advantages of - life spreads if something spreads, it moves or grows and affects a larger area: the city -s along the coast I fire can - very quickly I the disease can - easily from person to person steel steel is a strong metal that is used for making cars and other things: an industrial city with a big -factory la - bridge I it's made of square a square is an open square area with buildings around it in a town or city: there are some lovely ~s in the old part of the city I we had lunch in the tiny something that is tiny is very small: it's a village I their house is - I a - garden I the boats in the distance looked wall a wall is a structure that is built of stone or brick to separate different areas of land. The walls of a room or building are the sides: there's a - around the old city centre I the ancient city ~s I a garden I some pictures on the kitchen wall PACES 4 4 - 4 5 bank balance your bank balance is the amount of money you have in your bank account: I've got a healthy -for once 11 need to check my - I my isn't very good at the moment

basin a basin is a bowl that is attached to a wall, in which you can wash your hands: / have my own room with a -to wash in 11 filled the - with water I can I use your-? bill a bill is a list that shows how much you have to pay for something: the electricity - I the gas - I do you have to pay extra for the ~s? I they sent me a for 3001 can I have the ~, please? (in a restaurant) budget a budget is an amount of money that is available for you to spend:you need to learn to manage a - I our weekly food - is 801 we're on a very tight - (with very little money) I you need to set your - and then stick to it (not spend more) company if you have someone's company, they are with you: / enjoy her - I you have to learn how to enjoy your own - I I'll stay and keep you - (be with you) fill if you fill something,you make it fulhyou may want to -your time with a social life I can you the jug with water? I he kept -ing my glass freedom if you have freedom, you can do what you want, and no one stops you or controls you.The adjective is free: the best thing about living on my own is the - I people fighting for their - I children have a lot of - now I I'm free to do what I want I a free country hard something that is hard is difficult: spending time on your own can be - I the hardest thing is learning to live on my own I it was a really - exam housework housework is work that you do to keep a house clean: she doesn't do any - at all 11 think you should help with the - I we share the noisy if a place is noisy, there is a lot of noise: living in a block with other students can be very - I the bar was quite - I the problem of - neighbours pint a pint is a unit for measuring liquids. A pint is 0.47 litres: a - of milk la - of beer I two ~s of lager takeaway a takeaway is a meal that you buy in a restaurant to eat at home. Takeaway is also an adjective: shall we get a ~? I a Chinese - I we lived on frozen meals and - pizzas tiring if something is tiring, it makes you feel that you want to rest or sleep. If you feel tired, you feel that you want to rest or sleep: / have to speak English all the time, which is - I it's quite - work I I'm very tired 11 feel really tired 11 was starting to get tired tool a tool is something that you hold in your hand and use to do a job: it's useful ifyou know how to use basic -s 11 need a new set of -s I there's a hammer in my -box whatever whatever means anything or everything: / can do - I want I take - you need PACES 4 6 - 4 7 alarm clock an alarm clock is a clock that makes a noise to wake you up: could you lend me an - for



the morning? /1 set my -for half past six / the went off at seven o'clock allowed if something is allowed, you have permission to do it: no overnight guests are - in the house / he's not - to smoke in his room / children aren't in the bar borrow if you borrow something from someone, you use something that belongs to them and give it back later: can I -your watch?/ doyou mind if I your phone for a minute? 11 -ed some money from a friend corner a corner is a place where two lines or walls meet:you can leave your bags in the - there / he was sitting in the - of the room / there's a cafe on the - of the High Street credit if you have credit on your mobile phone,you have paid for some calls in advance, so you can use your phone: / don't have much - on my phone/ I've got no - 11 need to put some - on my phone (make a payment) / / need to top up my - (make a payment) feel free you say this to give someone permission to do something: go ahead, -I /please - to ask questions go ahead you say this to give someone permission to do something: -, feelfree! / Please - and help yourself to food guest a guest is someone who is staying at your house for a short time. Someone who is staying in a hotel is also a guest: no overnight ~s are allowed in the house I we've got -s staying with us this weekend I you can stay here as my - I how many ~s have you invited? / the restaurant is only for hotel -s hang if you hang something in a place, you put it there so that it is fixed at the top but loose at the bottom.The past tense and past participle are hung:you can - your coat on the back of the door / -your clothes in the wardrobe / we hung some pictures on the walls host the host is someone who has organised a party or other event and invited people to their house: bring flowers or chocolates for the - / he was a charming -

leave if you leave something in a place, you put it there and let it stay there. The past tense and past participle are left:you can -your bags in the corner there / I've left my books upstairs /1 left my keys on the kitchen table by mistake lend if you lend something to someone,you allow them to have it or use it for a short time. The past tense and past participle is lent: could you - me an alarm clock for the morning? / can you - me 20? / I've lent my phone to a friend midnight midnight is twelve o'clock at night: he has to be home by - / it closes at - / we left at just after overnight if something happens overnight, it happens during the night: no - guests are allowed in the house /you can stay - ifyou like / we flew to New York rather if you would rather someone didn't do something,you do not want them to do it: I'd you didn't stay any longer / I'd -you didn't borrow my CDs without asking set a set of things is a group of them that belong together: ask for a spare - of keys /a - of six chairs / a chess show if you show someone a place,you take them there so that they can see it: let me -you around the house / I'll -you toyour room / we'll-you how to get toyour school / a guide -ed us around the castle spare something that is spare is extra, and you can use it if you need to: ask for a - set of keys / it's a good idea to take a - pair of shoes / the - tyre in the back of the car take off if you take off a piece of cloth ing, you remove it from your body: doyou want me to - off my shoes? / come in and - your coat off washing-up the washing-up is all the plates, cups etc that are dirty after a meal. When you do the washing-up,you clean them. The verb is wash up: there was a big pile of - / do the - after dinner / we all helped with the - / I'll helpyo't wash up

PREPOSITIONS A Complete the sentences with the correct preposition. 1 I want to live in a place a warm climate. 2 There are a lot factories in my town. 3 She's from the east coast America. 4 I need an alarm clock tomorrow morning. 5 My company employs thousands people. 6 I lent my car a friend. 7 There are some lovely cafes the centre of town. 8 I don't have much money my bank account. B Choose the correct preposition. 1 Can you help me with /for my homework? 2 I'm flying in / to London for a conference. 3 My cousin is staying with / at us this weekend. 4 I think my keys are with / on your desk. 5 I have no credit in / on my mobile phone. 6 We live in the old part of I by town.

5 This is a area. There are no cities. 6 I don't want to live near a power plant B Complete the collocations with nouns from the unit. 1 a river b _ _ k 2 a strange c _ _ _e 3 the Sahara D t 4 a tropical f t 5 a Chineset__ __y C Match the two halves of the sentences. 1 Doyou have a spare set a) budget. 2 Please buy a pint b) of keys? 3 I'm on a very tight c) change. 4 Can I have the d) of milk. 5 He lives on e) his own. 6 Pollution is causing climate f) bill, please? 7 I work in a steel g) plant.

PHRASAL VERBS W O R D FAMILIES A Complete the expressions with the correct form of the word in bold. 1 a pig farmer We live on a dairy 2 an industrial area 3 I'm feeling tired. 4 a pile of washing-up 5 a financial advisor A town with a big fishing Studying is work. He never I struggle A Choose the correct word to complete the phrasal verb. 1 Can I help you take up /off your coat? 2 I need to top in / up my phone credit. 3 My alarm goes out / off at 6 am. 4 I don't always stick in / to my budget. 5 My favourite restaurant is closing away / down. 6 I lived by / on junk food when I was a student. 7 What time do you wake on I up in the morning?

PATTERNS A Put the verb in brackets in the correct form (to + infinitive or -ing). 1 We've decided to Spain for our holiday, (go) 2 Doyou have enough money the bill? (pay) 3 Wood is used for furniture, (make) 4 I like time on my own. (spend) 5 Farming is the work of food. (produce) 6 I find it hard English all the time. (speak)

COLLOCATIONS A Complete the sentences with the adjectives. Look up the adjectives if you need help. rural pure social spare 1 2 3 4 nuclear charming

Check your tyre before your trip. Thank you for being such a host. I'm too busy to have a life. Meeting you again was coincidence.



PACES 4 8 - 4 9 ache if a part of your body aches, you feel a pain there that continues for a long time. Ache is also a noun: My whole body -s / my head ~s / my back's aching / it ~s a bit, but it's not too bad / my legs were aching from all the cycling / I've got a stomach ache / I've got a really bad headache advance if you do something in advance,you do it before a time or an event:you should book well in - /1 ordered the tickets in ~ apologise if you apologise to someone, you say that you are sorry for something you have done. The noun is apology: you ought to ~ to her / he -dfor breaking my mug / I'm sorry I ~i /1 think I owe you an apology appetite your appetite is the feeling that you want food: I've lost my - (I don't feel hungry) / he's got a big ~ / a child with a healthy - / I've always had a small ~ /1 went for a run to work up an - / have you got your ~ back yet? asthma asthma is an illness that makes it difficult for you to breathe. The adjective is asthmatic: / suffer from - /1 get quite bad - /1 have mild - / the doctors can treat - quite successfully now /1 had a really bad - attack /1 don't do much sport because I'm asthmatic breath a breath is an amount of air that you take into your body: / get out of - very easily (I find it difficult to breath after exercise) / take a deep - so I can listen toyour chest / it took me a few minutes to get my - back (start breathing normally again after stopping exercise) /1 can't hold my -for very long (stop breathing) / doyou ever get short of-? (find it difficult to breathe) cough if you cough, you push air out of your throat suddenly, with a loud noise. Cough is also a noun: / - a lot at night /1 was trying not to - /1 -ed to get

his attention / I've got a horrible cough / that's a nasty cough you've got depressed if you are depressed,you feel very unhappy. The noun is depression: I feel quite - /1 felt lonely and - /1 was starting to get - /1 became severely - after losing my job / doctors can help cure mild depression /1 suffer from bouts of depression flu flu is a common illness that is similar to a bad cold, but more serious: / think I'm getting the - / he's got a mild bout of the - / I've been in bed with - /1 don't want to go down with the - (become ill with it) hay fever hay fever is a medical condition that makes you cough and sneeze when you are near plants: doyou suffer from ~? /1 get really bad - / tablets that can help relieve the symptoms of muscle the muscles are the strong parts of your body that you use for moving: my ~s ache / the ~s in my leg felt tight (stiff and slightly painful) /you need to do exercises to strengthen the -s / I've pulled a in my leg (hurt it) a nosebleed if you have a nosebleed, blood comes out of your nose: / had a - / oh, no! I've got a - /1 had a really bad rash a rash is a lot of small red spots on your skin: /// eat chocolate, I get a horrible - all over my body /1 get an allergic - if I eat tomatoes /1 broke out in a - (a rash appeared on my body) / the - spread to my face and neck sick if you are sick, food comes up from your stomach and out through your mouth: / was - three times last night / stop the car -1 feel -I/I think I'm going to be - / if I eat any more, it'll make me - /1 was violently - when I got home sneeze if you sneeze, air suddenly comes out of your nose and mouth. Sneeze is also a noun: my eyes water and I - all the time / the dust was making me - 11 -d loudly 11 was trying to stifle a sneeze (stop it) y sore if part of your body is sore, it is painful: I've got a - throat / my feet are - Imy arm's getting better, but it's still a bit - I my stomach's still really spread if you spread something,you cause it to affect a larger area or more people. You can also say that something spreads: stay at home if you've got a cold, so you don't - it / rats - disease / we tried to stop the fire from -ing / the infection can - quite quickly swallow when you swallow, you make food or drink go down your throat: it hurts when I - /1 can only eat foods that are easy to - / the tablets were too big to sweat when you sweat, liquid comes out of your skin: I feel hot and cold and I'm -ing a lot I the heat was making me - /1 was -ing profusely (a lot) tablet a tablet is a small round piece of medicine that you swallow: take four of these ~s every day

/ the doctor gave me some -s /1 sometimes take sleeping ~s (tablets that make you sleep) / the drug is also available in - form temperature if you have a temperature, your body is hot because you are ill: I've got a - /1 think I've got a slight - /1 had a really high - / the nurse took my - (measured it) / this should bring your - down upset stomach if you have an upset stomach,you have an illness in your stomach that makes you feel sick: I've got an - / I've got a bit of an - / eating too much spicy food gives me an water if your eyes water, liquid comes out of them: my eyes - and I sneeze all the time / the onions were making my eyes - / my eyes keep -ing PACES 5 0 - 5 1 accept if you accept something,you take it when someone offers it to you. Something that is acceptable, is good enough for you to accept: they don't - credit cards /1 -ed his invitation / will you - the job if they offer it to you? /1 -ed his offer gratefully / the conditions in the hospital aren't acceptable I this behaviour is simply not afford if you can afford something,you have enough money to pay for it. Something that is affordable is not very expensive, so people can afford it: / can't to go to the theatre /1 can't - to buy a new car / the flights are more affordable ifyou book in advance anxiety anxiety is the feeling of being very worried about something. The adjective is anxious: the doctor managed to cure her - about eating / money problems cause a lot of - /1 get quite anxious about exams / I've been feeling quite anxious about it all

Words ending in -ous are Bdjectives. They are often connected to nouns but the connection is not always the same. have an anxious wait a religious school leave a generous tip be very adventurous be unconscious create anxiety teach religion show generosity a big adventure lose consciousness

chemical a chemical is a substance.The chemicals n your body are the substances that control how your body works: many mental illnesses have a physical or - cause in the brain / the heat causes a - reaction compare if you compare things, you look at them to see if they are similar or different. Things that are comparable are similar:you can - prices online / you can't - these clothes with ones you buy in a supermarket / it's a really good shop, and their prices are comparable to much bigger stores culture a culture is a way of life and set of traditions that belong to a particular country or society. Culture is also art, music and literature.The adjective is cultural: / like finding out about different -s / western European - /1 find it hard to understand youth - / there are some interesting cultural traditions / the school organises a lot of cultural events (art, music etc) cure if you cure an illness, you make the person better. Cure is also a noun: doctors can - mild depression / he says he -d himself by keeping positive / they've -d him of cancer / doctors hope that one day they will be able to - diabetes / I'm completely ~d / doyou know any cures for hiccups? disability if you have a disability, a part of your body or mind does not work properly, so it is difficult for you to do some things. The adjective is disabled: / can't imagine having a - / he's got a physical - / a school for children with learning disabilities / the accident left him disabled inevitable if something is inevitable, it will definitely happen and you cannot prevent it: / think it's we'll all get this flu / it seemed - that we would lose the game overcome if you overcome a problem or difficultly, you solve it or deal with it so that it is no longer a problem.The past tense is overcame and the past participle is overcome: doyou know anyone who has been successful in overcoming a difficulty? / there are quite a lot of problems that we need to - / I've finally overcome my fear of heights panic panic is a sudden strong feeling of fear: he gets - attacks every time he has to fly / a sudden feeling of - / everyone was in a - (feeling panic) physical something that is physical affects your body, not your mind: many mental illnesses have a - or chemical cause in the brain / he's got a - disability / you need to build up your - strength progress if there is progress, something gets better or you get closer to achieving something: science is making - / we made steady ~, and by five o'clock the job was nearly done I the bad weather slowed our / the school will monitor the - of the new scheme reaction a reaction is something that you say or do because of something that has happened. The verb is react: when people ask for help, they often get an unwanted - / what was her - when you

attack an attack is a short period of time when you are ill or afraid: he gets panic -s every time he has to fly /1 suffer from anxiety -s /an - of flu /an asthma - / a heart blind if you are blind,you cannot see: I can't imagine being - /he was born - /1 started to go - when I was in my thirties / I'm partially - / he's completely case a case is an example of an illness: when we think of mental health problems, we often think of the most serious ~s / a severe - of food poisoning / a mild - of flu



told her? / my first - was to laugh / his speech provoked an angry - (caused it) / how did she react when you told her about it? recognise if you recognise something, you accept that it is true: we should - that mental illness is a natural part of life / a lot of people don't - the importance of a healthy diet recover if you recover from an illness, you get better. The noun is recovery: doyou know anyone who has -edfrom a very serious disease? / it took me nearly three months to ~from the operation / he's made a full recovery /1 hope you make a speedy recovery / exercise can speed up your recovery rely on if you rely on someone,you depend on them: / - my family to support me /you know you can - me serious a serious illness or problem is very bad: a illness / a very - disease / - mental health problems / drugs are a - problem in this area /a - accident therapy therapy is a way of treating illnesses without using drugs, for example by allowing people to talk about their problems: doctors use drugs, - or other support / he's having - to help with his depression treat if doctors treat an illness, they give someone medicine or other things to make it better. The noun is treatment: a lot of mental health problems aren't -ed / a new drug to - people with cancer / they can - the disease quite easily with antibiotics / early treatment is important /1 was taken to hospital for treatment PACES 5 2 - 5 3 bend if you bend, you move part of your body so that it is not straight.The past tense and past participle are bent: stand up and -your knees /1 can't - my arm /1 bent forward to pick up my bag / I bent down to tie my shoelace brush if you brush something,you make it clean or tidy by using a brush: / never - my hair /you should -your teeth after every meal burn a burn is an injury on your skin caused by fire or heat. Burn is also a verb. The past tense and past participle is burnt or burned: a - on my hand / that's a nasty - (a bad burn) /he suffered serious ~s in the fire /1 burned my hand on the iron cream cream is a thick substance that you put on your skin to make it better or less painful: we'll give you some - for your burn / put some antiseptic - on it / use hand - to keep your hands soft diarrhoea diarrhoea is an illness in which when you go to the toilet, the waste from your bowels is like a liquid: I've got - /1 had mild -for a few days / a lot of the children suffer from chronic dose a dose of a medicine is an amount that you take: don't exceed three -s in 24 hours / I'm on a very low -of the drug /the doctor gave me a strong - of painkillers / it's important to take the correct -

exceed if you exceed an amount,you use or take more than that amount: don't - three doses in 24 hours / the total price won't - 200 / it's against the law to - the speed limit fridge a fridge is a piece of equipment in which you keep food to keep it cold. If food is refrigerated, it is kept in a fridge: put the bottle back in the- /I always keep meat in the - / I'll get a beer from the - / once opened, keep refrigerated and use within three days heal if an injury heals, it gets better: how long did it take for the cut to-? / broken bones usually take about six weeks to - / it should - quite quickly / it's -ed nicely (well) hiccups if you have hiccups, you make repeated sounds in your throat, without wanting to: I've got - / doyou know any cures for -? /1 keep getting indigestion indigestion is a pain that you get in your stomach because your stomach cannot break down the food that you have eaten: I've got - / I don't often suffer from - / eating late at night always gives me - / it sounds like - / - tablets plain someone who is plain is not very attractive: she's got a - face / she's quite - / a- girl prescription a prescription is an amount of medicine that a doctor gives you: the doctor gave me a for some painkillers / are ~s expensive where you live? / people under 18 are entitled to free ~s /you have to finish the - / the drug is only available on (from a doctor) relax if you relax a part of your body, you make the muscles soft, not stiff:-yourface and shoulders /1 had a hot bath to - the muscles in my back and neck a scar a scar is a mark on your skin where you had a wound or injury in the past: I've got a - on my leg / how did you get that ~? / the cut left a small - on my arm / he's got a deep - on his left cheek settle if something settles your stomach, it makes it feel comfortable again after you have had an upset stomach: / need to take something to - my stomach / a glass of water might - your stomach smell if something smells, it has an unpleasant smell:your/eef -/ / the cheese was starting to stitch a stitch is a piece of thread that a doctor uses to sew your skin after an injury:you'll need some ~es in that cut /1 had five -es in my head / I'm going back to the hospital next week to have the -es out (for a doctor to remove them) stretch if you stretch a part of your body, you push it or make it straight, so that the muscles become long: / do exercises to - my back / -your arms up over your head / it's important to - your muscles before you do exercise /1 sat up in bed and -ed / I went outside to - my legs (go for a walk after sitting down for a long time) vomit if you vomit, food comes up from your stomach and out of your mouth: have you had any indigestion or vomiting? / the smell made me want to -

PREPOSITIONS A Complete the sentences with the correct preposition. 1 I go a run every morning. 2 Doyou sleep well night? 3 She's ill flu. 4 Do you suffer asthma? 5 I've got a rash my leg. 6 He has a bit a cold. B Choose the correct preposition 1 I'd like a glass with / of water, please. 2 She has a scar on I by her cheek. 3 I need to stretch the muscles on / in my back. 4 The doctor gave me a prescription about/for my cough. 5 I had a cold on /for a few days. 6 Doctors can treat disease/ram / with antibiotics. 1 2 3 4 5 6

lose I've






a bad stomach ache. a deep breath. How long can you your breath? I've my appetite. She's depressed because she her job. I think I've a muscle in my neck.

B Complete the sentences with the adjectives. Look up the adjectives if you need help. sore 1 2 3 4 5 6 full severe healthy spicy short

He made a I don't eat a very She has a Koreans eat a lot of He has a cold and a When I exercise I get

recovery from cancer. diet. case of swine flu. food. throat. of breath.

W O R D FAMILIES A Complete the expressions with the correct form of the word in bold. 1 He's an asthmatic. He suffers from 2 I'm a bit depressed. 3 Exams can cause anxiety. 4 a cultural event 5 an angry reaction 6 a new cancer treatment There is medication for

C Match the two halves of the sentences. 1 I sometimes get asthma a) teeth? 2 She's in bed b) with flu. 3 You should book your flight c) the law. 4 Many people have a fear d) attacks. 5 How often do you brush your e) of heights. 6 Drinking and driving is against f) in advance.

PHRASAL VERBS She's her results. Japanese Howdidyou Doctors disease. about A Choose the correct word to complete the phrasal verb. 1 You forgot to put the milk on / back in the fridge. 2 I picked out / up my shoe and hurt my back. 3 This medicine will speed on / up your recovery. 4 Do exercises to build over / up your strength. 5 If I eat chocolate I break away/out in a rash. 6 Drink water to bring In / down your temperature.

WORD-BUILDINC A Complete the sentences with adjectives formed from the nouns.

PATTERNS consciousness anxiety 1 2 3 4 5 generosity religion adventure A Put the verb in brackets in the correct form [to + infinitive or -ing). 1 My legs ache from (run) 2 I need something for my headache. (take) 3 You should do exercises your back. (strengthen) 4 Doctors have a new drug cancer. (treat) 5 Young people can't imagine a serious illness, (have) 6 I keep this pain in my neck, (get)

People who go to church are I don't take risks. I'm not very He's about his exam results. She was knocked in a sports accident. Thanks for paying. You are very

COLLOCATIONS A Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs. Look up the verbs if you need help.




Most basic verbs combine with prepositions or adverbs like off, on, up, back etc to create a new meaning. get 3 paper (buy) get off A the next stop (leave the bus / train) get up at six (leave? your bed) What time did you get back? (return / arrive home) Learn phrasal verbs with get in the same way you learn normal verbs, as they appear in the VB. And remember to always learn the collocations! ground a sports ground is a place where a sport is played: a sports - /afootball - /a rugby - /a cricket hold if you hold an event, you organise it and make it happen: where does the local council - its meetings? / we're -ing a small party next week / the government will - elections next year landmark a landmark is something that you can recognise easily in a place: what are the famous ~s where you live? / it was nice to see all the familiar ~s again /1 recognised one or two -s lost if you are lost, you do not know exactly where you are: / think we're - /1 got - in all the small streets of the old city 11 took the wrong road and got hopelessly miss if you miss something,you don't see it or notice it. If you miss a bus, train or plane,you are too late and you don't get on it: the art gallery is in the main square-you can't - it /1 -ed the last bus home / hurry up or we'll - our flight! monument a monument is something that is built to remind people of something important in the past: you'll go past a - / a historic -1 a - to the people who died in the war playground a playground is an area outside where children can play: a children's - with swings and slides / the school pray if you pray, you speak to Cod: people - in a church / we are -ing for peace / he -ed to Cod to give him strength report if you report a crime or an accident, you te 1 1 someone in authority about it:you should go to the police station to- a crime / did you - the accident to the police? /1 think you should - this to the local council statue a statue is an image of a person or animal that is usually made of wood or metal: there's a big - in the square / a - of the president / a huge bronze - / the new - stands in George Square town hall a town hall is a public building in Britain that is used for the local government of a town: it's opposite the - / their offices are in the -

way the way to a place is the road or path that you follow to get there: doyou know the - to the museum from here? / can you tell me the - to the university? / what's the quickest - to the town centre? / I'll show you the - to the station PACES 5 6 - 5 7 brief if something is brief, it does not last a long time: we'll try to keep this meeting as - as possible / ft was only a - visit / we had a - chat /1 sent her a - email (not very long) bunch a bunch of people is a small group of people: they were a bad - / a nice - of people / they're a very friendly couple a couple is two people who are married or in a relationship with each other: we met a really nice Swedish - / they're a happily married - / we get on well with the - who live next door disappointed if you are disappointed,you are unhappy because something is not as good as you hoped it would be. Something that makes you feel disappointed is disappointing: / hope they won't be - when they meet me /1 was a bit - with my results /1 was really - that they didn't come with us /I was bitterly - (very disappointed) / the film was a bit disappointing / it was a disappointing result for us dusty if something is dusty, it is covered with dirt that looks like a fine powder. The dirt is called dust: the room's very - / some - old books / the furniture was all very - / there was a thin layer of dust over everything in the room glad if you are glad, you are happy and pleased about something: I'm - that you're OK I I'm -you can come to the party / I'll be - when my exams are over / I'll be - to get home hard-working if you are hard-working,you work hard: my brother's really - and serious / a very student / he's really notice if you notice something,you see it, hear it or smell it: he suddenly ~d an old farmer /1 -d that he looked very tired / did you - that funny smell? selfish if you are selfish,you only care about yourself and don't care about other people: he's so ~! / don't be ~! / that was an incredibly - thing to do! [very selfish) slow down if you slow down,you start to do something more slowly: he slowed down as he walked through the fields /--the traffic lights are red! trust if you trust someone, you believe that they are honest and will not do anything bad: / didn't - any of them /1 know I can -you / I - him completely /1 - them implicitly (completely) unable if you are unable to do something,you ca n not do it: they are - to stay quietly in their room / a lot of these children are - to read / I'm afraid I'm - to come to the party next week

PACES 5 8 - 5 9 adventure an adventure is something exciting or dangerous that you do: we're interviewing Ellen MacArthur about her latest - / sailing down the Amazon was a great - / I'd love to go on an - / people who are looking for - / an - story avoid if you avoid a place, you stay away from it: the area ifyou can / the plane was diverted to French air space / it's best to - the city centre bike a bike is a bicycle. A motorbike is a vehicle like a bicycle with an engine: is it safe to ride a motorbike? / I'll go on my - if the weather's good / I climbed onto the back of his motorbike burst if something bursts, it breaks open suddenly. The past tense and past participle are burst the road is closed because ofa- water pipe / the balloons all / one of my tyres ~, so I had to change it cancelled if something that is planned is cancelled, it does not happen.The verb is cancel: our flight was - / the meeting was - at the last minute / we'll have to cancel the game if it continues raining chaos if there is chaos, there is a situation in which there is a lot of confusion: the air traffic controller's strike is causing complete - / the bad weather led to - on the railways / the meeting ended in - / there is political - in the country now charge if you charge someone an amount of money, you ask them to give you that amount when you sell something to them or do a job for them. Charge is also a noun: how much did he -you? / he -d us 200for painting the windows / doyou -for delivery? / how much do they -for coffee? / there's a 5 delivery charge clear up if you clear a place up, you make it clean and tidy: the road is shut while the police - the mess /1 can - if you like / it took us hours to - after the party concert a concert is a show in which people play music: a lot of people are travelling to Wembley for the big - / I'm going to a - on Saturday / the band are giving a - in London later this year / a rock consult if you consult a book or a website,you look there for information. If you consult a person, you ask them for information or advice:you should the airline's website / -your dictionary / - a doctor ifyou get any worse cycle if you cycle, you ride a bicycle. Someone who rides a bicycle is a cyclist: / - to work / we -d nearly 60 kilometres / there's a - lane / a demonstration by cyclists deal a deal is an agreement: there's little hope of a yet /a - between the unions and the company's management / the two sides have finally reached a - / I'll make a - with you - I'll let you borrow the car ifyou put some petrol in it for me delayed if something is delayed, it happens later than it was planned to happen.The verb is delay our flight has been - / the train was - by two

PACES 5 4 - 5 5 council a council is an organisation that is responsible for the local government in an area: where does the local - hold its meetings? / / wrote to Leeds City Council to complain / the - was elected last year / she's on the town - (she is a member of it) coach a coach is a bus that is used for long journeys: doyou know what time the - leaves? / we're going by - 11 don't want to spend six hours on a - / / got on the - in London / we stopped, and everyone got off the - / the - driver needed a break cross if you cross a road,you go from one side to the other: take the second on the right, then ~ and turn left /1 ~ed the road to go to the bank / it's not safe to - here / it's better to - at the pedestrian crossing exit an exit is a place where you can leave a roundabout or a motorway: take the third - on the roundabout / take the -for York / we'll leave the motorway at the next get if you get to a place, you arrive there. If you get a bus, train or taxi, you travel in one: where are you trying to - to? / we finally got to London at six o'clock /1 just want to - home now / we can - the bus from here / why don't we - a taxi? get off if you get off a bus or train, you leave it. The opposite is get on: / got off at the wrong stop / I'll the train in Cambridge / the bus stopped, and a few people got on



hours / they have decided to delay the start of the game until three o'clock demonstration a demonstration is an event where a large number of people meet to show that they support something or are against it. The verb is demonstrate: a - by cyclists in the city centre / a huge - against the war / students held a ~ at the university / they are organising a - to protest about the job cuts / the announcement led to -s all over the country / thousands of people demonstrated about the rise in food prices diverted if something is diverted, it has to travel in a different direction. A different direction that you have to travel in is a diversion: the plane was - to avoid French air space / our flight was - to Heathrow / the road is closed and a diversion is in operation freely if something happens freely, it happens with no problems, or without anyone stopping it: the traffic is moving - / people are now allowed to travel - across the border / they can't speak about the government globe the globe is the world: her latest adventure is sailing round the - on her own / her music is popular all over the land when a plane lands, it comes down to the ground. When it takes off, it goes up into the air: our flight is delayed so we're going to ~ late / we're due to - at 6.30I we took off at eleven thirty / the plane took off from London Catwick lane a lane on a big road is one of the parts that cars and other vehicles drive along: one - of the motorway is shut / we were driving along in the inside - (the one closest to the side of the road) / a car drove past us on the outside ~ / a car changed -s suddenly in front of me licence a licence is an official document that gives you permission to do something: doyou need a to ride a motorbike? /you must have a valid driving - /you need a gun ~ to own a gun / he was found guilty of dangerous driving, and lost his - for two years (he wasn't allowed to drive) line a rail line is a line that trains travel along: they're planning to build a high-speed rail - / they're building a new -from London to Birmingham lorry a lorry is a large vehicle that is used for carrying goods: a - has crashed on the A516 / too many goods are transported by - / a - driver mosque a mosque is a religious building where Muslims go to pray:you'II go past a - / Muslims who go to the -for Friday prayers park if you park a car, you stop it and leave it in a place for a while: we drove around for half an hour before we found somewhere to - / we -ed in the car park /1 -ed the car near the library

passenger a passenger is someone who is travelling in a bus, train, plane etc: they stopped on the motorway to let the -s stretch their legs / there were nearly 300 -s on board the plane / the bus stopped and a few -s got off practical something that is practical involves doing things with your hands, rather than thinking or writing about things:you have to take a - test of your riding skills / we really need some - help with the project / he's got no - experience of building work remove if you remove something,you take it away from a place: the police -d some cars from the main shopping street 11 -d the dirty dishes from the sink I she had an operation to - a lump from her leg renew if you renew something, you replace it with something new: repair work to - the underground / we had to - some parts of the engine reputation someone's reputation is the opinion that other people have about them: taxi drivers have a bad - / the restaurant's got a very good - / he has a - for being very hard-working / her - suffered as a result of the scandal ride if you ride a bike or motorbike, you sit on it and drive it. You also say that you ride a horse. The past tense is rode and the past participle is ridden: do you need a licence to - a motorbike? /1 never learned how to- a bike / I've never ridden a horse in my life! route a route is a set of roads that you go along to get from one place to another: the traffic is moving slowly, so it's best to take other -s / what's the quickest -from London to Manchester? /you should plan your - carefully row a row of things is a line of them all next to each other:yoi///go past a - of shops and a mosque / we arranged the seats in three -s / they were all standing in a - / we were sitting in the back - (the line of seats nearest the back of a room) sail if you sail somewhere,you travel there in a boat: her latest adventure is -ing round the globe on her own / we -ed to France / they're -ing around the Creek islands service station a service station is a building near a motorway where you can buy petrol and food: they stopped at a - on the motorway / the food is always really expensive in motorway -s speed the speed of something is how fast it moves: a high rail line / travelling at a - of 70 miles an hour / driving along the motorway at top - (as fast as possible) / a car which can reach -sofup to 200 kilometres an hour transport if you transport something, you move it from one place to another in a vehicle: too many goods are -ed by lorry / cars are -edfrom the mainland to the island by boat

PREPOSITIONS A Complete the sentences with the correct preposition. 1 When I got Paris it was after midnight. 2 You can take a bus Paris to Amsterdam. 3 I don't know any my neighbours. 4 London has a statue Nelson Mandela 5 Do you know the way the football stadium? 6 I was disappointed my exam results. B Choose the correct preposition 1 The goods were transported on / by lorry. 2 We stopped at a service station/or / to get some petrol. 3 She has a reputation/or/ on being lazy. 4 I need some help to / with my homework. 5 Two cars have crashed about /on the motorway. 6 My flight leaves in/at 2:30 pm. 7 We're going to a concert on /at Friday night.

B Complete the sentences with the adjectives. Look up the adjectives if you need help. bad famous last valid back nice

1 I sat in the row of the bus. 2 That airline has a reputation. 3 You must have a driver's licence to drive a car. 4 The concert was cancelled at the minute. 5 My classmates are a bunch of people. 6 The Great Wall of China is a landmark. C Complete the collocations with nouns from the unit. 1 local g t 2 the town c _ _ I 3 a pedestrian c _ _ __g 4 an art g __ __y 5 the police s __ n 6 traffic I s 7 a ca r p _ _ k

W O R D FAMILIES A Complete the expressions with the correct form of the word in bold. 1 a disappointing I was with holiday the service. 2 a dusty floor There was everywhere. 3 She's a keen cyclist. I to work. 4 Workers are It's a about demonstrating. wages. 5 a traffic diversion The new road will traffic.

PHRASAL VERBS A Choose the correct word to complete the phrasal verb. 1 Where do you usually get out /off the train? 2 I get over/on well with my brothers and sisters. 3 You're driving too fast. Please slow down / up. 4 The plane took off / out from Heathrow Airport. 5 I'll help you clear out / up the mess in the kitchen. 6 Hurry on / up or we'll be late!

COLLOCATIONS A Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs. Look up the verbs if you need help. stretch be hold change need get

PATTERNS A Put the verb in brackets in the correct form (to + infinitive or -ing). 1 Ships are used for goods, (carry) 2 I have one of my tyres, (change) 3 He has a reputation for a good manager, (be) 4 My job involves with numbers. (work) 5 The flight is due at 9:30. (land) 6 The government is planning new roads, (build)

1 Do you want to stop and your legs? 2 You must indicate before you lanes. 3 There are some students a demonstration. 4 I'll glad when the journey is over. 5 My taxi driver in Madrid hopelessly lost. 6 Let's go out. I a break from my studying.




PACES 6 4 - 6 5 boiling if something is boiling, it is very hot: the weather was - / it's - in here! / it was a - hot day cancer cancer is a serious disease in which the cells in your body start to grow in a way that is not normal: research into the causes of - / he died of lung - / breast - / she's suffering from ~ / his long battle against conduct if you conduct something, you do it: scientists shouldn't - experiments on animals / the police are -ing an investigation / we're going to - a survey to find out people's opinions cruel if something is cruel, it is wrong because it makes people or animals suffer. The noun is cruelty: horse racing is ~ / how could they be so -? / you should never be - to animals /1 hate cruelty to animals discovery a discovery is a new fact or piece of information that someone learns.The verb is discover: a scientific - / he made a very important - / her work led to some exciting new discoveries I scientists have discovered a new planet effect an effect is something that happens as a result of something else: a problem with very negative -s I what -s did the experiment have? / the chemicals have a harmful - on the environment / they think that climate change will have no - on their lives environment the environment is the land, water and air around us. The adjective is environmental: a government policy to help the ~ / we must do more to protect the - / the factory will damage the ~ / chemicals that cause environmental damage extinct if a type of animal or plant is extinct, it no longer exists. The noun is extinction: if bees become we won't have any fruit or vegetables / many insects are virtually - (almost extinct) /

these animals are now in danger of extinction / they're on the verge of extinction (almost extinct) freezing if something is freezing, it is very cold: the weather was -I / I'm not swimming in there - the water's -I / shut the door - it's ~ out there! / it was - cold outside fund if someone funds something, they pay for it. The noun is funding: the government should more research / the project is -ed by the university / the project couldn't continue because there was no more funding investigate if you investigate something, you try to find information about it. The noun is investigation: we're doing an experiment to - how the Big Bang worked / police are investigating the murder / police have launched an investigation into his disappearance mosquito a mosquito is a small insect that can bite people. Some types of mosquitos spread diseases: they've found a new way to kill the ~es that cause malaria / I've been bitten by a - /1 had - bites all over my legs nuclear nuclear power is power or energy that is produced when the central part of an atom is split: produce energy from - power / a - power station / some people argue that - energy is better for the environment / a - bomb pet a pet is an animal that you keep at home: have you got a ~? /a lot of people have ~s / a - dog /a- rabbit protect if you protect something, you keep it safe and prevent it from being damaged.The noun is protection: we should do more to - animals like whales / new laws to - children / we must do more to - the environment / he asked for police protection rocket a rocket is a vehicle that can travel into space: they're planning to launch a new space - / the - is due to lift off tomorrow morning save to save someone or something means to make it safe: this discovery could - millions of lives / a new campaign to - polar bears from extinction / new laws to - the rainforest scientific something that is scientific uses science or is related to science. Someone who studies science is a scientist: electricity is the greatest - discovery ever made / some important new - research / a - investigation I scientists shouldn't conduct experiments on animals snow snow is soft white pieces of frozen water that fall from the sky in winter. Snow is also a verb: the - lasted for three weeks la lot of-fell last winter / we had some heavy - last night (a lot of snow) / the garden was covered in a blanket of - (a thick covering of snow) /it started to snow storm a storm is very bad weather, with strong winds and rain: the ~ lasted nearly three hours / there was a terrible - last night /1 think we might be in for a - (there might be a storm) / a thunder (with thunder and lightning)

terrorist a terrorist is someone who uses violence to try to force a government to do something: a bomb attack by ~s / killed by a - bomb windy if it is windy, there is a strong wind: it was really - / a - day / it was quite - yesterday PACES 6 6 - 6 7 act if you act as something,you have that role or job: they got married with their dogs -ing as best man and maids of honour / he's agreed to - as chairman bomb a bomb is a weapon that explodes and kills people or damages buildings: the rats are trained to detect ~s in the ground / a ~ went off in the city centre / a - exploded in a tourist hotel last night boostto boost something means to improve it: how can pets - your health? / the advertising campaign has ~ed sales / this win will ~ his confidence cage a cage is a container with bars, for keeping animals or birds in: the parrots lived in a - in the living room / a rabbit - / the animals escaped from their ~s case a case is a legal matter that the police investigate and a court makes a decision about: a dog called Scooby has appeared in court in a murder ~ / a rape - / the police need to decide if there is enough evidence to take the - further / the - will be heard in court next month detect if you detect something, you find it when it is not easy to see or hear: some animals are used to - things / the rats are trained to - mines / tests to - cancer / the machine can - very small amounts of chemicals evidence evidence is facts that prove that something is true: the police need to decide if there is enough - to take the case further / the police are still collecting - / they don't have enough - to convict him / there was no - against him (to show that he was guilty) insect an insect is a small animal that has six legs and can usually fly: bees are -s / there was a huge swarm of ~s around the light / there were -s crawling all over the food / a few ~s were buzzing around insist if you insist on doing something, you say very strongly that it must happen: the fishermen -ed on using it / he -ed on paying for everything / she -ed that I should see a doctor mine a mine is a bomb that is hidden under the ground or in water: the rats are trained to detect ~s / they laid -s on the beaches / the ship struck a and was destroyed / they are gradually clearing all the -sfrom the area occasion an occasion is a time when something happens: the shark has only been seen on 40 -s / I've met him on several -s prepared if you are prepared for something, you are ready for it. If you prepare for something,you get

ready for \t. you'll need to be - for the big day /1 wasn't very well -for the interview /1 wanted to be fully -for the meeting /1 felt badly - / we're all busy preparing for the wedding rare if something is rare, you do not see it very often or it does not happen very often. The adverb is rarely: a very - shark / a very - disease / it's - for me to miss a day of work / I'm very rarely ill shocked if you are shocked,you are very surprised and upset by something. Something that makes you feel shocked is shocking: / was really ~ / we were all deeply - by his death /1 was - to hear about her accident / that's shocking news sense your senses are the physical abilities you have, such as hearing and seeing: some dogs have an amazing - of smell / I've got quite a poor - of taste / I think I'm losing my - of hearing smell your sense of smell is your ability to notice things with your nose. A smell is also something that you can notice with your nose: some dogs have an amazing sense of - / a very acute sense of - / those roses have got a lovely - / there were some wonderful cooking -s coming from the kitchen speech a speech is a talk that someone gives to a number of people: / hadn't made a - in public before / he gave a very funny - / she made a briefabout reducing costs and saving money suspect if you suspect someone of something bad, you think that they did it. A suspect is someone who the police think has committed a crime: they wanted to see how he would react to the man -ed of the crime / he is -ed of murdering his wife /1 - that she isn't telling the truth / the police have interviewed two suspects / he is the main suspect in a murder case wild a wild animal lives in natural conditions and is not cared for by people:/oxes are - animals / we saw some - horses / a type of - cat witness a witness is someone who sees a crime. Witness is also a verb: the dog was a - to the crime / doyou think she is a reliable ~? (one that we can trust) / no one witnessed the robbery PACES 6 8 - 6 9 authority if someone has authority over other people, they have power over them and can tell them what to do: people find it difficult to say no to people in - / the government has no - over private schools /you don't have the - to ask me to leave bang if something bangs, it makes a loud noise. Bang is also a noun: they heard some -ing and screaming / he started to - on the wall 11 heard the door - / we heard a loud bang date if you date someone, you go out with them and have a relationship with them. A date is an arrangement to go out with someone: she told me



not to - anyone more attractive than me / are you dating anyone at the moment? / I've got a date with someone tonight due if something is due at a particular time, people expect it to happen then: / asked her when her baby was - / the baby's - next month / the plane is - to land in half an hour / we're - to arrive in New York soon / the film's - to start at 7AS findings the findings of a piece of research are the things that it discovers: doyou agree with the of the experiment? / their - are presented in a report / the committee will present its - next week list a list is a number of words or names that you write down one below the other: put the words in the correct - / / made a - of things to do / a long - of names / can you add butter to the shopping ~? minority a minority of people is less than half. The opposite is majority: a - of people gave the maximum shock /only a small - of voters support his ideas /1 thinkyou're in the - (most people don't agree with you) / the majority of students (most students) take out loans to pay for their fees -ITY Words ending in -ity are usually nouns and are connected to adjectives. a minority of voters have a majority have no creativity have a disability a minor issue a major problem a creative job be disabled

pain pain is the feeling that you have in your body when it hurts: he started to shout in - / the people who took part in the experiment agreed to cause - / he's in constant - / most people don't enjoy inflicting - on others participate if you participate in something,you take part in it. Someone who takes part is a participant: would you - in an experiment like this? /you should try to - more in class / some participants found the experiment funny point a point is a particular time in a process: at one - he complained about having a heart problem / at some - every teacher stopped and asked what the purpose of the experiment was / they recorded the - at which people refused to continue / most people were willing to take part in the experiment, but only up to a ~ predict if you predict something, you say that you think it will happen.The noun is prediction: they -ed that only 12% of teachers would give the maximum shock / the university is -ing an increase in student numbers / their economic predictions were correct

purpose the purpose of something is what you want it to achieve: they asked what the - of the experiment was / what's the - of the president's visit? question if you question something, you say that you are not sure it is good or right: every teacher -ed what the purpose of the experiment was I some people have -ed his motives / some doctors have -ed the government's decision record if you record information, you write it down, A record is information about something that is written down: they -ed the point at which people refused to continue /1 -ed the main events of the trip in my diary I you should keep a record of the amount you spend refuse if you refuse to do something, you say that you will not do it: some people ~d to continue / she ~d point blank to pay for anything (completely refused) / he flatly -d to come with us (completely refused) require if a rule or law requires you to do something, it says that you must do it: he said the experiment ~d them to continue / all drivers are ~d by law to have valid motor insurance scream if you scream,you shout in a very loud, high voice. Scream is also a noun: they heard banging and -ing I she was -ing in pain / the girls were -ing with laughter / they heard the - coming from the learner shock an electric shock is a painful feeling that you get when electricity goes into your body: they believed they were receiving real electric -s / what percentage of people gave the maximum electric ~? /1 got an electric -from the kettle soldier a soldier is someone who is in the army: some ~s had participated in terrible crimes / he served as a - for over 20years / a - in the American army /a group of French ~s term something that is short-term only lasts for a short time. Something that is long-term lasts for a long time: there are short-term and longterm effects / there will be some short-term benefits / we need a long-term solution to the problem uniform a uniform is a set of clothes that all the people who work for an organisation wear: people found it hard to say no to people who wore a - /1 wasn't wearing my - / he was wearing a police - / an army - / the men were all In - / doyou have to wear a school ~? upset if you are upset,you are unhappy because something sad or disappointing has happened. Upset is also a verb. Something that is upsetting makes you feel upset: sfie was quite - / she looked a bit - /1 felt really - about it /1 was deeply - / I didn't want to - him /1 found the film really upsetting

PREPOSITIONS A Complete the sentences with the correct preposition. 1 Her research led a scientific discovery. 2 A coelacanth is a type fish. 3 I've got insect bites all my back. 4 Modern medicine has saved millions lives. 5 Are you prepared your exam? 6 What are you studying the moment? B Choose the correct preposition 1 The cold weather lasted out/for a long time. 2 There's a group of/ at American students in our class. 3 What's the purpose by / of your research? 4 He doesn't talk much at / in class. 5 The meeting starts at / on 9 am. 6 Cars have a harmful effect on/in the environment.

1 a record of your experiment results. 2 He point blank to pay the bill. 3 I out a loan to pay for my car. 4 We've a list of possible research funding. 5 The game is due in half an hour. 6 Do you think he was the truth? 7 He is some scientific research. B Complete the collocations with nouns from the unit. 1 nuclear p r 2 a thunder s m 3 an advertisingc__ __n 4 a sense of s I 5 an electric s k 6 long-term e__ __s 7 a school u _ _ __ m C Match the two halves of the sentences. 1 I agree, but only up a) ofhearing. 2 I'm losing my sense b) of snow. 3 The good results boosted my c) to a point. 4 The ground is covered in d) of extinction, a blanket 5 Some animals are on the verge e) the environment. 6 There are new laws to protect f) confidence.

W O R D FAMILIES A Complete the expressions with the correct form of the word in bold. 1 Animal cruelty Are animal experiments ? 2 a scientific discovery She a new drug. 3 environmental damage Protect the 4 government funding 5 a murder investigation 6 a weather prediction He his own research. Police are I it will rain.

PATTERNS A Put the verb in brackets in the correct form [to + infinitive or -ing). 1 He is suspected of in his exams. (cheat) 2 Some dogs are trained drugs. (detect) 3 I'm thinking about law. (study) 4 Would you like part in an experiment? (take) 5 She insisted on for the meal, (pay) 6 All drivers are required a licence. (have)

B Which words in the list below are both nouns and verbs? scream case witness snow pain detect

COLLOCATIONS A Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs. Look up the verbs if you need help. j take make conduct tell start refuse keep



retook and the past participle is retaken: /'// - the exam in a couple of months /1 retook two papers -IVE Some adjectives are formed from verbs by adding -ive. a supportive family a creative person an interactive website an imaginative idea a impressive result support me in whatever 1 do create a work of art interact with people online 1 can imagine impress your boss


PACES 7 0 - 7 1 advantage an advantage is a good point about something. The opposite is disadvantage: what are the ~s and disadvantages of going to university! / working from home has got a lot of -s / one - of the new system is that it's much faster deadline a deadline is a time or date by which you must finish something: they don't consider your application if you miss the - / what's the -for applications? /1 don't think I can meet the - (finish by the deadline) / they agreed to extend the - (make it later) finals finals are the exams that students take at the end of their university course: I've got my - next term /1 hope I don't fail my- / she's sitting her - at the moment (doing them) / I'm sure he'll do well in his law if you study law, you study all the rules of a country, and the punishments for people who break the rules: doing a Master's in - / studying international - / a - degree / a - firm Master's a Master's is a degree that you study at university after you have finished your first degree: I'm doing a - in law / I've got a - in history / I decided to take a - degree mention if you mention something,you say or write a small amount about it, without giving a lot of details: what subjects do they ~? / She only -ed it briefly / did he - his new book? PhD a PhD is the highest university degree that you can get: I'm doing a - in maths / he's got a promise if you promise to do something, you say that you will definitely do it. Promise is also a noun: they've -d me that they'll buy me a car / he -d to phone me/she ~d that she wouldn't be late /you must come-you -d! /she kept her promise and came to visit us / don't worry -1 won't break my promise retake if you retake an exam,you do it again because you did not get a good mark.The past tense is

save if you save money, you keep it so that you can use it later. Money that you save is your savings: if I can - enough money, I'll take a year off71 ~d over 500 last year /1 don't want to use my savings straight if you go straight to a place, you go there immediately, without waiting. If you do something straightaway,you do it immediately: I'm not taking a year out - I'm going - to university /1 went home /1 was tired so I went - to bed /1 left school at 16 and started work straightaway supportive if someone is supportive, they give you help and encouragement. The verb is support: everyone has been very - / I've got very - parents /1 know my parents will support me whatever I do/ my parents can't afford to support me (give me money to live) take if you take something, you have it or do it: I'm taking a year out before university / shall we - a break? / come here and - a look at this! theoretical if something is theoretical, it is to do with ideas rather than doing things with your hands: the course was quite - - not very practical / I've got a good - understanding of his subject tutor a tutor is someone who teaches students at a university: / love the course, and my -s are great / a history ~ year a school year is a period from September to July, when children go to school: I'm in my third - at secondary school / what - are you in? / he's in - nine PACES 7 2 - 7 3 access if you access information,you find it. If you access a website, you look at it online. Access is also a noun: there are now controls to stop kids -ing certain sites / we can't - the internet at the moment / I'm sorryyou can't - those files / most children have access to the internet at home affect to affect something means to change it in some way. The noun is effect: how has the internet -ed plagiarism? / stress can - your health / don't worry- this won't -you /his death had a major effect on my life

appear if something appears, you can suddenly see it, or it suddenly starts to exist: sites offering to do homework have started -ing online / a boy -ed from behind some bushes / some new dishes have -ed on the menu assume if you assume that something is true, you believe that it is true even though you do not know for certain. The noun is assumption: we shouldn't - that the internet only brings problems / she didn't answer the door, so I -d she was out / government policies are based on the assumption that prices will continue to rise create to create something means to cause it to happen or exist: for every problem the internet -s, it also brings a solution / the government has promised to - 10,000 new jobs desperate if you are desperate, you want something very much: really - students sometimes copy whole essays /1 was - to leave home / they're - for money essay an essay is a piece of writing in which someone discusses a subject: really desperate students sometimes copy whole -s /1 have to finish my - tonight / we had to write an - on cheating /1 handed my - in late extract an extract is part of a piece of writing: nowadays, students can copy -sfrom websites / she read out an - from the novel / a brief-from a poem / a collection of film ~s finances your finances are the amount of money that you have: / need to organise my - / my personal are in a mess / he helped me sort out my harm harm is damage or hurt. Harm is also a verb: there are controls to stop kids accessing sites that could do them - / we all want to protect our children from - / this could cause considerable - to the economy /1 know he would never harm me / these chemicals can harm the environment immediately if something happens immediately, it happens quickly, without any delay.The adjective is immediate: the software helps teachers to detect copied work - / come here -I / the new law has had an immediate effect mix if you mix things you put them together or combine them.The noun is mix or mixture: it's hard for teachers to decide how to - modern technology with traditional study skills / - the butter and sugar together / her style -es classical music with rock / a mix of different styles / there's a good mix of people on the course / a mixture of different styles and traditions original the original person or thing is the one that existed first, before any others: the - author of the work / the house still has the - windows / have you got the - documents? pretend if you pretend that something is true,you say that it is true when it is not really: taking other people's ideas and -ing that they are your own / he was only -ing to be upset

punishment a punishment is something unpleasant that is done to someone because they have done something wrong.The verb is punish: what is a suitable - for cheating? /1 was kept at home as a - / a lot of people think there should be tougher -sfor criminals / he managed to avoid - /1 knew I would be punished if I was caught quote if you quote someone else, you use words that they have said or written. Quote is also a noun: students need to learn how to - copied work properly / he ~d a few words of Shakespeare /a from a well-known poem recognise if you recognise something,you know what it is because you have seen it before: most teachers can - when someone is cheating / most doctors are not trained to - mental illness /1 didn't -you with your new haircut! search if you search for something,you try to find it. Search is also a noun: it's easy to - for information online / the police are still -ing for the killer / a massive police search for the missing child sophisticated a sophisticated machine or system has been designed in a clever way to do a particular job: parents can use - controls to stop kids accessing sites / the bank has a - surveillance system suitable if something is suitable, it is correct or right for a particular situation: what is a - punishment for cheating? / the film isn't -for young children / it's going to be cold, so make sure you wear - clothing suitable if something is suitable, it is right for a particular situation: what is a - punishment for cheating? / that website isn't - for children I the film wasn't considered -for children / it's not really - as a family car upload if you upload a picture or document, you send it from your computer to a bigger computer system or the internet.The opposite is download: I'm going to - the photos on to the internet / the information is all -ed on to a website /1 downloaded some information from the internet website a website is a place on the internet where there is information about something: which -s doyou visit the most? / I've found a really good - / you can download information from their - I why not visit our website at www.gardenhelp.co.uk? whole a whole thing is all of it: students sometimes copy - essays / they ate the - cakel /1 spent the week in bed PAGES 7 4 - 7 5 amount the amount of something is how much there is: we complained about the - of homework we get /you only need a small - of sugar / they've collected a large - of information / it costs a considerable - of money approach an approach to something is a way of doing it: what's his - to teaching like? /an



exciting new - to art education / he's got a very philosophical - to life assignment an assignment is a piece of work that is given to someone and they have to do: they get stressed when they have ~s / we have to do one written ~ each term attention if you give your attention to something, you watch or listen carefully: / try to pay - all the time /1 could tell that he wasn't giving me his full - / it's difficult trying to keep children's - /you have my undivided ~ (I am listening carefully) available if something is available, you can have it, use it or buy it: the subjects ~ at this school / the new game is now - in the shops / tickets are - at the ticket office or online bullying bullying is behaviour in which someone deliberately hurts or frightens another person. The verb is bully: there's no violence or - in the school / the school has really clamped down on - (tried to stop it) / the older children bullied me sometimes complain if you complain about something,you say that you are not happy about it. The noun is complaint: / -ed because my food was cold / some people just - about everything! / there are a lot of complaints about education / I'd like to make a complaint (complain about something) compulsory if something is compulsory, you must do it: English and maths are the only - subjects / sport is - in this school / military service is ~for all men disturb if you disturb someone, you interrupt them and stop them from continuing what they are doing: / often threw paper planes and -ed the class / I'm sorry to -you, but can I talk to you for a minute? fail if you fail a test or exam, you do not succeed in it: / was worried I might - the course /1 ~ed all my exams I if your teacher syou in some subjects, you have to repeat the year hand in if you hand something in,you give it to a person in authority: / have to - in my essay tomorrow / ~ your keys in at the reception desk hardly if you hardly do something, you almost don't do it at all: / - understood anything in class (I understood very little) / she - goes out (she almost never goes out) / my grandparents live in Scotland, so I - see them at all head the head of an organisation is the leader or most important person: the - of a school /the - of a large multinational company / a meeting of ~s of government from 15 countries keep up with if you keep up with something, you know what is happening with it: / like to ~ Messenger /1 like to - what's going on in the world knowledge your knowledge is what you know about something: the children listened and improved their - I she's got considerable - of the subject / he shared his - with us / my general - is quite poor (knowledge about subjects in general)

lecture a lecture is a talk about a subject that a university teacher gives to students. Someone who gives a lecture is a lecturer: / go to all my -s / he gave a very interesting - on Russian history /1 missed last week's - / he's a really good lecturer mechanic a mechanic is someone whose job is to repair cars or machines: I'm training to be a - /a car - / he's a brilliant optional if something is optional, you can choose to do it but you don't have to do ityou can choose three - subjects / history and geography are - / the holiday could be expensive ifyou have all the - extras pass if you pass a test or exam,you succeed in it: / hope I - my test / I've ~ed my driving test /1 ~ed all my exams play a play is a story that is written so that actors can perform it: we do a lot of -s and concerts / a - by a young American writer / we saw a really good ~ last night / we're putting on a (performing it) point out if you point something out to someone, you tell them: / always - if students are doing something wrong /1 pointed out that some of the numbers were wrong relationship the relationship between people is how they behave towards each other and feel about each other: the parent-teacher - is very important / I have a very good - with my parents / the between the two countries is beginning to improve resource resources are things that you have and can use: the school has got very good ~s / the internet is a valuable - / the country has got a lot of natural ~s (things such as oil, coal etc that a country can use) set if you set some work, you give it to someone and ask them to do it: the teacher - the essay last week / some teachers - too much homework skip if you skip something,you do not do it or go to it, when you should: have you ever skipped classes? /1 decided to - work for the day /1 sometimes - breakfast if I'm in a hurry stand if you stand,you are upright and on your feet, not sitting down. The past tense and past participle is stood: he stood in the playground watching everyone play / we stood at the back of the hall state a state organisation is one that is paid for by the government of a country: / went to a - school / the - education system / he gets the basic - pension textbook a textbook is a book with information about a subject, which is used to help teach the subject to people: we don't use ~s very much / students have to buy their own -s / there's a lot of information in the -

PREPOSITIONS A Complete the sentences with the correct preposition. 1 He's writing exams the moment. 2 She's doing a Master's psychology. 3 I'm in my second year university. 4 Why do you complain everything? 5 I think so, but I don't know sure. 6 He knows a lot nuclear physics. B Choose the correct preposition. 1 I went to / on a boys-only school. 2 Do you go to / at all your classes? 3 My classmates are all by/from different countries. 4 I'm writing an essay on / over Shakespeare. 5 The school year is on /from September to July. 6 I finish my degree in a couple over /of months 1 2 3 4 5 6







She has never I'm sorry I I usually Come and You I'm going to bad service.

a deadline. my promise. straight home after class. a look at this. my undivided attention. a complaint about the

B Complete the sentences with the adjectives. Look up the adjectives if you need help. personal good general classical natural major

W O R D FAMILIES A Complete the expressions with the correct form of the word in bold. 1 I have supportive Everybody parents. me. 2 Smoking affects It didn't have a big your health. on me. 3 Don't assume I An incorrect can help. 4 She avoided Teachers punishment. plagiarism. 5 a school bully He sometimes his brother.

1 My history teacher had a effect on my life. 2 I need help with my finances. 3 I love listening to music. 4 The school has a mix of teachers. 5 He has a very wide knowledge. 6 African countries have a lot of resources. Complete the collocations with nouns from the unit. 1 take a driving t t 2 do military s __e 3 get a h _ _ rcut 4takeab k 5 mental i __ s 6 Please pay a _ _ _ _ n.

PHRASAL VERBS A Choose the correct word to complete the phrasal verb. 1 We're putting out/on a student play. 2 She talks too fast. I can't keep on / up with her. 3 I handed out / in my essay a day late. 4 Teachers are clamping down / away on bullying. 5 She read a poem out / over to the class. 6 I don't go at / out on week nights.

WORD-BUILDING A Complete the sentences with adjectives formed from the verbs. create impress interact imagine support

1 She studies art. She's very 2 We need ideas for our advertising campaign. 3 You got 90%! That's very 4 Online learning is very 5 His family helps him.They are very

PATTERNS Put the verb in brackets in the correct form (to + infinitive or-ing). 1 She was punished for (cheat) 2 My lecturer agreed the deadline. (extend) 3 I promised her with her essay, (help) 4 Can we stop children websites? (access) 5 I need my class notes, (organise)

COLLOCATIONS A Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs. Look up the verbs if you need help.



-ING NOUNS The -ing form of a verb is often used to make a noun, especially to describe an activity. / do babysitting to earn some extra money I go swimming every day Parking is really difficult in the city centre. We need more funding for hospitals. We sat in the waiting room for two hours.


PACES 7 6 - 7 7 activity an activity is something that you do for pleasure: there are organised activities every day / they offer a wide range of leisure activities /you can do lots of sporting activities on the campsite air conditioning air conditioning is a system that keeps the air inside a building cool. A place with air conditioning is air-conditioned: I'm afraid the - is broken /1 turned the - on / an air-conditioned office arrangement an arrangement is something that you have organised and agreed with someone: we have an - with a local car park / we finally managed to come to an - (reach an agreement) / a business arrival your arrival in a place is when you arrive: we had to cancel a week before our - date / what's your expected time of-? / they greeted us on our at the airport apartment an apartment is a set of rooms on one floor of a building, where someone lives or stays on holiday: we rented an ~ I a holiday - / a thirdfloor - / they live in a luxury availability the availability of something is whether it is free for people to use. The adjective is available: let me check our - (when our rooms are free) / doyou have any triple rooms available? / there's no money available for new projects babysitting babysitting is the job of looking after young children while their parents are out.The verb is babysit: we offer a - service /1 do a bit of - to earn some money /1 offered to babysit for them

cancellation a cancellation is when someone decides that something that was planned will not happen. The verb is cancel: we had to pay a -fee / when was the ~ made? / there were a lot of delays and -s at the airport because of the bad weather I our train was cancelled / the match was cancelled central the central part of something is the part near the middle: a hotel in ~ Dublin / we live in London / countries in - Europe comfort comfort is the feeling of being relaxed and happy, in a pleasant place. If you feel comfortable, you feel relaxed and happy: ~ is very important to me /1 like to travel in - / are you comfortable sitting there? / a comfortable chair (one that makes you feel comfortable) convenient if something is convenient, you can get to it and use it easily: the hotel's in a ~ location / it's a nice house, and the shops are - / there's a car park just behind the theatre, which is deal with if you deal with something, you do what is necessary to sort it out: one of my colleagues will -your booking /oursecretary -deals with all the emails / the best way to - this problem deposit a deposit is a first payment that you make when you agree to buy something such as a holiday or a house: we had to pay a 5% - / they usually take a 10% - I we had to put down a- of 1200 / will we get our - back if we cancel? details your details are information about you: can I take your credit card-? / can you fill in your on this form? /1 didn't want to give them my personal digit a digit is a single number, such as 5,6 etc: can you give me the last three -s of the security code? I a ten number double a double room is a room for two people: we don't have any single rooms - we only have ~s / I'd like a - room, please entertainment entertainment is shows and other performances that people enjoy watching: there's organised - in the evenings / they provide -for the children

expiry date an expiry date is the date when something can no longer be used: what's the - on the card?'/ the - on my passport is June 2011 fee a fee is an amount of money that you pay for a service: there is WiFi in rooms for a - / most museums charge an entrance - / they can't afford to pay the school ~s fully if a place is fully booked, it is completely booked and there are no spaces: I'm afraid we're - booked / the restaurant is - booked this evening hire if you hire something, you pay to use it for a short time. Hire is also a noun: a car -firm / we ~d a car for the week I we could - a boat for a day location the location of something is where it is: the hotel's in a convenient - / it's in a beautiful - / the documents are kept in a secret - / we don't know the exact - of the ship nearby if something is nearby, it is not very far away: there are several car hire places - / doyou live ~? / we ate in a - restaurant on behalf of if you do something on behalf of someone else, you do it instead of them: I'm ringing - a colleague /1 didn't want him to speak on my behalf organised if something is organised, someone has planned it and made it happen.The verb is organise: there is - entertainment in the evenings / there are - activities most days /an - trip to the island / we're organising a party next weekend parking parking is space where people can park cars: doyou have -facilities? / there's no - at the hotel / there's free - in the town centre / we couldn't find a - space payment a payment is an amount of money that you pay:you need to make a - when you make the booking / the final - is due on 25 June rate a rate is an amount of money that you pay or charge for something: they offer a reduced - of 15 a day /1 increased my hourly - to 30 /the government has promised to cut the basic - of income tax reject if you reject something, you refuse to accept it: did it - my credit card again? / he -ed my offer / the court -ed his evidence /1 applied to Oxford University, but they -ed me security security is all the things that people do to keep something safe. A security number is a special number that only one person knows: the - number on the back of the card / who is in charge of- at the airport? la - officer / - around the hotel has been tightened (made stronger) for the president's visit shuttle a shuttle is a plane, bus or train that makes regular trips between two places: there's a bus that serves a number of hotels / the LondonEdinburgh triple a triple room is a room for three people: doyou have any - rooms available? / we've got double rooms available, but no -s

view a view is everything that you can see from a place: there are wonderful -sfrom the hotel / a beautiful across the bay / we stopped to admire the PAGES 7 8 - 7 9 arrange if you arrange things, you put them in a particular position or order: she enjoys arranging flowers /1 can't decide on the best way to - the furniture / the names are ~d in alphabetical order bunch a bunch of flowers or vegetables is a group of them held or tied together: a hundred -es of red flowers / a - of grapes come out if something comes out, it moves out of a place: / turned the tap on but hardly any water came out / he's locked the door, and he won't - of his room! demand a demand is a very strong request for something. Demand is also a verb: why do people make -s like this? / will people agree to her ~s?/ the union has put forward -sfora pay increase / workers are demanding higher wages and shorter working hours demanding someone who is demanding always wants attention from other people: she's a nice kid, but she's very - / a very - child downstairs downstairs means on a lower level in a building: we can hear the people - / there's a bar - / we'll see you - for breakfast drop if a number or amount drops, it becomes less: the price ~s to 70 a night ifyou stay for more than three days / the number of visitors has -ped this year / the temperature could - to -3 tonight / unemployment has -ped slightly this month filthy if something is filthy, it is very dirty: our room was ~! / my clothes were absolutely overcharge if someone overcharges you, they charge you too much money: they ~d us by 100 /1 think they -d us by mistake pleasure if something is a pleasure, it is pleasant or enjoyable: it's a real - to have her in the hotel / It's always a - to see you! 'Thanks for your help? 'That's OK. It's a -? pressure pressure is the force that is made when one thing is pushing against another: the water - was so low that hardly any water came out of the tap / the air - in the tyres was too low / put some - on your arm to stop the bleeding record a record is a piece of information that is written down and kept so that people can look at it in the future: they didn't have any - of my booking /your medical ~s / we keep a - of all customer complaints site a site is a place where something happens: there's a building - next to the hotel / this was the - of a battle 200years ago / a picnic toiletries toiletries are things such as soap, shampoo and toothpaste that you use to wash yourself:



there were no - in our room/1 forgot to pack my ~ / Where's my - bag? wake-up call a wake-up call is a phone call to wake you up: would you like a - in the morning? / I've ordered a - for six o'clock wall the walls of a building or room are the sides: tfiere were insects all over the -s / the bedroom -s / a picture on the PACES 8 0 - 8 1 achievement an achievement is something good that you succeed in doing. The verb is achieve: getting a degree is a real - I getting everything finished on time was quite an - / some of the students achieved excellent exam results appearance your appearance is the way you look: his - has changed a lot I you shouldn't judge people by their - /you shouldn't worry so much about your bitten if you are bitten by an insect, it hurts you and makes a mark on your skin. The verb is bite. Bite is also a noun: / got - by mosquitoes /you can use special creams to stop insects biting you / I've got mosquito bites all over my legs bring up if you bring up children,you look after them until they are adults,The past tense and past participle is brought up: / was brought up in Amman I bring-ing up kids is a difficult job /she brought up four children on her own campsite a campsite is a place where you can camp: were there many facilities at the-? / we stayed at a lovely challenge if something is a challenge, it is very difficult: putting the tent up was a real - / he's someone who enjoys a - / getting the economy right will be a big - for the government / the job presents some difficult ~s climb if you climb up something,you go up it. Climbing is the sport of going up mountains: a ladder / - up a mountain 11 did rock climbing when I was younger desert a desert is an area of very dry land where very few plants grow: we go camping in the - / the Sahara - / - animals explore if you explore a place,you look all around it to see what it is like: we -d the campsite / we spent a week exploring Scotland field trip a field trip is a trip in which students study something in its natural environment: we went on a - to Scotland / I've got a - to Italy next year fire a fire is a pile of burning wood or coal that you use to provide heat: sitting round a - with friends / we lit a - in the garden I he showed me how to make a - / sitting in front of a roaring - (a very hot fire) follow if you follow a tradition or an instruction, you do something in the way it tells you: they -

the traditional nomadic life / - the instructions carefully /1 decided to - her advice gang a gang of young people is a large group of them: there was a - of us who just ran around all day /you see -s ofyouths hanging around the streets give up if you give up something,you stop having it or doing it: I'm a real city boy now and I would never give it up / I'm trying to - smoking heavily if you do something heavily, you do it a lot: he smoked - when he was younger /1 was drinking at that time / it rained - last night hide if you hide, you stay in a secret place so that people cannot see you. If you hide something,you put it in a secret place so that people cannot find it. The past tense is hid and the past participle is hidden: play - and seek /1 hid under the bed / they've hidden the money jump if you jump, you push yourself up into the air, or let yourself fall through the air: we all -ed into the pool I - over a fence / -ing up and down with excitement miles miles means a very long way: we walked for ~! / the hotel is - away from the beach / it was a lovely clear day, and you could see for peace peace is when everything is quiet and calm: you feel a - that you can never get in the city / a wonderful feeling of - /1 was enjoying the - and quiet while everyone was out / can you leave me in -for a minute? relief relief is a happy feeling you have when something bad has stopped or not happened: it was a - to get home / it was such a - to see that everyone was safe / the news that he was coming home came as a great - to us all scared if you are scared,you are frightened. Something that makes you feel scared is scary: / was really - 11 felt very - I you look - - are you OK? / it was really scary being there on my own / a scary film seek if you seek something,you try to find it or get it: we played hide and - /you should - advice from your doctor star a star is a ball of burning gas in space, that you see as a small light in the sky at nightyou wouldn't believe how many -syou can see /1 was looking up at the -s tent a tent is a shelter made of cloth, that you sleep in when you go camping: we slept in a - / can you help me put the - up? / we took the - down in the morning variety if there is a variety of things, there are a lot of different types of things: the food was OK, but there wasn't much - / there's a wide - of activities to choose from / satellite TV offers more - of programmes

PREPOSITIONS A Complete the sentences with the correct preposition. 1 I'd like a room air conditioning. 2 I often babysit my friends. 3 A good night's sleep is important me. 4 The hotel is a convenient location. 5 Please write your details this form. 6 Payment is due 20 September. B Choose the correct preposition 1 Let's meet tomorrow in /for breakfast. 2 The temperature dropped for/ to -5 last night. 3 Thank you very much/or /about your help. 4 The business centre is next on / to the hotel. 5 I got bitten about / by mosquitoes last night. 6 Ifinished my project at/on time.







1 The news that I passed my exams as a great relief. 2 I know you are busy. I'll you in peace. 3 It heavily last night. 4 We finally managed to to an agreement. 5 I the challenge of my job. 6 Don't people by their appearance. B Complete the sentences with the adjectives. Look up the adjectives if you need help. hourly wide personal expiry double entrance 1 The resort offers a 2 I don't give my phone. 3 Babysitters charge an 4 We'd like a 5 Always check the products. 6 The club charges an range of activities. details over the rate. room, please. date on food fee.

W O R D FAMILIES A Complete the expressions with the correct form of the word in bold. 1 room availability Are there any rooms

We reservation. 3 travel in comfort My seat isn't very 4 organised entertainment We're camping trip. 5 80% is a great achievement. He didn't good results.

2 a last-minute cancellation


C Complete the collocations with nouns from the unit. 1 receive a wake-up c _ _ I 2 expected time of a __ _ _ l 3 pay a cancellation f__ 4 credit card d __s 5 income t _ x 6 go on a field t p

PHRASAL VERBS A Choose the correct word to complete the phrasal verb. 1 She gave over / up smoking five years ago. 2 It took us hours to put the tent on / up. 3 He hasn't come out /away of his room all day. 4 We put up /down a 20% deposit on our house. 5 Please turn in / on the air conditioning. 6 The nurse asked me to fill in / up a form.

WORD-BUILDING A Complete the sentences with nouns formed from the verbs. 1 is very good exercise. wait 2 3 4 5 swim park book fund build

She's trying to find for her research. I'm sitting in the doctor's room. We work in a big office I don't drive because it's difficult to find information?

PATTERNS A Put the verb in brackets in the correct form (to + infinitive or-ing). 1 I don't feel comfortable in airline seats, (sit) 2 Do you enjoy football? (watch) 3 There aren't many activities from. (choose) 4 I forgot my sunglasses, (pack) 5 I babysit some extra money, (earn)

6 Doyou have our hotel

COLLOCATIONS A Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs. Look up the verbs if you need help.



text if you text someone, you send them a written message on a mobile phone. Text is also a noun: /'// - you later / he -ed me to invite me to a party / I'll send you a - later /1 got a - from Sammy this morning urgent if something is urgent, it is very important and you need to do it immediately: he's still in bed - is it -? / hurry up - it's - /1 could see that he was in - need of medical attention PAGES 8 4 - 8 5 brain your brain is the organ inside your head, that you use for thinking: he had an operation to reduce the pressure on his - / she suffered some - damage in the accident expect if you expect something,you believe that it will happen or arrive: the problems weren't -ed /1 didn't - him to be so angry about it / the parcel arrived earlier than -ed / I'm here to see Mr Edwards - he's -ing me fair something that is fair is right and reasonable, and treats everyone in the same way.The opposite is unfair: that's not -! /it's not - on the others if you get more money than them / I'll give you 20 each to make it - / that seems perfectly - to me / that's unfair! fall off if you fall off something, you fall from it to the ground: I fell off my bicycle / she fell off her horse last week 11 was scared I was going to fine a fine is an amount of money that you have to pay if you have done something wrong. Fine is also a verb: they've introduced -sfor people making improper calls /1 was given a 60 for speeding /1 got a parking - / police officers can impose on-the-spot ~s (that you must pay immediately) / he was fined 250for driving dangerously hole a hole is a gap or space in something: they had to make a - in the boy's head / there's a - in my sock / water was getting in through a - in the roof / we dug a deep - in the garden household household things are done or used in the home: he only had a normal - drill /1 spent the morning doing - chores / a lot of families find it difficult to pay the - bills identify if you identify something, you say exactly what it is: they identified the species of spider / she was able to - her attacker improper something that is improper is not right or suitable: they've introduced fines for people making - calls / he was accused of - conduct (behaviour that is not acceptable by a professional person) incident an incident is an unusual event: after the ~, he took a photo of the spider / the police believe that the two ~s might be related / he was involved in an - outside a bar / when did the take place?

PAGES 8 2 - 8 3 call back if you call someone back, you phone them again later: I'm having dinner-can I call you back? / I'll call you back later I Tom's not here at the moment - shall I get him to call you back? confirmation a confirmation is a statement saying that something is certain or definite. The verb is confirm: I'm still waiting for - of the price / we'll send you a written - ofyour booking / I'll email you to confirm the time of the meeting coverage the coverage of a mobile phone network is the area where there is a strong signal, so you can make calls: the - isn't very good here /1 couldn't phone because there was no - there get cut off if you get cut off, your phone suddenly stops working: we couldn't finish the conversation because we got cut off7 we're just going into a tunnel, so I might hang up if you hang up, you end a phone conversation suddenly: we started to argue, so I just hung up / he just hung up on me! line a line is a telephone connection: / tried calling, but the - was busy / can you hold the -? I he's on another ~ at the moment (talking on a different telephone,) on hold if you are on hold, you are waiting to speak to someone on the phone: / was put - for about ten minutes / I'll just put you - for a moment while I check his number put through if someone puts you through, they connect to the person you want to talk to on the phone: she put me through to the right department /George Baker? Yes, I'll put you through signal a signal is electrical waves that carry sound or pictures to mobile phones, computers etc: / can't hear you very well - it's a very poor - /1 haven't got a - here, so I can't use my phone

initially initially means at the beginning: he seemed fine /1 didn't like him introduce if people introduce something, they start using it: they've ~d fines for people making improper calls / the school has ~d a new uniform irrational if something is irrational, it is not based on sensible ideas: / have an - fear of spiders /1 knew that my feelings were - /1 think you're being completely leaflet a leaflet is a piece of paper that gives information about something: the police are sending ~s to houses to explain the problem / a publicity - / more details are given in our information misuse if you misuse something, you use it in a wrong or bad way: how are people misusing the number? / he is accused of misusing the charity's funds MISmis- is added to a number of words to mean you did something wrongly or badly. They misuse the service. I misunderstood what you said. I It was a misunderstanding I miscounted the money. You misheard me. We were really mistreated operation if you have an operation, doctors cut into your body to repair it or remove part of it: he had an - to reduce the pressure on his brain / a minor (not very serious) / she needed an emergency - / a knee - /a heart package a package is a box or large letter that is sent by mail and delivered to someone's house: / was expecting two -s / a large - arrived for me / I'll send the - toyour home address patient if you are patient, you remain calm and don't get angry when there is a problem. The opposite is impatient: he wasn't a very - customer/just be -I / he was extremely - with us / don't be so impatient! poisonous something that is poisonous can make you ill if you eat it or touch it: one of the world's most - spiders /a - snake / the leaves are - to humans / some types of mushroom are highly polite if you are polite, you speak and behave in a way that shows respect for other people. The opposite is impolite: he's always very - / she's always extremely - tome/that wasn't very - of you / it would be impolite not to invite her realise if you realise that something is true,you know or understand that it is true: the doctor ~d the boy was in danger of dying /1 didn't - it was so late / seeing those people made me - how lucky I am

receive if you receive something, you get it: / ~d a phone call from him / I'm expecting a package, but I haven't -d it yet / did you - my email? /you should - a letter from me later this week remote a place that is remote is far away from towns and cities: they live in a - town in Australia / a village in the mountains / the house is extremely ride a ride is a trip or lift in a car: he wanted a - home / I'll give you a - to the station /1 managed to get a back to the village / we went for a - in his new car / get in - I'll take you for a rush if you rush somewhere, you go there very quickly. Rush is also a noun: she -ed him to the nearest hospital /1 -ed downstairs to answer the door / there's no need to- - we've got plenty of time /1 can't talk now - I'm in a rush species a species is a type of animal or plant. The plural is also species: they identified the - of spider / a rare - of butterfly / some - of birds are still very common / the - is almost extinct spider a spider is a small animal with eight legs that makes sticky webs to catch insects to eat: they identified the species of - / a spider's web swelling a swelling is a part of your body that is bigger than usual because it is injured. The verb is swell: a nurse noticed a - on his head / the - was beginning to go down (become smaller) / my knee swelled up unpleasant someone or something that is unpleasant is not nice or pleasant: he's a very man / she was extremely - to us / an - smell / it tasted slightly PAGES 8 6 - 8 7 automated something that is automated uses computers or machines to do a job, rather than people: an - telephone system / the production process is fully contract a contract is an official agreement between people: / signed a - with World Mail / they offered me a three-year - /1 don't have a written - / they threatened to end my deliver if you deliver something,you take it to a place. The noun is delivery: we've tried to - the package twice this week / the letter was -ed to my home address / doyou charge for delivery? embassy an embassy is a building where government officials from another country work: / phoned the - to ask about my visa / the Australian - in London / a protest outside the American held if something is held somewhere, it is kept there. The verb is hold: the packages are being - in our main sorting office in Manchester / the records are all - on computer / he was - prisoner by the kidnappers for three weeks (kept as a prisoner) / we'll hold your documents here until you're ready to collect them



help desk a help desk is a place where you can go to ask for information or help: there's a 24-hour telephone - / why don't you ask at the ~f insufficient if something is insufficient, it is not enough. The opposite is sufficient: / had to pay extra because of - postage / we had - money to live / there was sufficient evidence to prove his guilt item an item is a thing: we can offer you a full refund for the lost - / are you phoning to ask about a special delivery ~? /an - of clothing /you're allowed one - of hand luggage / what's the first on the list? landlord a landlord is a man who owns a house or flat and allows other people to live in it in return for money. A woman who does this is a landlady: / phoned my - to tell him about the problem / my - called to collect the rent obtain if you obtain something, you get it://you'd like to - a postal code, please press 2 / it's quite difficult to - funding I you can - the information quite easily /you need to - permission from your landlord postal postal means to do with the system for sending letters and packages: the - service isn't

very good / what's your full - address? / ifyou'd like to obtain a - code, please press 2 refund a refund is an amount of money that you get back when you return something to a shop or are not satisfied with a service. Refund is also a verb: we can offer you a full -for the lost item /1 took it back to the shop and asked for a - / they offered to give me a - /1 asked them to refund my money registered registered post is a system for sending letters and packages in which you pay extra to be certain that they will arrive safely: they were sent by - post /1 sent it by - airmail /a - letter sign if you sign a letter or document, you write your name on it. Your signature is your way of writing your name: / -ed a contract with World Mail /1 forgot to - the cheque /1 -ed and dated the letter / you need to - for the delivery / can you - your name here, please? / her signature was on the bottom of the letter unlimited an unlimited amount does not have a fixed limit. The opposite is limited:/or that price you get - downloads / we have - access to the internet /she seems to have an - supply of money / we can only invite a limited number of people

PREPOSITIONS A Complete the sentences with the correct preposition. 1 I got a text my sister yesterday. 2 The surgeon removed part his jaw. 3 I told my boss the problem. 4 There's a letter you. 5 Some types spider are poisonous. 6 I got permission my landlord to install a phone. B Choose the correct preposition 1 She has respect about I for other people. 2 He wasn't very polite of I to me. 3 I live in I on Melbourne, Australia. 4 The letter was sent to I at your work address. 5 I'm phoning to ask of I about a package. 6 The airline only allows 20 kg of I in luggage. 7 I wasn't satisfied of I with the service.

3 Just patient! Your turn will come. 4 I'm here to see the manager. She's me. 5 He's on a call. Can you the line? 6 I'll you a text tomorrow. B Match the two halves of the collocations. Look up the nouns (a-f) if you need help. 1 the first item on the a) fine 2 sign a b) list 3 a spider's c) chores 4 a piece of d) contract 5 an on-the-spot e) web 6 household f) paper C Complete the missing adjectives. 1 The letter was sent by r _ _ _dpost. 2 What's the p I code for your address? 3lhaveani__ __ I fear of heights. 4 He was accused of i _ r conduct. 5 I received a w _ _ n confirmation of the booking. 6 I can't hearyou. My phone has a w _ _ k signal.

W O R D FAMILIES PHRASAL VERBS A Complete the expressions with the correct form of the word in bold. 1 We're waiting for Did you the confirmation. booking? 2 a swelling on her My arm is head up. 3 a delivery charge I the package yesterday. 4 Where are the records The post office is held? the parcel. 5 I signed the letter. That's not my A Choose the correct word to complete the phrasal verb. 1 We got cut out/offln the middle of our conversation. 2 I hang away / up when marketing people call me. 3 Can you put me through / on to customer services, please? 4 The swelling on my knee is starting to go down / over. 5 Hurry on /up! We're going to be late. 6 I fell out/off my bicycle and broke my arm.

B Which words in the list below are both nouns and verbs? patient text refund fine rush obtain receive

PATTERNS A Put the verb in brackets in the correct form {to + infinitive or-ing) 1 Your signature is your way of your name, (write) 2 Can I ask him you back? (call) 3 I want to Mr Smith, please, (talk) 4 She's very sick and in danger of (die) 5 You can be fined for improper calls. (make) 6 I spent the morning TV. (watch) 7 Were you able the caller? (identify)

COLLOCATIONS A Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs. Look up the verbs if you need help. talk be send expect lift hold

1 I can't now. I'll call you later. 2 Could you give me a to the supermarket?



PACES 9 2 - 9 3 chase a chase is a situation in which someone follows another person quickly and tries to catch them. Chase is also a verb: the car - was really exciting / a high-speed car - / he ran off, and the police officer gave ~ / we eventually gave up the ~ (stopped it) / / chased after her / they chased me down the street costume a costume is a set of clothes that an actor wears, or that you wear in order to look different: the ~s were amazing / there are some great ~s / I wore a lion - / he was dressed in a cowboy complicated if something is complicated, it is difficult to understand because it has a lot of different parts: a - plot / the instructions are too / a very - situation direct if you direct a film,you control the way it is made by telling the actors what to do. Someone who does this is a director: there's this film called Dust and Heat - -ed by Umberto Collocini / a famous film director / the director of the Harry Potter movies drama a drama is a play for the theatre or television: some -s deal with current issues such as AIDS / a - about the Second World War / a new TV - / my favourite hospital - on TV / she's starring in a new - series on BBC1 ending the ending of a film or story is the way it ends: does the film have a happy~? / a sad - / the - is very dramatic /1 didn't like the explosion an explosion is the loud noise that happens when a bomb goes off. The verb is explode: there are lots of car chases and ~s / there was a huge - / people heard the - miles away / hundreds of people were injured in the - / a massive - shook the building / a nuclear - / a bomb exploded in the city centre halfway halfway means at the middle point between two things, or at the middle point between the

beginning and end of something: / got really bored through the film /1 live - between London and Leeds light something that is light is easy to understand and not very serious: I'd like to watch something a bit ~er /1 like to read something - when I'm on holiday / it's perfect - entertainment plot the plot is the story in a book or film: it's got a very complicated - / the - is quite simple / everything became clear as the - developed / there's an interesting twist in the - at the end (something unexpected happens) predictable if something is predictable, it happens in the way you expected, so it is not interesting. The opposite is unpredictable: it's quite - / the ending was very - /1 found it rather boring and ~ / the plot is highly - / the weather's a bit unpredictable at the moment set if a story is set in a place, it happens in that place: it's - in space / the film is ~ in north Africa / the story is - during the French Revolution special effects special effects are pictures and sounds in a film that make it seem as if something very exciting or impossible is happening: it's got some amazing ~ / the - are brilliant /1 love the star if a film stars someone, that person is an important actor in the film: the film -s Beatrice Binoche and Brad Schmidt / a film starring Hugh Grant / the film starred Jessica Baldwin as a young artist living in Paris subtitles subtitles are words that are printed at the bottom of a film in a different language, which translate what the actors are saying. A subtitled film has subtitles: the film was in English and there were no - / it's in French with - / we watched the subtitled version of the film PAGES 9 4 - 9 5

put up for - (sold at an auction) / it's going to be sold by - (at an auction) author an author is someone who writes books: the - of a new book about Hollywood / a young American - /1 haven't read anything by that - / she's my favourite award an award is a prize that someone wins for something good that they have done: he's won several -sfor his books / an - for bravery / he received an - for his performance in the film / she got a special -for her charity work background your background is the type of family you come from and the education you have had: the programme helps young people from poor ~s / she's from a very wealthy - / it's brought together people from different ~s / he never talks about his biography a biography is a book about a person's life: he's written a new - of Winston Churchill / the official - of the queen character a character is a person in a book or film: the main - is a young man called Simon / he's quite a tragic - / there are a few comic -s in the film composer a composer is someone who writes music. The verb is compose:/amous -s like Beethoven and Mozart / one of the best living -s / a classical - (someone who writes classical music) / he composed this piece when he was 15 concert a concert is a performance by musicians or singers: we've been rehearsing this piece of music for a - / a - of piano music / a rock - /we went to a last weekend / I've bought tickets for a - on Friday conductor a conductor is someone who stands in front of musicians or singers and directs the way they play or sing. The verb is conduct: the international - Gustavo Dudamel / he's been conducting the National Youth Orchestra for the last ten years -OR

addiction if you have an addiction, you are unable to stop doing something because your body or mind needs it. Someone who has an addiction is an addict. The adjective is addicted: it helps the kids avoid problems like drug - / the growing problem of alcohol - / he's trying to beat his - to cocaine / she's a drug addict /1 became addicted to gambling album an album is a CD with several different songs on it: what's your favourite ~f / he's just recorded his first - / they are due to release their next - in March / her new - is coming out next week / this is his debut - (his first one) anniversary an anniversary is a date on which something important happened in a previous year: it's our wedding - today / the third - of his death / the - of the end of the war auction an auction is an event where things are sold to the person who offers the most money for them: / bought it at an - / they're holding an - of nineteenth century paintings / the house will be

Some names for jobs/people are based on verbs with -or. a well-known conductor a fitness instructor a film director the governor of California an inventor investors in the company exhibition an exhibition is a show where people can go to look at paintings or other works of art: / saw an - of his work last year / the art gallery is holding an - of paintings by Rembrandt / we're going to an - tomorrow / a major new - opens at the gallery next week fan a fan is someone who likes something a lot: I'm a big - of his films / I'm not a great - of her books / a football - / a group of Manchester United -s found if someone founds an organisation or a city, they start it: he -ed a theatre in Mozambique /

the school was -ed in 1748 /the city was -ed over 400years ago instrument a musical instrument is something that you can play music on: a musical - / a brass - / woodwind -s / can you play an -? landscape a landscape is a picture of the countryside: he paints mainly -s / one of the best - painters of all time /a - painting long-running something that is long-running has continued for a long time: a - TV programme / a dispute between the two families / a - legal battle novel a novel is a book that tells a story: a new - by a young French writer / the ~s of Charles Dickens / have you read any of her ~s> / he's written over 20 -s / her first - was published last year / a bestselling - / a romantic painting a painting is a picture that someone has painted: an exhibition of his ~s / a famous - / a collection of impressionist ~s / he did a lot of -s of landscapes portrait a portrait is a picture of a person: a - of Napoleon / a family - (of all the members of a family) / he painted several ~s of his mother programme a programme is a set of actions that help or improve something: a - that helps young people from poor backgrounds learn classical music / a training - foryoung unemployed people / I've started a new fitness - / the government has announced a - of education reforms publish if a company publishes a book, it prints it and makes it available for people to buy: her first novel was -ed last year / they've just -ed a new biography of John Lennon rehearse if you rehearse, you practise something such as a play or concert before you perform in front of people: we've been rehearsing the song for a concert / we've been rehearsing for six weeks /1 need to - my lines scheme a scheme is a plan or system that tries to help or improve something: we've got a similar - in this country / a government training - / if you work here, you can join our pension - / the government has set up a new - to help the longterm unemployed sculpture sculpture is the art of making beautiful objects out of wood, stone etc. A sculpture is a work of art made in this way: I'm really interested in - / a wonderful - exhibition / he does these beautiful ~s / a huge wooden -ofa man social social problems or qualities are to do with society, and different people in society.Social activities involve doing things with other people for pleasure: her novels deal with - issues / the area has a lot of - problems / the people all come from different - backgrounds /1 have a brilliant life (I see a lot of people and go out a lot) suspense suspense is a feeling you have when you are waiting for something exciting to happen:



there's a lot of - in his books / the film is full of- / / couldn't watch it, because I couldn't bear the - /1 get my exam results next week - the - is killing me (I feel very excited) technique a technique is a special way of doing something: she's got an amazing singing - / he uses a variety of ~s in his paintings / there are different -sfor building stone walls train if you train,you learn the skills that you need to do something. The noun is training: she -ed as an opera singer / I'm -ing to be a teacher /1 did a lot of training before the race trouble if you are in trouble, you have done something wrong and people want to punish you: / was already in - with the police / I'll be in - with my parents if I'm late home /1 don't want to get into - / try and keep out ofvoice your voice is the sounds you make when you sing or speak: she's got an amazing - / he's got a very loud - / she spoke in a soft - / a high-pitched - / a deep - / she didn't often raise her - (shout) / he lowered his - (spoke more quietly) / can you keep your - down, please? (speak quietly) / I've lost my - (I can't speak because I've got a problem with my throat) PACES 9 6 - 9 7 AIDS AIDS is a very serious disease that makes your body unable to stop infections: current issues such as - / he died of - / people who are living with - / new treatments for censorship if there is censorship, parts of books or films are taken out if the government thinks they are bad or dangerous. The verb is censor: is there any - of films? / there is strict government - of all books / the government has relaxed - in the last few years I they have promised to tighten - / all books and films are censored civil war a civil war is a war between different groups in a country: the incident could cause - / a country that has experienced - I he fought in the Spanish corruption corruption is dishonest or immoral behaviour.The adjective is corrupt: some dramas deal with current issues such as - /government - is a huge problem / two government ministers have been accused of - / corrupt police officers cult a cult is a small religious group with different or extreme beliefs: he becomes involved with a religious - / he became a - leader current a current problem or situation is one that exists now: - issues such as AIDS / interested in affairs (things that are happening in the world now) / the - world champion deal with if something deals with a subject, it is about that subject: some dramas - current issues such as AIDS and corruption / the film deals with the problem of poverty

experience if you experience something, it happens to you: a country that has ~d civil war / I've never ~d anything like this before / we ~d a few problems /1 didn't - any pain 11 haven't ~d it first-hand (personally) generate to generate something means to produce it or make it happen: the industry ~s around 160 million a year / the business doesn't - much income for us / using the sun to - electricity / the film has ~d a lot of interest in the subject industry an industry is all the companies that produce one particular type of goods or service: does your country have a big film ~? / the coal - / the car - / the country has a large tourist neutral someone or something that is neutral does not support one side in an argument or war; English is a common - language / a - country / the country remained - during the war punish if you punish someone, you do something bad to them because they have done something wrong. The noun is punishment: they are fantasies where the bad people are -ed and the good people rewarded I he was -edfor stealing /1 think he deserves to be -ed /you will be severely -ed / he was given a harsh punishment (strong) / / think the punishment was too lenient (not very strong) record if you record something,you store it on a tape: most films are -ed in English / all police interviews are -ed /1 -ed our telephone conversation / she's busy -ing her new album represent to represent something means to be it: English -s a common neutral language / this ~s a very big achievement for our school reward if you are rewarded,you receive something, for example money, because you have done something good. Reward is also a noun: the bad people are punished and the good people -ed / the police have offered a 10,000 reward for information specialise if you specialise in something,you do mainly that thing: Hollywood ~s in action movies / the company ~s in adventure holidays tension if there is tension between people, they do not trust or like each other: the films cause -s between different groups / there's a lot of between local people and the police tough something that is tough is difficult and has a lot of problems: a - society like Nigeria / life is sometimes / he's had a - time recently wealth wealth is a large amount of money. The adjective is wealthy: a religious cult that promises him incredible - if he kills his wife I he uses his - to help others I a wealthy businessman weird something that is weird is very strange: the and wonderful world of Nigerian cinema / it was all a bit - /1 think she's -

PREPOSITIONS A Complete the sentences with the correct preposition. 1 I only watch the news TV. 2 There was a great twist the movie plot. 3 The film was in Spanish English subtitles. 4 Next week I'll be holiday. 5 The film is set Greece. 6 She's won awards her books. B Choose the correct preposition 1 She's in /from a wealthy background. 2 I'm interested in / on American history. 3 Kate Winslet is one of / about my favourite actors 4 We went at / to a movie last night. 5 I'm not a fan in / of action movies. 6 The school was founded in /on 1890.







1 your voice down, please. 2 I'm waiting for my results. The suspense is mel 3 The art school is an exhibition of student work. 4 The house was up for auction. 5 The group have their second album. 6 I like films that a happy ending. B Complete the sentences with the adjectives. Look up the adjectives if you need help. musical social big 1 2 3 4 5 6 main best-selling classical

W O R D FAMILIES A Complete the expressions with the correct form of the word in bold. l a famous film Who director the movie? 2 a drug addict She's to tobacco. 3 He trained to be an receive computer engineer. 4 government a police corruption officer 5 Criminals are a harsh punished.

I like listening to music. She works hard and has no life. My dream is to write a novel. Can you play a instrument? I'm a fan of Liverpool Football Club. The character is a young Japanese woman.

C Complete the collocations with nouns from the unit. 1 the city c e 2 the French R__ __n 3 a wedding a __ __y 4 go to a rock c _ _ t 5 an opera s r 6 have first-hand e e

PHRASAL VERBS A Choose the correct word to complete the phrasal verb. 1 The thief ran out / off with her handbag. 2 A bomb went off / about in a crowded bus. 3 Their new album has just come on /out. 4 I don't go on / out much in the evenings. 5 She gave in / up her studies after one year.

WORD-BUILDING A Complete the sentences with nouns formed from the verbs. | invent invest govern instruct direct conduct

1 She works as a in the film industry. 2 Henry Ford and Alexander Graham Bell were both 3 He's the of the New York Philharmonic Orchestra. 4 buy shares in the stock market. 5 People vote to elect a 6 She's training to be a fitness

PATTERNS A Put the verb in brackets in the correct form (to + infinitive or-ing). 1 Let's watch the movie Kevin Spacey. (star) 2 The government has promised censorship, (tighten) 3 It's a story about an artist in Rome. (live) 4 We use solar power electricity. (generate) 5 He's tried but he can't stop (smoke)

COLLOCATIONS A Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs. Look up the verbs if you need help.



PAGES 9 8 - 9 9 bin a bin is a container where you put things that you no longer want: a rubbish - / a waste paper - I put it in the - I if you don't want it, just throw it in the court a court is an area where you can play a game such as tennis or basketball: a tennis ~ /a basketball - I the players have been on - for nearly two hours (playing) clean if you give something a clean, you clean it: we have to give everything a good - I the windows need a - I the car could do with a (needs a clean) drawer a drawer is a part of a piece of furniture that you can move in and out and keep things in: there's a knife in the - in the kitchen I all the pens are in my desk - I it's in the top - of the chest of drawers I the bottom duvet a duvet is a thick warm cover for a bed: / need a new - / a double - (for a double bed) / a single - (for a single bed) / / was lovely and warm under theforecast a forecast is a description of what you think will happen: what's the weather - for tomorrow? I the weather -for tomorrow is quite good I the economic -for next year is quite gloomy (not good) garage a garage is a building for keeping a car in: there's a mop in the - I1 never put the car in the iron an iron is a piece of equipment that you use for making clothes smooth. Iron is also a verb: he gave me an - for my birthday! I make sure the - isn't too hot I use a cool - I I've got a few shirts to iron kettle a kettle is a piece of equipment that you use for boiling water: can you make some coffee? The ~'s over there /fill the - with water I there isn't enough water in the -

mop a mop is something that you use for cleaning floors, with a long stick and a soft part on the end. Mop is also a verb: / need a - and a bucket I use the - in the kitchen I clean the floor with a - / I've just mopped the kitchen floor mortgage a mortgage is an amount of money that you borrow in order to buy a house: we've got a big - /a small - /we took out a-to buy a house I I've finally paid off my nail a nail is a thin pointed piece of metal that you bang into wood with a hammer: a hammer and ~s I hammering a - into the wall neighbour a neighbour is someone who lives next to you or near you: / asked a - for help I he's my next-door - (he lives in the next house to me) / doyou get on well with your ~s? I the -s are very friendly pan a pan is a container that you use for cooking food on the top of a cooker: heat the milk in a small - I a frying - / a stainless steel plaster a plaster is a small piece of sticky material that you put over a cut on your skin, to protect it: put a - on the cut 11 think you can take the - off now I1 peeled the - off carefully pray if you pray, you speak to God: a mosque is a building where you go and - I they -ed for the victims I he -ed for forgiveness rail a rail is a long round piece of metal or wood, that you use to hang something on: a shower - / a curtain -la towel - I looking through the clothes on the refugee a refugee is someone who has left their country to escape from war or danger: the country won't accept any more -s I thousands of ~s have escaped over the border / a - camp rubber a rubber is a small object that you use for removing pencil marks from paper: can I borrow a ~? I use a - to rub it out rubbish rubbish is things that people throw away: a site where - is buried I household - is collected every Monday I we all produce too much - la bin la- tip (a place where rubbish is left) shelf a shelf is a piece of wood or metal that is attached to a wall, that you can put things on: there are some towels on a - in the bathroom 11 need a - for my books I my dad put up some shelves for me 11 got a job stacking shelves in a supermarket (putting things on the shelves) sink a sink is a piece of furniture in a bathroom or kitchen, that you can fill with water and use for washing things: put the dirty dishes in the - I there's a cloth in the cupboard under the - in the kitchen spare a spare thing is an extra thing that you have, so that you can use it if you need it:you can sleep in the - room I I've got a - key in my bag I you should always have a - tyre in the boot of your car

spill if you spill a liquid, you let it fall out of its container by accident: I've just spilt water all over the bathroom floor I mind you don't -your coffee stapler a stapler is a small machine that puts small pieces of wire through paper to hold them together. The pieces of wire are called staples. Staple is also a verb: can I borrow your ~? 11 need to put some more staples in the stapler I staple the documents together -ER A lot of names for objects and machines are based on the verb that they are used for, a stapler a rubber a food mixer a photocopier a rice cooker a DVD player

Note: a cooker is the machine, and the person is a cook or chef. towel a towel is a piece of thick cloth that you use for drying your skin: have you got a - I could borrow? 11 dried my hands on a - I a hand (a small one for drying your hands) la bath vacuum cleaner a vacuum cleaner is a machine that cleans floors by sucking up dirt: / usually clean the floor with the - I he doesn't know how to use the PAGES 1 0 0 - 1 0 1 archaeologist an archaeologist is someone who studies very old societies by studying the remains of their buildings and objects. The subject is archaeology: a team of ~s has investigated the site I she's doing a degree in archaeology bury if you bury something,you put it in a hole in the ground and cover it: a site where rubbish was buried I they buried her body in the garden cardboard cardboard is very thick, stiff paper that is used for making boxes: a container made of - I a - box consume if you consume something,you use it: everything we produce and - leads to waste I we should try to reduce the amount of energy we - I they - vast quantities of food convince if you convince someone about something, you make them feel certain that it is true: she's trying to - me that I could waste less I he managed to - them of his innocence cross off if you cross something off a written list, you remove it from the list by putting a line through it. If you cross something out, you put a line through it: all my favourite things are getting crossed off my shopping list 11 crossed my name off the list I some of the names have been crossed out

dairy dairy products are foods that are made from milk: / don't eat too many - products 11 don't buy a lot of- produce diet your diet is the types of foods that you eat every day: which family has the healthiest ~? I try to make sure that you have a balanced - (with all the foods that you need) I most of the children here have a very poor - 11 think I should change my dispose of if you dispose of something, you get rid of it because you don't want it: it costs around $100 per tonne to - of rubbish I what's the best way to - of old paint? efficiency efficiency is working well, without wasting energy or time. The adjective is efficient: 100% is impossible I we need to improve - I tap water is much more efficient la very energy-efficient system efficient if something is efficient, it doesn't use more energy than is necessary. The opposite is inefficient: drinking tap water is much more - I new washing machines are more energy - than older ones I producing aluminium is very inefficient expert an expert is someone who knows a lot about a subject: an - on the environment I a world - on cancer I a group of medical ~s get rid of if you get rid of something,you throw it away or destroy it because you no longer not need it: It costs $1000 a tonne to - chemicals such as paint I we need to - this old furniture I the best way to - mice from your house global warming global warming is the increase in the world's temperature, caused by an increase in the amount of certain gases in the air: a natural gas which causes - I the problem of - I the effects of - I ways to prevent - I new measures to tackle guilty if someone is guilty, they have done something that is a crime. If you feel guilty, you feel bad because you have done something wrong: I feel very - 11 felt - about lying to him 11 don't think he's - of the murder I the court found her - of theft mine if people mine something, they dig it out of the ground in order to use it. A mine is a place where people dig something out of the ground: they must -four tonnes of rock to get one tonne of aluminium I they - gold in this area I a gold mine I a coal mine packaging packaging is the bags and boxes that something is sold in: the - is biodegradable I most things you buy in supermarkets have got too much recycle if you recycle things, you send them to be treated in special factories so that they can be used again: doyou - the containers? I most paper can be ~d I it's quite easy to - glass and plastic I what does your country do to encourage recycling? reduce if you reduce something, you make it less in size or amount. The noun is reduction: we must - waste by 10% I plastic bottles - transport costs I the government wants to - the number of accidents on the roads I we should all - the amount of paper we use I there has been a



reduction in unemployment over the last three months rock rock is the hard substance that the Earth is made of: they mine four tonnes of - to get one tonne of aluminium / machines that can cut through solid preserve to preserve something means to keep it in good condition and stop it from being harmed or damaged: some perfectly ~d sausages / chemicals which are used to - food / experts are working to the painting sticker a sticker is a small piece of paper or plastic with writing or a picture on, that you stick on to something: a - on the bag to show they have paid their tax /a - on the car window saying 'Baby on board' tap a tap is a piece of equipment that you use to control the flow of water, for example in a kitchen or bathroom. Tap water is water from the tap: why not drink - water? / the hot-water - / turn the on and fill the sink with water I can you turn the off? / the - in the kitchen is dripping team a team is a group of people who work together or play a sport together: a - of archaeologists has investigated the site / we work together as a - / a football vegetarian a vegetarian is someone who doesn't eat meat. Vegetarian is also an adjective: it's better to be- I doyou like -food? / they don't offer many options / are you a -? weakly if you say or do something weakly, you do it in a way that shows you do not feel very confident: 'Nothing,'I - reply / he smiled -

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attractive someone who is attractive is pretty or nice to look at: clothes that make me more - / a very girl / doyou find him -? I he's incredibly blow if something blows, it moves because of the wind. The past tense is blew and the past participle is blown: / use that rock to stop papers on my desk -ing away / the door blew shut / some trees were blown down in the storm break up if people break up, they decide that they don't want to be in a relationship with each other any more.The past tense is broke up and the past participle is broken up: a couple of weeks after that, we broke up / I've broken up with Jack clue a clue is a small piece of information that helps you to learn the truth about something: she gave me ~s about the present / the police have found some important -s / they are still searching for -s / we have no ~s as to his identity click if you click on something on a computer, you press a button on the mouse to make something happen: when I -ed on the link, I understood everything / - on 'Continue'

confused if you feel confused,you cannot understand something very well. Something that is confusing makes you feel confused: / was - / / felt completely - / I'm still a bit - about the whole thing / it's all very confusing embarrassed if you are embarrassed, you feel slightly ashamed or uncomfortable because you are worried about what people will think of you. Something that makes you feel embarrassed is embarrassing: / was quite - because it was our first date / he looked really -I1 was really - by you! / it was so embarrassing! go out with if you go out with someone, you have a romantic relationship with them: / went out with a girl a few years ago / she's never been out with a boy hand if you hand something to someone, you give it to them: she -ed me a rock from the beach / he -ed the letter to me / can you - me that bottle? link a link is a connection between different parts of a website, or between different websites: when I clicked on the -, I understood everything / there's information about the charity, and a - to their website occasion an occasion is a special event: when did you receive the present? What was the-? I we're saving it for a special - /an 18th birthday party is a big - / an important - / how are we going to celebrate the -? /1 think we should mark the - in some way (celebrate it) petrol petrol is a liquid that you put in a car or other vehicle to make the engine work: I've saved loads of money on - I fill the car up with - / the rising price of pour if you pour a liquid, you make it flow from one container into another: shall I -you a drink? / shall I - the coffee?/ - some orange juice into the glass rock a rock is a large stone: sfie handed me a -from the beach / we climbed over the -s I the boat ran into some -s and sank / the ground is just bare - / a huge lump ofturn if you turn something, you become it: she ~s 13 next week I the weather's -ed colder / my hands -ed blue with cold /1 was worried he might - nasty / the situation could - violent

PREPOSITIONS A Complete the sentences with the correct preposition. 1 There's a sharp knife the drawer. 2 I got a new phone my birthday. 3 There are some towels the shelf. 4 I cleaned the floor a mop. 5 He's doing a degree psychology. 6 We should reduce the amount energy we use. B Choose the correct preposition 1 Cheese is made by/from milk. 2 Click at / on the link to find more information. 3 What's the best way to dispose of / out batteries? 4 Water is dripping of7from the tap. 5 I finished studying a couple of / on weeks ago. 6 There's a spare tyre on / in the boot.

5 She managed to people to vote for her. 6 The house could with a clean. 7 the rubbish in the bin. B Complete the sentences with the adjectives. Look up the adjectives if you need help. frying vast special spare dairy balanced next-door

1 I want to make his birthday a occasion. 2 It's important to have a diet. 3 Doyou eat a lot of products? 4 Every country needs quantities of oil. 5 You can sleep in the room. 6 You cook an omelette in a pan. 7 I don't know my neighbour. Complete the collocations with nouns from the unit. 1 theweatherf__ t 2 a handt I 3 tap w r 4 orangej e 5 a healthy d t 6 a cardboard b x

W O R D FAMILIES A Complete the expressions with the correct form of the word in bold. 1 I ironed my a steam trousers. 2 Can I borrow your the pages stapler? together. 3 I mopped the floor. I bought a new 4 a team of archaeologists 5 We must reduce pollution 6 an embarrassing experience She studies a accidents I felt in road

PHRASAL VERBS A Choose the correct word to complete the phrasal verb. 1 We took on / out a mortgage to pay for our house. 2 I'm still paying out/off my student loan. 3 Doyou get about /on well with your classmates? 4 Can you help me put up /on some shelves? 5 We crossed all the items out /off the list. 6 I need to get rid at /of all the junk in my cupboard. 7 My sister just broke away / up with her boyfriend.

COLLOCATIONS A Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs. Look up the verbs if you need help. convince throw 1 He 2 We 3 My sister is classmates. 4 We need to do go turn work mark

PATTERNS A Put the verb in brackets in the correct form {to + infinitive or -ing). 1 Does your town encourage ? (recycle) 2 Rubber is used for tyres, (make) 3 I need a few shirts, (iron) 4 Use the kettle for water, (boil) 5 Doyou know how a car? (drive) 6 The government wants unemployment, (reduce)

nasty when he drinks too much. the occasion with a big party. out with one of my together as a team.




PACES 1 0 4 - 1 0 5 course a course is one part of a meahyou can get a three meal for $6 / the first - / what are you having for your main -} crisps crisps are very thin pieces of potato that are fried in oil: the - are quite expensive here / / bought a packet of-/a bag of plain - (with no flavours added) / ready-salted - / salt-and-vinegar - /1 never eat currency a currency is the money that is used in a country: our - is strong at the moment / the is still weak /you can get foreign - at the bank I the major European currencies / what's the local - there? designer designer clothes are made by a famous fashion company: you can get - clothes for quite low prices /a- suit I - dresses I the well-known labels / - jewellery election an election is when the people in a country vote to choose a new government. The verb is elect: there's an - next month I a general - (of the whole country) / local ~s / a democratic - / they are calling for fair and free ~s / they're claiming the - was rigged / accusations of -fraud / are you going to vote in the ~? I the new government was elected last month / he was elected President lastyear goods goods are things that are made and sold in shops: electronic - are much cheaper there / a shop selling luxury - / household - / they produce and sell electrical - / the - are transported by lorry / a - train go up if something goes up, it increases: unemployment has gone up a lot over the lastyear / inflation's gone up over the last two years / rail fares have gone up by nearly 50% / the temperature went up to over 40 degrees / prices

have gone up dramatically / inflation has gone up slightly inflation if there is inflation, the price of things you can buy keeps increasing: -'s gone up over the last two years / a period of high - / we've had relatively low - recently / rising - I soaring - (rising quickly) / these price rises will fuel - (make it worse) /an attempt to reduce - /government measures to control pace the pace of something is how fast or slowly it happens: the - of life is much slower there I the of life is really fast / the - of events has speeded up / the - of technological change popularity someone's popularity is how many people like them. If someone is popular, a lot of people like them: the government is currently losing - / the - of internet shopping / the show enjoys huge - / the university is gaining in - / his - has grown / its - has declined in recent years / he's very popular with his classmates / a popular TV entertainer population the population of a place is all the people who live there: nearly 80% of the - own a car / there's only a small -la large - /the- of Trance / the global - / the - is growing / the - now stands at over 15 million / the - could reach 25 million by 2025 / a decline in the salary a salary is an amount of money that you receive each month for a job: the average - is quite high I they pay good salaries / an annual - of 35,000 /your starting - will be 19,000 / they are demanding an increase in - I my - will go up next year I some managers face cuts in security if you have security, you are safe and you are not going to lose something. The adjective is secure: people had more job - in the past / we don't have any financial - I the relationship gives her emotional - / a feeling of - / we are financially secure shame if something is a shame, it is disappointing: It seems a - to leave / oh, what a -I / that's a -I / it's a - the weather isn't good unemployment if there is unemployment in a country, a lot of people don't have jobs. The adjective is unemployed: - has gone up a lot over the lastyear / - has risen to over 3 million / the government has promised to reduce - / - has fallen to under 2 million / a period of high - / low - /a time of rising - /falling - / thousands of workers are now facing PACES 1 0 6 - 1 0 7 bill a bill is a list showing how much you have to pay for something: what kind of-s do people have to pay? / a big -for cleaning/fuel -s are going to get higher / I've got a few unpaid ~s / a telephone - / the electricity - / the gas - / he sent me a huge - / who is going to foot the - (pay it)?

card playing cards are small cards with numbers or pictures on, which people use to play games: we played - together /a pack of-s / a - game / I'll shuffle the ~s (mix them up) / come on, deal the ~s (give them to people at the beginning of a game) charity a charity is an organisation that collects money and uses it to help people: /give money to a children's - / an animal - / a local - / donate money to - / it's sometimes difficult to decide which - to support / they've raised a lot of money for - / a - event company if you have company, you are with someone: / guess he liked his neighbour's - /1 enjoy his - / she's good - (enjoyable to be with) / I needed some - / it's nice to have a bit of - / I'll stay here to keep you - / he likes his own - (enjoys being alone) divide if you divide something,you share it between different people: the money was ~d between them / we -d the money equally among us /1 tried to it fairly doll a doll is a toy that looks like a baby or small person: dad used to find bits of old wood and turn them into toy boats and ~s / playing with their -s / a wooden - / a rag - (made of cloth) / a dolls'house double if something doubles, it becomes twice as big: he bought shares in a company that ~d in value / the town has ~d in size / unemployment has ~d over the last three years / taxes have almost ~d/food prices have more than ~d fool a fool is someone who is stupid. The adjective is foolish: a - spends what the wise man saves / you're a stupid-I /he's a complete - /1 felt like a- / don't make a - ofyourself / a really foolish thing to do / it was rather foolish of me to trust him insurance insurance is an agreement in which you pay money regularly to a company, and they will pay the costs if something bad happens to you: everything is covered by your - / the - company paid for everything / have you got private health -? / medical - / travel - / car - / an - policy /1 took out - against flooding interest interest is money that a bank or other company charges when you borrow money from them. It is also money that you receive when you keep your money in a bank: / pay 5% - / they charge up to 25% - / how much - doyou pay on your mortgage? / an - rate of 7% /an free loan (with no interest) / how much - doyou get a month? invest if you invest money, you spend it on something in order to improve it, or to make a profit from it. The noun is investment: the government is going to - money in schools /1 -ed some of my money in shares / we decided to - in property / greater government investment in the health service / he lost money through some poor investments

leave if you leave something to someone, you arrange for them to have it when you die: have you ever been left anything in a will? / my granddad left it to me when he died / she left all her money to charity minimum the minimum is the smallest amount that is possible.The opposite is maximum: what's the - wage? / we need a - of three hours / we want to keep costs too - / we'll pay a maximum of 3000 owe if you owe money to someone, you have to give them money because you borrowed it from them or they have done something for you: doyou any money to anyone? / he ~s me 20 /1 still - you for those tickets repair if you repair something, you mend it. Repair is also a noun: my mum taught us to make and clothes /1 need to get the wall -ed / it needs -ing / we managed to - the damage / the car needs a few minor repairs sarcastic if you are sarcastic, you say the opposite of what you mean, in order to make a joke or show that you are angry: there's no need to be ~\ / aremark / - comments /1 didn't realise he was being saying a saying is a well-known expression that people often use: we sometimes invented our own silly ~s / a well-known - / it's one of my favourite -s / 'there's no fool like an old fool,'as the old - goes second-hand something that is second-hand is not new, but has been owned by someone else before you buy it: I've bought a - car / a shop selling clothes /1 bought it shares shares are equal parts that a company is divided into, which people can buy and sell: he bought - in a company /1 decided to invest in - / sell your - / share prices have fallen again turn into if you turn something into a different thing, you change it so that it becomes the other thing: Dad used to find bits of old wood and - them into toy boats and dolls /you can - old jeans into shorts wage a wage is an amount of money that you receive each day or each week for work: what's the minimum -? / what's your weekly-? / a daily - of $50 / he earns a good - / they're demanding a decent - / a fair - / people on low ~s / the ~s are quite high / my basic - has increased / they've cut our ~s (reduced them) / a- increase / a - cut will a will is a legal document that says what you want to happen toyour money and possessions when you die: he left me some money in his - / we read the - after my grandmother died / have you made a - (written one).? / she didn't leave a - when she died / he changed his - a few months before he died worth the amount of money that something is worth is its value: it's - over 300 / how much is it -? / it's an old car, so it isn't - much / it's - a lot of money



PACES 1 0 8 - 1 0 9 ask out if you ask someone out, you invite them to go somewhere with you because you want to have a romantic relationship with them: / -ed her - / has he -edyou - yet? condition the condition of something is the state that it is in,for example whether it is broken or not: it's not in perfect - / it's still in very good - / in immaculate - (perfect) / in reasonable - / in very poor fare a fare is an amount of money that you pay to travel by bus, train, taxi etc: bus ~s have just gone up /you can get cheap -s ifyou book in advance / ~s are quite high I they offer quite low ~s /1 had to pay the full - / an increase in rail ~s / they've cut their ~s (reduced them) irregular something that is irregular is not usual or regular, or not completely honest or legakyour card was cancelled because we noticed some activity /1 work ~ hours / some of the business transactions were a bit loan a loan is an amount of money that someone borrows: / took out a - to pay for the car / a big - / a small - / a 5000 ~/he offered me an interestfree - / it took me years to repay the - / a agreement / the monthly - repayments mark a mark is an area of dirt on something, or an area where it is slightly damaged: it's not in perfect condition - look, there's a - here / a dirty on his shirt / the coffee cup left a - on the table / some scratch ~s on the paint / a burn - / she had bite -s on her arm PIN (number) your PIN number is the secret number that you use with a bank card or credit card: / need to change my - I I've forgotten my - / can you put your - in, please? recession a recession is a period of time when there is less business activity than usual: I'm going to move back home before the - here gets worse 1 a deep - / a major ~ / a long - /the crisis that caused the - / the country has gone into - / the US has now come out of - / the - has worsened I businesses will take time to recover from the - / the end of the silly someone who is silly is stupid or foolish: don't be - - it's too far to go /1 think that's a - idea / that was a really - thing to do I don't ask ~ questions / I felt a bit speed up if you speed up, you start to go faster. If you speed something up,you make it happen faster:

the new software will - things - / we can ~ when we get on to the motorway / we're trying to - the application process Sometimes up in a phrasal verb means an increase and down shows a decrease: The car sped up / slowed down Unemployment has gone up / gone down a lot. However, more often the meaning is not obvious. Always think of the two words as having one meaning. He's gone down with flu. (he's caught flu) She's given up smoking, (she's stopped smoking completely) support if you support someone, you help them by giving them advice or money. Support is also a noun: we'll - you until you graduate / he doesn't earn enough to - his family I your teachers will -you through your exams / she gave me a lot of emotional - 11 rely on my parents for financial suspect if you suspect that something is true, you think it is probably true, but you do not know for certain. A suspect is someone who the police think has committed a crime: we - that your card was copied 11 rather - she knew all about it / I'm beginning to - that she's involved in some way / he's suspected of murder / a murder suspect I the police have arrested three suspects treat a treat is something special that gives someone pleasure: /'// get this - it's my - I going to the theatre was a real - in those days / a special - / my birthday - /we took the kids to the beach as a vintage vintage clothes, music or films are good quality and show typical qualities from a particular time in the past: the music is - sixties / doyou like - clothes? / a -film / - cars (old, but kept in good condition) wallet a wallet is a small flat case in which you carry money and bank cards: / left my - in my other jacket / a leather - /1 had no money in my- / his - was stuffed with money / / took out my - and offered to pay

PREPOSITIONS A Complete the sentences with the correct preposition. 1 What are you having lunch? 2 The US dollar is very strong the moment. 3 The pace of life is slower the countryside. 4 That teacher is very popular students. 5 A lot people are unemployed. 6 I donated money an animal charity. 7 My daughter loves playing her dolls. B Choose the correct preposition. 1 He buys shares on / in companies. 2 The insurance paid/or / of everything. 3 My town has doubled about / in size. 4 I pay 10% interest of /on my loan. 5 Fares are cheaper if you book on / in advance. 6 The economy needs to recover in /from the recession. 7 He relies on his family on/for financial support.

3 4 5 6 7 8

I my car second-hand. The family are all by his insurance. I a real fool of myself! I'll stay to you company. I'm trying to money for charity. Who's going to the bill? sentences. a) b) c) d) e) f) crisps. to a minimum. a shame! three-course meal. designer labels. the cards.

B Match the two halves of the 1 We had a delicious. 2 I love salt-and-vinegar 3 I don't usually wear 4 Oh, that's 5 I'll shuffle 6 We need to keep costs

C Complete the collocations with nouns from the unit. 1 a special t t 2 myPINn r 3 the minimum w _ _ e 4 an insurance p y 5 household g s 6 your annual s y

W O R D FAMILIES A Complete the expressions with the correct form of the word in bold. 1 a general election The USA has a new president. 2 a popular teacher Online shopping is gaining in 3jobsecurity A financially business. 4 I felt like a fool. A thing to do. 5 A good investment your money in the stock market. 6 I suspected it A murder was her.

PHRASAL VERBS A Choose the correct word to complete the phrasal verb. 1 The price of electricity has gone over / up. 2 I recently took on /out life insurance. 3 I asked my classmate out / in on a date. 4 The economy has gone into / on recession. 5 My work is very slow. I need to speed things out / up. 6 Come at/on, I'm waiting for you.

PATTERNS A Put the verb in brackets in the correct form {to + infinitive or -ing). 1 My father has given up (smoke) 2 People are voting a new government. (choose) 3 Your suit needs (repair) 4 The rate of inflation keeps (increase) 5 It was a foolish thing (do) 6 She offered for the meal, (pay)

COLLOCATIONS A Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs. Look up the verbs if you need help. make cover work keep leave raise buy foot

1 I very irregular hours in my job. 2 My grandfather me some money in his will.




PAGES 1 1 0 - 1 1 1 background if you can hear something in the background,you can hear it quietly, but it is not the main thing that you can hear: the music wasn't too loud - just good - music /1 could hear voices in the - I there was a lot of - noise bowl a bowl is a dish you put food in: / put a few ~s of olives on the tables I a glass - /a wooden - /a soup - / a cereal - / / poured some soup into the buffet a buffet is a meal in which people take food from a large table and sit somewhere else to eat it: they just had a - and everyone helped themselves / a delicious - / a cold - (with only cold foods) la - will be served at 12.30 /a- meal clear if you clear a place, you make it empty: the first Dl was great, but the second one -ed the dance floor I the police -ed the area around the fire / will you help me - the table? I1 need to - my desk convert if you convert something, you change it into something different: It used to be a factory, but they -ed it a few years ago I the house has been -ed into flats / -an old barn into a house distant if someone is distant, they are not very friendly or interested: they seemed a bit cold and - - not very friendly I she was very - / he's become rather ex your ex is a person you used to be married to or have a romantic relationship with: my - arrived with his new girlfriend / an boyfriend / her husband full if a place is full, it contains as much of something as it can hold, so there is no room for more: the dance floor was - all evening / I'm sorry - the restaurant's - tonight / mind you don't spill any the cup's very - / the bath's almost - / the room's of junk / the streets were - of people gorgeous someone who is gorgeous is very attractive. Something that is gorgeous is lovely: she was absolutely - /you look -I / he's drop-dead-I

(extremely attractive) / what a - dress / those flowers smell - / a - chocolate cake impressive if something is impressive, it seems very good, and you admire it. If you are impressed with something, you admire it: the organisation of the whole event was very -la very - achievement / an - display of skill / the company's performance is extremely - /1 found his speech quite - / / was quite impressed with her reception a reception is a large formal party: a wedding - /a special -for the visiting politicians ruin if you ruin something.you spoil it completely: It -ed the evening for me / the rain -ed my shoes /1 knew I had -ed my chances of getting the job / it completely -ed my life venue a venue is a place where an event happens: it's an amazing - for a party / an ideal -for weddings I a popular concert - / a sports warm someone who is warm is friendly: everyone was very - and friendly I she's a really - person / we were given a - welcome PAGES 1 1 2 - 1 1 3 accused if you are accused of doing something illegal or wrong, someone says that you did it. The verb is accuse: he was - of corruption / he was wrongly of murder / she stands - of fraud / he accused her of trying to hide the truth agriculture agriculture is the work of growing crops and keeping animals to produce food: they live off seasonal - / the benefits of modern - / traditional - /subsistence - (growing just enough to eat) la lot of people are employed in - / they depend on for their income battle a battle is a fight between different armies: the - of Preston / a fierce - I a famous - /a naval - (at sea) / they won the - / the Americans lost the - / the - raged for three days colony a colony is a country that is controlled and ruled by another country: the United States was a - of Britain / Britain's overseas colonies crowned if someone is crowned king or queen, they are made the king or queen in a special ceremony. A crown is a special circle of gold or silver that a king or queen wears on their head: he was - king in 1743/she was - Queen of England I a gold crown decade a decade is a period often years: over the following -, they were forced to live on farms / the 1960s was a very exciting date from if something dates from a particular time in the past, that is the time it was made or started: tools which - the Stone Age / the church dates from the twelfth century declare if you declare something.you state formally and officially that it is true.The noun is declaration: America -d independence from Britain / Britain -d war on Germany / the

government has -d a state of emergency / she was ~d the winner / he ~d his love for her / a declaration of war / the American declaration of independence defeated if you are defeated, you lose a battle or game. The verb is defeat. Defeat is also a noun: they were -ed in the battle / Manchester United were - 3-0 / theyfinally managed to defeat the Scots / an important military defeat / we will never admit defeat distinct something that is distinct is clearly different from other things: a - Kazakh language and culture emerged / they are two - organisations / Catalan is - from Spanish / we should keep these two issues emerge if something emerges, it becomes visible or known: a distinct Kazakh language and culture ~d / he -dfrom his office (came out) /the truth will eventually empire an empire is a group of countries or an organisation that is controlled by one person or government: the British - / the Roman - / the ancient Egyptians established a huge - / he created a huge business execution an execution is when someone is killed as a punishment for a crime. The verb is execute: he came to power after the king's - /a public - (with people watching) /he was found guilty, and nowfaces - / by lethal injection / he was executed for murder fall the fall of something is the time when it loses power or stops existing. Fall is also a verb: the - of the Berlin Wall / the - of the Roman Empire / his from power / the government fell lastyear gain if you gain something.you get it: two countries that have -ed independence from Britain I he -ed control of the company / we couldn't - access to the building /1 did voluntary work to - some experience height the height of something is the time when it is most successful: at the - of its empire / a film he made at the - of his acting career independence if a country has independence, it controls itself and is not controlled by another country. The adjective is independent: Kazakhstan gained - in 1991 / the country is fighting for its - / when did the country become independent? invade if you invade a place, you attack it. The noun is invasion: the army -d in 1219 / the place is -d by tourists every year / a military invasion / they launched an invasion of the country lease if you lease land or a building to someone, you allow them to use it in return for money. A lease is an official document that allows someone to use land or a building in return for money: the site is -d to Russia / they - the house to students / a fiveyear lease / to sign a lease monarch a monarch is a king or queen: the longestruling British - was Queen Victoria I the reigning (the one in power now) / the current - has ruled for over 20years

nomadic people who are nomadic move around to different places, rather than staying in one place: It was a - society /a - tribe /a- life occupation an occupation is when a group of people go into a place and take control of it. The verb is occupy: the Roman - of Britain / they voted to continue their - of the school / the country was occupied by Russia oil oil is a thick dark liquid from under the ground that is used to make petrol: the 11'" largest producer of - and gas / companies that are drilling for - (trying to find oil) / the exporting countries opposed if you are opposed to something.you believe that it is wrong and should stop. You can also say that you oppose something: they are - to joining NATO / I'm - to animal experiments / she's fiercely - to the death penalty /1 remain - to the war / hundreds of people oppose the new law rapidly if something happens rapidly, it happens very quickly. The adjective is rapid: the economy grew - / things are improving quite - / the disease can spread extremely - /a period of rapid economic growth republic a republic is a country that has an elected government, and does not have a king or queen: Britain briefly became a-1 the French - / the country became an independent -in 1837 /a democratic revolution a revolution is when the people of a country change their political system using force: ff?e war led to a- / the French - /a communist - / a socialist - / a peaceful - / the government tried to crush the route a route is a set of roads or paths that you use to get from one place to another:_/br many years, the Silk Road trade - went through the region / the usual tourist - /1 follow the same - to work every day / what's the shortest - home? / the quickest to the city centre / we decided to take the scenic (the most beautiful, but not the quickest) rule if you rule a country, you have power and control over it. Rule is also a noun: Queen Victoria -dfor over 60 years / he ~d over the whole of the Middle East / the area was under British rule for nearly 200years / the country is now under military rule I a system of majority rule (in which the majority of people decide what should happen) settle if you settle somewhere, you go to live there and make it your home: a population growth caused by people settling in the region / the family finally ~d in Canada support if you support someone, you help them and say that you want them to do well. Support is also a noun. A supporter is someone who supports a person or team: Royalists -ed the king / which football team doyou -? / they depended on support from the king /he gets a lot of support from older voters / a crowd of football supporters vote if you vote in an election,you say who or what you support: they -dfor joining NATO / who are you going



to -for? / he -d Republican (voted for the Republican party) / they -d against the single currency PACES 1 1 4 - 1 1 5 citizen a citizen is someone who lives in a town, city or country. Citizenship is the legal state of being a citizen of a country: / was treated like a secondclass - /you can apply to become a British - / a law-abiding - (someone who does not break the law) / fie was granted citizenship last month connection a connection is a relationship between people or things: I felt a real - with the place / is there any - between the two crimes? / there is a close - between poverty and crime / scientists have discovered a - between alcohol and stomach cancer funeral a funeral is a ceremony for someone who has died: / went to London for her - / did you go to the -? / over 300 people attended the - / the - will take place next week I a church - / a religious grateful if you are grateful,you feel thanks because someone has given something to you or done something for you: /'// always be - for that / I'm very - to you I I'm deeply - to you for all your help / I'd be - ifyou could help us clear up global something that is global affects the whole world: a date with national or - significance / a economic crisis / this is a - problem / the issue of - warming moving something that is moving makes you feel strong emotions: / spent the night in the house I was born in, which was very - / a very - experience / a - film /1 found it deeply partner a partner is someone you live with but are not married to: I've found a - now /she introduced me to her PARTNER / GIRLFRIEND / WIFE

There are different ways of referring to a couple's relationship. girlfriend / boyfriend describe people who are together but not married. Older people may use these terms as well even though 'girl' and 'boy' describe young people. fiance (male) / fiancee (female) are sometimes used for couples who have decided to get married. wife / husband describe people who are married. partner describes someone considered as a wife / husband although they might not actually be married. woman or man are not used to describe a relationship.

peak a peak is the top part of a mountain: we reached the - just as the sun was coming up/a snowcovered - / the mountain ~s towered above us region a region is a large area of a country: people have lived in the - since the Stone Age / a northern - of the country I a southern - / the central - I a coastal - /a desert - / the tropical -s / very few people live in the remote jungle ~s remarkable something that is remarkable is very good and unusual: the fact that he became president was truly - / a - achievement I the show was a - success side your mother's or father's side of the family is all the people who are related to you through your mother or father: my great-grandmother on my mum's - was Ukrainian / I've got quite a few cousins on my father's - / there's a history of heart problems on my mother's - of the family significance if something has significance, it is important.The adjective is significant: a date with national or global - / a discovery of great - / he didn't appreciate the true - of what he achieved / we shouldn't attach too much - to this / an extremely significant change / this information could prove to be highly significant surgeon a surgeon is a doctor who performs operations on patients: thanks to my -, I've been given a second chance in life I a heart - / a brain - / a plastic (someone who does operations to improve people's a ppea ra nee) / he became a distinguished touch if you touch someone, you make them feel a strong emotion: she -ed the lives of millions of people I their suffering has -ed the hearts of people all over the world tragedy a tragedy is a very sad event. The adjective is tragic: her death in 1997 was a real - /a terrible - / the day ended in - / we must make sure we prevent another - / a tragic accident / her tragic death in 2006 welcoming if someone is welcoming, they are friendly and they make you feel welcome: the people were very - / he gave a - smile

PREPOSITIONS A Complete the sentences with the correct preposition. 1 Dinner will be served 7 pm. 2 My cupboards are full junk. 3 I was very impressed the performance. 4 This is a great place a party. 5 The town depends tourism for income. 6 India was once a colony Britain. 7 I'm opposed military service. B Choose the correct preposition 1 He finally emerged out/from his room. 2 I don't have access to I about that information. 3 The Normans invaded England in / on 1066. 4 We lease our house with / to students. 5 France was occupied over / by Germany in the war. 6 I'm very grateful in /for all your help. 7 Let me introduce you with / to my partner.

1 Mother Theresa the lives of thousands. 2 Don't too much significance to that story. 3 We haven't the lease yet. 4 Tony Blair to power in the 1990s. 5 The government has a state of emergency. 6 These rock paintings from the Stone Age. 7 The crowd the team a hero's welcome. B Complete the sentences with the adjectives. Look up the adjectives if you need help. naval second-class scenic drop-dead rapid background

W O R D FAMILIES A Complete the expressions with the correct form of the word in bold. a gold crown Elizabeth was queen. America declared a of war on Iraq. independence a public execution He was by hanging. a military invasion Germany Poland in 1939. The Roman The Iraqis occupation of Britain. Kuwait. 1 support Manchester a football United. an American citizen She's applying for American His death was a a accident real tragedy. B Which words in the list below are both nouns and verbs? rule clear fall defeat emerge lease venue

1 I can't hear you. There's a lot of noise. 2 His girlfriend is gorgeous! 3 I'm reading about battles of the First World War. 4 We took the route along the coast. 5 When I go there I feel like a citizen. 6 The country went through a period of economic growth. C Complete the collocations with nouns from the unit. 1 her ex-h _ _ _ _ d 2 The Roman E e 3 a nomadic t e 4 a law-abiding c _ _ __n 5 the dancef r 6 a plastic s __ __ n

PATTERNS A Put the verb in brackets in the correct form (to + infinitive or -ing). 1 What are your chances of the job? (get) 2 People voted for less hours a week. (work) 3 I take the bus to work, (get) 4 I finally managed my essay, (finish) 5 She accused him of lies, (tell) 6 The information could prove significant, (be)

COLLOCATIONS A Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs. Look up the verbs if you need help. come date give touch attach sign declare



01 FRIENDS A N D FAMILY PREPOSITIONS A 1 to 4 at 2 in 5 with 3 on 6 with B 1 with 4 for 2 in 5 from 3 in 6 with WORD FAMILIES A 1 creativity 2 frustrated 3 generously 4 neatly 5 retire 6 behaviour WORD-BUILDINC A 1 spicy 2 unlucky 3 messy 4 dirty 5 unhealthy COLLOCATIONS A 1 keep 4 put 2 has 5 play 3 take 6 give B 1 close 2 lucky 3 open 4 bad 5 good 6 great

02 SHOPS PREPOSITIONS A 1 of 5 for 2 on 6 in 3 of 7 of 4 for 8 at B 1 at 4 for 2 with 5 with 3 for 6 from WORD FAMILIES A 1 Employers 2 injured 3 inspection 4 lock 5 supplies 6 exploitation 7 hugely 8 booking COLLOCATIONS A 1 selection 2 Day 3 money 4 receipt 5 stock 6 fine B 1 false 5 minor 2 capital 6 tour 3 mass 7 quality 4 good

c 1

1 c 4 d 2 e 5 b 3 a 6 f PHRASAL VERBS A 1 away 2 on 3 after 4 out 5 out 6 on PATTERNS A 1 going 2 shouting 3 to help 4 arguing 5 to visit 6 drinking

e 5 a 2 c 6 d 3 g 7 b 4 f PHRASAL VERBS A 1 out 5 up 2 in 6 up 3 off 7 back 4 on 8 off PATTERNS A 1 wearing 2 Smoking 3 to understand 4 stealing 5 to see 6 Rising 7 to walk

0 3 EAT PREPOSITIONS A 1 of 6 of 2 for 7 with 3 of 8 in 4 for 9 of 5 for B 1 of 4 of 2 in 5 of 3 of 6 with WORD FAMILIES 1 incredibly 2 boil 3 roast 4 fried 5 grill 6 allergic COLLOCATIONS A 1 book 2 get 3 working 4 take 5 keep 6 left 7 complained B 1 modern 2 green 3 medium 4 damp 5 mixed 6 sour C 1 c 5 d 2 a 6 h 3 f 7 e 4 b 8 g PHRASAL VERBS A 1 down 2 off 3 down 4 in 5 at 6 down PATTERNS A 1 Visiting 2 to do 3 selling 4 cooking 5 to sit 6 to cool

04 JOBS PREPOSITIONS A 1 in 4 for 2 with 5 at 3 on 6 of B 1 of 4 of 2 on 5 for 3 for 6 for WORD FAMILIES A 1 installed 2 national 3 concentration 4 manages 5 presentation 6 development COLLOCATIONS A 1 made 2 entered 3 involve 4 fighting 5 runs 6 working B 1 new 2 good 3 bitter 4 voluntary 5 basic 6 official

0 5 RELAX PREPOSITIONS A 1 of 5 of 2 for 6 at 3 of 7 in 4 on 8 in B 1 about 5 for 2 to 6 in 3 in 7 in 4 of WORD FAMILIES A 1 drawn 2 awareness 3 invented 4 violence 5 homeless 6 illness 7 weak COLLOCATIONS A 1 conducting 2 lost 3 ran 4 launching 5 losing 6 affected 7 gives B 1 bad 4 final 2 main 5 weak 3 away 6 wide 1 moment 2 campaign 3 background 4 violence 5 shortage 6 sport PHRASAL VERBS A 1 up 2 up 3 out 4 out 5 in PATTERNS A 1 to hit 2 to tell 3 watching 4 to play 5 to make 6 to ban

06 HOME PREPOSITIONS A 1 with 5 of 2 of 6 to 3 of 7 in 4 for 8 in B 1 with 4 on 2 to 5 on 3 with 6 of WORD FAMILIES A 1 farm 2 industry 3 tiring 4 washes up 5 financially COLLOCATIONS A 1 spare 2 charming 3 social 4 pure 5 rural 6 nuclear B 1 bank 2 coincidence 3 Desert 4 forest 5 takeaway

c 1 b
2 d 3 a 4 f 5 e 6 c 7 g PHRASAL VERBS A 1 off 2 up 3 off 4 to 5 down 6 on 7 up PATTERNS A 1 to go 2 to pay 3 making 4 spending 5 producing 6 to speak

1 stress 2 presentation 3 salary 4 industry 5 college D 1 c 4 a 2 e 5 f 3d 6 b PHRASAL VERBS A 1 up 5 up 2 out 6 in 3 down 7 out 4 on PATTERNS A 1 working 2 to meet 3 studying 4 to negotiate 5 to talk 6 to do

07 MIND AND BODY PREPOSITIONS A 1 for 4 from 2 at 5 on 3 with 6 of B 1 of 4 for 2 on 5 for 3 in 6 with WORD FAMILIES A 1 asthma 2 depression 3 anxious 4 culture 5 react 6 treat WORD-BUILDING A 1 religious 2 adventurous 3 anxious 4 unconscious 5 generous COLLOCATIONS A 1 got 4 lost 2 Take 5 lost 3 hold 6 pulled B 1 full 2 healthy 3 severe 4 spicy 5 sore 6 short Id 4 e 2 b 5 a 3 f 6 c PHRASAL VERBS A 1 back 2 up 3 up 4 up 5 out 6 down PATTERNS A 1 running 2 to take 3 to strengthen 4 to treat 5 having 6 getting

08 GETTING THERE PREPOSITIONS A 1 to 4 of 2 from 5 to 3 of 6 with B 1 by 5 on 2 to 6 at 3 for 7 on 4 with WORD FAMILIES A 1 disappointed 2 dust 3 cycle 4 demonstration 5 divert COLLOCATIONS A 1 stretch 2 change 3 holding 4 be 5 got 6 need B 1 back 2 bad 3 valid 4 last 5 nice 6 famous 1 government 2 council 3 crossing 4 gallery 5 station 6 lights 7 park PHRASAL VERBS A 1 off 2 on 3 down 4 off 5 up 6 up PATTERNS A 1 carrying 2 to change 3 being 4 working 5 to land 6 to build



09 SCIENCE A N D NATURE PREPOSITIONS A 1 to 4 of 2 of 5 for 3 over 6 at B 1 for 2 of 3 of 4 in 5 at 6 on WORD FAMILIES A 1 cruel 2 discovered 3 environment 4 funds 5 investigating 6 predict B scream, witness, snow COLLOCATIONS A 1 Keep 2 refused 3 took 4 made 5 to start 6 telling 7 conducting B 1 power 2 storm 3 campaign 4 smell 5 shock 6 effects 7 uniform

10 SCHOOL AND UNIVERSITY PREPOSITIONS A l at 4 about 2 in 5 for 3 at 6 about B 1 to 4 on 2 to 5 from 3 from 6 of WORD FAMILIES A l supports 2 effect 3 assumption 4 punish 5 bullies WORD-BUILDING A I creative / imaginative 2 imaginative / creative 3 impressive 4 interactive 5 supportive COLLOCATIONS A l missed 4 take 2 broke 5 have 3 go 6 make B l major 2 personal 3 classical 4 good 5 general 6 natural

c 1 test
2 service 3 hair 4 break 5 illness 6 attention PHRASAL VERBS A i on 4 down 5 out 2 up 6 out 3 in PATTERNS A i cheating 2 to extend 3 to help 4 accessing 5 to organise

1 1 PLACES Y O U STAY PREPOSITIONS A 1 with 4 in 2 for 5 on 3 to 6 on B 1 for 4 to 2 to 5 by 3 for 6 on WORD FAMILIES A 1 available 2 cancelled 3 comfortable 4 organising 5 achieve WORD-BUILDING A 1 Swimming 2 funding 3 waiting 4 building 5 parking 6 booking COLLOCATIONS A 1 came 2 leave 3 rained 4 come 5 enjoy 6 judge B 1 wide 2 personal 3 hourly 4 double 5 expiry 6 entrance

12 PHONE PREPOSITIONS A 1 from 4 for 2 of 5 of 3 about 6 from B 1 for 5 abou 2 to 6 of 3 in 7 with 4 to WORD FAMILIES A 1 confirm 2 swelling 3 delivered 4 holding 5 signature B refund,rush,text,fine COLLOCATIONS A 1 talk 2 lift 3 be 4 expecting 5 hold 6 send B 1 b 4 f 2 d 5 a 3 e 6 c C 1 registered 2 postal 3 irrational 4 improper 5 written 6 weak PHRASAL VERBS A 1 off 2 up 3 through 4 down 5 up 6 off PATTERNS A 1 writing 2 to call 3 to talk 4 dying 5 making 6 watching 7 to identify

13 CULTURE PREPOSITIONS A 1 on 4 on 2 in 5 in 3 with 6 for B 1 from 4 to 2 in 5 of 3 of 6 in WORD FAMILIES A 1 directed 2 addicted 3 training 4 corrupt 5 punishment WORD-BUILDING A 1 director 2 inventors 3 conductor 4 Investors 5 governor 6 instructor COLLOCATIONS A 1 Keep 4 put 2 killing 5 released 3 holding 6 have B 1 classical 2 social 3 best-selling 4 musical 5 big 6 main

14 THINGS PREPOSITIONS A 1 in 4 with 2 for 5 in 3 on 6 of B 1 from 4 from 2 on 5 of 3 of 6 in WORD FAMILIES A 1 iron 2 Staple 3 mop 4 archaeology 5 reduction 6 embarrassed COLLOCATIONS A 1 turns 2 marked 3 going 4 work 5 convince 6 do 7 Throw B 1 special 2 balanced 3 dairy 4 vast 5 spare 6 frying 7 next-door 1 forecast 2 towel 3 water 4 juice 5 diet 6 box PHRASAL VERBS A 1 out 5 off 2 off 6 of 3 on 7 up 4 up PATTERNS A 1 recycling 2 making 3 to iron 4 boiling 5 to drive 6 to reduce

c 1 centre
2 Revolution 3 anniversary 4 concert 5 singer 6 experience PHRASAL VERBS A 1 off 4 out 2 off 5 up 3 out PATTERNS A 1 starring 2 to tighten 3 living 4 to generate 5 smoking

1 c 2 a 3 f 4 b 5 d 6 e PATTERNS A 1 cheating 2 to detect 3 studying 4 to take 5 paying 6 to have

1 call 4 details 2 arrival 5 tax 3 fee 6 trip PHRASAL VERBS A 1 up 4 down 2 up 5 on 3 out 6 in PATTERNS A 1 sitting 2 watching 3 to choose 4 to pack 5 to earn

1 treat 2 number 3 wage 4 policy 5 goods 6 salary PHRASAL VERBS A 1 up 2 out 3 out 4 into 5 up 6 on PATTERNS A 1 smoking 2 to choose 3 repairing 4 increasing 5 to do 6 to pay

15 THE ECONOMY AND MONEY PREPOSITIONS A 1 for 5 of 2 at 6 to 3 in 7 with 4 with B 1 in 5 in 2 for 6 from 3 in 7 for 4 on WORD FAMILIES A 1 elected 2 popularity 3 secure 4 foolish 5 Invest 6 suspect COLLOCATIONS A 1 work 2 left 3 bought 4 covered 5 made 6 keep 7 raise 8 foot B Id 4 c 2 a 5 f 3 e 6 b

16 DATES A N D HISTORY PREPOSITIONS A 1 at 5 on 2 of 6 of 3 with 7 to 4 for B 1 from 5 by 2 to 6 for 3 in 7 to 4 to WORD FAMILIES A 1 crowned 2 declaration 3 executed 4 invaded 5 occupied 6 supporter 7 citizenship 8 tragic B rule, fall, defeat, lease COLLOCATIONS A 1 touched 2 attach 3 signed 4 came 5 declared 6 date 7 gave B 1 background 2 drop-dead 3 naval 4 scenic 5 second-class 6 rapid C 1 husband 2 Empire 3 tribe 4 citizen 5 floor 6 surgeon PATTERNS A 1 getting 2 working 3 to get 4 to finish 5 telling 6 to be



INFINITIVE be become begin bet bite /bait/ blow /blau/ break bring build /bild/ burn buy catch choose come cost cut do draw / d o : / dream drink drive eat fall IMI feel /fi:l/ fight /fait/ find flee fly /flat/ forget forgive freeze get give so

PAST S I M P L E was/were became began /bigaen/ bet bit blew /blu / broke brought / b n . t / built /bilt/ burned/burnt bought Ibyxl caught /lo:t/ chose /tfauz/ came cost cut did drew /dru:/ dreamed/dreamt drank/draerjk/ drove ate /eit/ fell /fel/ felt /felt/ fought / f a t / found /faund/ flew flew /flu:/ forgot forgave froze got gave went grew /gru:/ hung /hAt]/ had heard /h3:d/ hid hit held hurt kept knew /nju:/ laid led /led/ learned/learnt left

PAST PARTICIPLE been become begun /bigAn/ bet bitten /bitan/ blown /blaun/ broken brought built burned/burnt bought caught chosen come cost cut done drawn / d o n / dreamed /dreamt drunk /drArjk/ driven eaten / i : / fallen /falan/ felt fought found flown flown /ftaun/ forgotten forgiven frozen got [US: gotten] given been/gone grown /graun/ hung had heard /h3:d/ hidden /hidan/ hit held hurt kept known /naun/ laid led learned/learnt left

INFINITIVE lend let lie lie (not tell the truth) lose /lu:z/ make mean meet pay /pei/ prove put read /ri:d/ ride ring run /rAn/ say /sei/ see sell send set shoot show shut sing sink sit sleep slide speak spell spend spoil spread /spred/ stand stea stick strike /straik/ swear swim take /teik/ teach tell think throw /9rau/ understand wake wear /wea/ win Write

PAST S I M P L E lent let lay lied lost made meant met paid /peid/ proved put read /red/ rode rang /raerj/ ran /raen/ said /sed/ saw /SD:/ sold sent set shot showed shut sang /saerj/ sank /saerjk/ sat slept slid spoke spelled/spelt spent spoiled/spoilt spread stood stole stuck /stAk/ struck /strAk/ swore swam/swaem/ took /tuk/ taught /tDt/ told thought IQy\l threw /8ru:/ understood woke /wauk/ wore /wa:/ won/wAn/ wrote

PAST PARTICIPLE lent let lain lied lost made meant met paid proven/proved put read /red/ ridden rung /rAt]/ run said seen sold sent set shot shown shut sung /sArj/ sunk /sArjk/ sat slept slid spoken spelt spent spoiled/spoilt spread stood stolen stuck struck sworn swum /swAm/ taken /teikan/ taught told thought thrown /Sraun/ understood woken /waukan/ worn /W3 :n/ won written /ritan/ VOCABULARY BUILDER 71

grow /grau/ hang /haerj/ have hear/hia/ hide hit hold hurt/h3:t/ keep know/nau/ lay /lei/ lead / l i d / learn /l3:n/ leave