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8 STEPS CONTROL OF HEATING SYSTEMS

8 STEPS - CONTROL OF HEATING SYSTEMS

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Contents
Preface Chapter 1 Definitions District heating Pressure Level pressure Steam pressure Chapter 2 District heating systems used in Western Europe Production 1. Environmental requirements 2. Fuel 3. Exhaust emission control 4. Water quality 5. Flow and return temperatures 6. Expansion systems 7. Open expansion system 8. Closed expansion system Distribution 1. Pre-insulated pipes 2. Construction, material 3. Heat losses 4. Linear expansion due to variations in temperature 5. Design 6. Flow 7. Pumps 8. Pressure control Consumption 1. Heat exchanger 2. Connection design 3. Electronic temperature controls 4. Self-acting controls 5. Control valves 6. Differential pressure control 1 3 3 5 5 5 7. Flow limitation 8. Energy metering Chapter 3 Secondary systems used in Europe Preface Comfort Heat requirement Transmission requirements Ventilation Wind influence Incidental heat gain from heat sources other than the heating system Domestic hot water Production 1. Control 2. Control valves 3. Temperature controller 4. Periodic set back of the flow temperature 5. Expansion systems 6. Closed system 7. Open systems 8. High-rise buildings Distribution 1. Definitions 2. Pipe material 3. Piping 4. Compensation for the linear expansion due to temperature variations 5. Insulation 6. Flow 7. Pumps 8. Pump control Consumption 1. Radiator and convector systems 2. Pressure distribution 24 25 27 27 28 29 29 30 30 31 31 32 32 33 33 34 34 34 34 35 36 36 37 37 38 38 38 39 39 40 40 42

7 7 7 8 9 10 12 13 14 14 15 15 15 16 16 16 17 18 18 19 19 20 21 21 22 23

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3. Differential pressure controls 4. Control of the room temperature 5. Correct flow temperature 6. Floor heating systems 7. Control 8. Ventilation Chapter 4 Evaluation of systems and products District heating Central boiler plant Fuel Combustion Exhaust emission control Temperatures Static pressure Expansion system Distribution - Consumption 1. Accumulator 2. Temperature 3. Static pressure 4. Pre-insulated pipes 5. Flow Control valves Differential pressure control Flow limitation 6. Heat exchangers 7. Pump 8. Metering Heating systems 1. One-pipe systems Existing one-pipe systems Two or threeway valves 2. Two-pipe systems Vertical or horizontal systems Gravity 3. Thermostatic or manual valve 4. Weather compensation Setting of the right flow temperature Periodic set back of the flow temperature 1 8 STEPS - CONTROL OF HEATING SYSTEMS

43 44 44 45 46 46 47 47 48 49 50 51 52 52 53 54 54 55 55 55 56 56 58 59 60 61 63 65 66 67 69 70 71 72 73 75 76 77

5. Flow Differential pressure control Flow limitation 6. Static pressure The circulation pump in the flow or in the return pipe 7. Pump Principles for pressure control 8. Metering Chapter 5 Instructions for designing district heating systems. Environment 1. Durability 2. Production 3. Fuel 4. Combustion 5. Flue gas purification 6. Handling of ashes 7. Handling of coal 8. Water quality Local district heating system 1. Effect ranges 2. Existing boilers 3. New boilers 4. Accumulator 5. Expansion systems 6. Circulation pumps Dynamic pressure Flow 7. Pre-insulated pipes Material Linear expansion due to variations in temperature Sizing of pipes 8. Heat exchangers

78 78 80 82 82 84 85 88

89 90 90 90 91 91 91 92 92 93 94 94 94 95 96 97 98 98 98 99 99 99 100 100

Operating conditions 1. Temperature levels 2. Return temperatures

101 101 101

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3. Temperature drop in the distribution network 102 4. Static pressure 102 5. Available differential pressure 103 6. Water quality 104 7. Pressure testing 105 8. Operating times 105 Local control and supervision 106 1. The control of boilers 106 2. Control of the accumulator 107 3. Control of the outgoing temperature in the district heating network 107 4. Flow limitation 108 5. Differential pressure control 109 6. Pressure control of pumps 110 7. Heat metering 111 8. Central control and supervision 112 Chapter 6 Instructions for designing heating systems 113 Comfort 114 1. Room temperature 114 2. Temperature on the surfaces of the room 114 3. Down draught 115 4. Ventilation 115 5. Wind influences 116 6. Distribution of the heat 116 7. Domestic hot water 116 8. Hot water circulation 117 Conditions 118 1. Heat requirement 118 2. Calculation of the transmission losses 118 3. Ventilation 119 4. Incidental heat gain 119 5. The wind influence on the heat requirements 120 6. Heat requirement per room 120 7. Control of the actual heat requirement 120 8. Domestic hot water 120 Heating systems 121 1. Heat exchangers 121 2.Expansion system 122 3. Circulation pump 122

4. Horizontal distribution pipe 5. Risers 6. High-rise buildings 7. Radiator circuit, two-pipes horizontal 8. Radiators convectors Operating conditions 1. Temperature levels 2. Return temperature 3. Temperature drops in the pipe system 4. Static pressure 5. Expansion vessels 6. Available differential pressure 7. Water quality 8. Heat losses in the sub-station Control 1. Control and supervision 2. Control of flow and return temperature 3. Control of the room temperature 4. Pressure control of pumps 5. Control of the available differential pressure 6. Flow metering per apartment 7. Control of domestic hot water 8. Control of domestic water in an apartment Chapter 7 How to select size of products and components Thermostatic valves Choice of valve size Existing one-pipe systems Two-pipe systems Flow Valve size Pre-setting Choice of control unit

123 124 125 126 128 130 130 130 131 131 131 131 132 132 133 133 134 134 135 136 136 137 137

139 139 139 139 139 139 140 141 141

Control valves Primary systems Available differential pressure Valve size

142 142 142 143 1

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Secondary systems Available differential pressure Two-way valve Valve sizes Differential pressure controls Primary systems Available differential pressure Valve size Setting value Secondary systems Available differential pressure Valve size Differential pressure control of risers Setting value Flow limitation Primary systems Secondary systems Control equipment Radiator systems Hot water heating Pipes and heat exchangers Pipes for heating Pipes for domestic water Heat exchangers Heat meters The primary network The secondary network Pressure control of pumps The primary network The secondary network

144 144 144 145 146 146 146 147 148 148 148 148 150 151 152 152 153 155 155 156 157 157 158 158 159 159 159 160 160 160

Chapter 8 Technical data, Formulas and charts

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Preface.
Heating a home has always been and still is a basic human requirement. This requirement. This requirement enables us to live and work in locations with low temperaure. In the beginning the solutions were simple. An open fire on the floor of a tent or a simple hut, made it possible to survive in a hostile environment. As civilisation developed there was migration from the countryside to the towns and cities and into bigger and bigger houses, creating a requirement for more elborate heating systems. This requirement stimulated technical development, but also created a problem, namely the use of a finite resource (fossil fuels) with the resulting pollutions from the burned fuels. The purpose of a good heating system is to create the best environment possible. The construction of the building with a well designed heating system, associated with good automatic controls, minimises the heating requirements and emissions radically.

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CHAPTER 1 DEFINITIONS

Definitions.
District heating
District heating is a system which provides a number of buildings with heat from a central boiler plant through pre-insulated pipes. (Pre-insulated pipes are in fact a modern kind of heat culvert or district heating duct, but since these systems nowadays are pre-manufactured, they will from here on be referred to as pre-insulated pipes.) The smallest systems cover 200-300 houses or a block. The connection to the secondary heating system can be direct or indirect, i.e. with or without a heat exchanger. Domestic hot water is also produced with the help of district heating. As a result, the heating plants are also in operation during non-heating seasons. There is a difference between heating plants, pure heat producers and combined heat and power plants. The main purpose of the last-named is to produce electricity through a steam turbine. The connected buildings are used to cool down the condensate to such a low temperature as possible in order to increase the capacity of the steam turbine. The efficiency for coal-fired power plants is low, 30-40 %. By combining the power production with the heat delivery, the efficiency has increased right up to 90 %, which corresponds to the efficiency of well-kept district heating plants. A district heating plant, (the primary circuit), can be divided into three parts: Production (central boiler plant) Distribution (pre-insulated pipes) Consumption (sub-station)

Combined heating and power plant. Fig. 1:1

Central boiler plant Fig. 1:2

Distribution

Consumption

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CHAPTER 1 DEFINITIONS

In the production plant, the water temperature is increased to the required level. Distribution implies heat transfer to the consumers with as small a loss as possible. Consumption implies heat transfer from the water of the primary side to the water of the secondary side, and a large temperature drop in the primary water. It may also imply directly connected systems, detached houses for instance, with a differential pressure control as protection against too high differential pressures. District heating systems with a large production plant, an efficient distribution network and a sub-station with heat exchanger and automatic controls, can be made very effective in respect of consumption as well as pollution. The choice of material and operating conditions such as static pressure, temperature and water quality are important factors concerning the operation of the system, its maintenance and its durability. The heating system in a building, (the secondary circuit), can be divided into three parts: Production (heat transfer through the heat exchanger) Distribution (the main piping system of the building, including the circulation pump) Consumption (radiators, convectors, or floor heating for the rooms)
Indirect connection Fig. 1:4

Direct connection Fig. 1:3

Production Fig. 1:5

Distribution

Consumption

In the production plant, the secondary water temperature is increased to the required level. Distribution implies heat transfer to the consumers with the smallest losses possible and small temperature drop. Consumption implies heat transfer from the water to the rooms and large temperature drop in the water.

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CHAPTER 1 DEFINITIONS

Pressure
In district heating systems and heating systems, you make a distinction between static and dynamic pressure. In an open system, the static pressure is equal to the weight of the water column. The word static represents something stationary. The dynamic pressure appears when the water begins to circulate and a circulating resistance is formed . The word dynamic means that something is in motion. The static pressure has two functions in a distric heating system. It has to ensure that all parts of the system are filled with water (level pressure) and that the water does not begin to boil (steam pressure).
H

Level pressure
All the parts of a system are filled with water if the static pressure, calculated in meter water gauge, is equal to the level of the system, at its meter. 10m WG = 1 bar = 100 kPa, providing the circulation pump is not in operation. If the circulation pump is placed in the flow line, which is usually the case with the district heating systems of today, the pump will provide a higher total pressure (static + dynamic pressure) in the flow line, when in operation. Correspondingly, the total pressure is lower in the return line, and lowest at the return connection to the pump. By placing the pump in the flow, you will have an additional guarantee that there is water in all parts of the system. If the pump is placed in the return line, the case will be the opposite, and the static pressure must be increased by 60-70 % of the pressure increase across the pump in order to get all parts filled with water.
Static pressure

Height in meter is equal to static pressure. Fig. 1:6

Dynamic pressure Differential pressure

Steam generating pressure Total pressure

Steam pressure
The boiling point of the water is depending on the current pressure. A low pressure decreases the boiling point and a high pressure increases it. At sea level the water boils at 100C in an open vessel, and already at 120C, an over-pressure (the pressure shown on the pressure gauge) of approximately 1 bar, 100 kPa, is required to avoid boiling. An over-pressure of 2 bar, 200 kPa, corresponds to approximately 130C. In order to avoid boiling, the over-pressure required must be available in each unit of the system.

System or level pressure is determined by difference in altitude between heating plant and highest situated sub-station

Definition of pressure in district heating systems. Fig. 1:7

Static pressure

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CHAPTER 1 DEFINITIONS

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CHAPTER 2 DISTRICT HEATING SYSTEMS USED IN WESTERN EUROPE

District heating systems used in Western Europe.

Central boiler plant

Distribution

Consumption

Production
The production takes place in a plant in which the energy of the fuel in question is converted into heat through combustion and then transferred to the water of the distribution network. 1. Environmental requirements The environmental requirements on fuel are made more and more stringent. The contents of environmentally hazardous substances in coal and oil have diminished considerably during the past ten years. There are also requirements on the volume of dust discharges of the ashes after good combustion. In cases where the requirements made on the fuel cannot be fulfilled, a penalty tax is imposed, and/or a plant reducing the environmental influence to the established level is requested. The pollutants, set free by the combustion, are spread with the winds covering very large areas. It is not sufficient only to limit the discharges locally, but the same requirements are necessary all over Europe. Certain values have been established and a tightening-up of the requirements will be carried out, as people in many countries find the values too high. Sulphur causes acidification of the ground which kills both plants and animals. Nitrogen also causes acidification and have negative effects on the ozone layer. Both these substances travel great distances and measures must be taken right at the source. Opposite, see tabel, are allowed discharges according to IEA Coal Research air pollutant emission standards for coal-fired plants database, 1991.

Smoke gets in your eyes wherevere you are. Fig. 2:1

Allowed discharges according to IEA Coal Research air pollutant emission standards for coal-fired plants database, 1991. Particles mg/m3 SO2 mg/m3 NOx mg/m3 EC 50 100 Minimum 40 400 2.000 160 - 270 650 1.300 80 - 540

The values relate to new plants. The first value is for big plants and the second value for small ones.

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CHAPTER 2 DISTRICT HEATING SYSTEMS USED IN WESTERN EUROPE

Hydrocarbons derived from motor-driven vehicles and industrial processes contribut to the fact that ozone is formed close to the ground and the fact that the ozone layer is demolished. Greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and methane are all contributing to the so-called greenhouse effect. Carbon dioxide is formed by different sorts of combustion, in central heating plants, in car engines etc. Heavy alloys, which influence the germ plasm, are stored all the time, and gradually they end up at the top of the food chain, i.e. in predators and in human beings.
Oil, gas and coal is transported by ships. Fig. 2:2

2. Fuel Oil and coal are the fuels most frequently used. Natural gas is more and more used as well as biofuel (renewable energy such as forest waste and straw). Coal is refined through washing so that the content of pollutants and ashes will be less than before. The sulphur content is under 0.8 %. By spraying with surface chemicals or with water only, the dust amount from transport and handling has been reduced. Pulverized coal is a processing operation that increases the efficiency of handling and combustion. Efficient purification of the exhaust gases is required, bearing in mind solid particles, sulphur and nitrogen gas. Because of the large volumes in connection with district heating, the transport must be carried out by ship, unless of coal mine is located near the district heating plant. Oil for large district heating systems, so called heavy oil, contains a maximum of 0.8 % sulphur and can be very efficiently burnt with present techniques, but to reduce the discharges to the accepted level, purification of the exhaust gases is required. The oil is tranported by ship and lorry or by train. Gas can be purified from possible pollutants before combustion, but nitrogen remains even after the combustion. When dealing with large quantities in liquid form, transport is undertaken by special tankers or through gas pipe-lines. Biofuel is mostly used in minor plants, up to 10.000 apartments, 700.000 m2. Biofuel is not considered to have negative effects on the environment, as the carbon dioxide, released by the combustion, is used when the corresponding amount of biofuel is building up.

Lorries are used for shorter transportation of oil and gas. Fig. 2:3

Pipe-lines are often used for transportation of gas. Fig.2:4 8 8 STEPS - CONTROL OF HEATING SYSTEMS

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CHAPTER 2 DISTRICT HEATING SYSTEMS USED IN WESTERN EUROPE

The resistant ashes are to be brought back to the specific site from where the fuel has been collected. Purification of the gas fumes is required. When using biofuel, it is essential from an economic as well as environmental point of view, that the combustion plant is located close to the area from where the fuel is collected. The biofuel is transported by lorry. Waste heat or surplus heat from an industrial process, e.g. cooling water with a high temperature can be used in the district heating network. Classic examples of such processes are the manufacturing of glass and the refining of oil. 3. Exhaust emission control In earlier years chimneys were built higher when the dust quantities were a nuisance, but experience has shown that this method only shifted the problem further away from the chimney. Nowadays the exhaust gases are, as a rule, mostly purified as for as sulphur, nitrogen oxide and particulates. Particles are separated with the help of cyclones, mechanical filters or electro-filters. Sulphur is separated by adding lime, with plaster as the end product. There are several methods and they are developing all the time. The separation degree is as high as 95%. Nitrogen oxide is separated by injecting ammonia. A separation level of 90% can be reached.

Dilution air Ammonia Catalytic reactor

Air preheater Boiler Primary air Electro-filter SOx reactor Fabric filter

Principle for purifying the exhaust gases. Fig. 2:5 8 STEPS - CONTROL OF HEATING SYSTEMS 9

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CHAPTER 2 DISTRICT HEATING SYSTEMS USED IN WESTERN EUROPE

4. Water quality The water quality is of great importance and effects the whole systems requirements for maintenance and durability. When installing boilers, complete with equipment, welding and laying of pre-insulated pipes, and also when installing heat exchangers in the substation, a lot of strange impurities end up in the district heating system. They can be anything from welding sparks and iron oxides to sand and gravel. If these impurities remain in the system during operation, they will damage valves, pumps and other components, and also some block parts and form layers reducing the heat transfer. To prevent this, all parts of the system must be carefully flushed before filling it with water, and strainers installed upstreams of sensitive equipment, such as regulating valves and flow meters. Leakage threatens the operation safety, and that is why all welded joints are X-ray tested. The temperature, and pressures in the systems are so high that pipes and components are classified as pressure vessels. After the pressure test of the plant has been made, it still remains to protect it against corrosion. Corrosion may occur on the inside or on the outside. External corrosion can be avoided by securing a dry environment. To prevent internal corrosion, a water quality that does not cause corrosion is required. Oxygen causes corrosion and ordinary water contains oxygen. Water, with a temperature of 10 C, may contain 11,25 mg oxygen per kg at a pressure of 0,1 Mpa (1 bar). Once the water has been heated to 100 C, it cannot contain any oxygen. Each mg oxygen supplied to a district heating system uses about three times as much iron. Consequently, the water is pretreated by, for instance, heating it to about 100 C before using it in the system.
Standard values applied in Europe for the water quality in district heating and large heating systems, are stated below: Circulating water Conductivity PH-value Hardness Appearance O2 <10 S/cm 9,5 10 0,1 tH clear and mud free 0,0 mg/l Water for re-filling <10 S/cm 9,5 10 <0,5 clear and mud free 0,02 mgl

Water contains other pollutants which may cause problems in heating systems, for example lime, sludge, chloride and sulphate. When calcareous water is heated in the boiler or in the heat exchanger, calcium carbonate (CaCO3) or limestone is formed on the heat transferring surfaces. A layer of 1 mm thickness increases the heat consumption by 10%, a layer of 2 mm thickness increases the heat consumption by 18% and a layer of 10 mm increases the heat consumption by 50%. The problem with limestone is solved by using a wet filter, which exchanges the lime and the magnesium salts in the water for sodium salt.

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CHAPTER 2 DISTRICT HEATING SYSTEMS USED IN WESTERN EUROPE

There may be sludge or mud in the water used for re-filling, but mud can also be formed in a chemical reaction between the water and the components being part of the system. The result could be calcium carbonate, iron and copper oxides, copper sulphides (providing the water pipes are made of copper) and calcium phosphate. The sludge sinks and ends up in places where the water speed is low, for example at the bottom of radiators. Pitting (corrosion), which may rapidly lead to leakage, especially in radiators of sheet metal, is easily formed under these situations. A mechanical filter is used to remove mud from the water.

Thermal deaeration

Feed water

Return line

Heating

Ion reduction Water treatment. Fig 2:6

Heat exchanger Dosage Particle of chemicals filter

Large contents of chloride and sulphate in the water result in high conductivity, which may lead to corrosion. These salts are removed through reverse osmosis. The water that is used for re-filling, after the first filling, is treated in the same way before re-filling. There is no leakage in modern pre-insulated piping systems. The re-filling of water is to compensate for the water that has been let out as a result of coupling up of new parts of pre-insulated pipes or sub-stations. Various chemicals are added to the systems in order to reduce the risk of corrosion, and checks are made regularily in order to ensure the quality of the water.

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CHAPTER 2 DISTRICT HEATING SYSTEMS USED IN WESTERN EUROPE

Different temperatures in different units in district heating. Fig 2:7

5. Flow and return temperatures The flow temperatures in a district heating system vary a great deal, from under 100 C up to 160-170 C. The flow temperatures have one thing in common, a large temperature drop, and that also applies to pure heat production. A large temperature drop leads to a reduced flow which means smaller pipe dimensions and smaller pumps. The operating costs are lower for the smaller pumps, and the losses from the smaller pipes are also less. Heating plants are often built with the boilers, including all the required equipment, as a system which transfers heat to the distribution network through a heat exchanger and an accumulator. This is also the only solution regarding combined power and heating plants, as the boilers are producing steam for the steam turbines. The purpose of the accumulator is to store heat in order to level off the peaks of the consumption, which also generates more permanent conditions and higher efficiency for the combustion plant. Consequently, there are usually three temperature levels in a district heating system with connected sub-heating systems. At each heat exchanger the temperature drops a few degrees. Temperatures below 100 C are working at a normal air pressure, while temperatures above 100 C require overpressure to avoid boiling and formation of steam. At temperatures above 100 C, the systems are classified as pressure vessels, which put greater demands upon material as well as the quality of the workmanship.

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CHAPTER 2 DISTRICT HEATING SYSTEMS USED IN WESTERN EUROPE

As the district heating systems are also responsible for the production of domestic hot water, they have to be in operation throughout the year. A common way to deal with this is to have the flow temperature at a constant level during the summer months, 60-70 C, which is enough for producing hot water. When the local heating system requires a higher temperature, in order to keep desired room temperature, the primary flow temperature is raised up to the maximum value, according to the outdoor temperature. The outgoing temperature on domestic water is to be kept as low as possible, preferably below 65 C. Higher temperatures cause scalding or skin burns. The legionella bacteria, a malicious bacteria that may cause Legionairs Disease, sets a lower limit to the temperature on the domestic hot water, 55-60 C. Larger systems of domestic water are equipped with circulation so that hot water is available without any uneccesary delay. In these systems, with the help of an automatic control, there is the facilit to run higher temperatures at regular intervals through the system in order to prevent the germ growth. Primary return temperatures of 60 C or lower, are desirable whether it is a matter of pure heat production or combined power and heat production. In the first case there is an exhaust gas condenser; economizer, which requires low return temperatures to perform well, and in the second case the condensate has to be cooled down to improve the power production. A large temperature drop also reduces the amount of water circulating in the system, and it also reduces the operation costs for the circulation pump.

Flow temperature C
120 110 100 90 80 70 60 -20 -10 0 10 20

Outdoor temperature C Primary flow temperature when producing domestic hot water. Fig 2:8

Air vent

Expansion systems can be designed in two ways: open or closed Open systems are in direct contact with the environment, while closed systems are not.

Expansion volume Expansion tank Expansion pipe Open expansion system. Fig 2:9

6. Expansion systems The purpose of the expansion system is to manage the volume change of the system water at varying temperatures and to sustain the static pressure level of the system.

Overflow pipe

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CHAPTER 2 DISTRICT HEATING SYSTEMS USED IN WESTERN EUROPE

Expansion tank Required water level By-pass for circulation Reversible pump

In precious years, most of the systems were open, but gradually there has been a change-over to select closed systems. The closed systems can be more easily adapted to changes in the district heating network. Large differences in the elevation within the networks have made it more difficult to work with open systems, as they require sufficient head of water above the production unit. 7. Open expansion system Normally an open expansion system consists of a tank of the necessary volume with the tank placed higher up than all the other parts of the system. There are also other cases, where the tank is positioned in the boiler house and a pump fills up or taps off the system as required. The static pressure is sustained because a pipe has been installed to the necessary level. Open expansion tanks are mostly situated in cold spaces and have to be protected against freezing, which is done by insulation or by supplying heat. A circulation pipe is installed from the boiler up to the expansion tank, and thus the required amount of heat is supplied. 8. Closed expansion system Closed expansion vessels consist of a tank, in which the required pressure is sustained by air or by nitrogen. Nitrogen is preferable as it eliminates corrosion. A compressor maintains the pressure at the right level. In smaller systems a diaphragm may be used, dividing the expansion tank into two parts. The heating system is connected to one side of the diaphragm, and on the other side nitrogen is supplied with a suitable overpressure. When the system is filled, the gas will be compressed and while heating, it will be even more compressed. When the water volume changes, due to temperature fluctuating, the gas is adapting its volume. Saftey valves, which opens and lets out exessive pressure if there is any, are required for closed expansion system. The safety valves are regularly tested in order to guarantee this function.

Boiler or heat exchanger Expansion volume

Open expansion system. Fig 2:10

Pressurised gas Diaphragm System water Expansion pipe

Closed expansion system. Fig 2:11

Gas Pressure gauge Safety valves Boiler or heat exchanger

Expansion tank

Closed expansion system. Fig 2:12

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CHAPTER 2 DISTRICT HEATING SYSTEMS USED IN WESTERN EUROPE

Central boiler plant

Distribution

Consumption

Distribution
The distribution part consists of circulation pumps and preinsulated pipes. 1. Preinsulated pipes. A preinsulated pipe consists of water-bearing pipes, insulation and a construction preventing the ground water from getting in contact with insulation and pipes. 2. Construction, material. The water-bearing pipe is, as a rule, made of steel. For smaller dimensions, used when connecting to small units, detached houses and so on, copper pipes or pipes made of heat resistant plastic are also used, for example in direct connected systems with lower temperatures. The greatest risk, as far as the preinsulated pipes are concerned, is external corrotion since there is treated system water in the pipes. In earlier years the whole heat culvert was built on site. A concrete structure, open upwards, was built in a well drained excavation. The steel pipes, insulated after pressure test, were installed in the structure and then a concrete cover was placed on top. Manholes were placed at regular intervals. The big problem with this type of heat culvert is making the concrete structure leakproof. The heat culverts of today (preinsulated pipes) are manufactured in a factory with water-bearing pipes of steel, insulation of expanded polyurethane and waterproof pipes of polyethylene. The insulation is foamed between the steelpipe and the polyethylene pipe. The steel pipes are jointed through welding, and the polyethylene pipes are equipped with divided muffs of plastic-coated plating, fastened with bolts. The muffs are filled with polyurethane foam. Branchings are made in the same way and there is no need for manholes.
Heat culvert produced on site. Fig 2:13

Steelpipes, insulation of expanded polyuretFig 2:14

hane and waterproof pipes of polyethylene.

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CHAPTER 2 DISTRICT HEATING SYSTEMS USED IN WESTERN EUROPE

100 mm 100 C

28,4 W/m

23,8 W/m

3. Heat losses. The heat losses from a heat culvert can be considerable if the pipes are not well insulated. The pre-insulated pipes with polyurethane foam as insulation show small losses particularly where there are several insulation thicknesses. A pre-insulated pipe with a nominal diameter of 100 mm (DN), with an insulation of 35 mm and a water temperature of 100 C emits 28,4 W/m under given circumstances. The same pipe with a thicker insulation of 45 mm, emits 23,8 W/m under the same circumstances. The corresponding values for a pipe with the DN of 400 mm and an insulation thickness of 45 and 65 mm respectively is 62,3 and 49 W/m respectively. The same pipe without insulation emits 168 and 203 W/m respectively. The heat losses are as much as 30% in old heat culvert systems. In preinsulated pipes the losses are reduced to less than 3%. 4. Linear expansion due to variations in temperature. The pre-insulated pipes are installed at a temperature way below the normal operation temperature. The pre-insulated pipes are therefore inclined to expand when they are in operation, 0,12 mm/m pipe and 10 C temperature rise from the installation temperature. The pre-insulated pipes are working as one unit, i.e. the forces caused by the expansion of the steel pipes are transferred through the insulation to the external plastic pipe. The plastic pipe, in turn, is held in position by the friction against the sand with which it is covered. A linear expansion does not occur, but the wall of the steel pipe picks up the expansion by getting a bit thicker. Installation and re-filling can be done in several way with regard to the expansive forces, but the final result remains the same: no measures taken for expansion pick-up, pre-heating to half of the temperature difference, thereafter re-filling no measures taken for expansion pick-up, thereafter re-filling 5. Design. To design the pre-insulated pipes means an optimization of the pipe costs and the operation cost for the circulation pump. A low water rate gives large pipe dimensions and a low pressure increase across the pump, a high water rate has the opposite effect. There should be turbulent flow.

45

Heat losses from preinsulated pipes. Fig 2:15

Preinsulated pipes with no measure taken for expansion. Fig 2:16

35

40 0 m m 10 0 C

45 62,3 W /m
m W/ 65 49

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CHAPTER 2 DISTRICT HEATING SYSTEMS USED IN WESTERN EUROPE

6. Flow. The adjustment of the heat supply, applied with two-way valves, results in a varying flow in the pre-insulated piping, which in turn results in a varying flow resistance. The resistance varies by the square of the flow change. If the flow is halved, Q = 0,5, the resistance is reduced to a quarter, 0,52 = 0,25.
m3/h 10 7 5 3 2 1,0 0,7 0,5 0,3 0,2 0,1 1 2 0,2 ,02 3 4 5 7 10 l/s 3 2 1,0 0,7 0,5 0,3 0,2 0,1 ,07 ,05 ,03 20 30 40 60 100 kPa 2 ,2 3 4 5 7 10 mvp

1 2 3

p 0,1 0,01

,3 ,4 ,5 ,7 1 ,04 ,06 0,1

,3 ,4 ,5 ,7 1,0 Bar

Reducing the flow 5 m3/h, 1 , to 2,5 m3 /h will reduce the resistance from 60 kPa to 15 kPa, 2 . 0,52 x 60 = 15 kPa. A reduction to 25%, 3 , gives the new resistance 0,252 x 60 = 3,75 kPa Fig 2:17

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7. Pumps. Centrifugal pumps are used in the district heating systems. They are run by electric motors and the sealing around the shaft into the pump housing is a mechanical sealing, which prevents leakage. 8. Pressure control. The heat supplier signs a contract to supply a certain amount of heat. To be able to fulfil this contract, a lowest available pressure of 100-150 kPa is required at each sub-station. The available pressure at the sub-station situated farthest away is kept constant with a pressure control, which controls the rotation speed of the pump via a pump control, a frequency converter.
Pump for district heating. Fig 2:18

The available pressure is, in spite of the pump control, different at full flow, depending on where the sub-station is connected in the system. The closer to the production unit the higher available pressure. At minimum flow the differences in available pressure are small between the first and the last connected station. The control valves must be sized for this low pressure, and therefore, they are too large at full flow in the system, which may cause problems with a poor control, a high return temperature and a pendulum effect throughout the whole system.

ppump

psystem

pmin
100

Flow % Min p = 150 kPa 8 STEPS - CONTROL OF HEATING SYSTEMS

300 200

50 0

150
100

Pressure control, with the sensor at the end of the system, guarantees a minimum available pressure in the system. There will still be big differences in available pressure at different flow. Fig 2:19

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Central boiler plant

Distribution

Consumption

Consumption.
The consumption part consists of heat exchangers for heat and domestic water, with relevant control equipment and heat meters. 1. Heat exchangers. There are two kinds of heat exchangers: coil units plate heat exchangers Coil units consist of flat or profiled copper pipes, wound to a compact unit and is surrounded by a jacket through which the primary medium flows. The secondary medium is connected to the copper pipes. The plate heat exchanger consists of profiled plates, which are placed against each other so that a space is formed, in which the water is able to flow. Every second space contains primary water and every second one contains secondary water. The heat exchangers are externally insulated. The pollutants in the primary and secondary water are deposited in layers in the heat exchangers, due to the rather large temperature differences on the surfaces. Even a very thin layer reduces the heat transfer considerably. Pure water and a high water rate neutralizes the deposit.
The coil unit in a jacket and coil heat exchanger. Fig 2:20

Plate heat exchanger. Fig 2:21

Plate heat exchanger. Fig 2:22 8 STEPS - CONTROL OF HEATING SYSTEMS 19

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Primary circuit

2. Connection design There are many different ways for connecting the various systems to buildings. In principle there are three types: direct connection one heat exchanger and with a secondary division to the various systems
Secondary circuit

a separate heat exchanger for each part of the system From a safety point of view, direct connection is used only when the flow temperature to the radiators is well below 100 C. One heat exchanger for all the systems in the building provides great flexibility and excellent possibilities for low return temperatures. Shunt groups with circulation pumps are then installed for radiator-, floor heating- and ventilating circuits. The domestic water is heated in a separate heat exchanger When using a separate heat exchanger for each system part, the exchangers can be connected in parallel or the domestic hot water can be heated in two stages. At first the domestic water is heated by the return water from the radiator circuit, and if that is not sufficient, a re-heating takes place by supplying the re-heater with primary system water.

Direct connection. Fig 2:23

One heat exchanger with two separated circuits. Fig 2:24

Indirect parallel connection. Fig 2:25

Indirect semi-parallel connection. Fig 2:26

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3. Electronic temperature controls. In heating systems, the secondary flow temperature is controlled according to the outdoor temperature via an electronic control station complete with a sensor a weather compensator. As a rule the control valve is placed on the primary side. The temperature on outgoing domestic hot water is controlled in the same way. The weather compensator has a special control function for this purpose. The control stations and other electronic temperature controls are often connected to a computer so that monitoring and adjustments may be made from a central location. 4. Self-acting controls. Self-acting controls have a sensor filled with a substance which changes its volume as the temperature changes. The volume change is transmitted through a capillary tube to an adjusting device placed on a control valve. The adjusting device contains a bellows, and when the bellows changes in volume - expands or contracts - this motion is transferred to the cone in the valve. Self-acting controls can only keep the set temperature constant, and they are therefore not suitable for the control of the variable flow temperature to a radiator system. They are, however, well suited to keep the flow temperature of the domestic hot water or the ventilating air at a constant level.

Self-acting control. Fig 2:27

Self-acting regulator controlling domestic hot water temperature. Fig 2:28 Shut-off valve Control unit Pump

p-control Primary pump p-valve

Sensor Shunt pipe

Self-acting regulator controlling air temperature in a ventilation unit. Fig 2:29 8 STEPS - CONTROL OF HEATING SYSTEMS 21

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5. Control valves The valve capacity is stated as a kvs value, fully open valve. the valve, pv, at 1 bar (100 kPa). The kv value states the actual flow, Q, in m3/h at a pressure drop across

Two-way valves are always used in district heating system to prevent more water than necessary from circulating. This means that the flow and the available pressure will vary considerably under varying operating conditions. The variations become more significant the closer the substation is to the circulation pump, even if the pump is pressure controlled.
Cut away of a two way valve. Fig 2:30

The valve must be sized for the lowest available pressure existing, 100150 kPa, minus the resistance across the heat exchanger. If there is too great a difference between the lowest and the highest available pressure, the valve could start to hunt. The valve is too big when the available pressure is higher than the one for which it has been sized.
Lowest available p in sub-station Valves kvs - value 6,3
4,0 2,5 1,6
1,0 ,63 ,4
7

m3 /h
10 7 5 3 2 1,0 0,7 0,5 0,3 0,2 0,1 1 0,1 0,01 2 0,2 ,02

l/s
3 2 1,0 0,7 0,5 0,3 0,2 0,1 ,07 ,05
2 1 2 3 4 1

pv

3 4 5 7 10 ,3 ,4 ,5 ,7 1 ,04 ,06 0,1

,03 20 30 40 60 100 150 200 400 600 1000 kPa 2 3 4 5 7 10 15 20 30 40 60 100 mWG ,2 ,3 ,4 ,5 ,7 1,0 1,5 2 3 4 56 10 Bar

Flow chart for sizing control valves. Fig 2:31

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p controlled circuit

Available differential pressure

Necessary p

6. Differential pressure control A differential pressure controller senses the differential pressure between two points in a piping system and can, via two impulse tubes, keep a constant differential pressure by activating a diaphragm and a cone in the valve housing. If a differential pressure valve is placed in the flow direction after the control valve, with one impulse tube connected before and one after the control valve, the differential pressure across the control valve will be constant, independent of the volume of the flow. Variations in the available pressure, that may occur, will not influence the control valve, even if they are substantial. A differential pressure controller can serve several control valves, but only one of the valves can then reach optimum conditions.

Controlled circuit

Impulse tube p control and controlled circuits. Fig 2:32

Built-in impulse tube

Fig 2:33

Controlled circuits

Available differential pressure.


4 3 2 1 0 4 3 2 1

Differential pressure across controlled circuit.

0 A differential pressure control can reduce the available pressure to an acceptable level or equalize big variations in available pressure. Fig 2:34

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7. Flow limitation When a house owner buys heat, he is also contracting for a maximum effect. The heat supplier too wants to make sure that the client cannot consume more. This limitation of the flow is important to the supplier, bearing in mind that he has to be able to deliver to all his clients at the same time.
Flow control Q

p control Flow limiter. Fig 2:35 Fig 2:38

Q Q Q

A constant differential pressure across a fixed resistance causes a limited flow. This can be obtained in several ways. A constant differential pressure is obtained by a differential pressure control valve, and a fixed resistance, which could be a throttle orifice, an adjustment valve or a fully open control valve. A differential pressure control valve with a built-in setting device is also a solution. If the resistance is fixed - pressure adjusting orifice or fully open control valve the limitation is done by adjusting the differential pressure. When the resistance as well as the adjustment valve and the differential pressure can be adjusted, the limitation can be done with the help of both the adjustment valve and the differential pressure control. At a fixed differential pressure, (a combined differential pressure controller and an adjustment valve), the limitation must be done with the adjustment valve.

Flow limiter and differential pressure control. Fig 2:36

60 40 20 0

80 100 120 140

Differential pressure control and fully open control valve. Fig 2:37 24 8 STEPS - CONTROL OF HEATING SYSTEMS

Flow limitation to a sub-station Fig 2:39

Flow limitation is simple when you have a constant p

Constant p

Max flow nce ista s e R

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8. Energy metering. The energy supplied to a building is measured by metering the flow and by registering the temperature difference across the heat exchanger. The flow meters can be mechanical or electronic, working with ultrasound. Flow and temperature drop readings are accumulated in a computerized unit where the consumption can be read straight away or by using a small computer. The information can also be transmitted through a cable or a modem to a central unit. Tests have to be made on how to read the consumption in smaller units, in each apartment of a larger building for instance, but this is difficult because heat is transferred between the apartments. (An apartment, located in the centre of the building, with the heat completely turned off, only recieves about 2 C lower room temperature than the surrounding apartments.) In order to keep down the costs for the metering equipment, flow meters are used for the distribution of the total consumption between the different apartments, provided that all the apartments have access to water, holding the same temperature.

Ultrasonic flowmeter. Fig 2:40

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CHAPTER 3 SECONDARY SYSTEMS USED IN EUROPE

Secondary systems used in Europe.

Production

Distribution

Consumption

Preface
Secondary systems are the parts of the heating systems with a lower pressure and temperature level, installed in buildings. A lower pressure and a lower temperature can be obtained with a shunt connection and a differential pressure control, (direct connected systems). The most commonly used system is, however, the connection through a heat exchanger, completely separating the two systems from each other, (indirect connected systems). The secondary systems consist of three parts: production, boiler or heat exchanger distribution consumption When speaking of district heating, the production unit is in fact only a transformation from one temperature- and pressure level to another, but regarding function, it is a production unit.

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Comfort
18

The purpose of the heating system is to create environmental conditions in the building, comfortable for people to live in.
20

15

17

Generally an air temperature of 20-23 C is considered acceptable, but there are also other factors influencing the comfort: the temperature of surrounding surfaces air movements, convection activity level

40 17

Heat radiates to surfaces with lower temperatures. Fig. 3:1

clothing The heat transfers which we can influence, towards and from a person in a room, are from radiation, convection and/or conduction. A minor share comes from breathing. Heat transfer by radiation has the biggest influence. We are receiving heat from surfaces with a higher temperature than our skin, and we are emitting heat to surfaces with a lower temperature. The greater difference the larger the heat transfer. Air with a lower temperature that flows over a surface removes heat from the surface. The higher velocity of the air-flow the more heat is removed. The greater the temperature difference the larger the heat flow. Heat conduction requires direct contact, for instance when you are sitting on a cold chair, but it is normally short-lived as the chair is quickly warmed up by your body heat. The result of the factors mentioned above and the temperature of the room air at a given point in a room, can be calculated. It is thus possible to determine in advance if a heating system will provide an acceptable comfort in a given room. Surface temperatures close to 20 C on all surfaces in a room and air-flow velocities lower than 20 cm/s provides very good comfort. Our activity level is also of great importance for how we are experiencing comfort. The temperature can be kept several degrees lower in a sports centre than in a living room. We adapt to present conditions with our clothing.

Air velocity m/s 0,5


0,4 0,3 0,2 0,1 0

40% 30 20 15 10 5 0

18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28

Percent of unsatisfied persons as result of air temperature and air velocity. Fig. 3:2

Different people react differently at the same temperature depending on age, activity, clothing etc. Fig. 3:3 28 8 STEPS - CONTROL OF HEATING SYSTEMS

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Heat requirements.
The heat requirements in a building consist of: transmission requirements ventilation domestic water Transmission requirements. When designing a house, we can influence the transmission requirements, heat loss through walls, floors, roofs, windows and doors, based on differences between the outdoor and the indoor temperature. In northern Europe, with long and cold winters, the standard requires 20-30 cm of high-quality insulation in the external walls and sealed triple glazing in the window units. Transmission requirements of 20 W/m2 floor area are normal. The calculations made to determine the transmisison requirements are based on data containing large safety margins. The real requirements therefore are far below the theoretically calculated ones. This is very obvious when you look at the flow temperature required and the temperature difference obtained when the heating plant is taken into operation. During the first year, the heat requirements will be about 30% more due to the drying out of the dampness of the building. Here therefore, part of the surplus will be needed.
400 mm mineral wool Actual value Drying period Calculated value Required heat There are big differences between calculated and required heat. Fig. 3:4

Outdoor temperature -200C - -300C

Indoor temperature +200C

200 mm mineral wool Standard insulation thicknesses in northern Europe. Fig. 3:5 8 STEPS - CONTROL OF HEATING SYSTEMS 29

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+2

-18

+18

+20 C

Ventilation system Fig. 3:6

Ventilation. The purpose of ventilation is to remove pollutants (water vapour, odour, dust etc.). The air removed from a building must be replaced by cold outdoor air, heated to room temperature. Ventilation also requires heat and the colder the outdoor temperature, the more heat is required. In order to lower the heat consumption, the buildings are constructed as tightly sealed as possible in cold areas, and the ventilation is carried out so that the lowest air change is maintained, 0,5 change per hour. The warm air which is exhausted from a building contains much heat. Different devices are used to recover this heat, for example heat pumps and heat exchangers. It has turned out that a too few air change and too tightly sealed houses are causing problems with damp, condensation and mould. Wind influence. The wind has a great influence on the air changes and thus the heat consumption, in very tightly sealed houses. In many parts of Europe the wind is blowing more and stronger in the temperature range around 0 C than at other temperatures when heat is required. Even moderate wind velocities of 10 m/s can double or treble the air changes, depending on how tightly sealed the house is built. As regards the heating system, the flow temperature must be raised considerably in order to keep the room temperature at the desired level.

-12 oC

+22 oC
5 +o C
+22 oC

VVX
oC +8

o -12 C

+5 oC

+8 oC

Systems for recovering heat Fig. 3:7

Wind has a big influence on the air change in houses Fig. 3:8

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Incidental heat gain from heat sources other than the heating system. The irregular incidental heat gain from, people, the sun, cooking and electrical appliances is so great that ,it will cause over temperatures if no measures are taken. This is to much so that it is definitely profitable to equip, for example radiators with thermostatic valves in order to adjust the heat supply to present requirements. Furthermore the comfort level will increase owing to the more even temperature from the thermostatic valves.

New buildings kWh/m2 year Heating and ventilation Hot water Common electricity Electricity in dwelling 40 - 80 20 - 30 5 - 10 20 - 40

Old buildings kWh/m2 year 100 - 200* 20 - 30 5 20 - 40

There are lot of heat soarces in an apartment. Fig. 3:9

Energy consumption in dwellings. * The lower values are for single houses and the higher for multi-story buildings.

Domestic hot water. It was evident early on that it was not enough to just supply heat to the radiators. When in addition hot water could be offered to each apartment, the leakage was reduced and corrosion damage ceased in the heating system. The consumption of domestic hot water forms a rather substantial part of the total heat requirements in a building, and that part becomes more substantial the better the house is insulated. After the discovery of the legionella bacteria and legionairs Desease, the control of domestic hot water temperature has become important. Stationary hot potable water should hold a temperature of at least 60 C. The pipes for domestic hot water are made of copper or of heat resistant plastic, for example PEX. The domestic water system in large buildings is equipped with a circulation pipe and a circulation pump so that domestic hot water always is available at all taps, without long delay s in delivery.

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CHAPTER 3 SECONDARY SYSTEMS USED IN EUROPE

Production

Distribution

Consumption

Production.
The production unit is the part of the system in which energy is transformed into heat (separate houses), or in which heat is transferred to the system (buildings connected to district heating) There exist a lot of heat sources, for example: oil gas coal biodynamic fuels, wood, straw etc. solar heat heat pumps district heating The three first-mentioned are the prevailing sources, while biodynamic fuels and heat pumps are continually increasing. Solar heat is marginal. From now on we are going to deal only with systems connected to district heating, in which the four first mentioned heat sources are prevailing. 1. Control The control is to guarantee that the required heat volume is available in the building and that the return temperature does not become too high.

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2. Control valves Only two-way valves are used on the primary side, and this generally applies to the secondary side as well. Three-way valves may be used if they are connected in a way that the flow towards the exchanger varies. Control valves are sized according to the current flow and to the available pressure, independent of the pipe dimension in question.
115 C 85 115 C 65

115 65 60

85

85 60

Use two-way valves in district heating systems. In secondary systems use three-way valves only when there is no pump in the circuit from the heat exchanger. Fig 3:10

3. Temperature controller The flow temperature to the radiators is controlled by a temperature controller according to the outdoor temperature. There is also a control possibility in the return temperature of the domestic hot water in most of the weather compensators. Should the domestic hot water be produced in a secondary connected water heater, the control of the temperature coming from the main heat exchanger will be made at the secondary connected water heater, at least when domestic hot water is produced. Self-acting controls. There are also self-acting controls for the control of the domestic water temperature.

Weather compensator controlling flow and return temperature according to outdoor temperature and domestic hot water temperature and return temperature. Fig 3:11

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CHAPTER 3 SECONDARY SYSTEMS USED IN EUROPE

t room
0 ,5 1 1,5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

b100 b50 b25


9 10 11

4.1 Periodic set back of room temperature Setting back the room temperature during the night is to a great extent applied in order to reduce the heat consumption. The actual energy saving depends on several factors, e.g. the lighter the building is constructed (poor insulation) and the longer the set back period, the larger the savings will be.
Hours

Night set back does not pay. Time constant, b,100 = good apartment building. Fig. 3:12

4.2 Periodic set back of flow temperature In a system with thermostatic valves, a reduced flow temperature means that the valve authority gets smaller; the thermostatic valves open completely as the TRV's tries to maintain the set temperature. Furthermore the hydraulic balance disappears. To prevent this, the flow to each heater (radiator) is preset so that a fair hydraulic balance is maintained, even during these circumstances. 5. Expansion systems Secondary systems, directly connected to a district heating network, do not need to be equipped with their own expansion system, if there is one in the network. Other secondary systems are equipped with expansion systems. The conditions are the same as for the primary circuit. 6. Closed systems Closed systems are for practical reasons the most commonly used. The pump is mounted in the flow pipe, and the static pressure has to correspond to the height of the pipe system.

Closed expansion system Fig. 3:13

7. Open systems Open systems are less and less used even in smaller systems. The reason for this is problems with corrosion at the connection to the expansion tank, and to some extent the risk of freezing.

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8. High-rise buildings The heating system is divided vertically in high-rise buildings in order to prevent the static pressure from becoming higher than the maximum working pressure of any of the components, usually of the radiators. Note that this is working pressure, not test pressure. In order to avoid the exposure of heat exchangers, expansion tanks, pumps, control valves etc. to high static pressures, a sub-station is placed on ground level for, let us say, the first 15 floors. The sub-station for the floors 16-30 is placed on the 16th floor.

In high-rise buildings the heating system will be separated into high and low systems depending on the actual work load for the used components. Fig. 3:14

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CHAPTER 3 SECONDARY SYSTEMS USED IN EUROPE

Production

Distribution

Consumption

Distribution
The distribution unit consists of circulation pumps, horizontal distribution pipes and risers. 1. Definitions Horizontal distribution pipes distribute the water from the sub-station to other buildings and/or risers. Distribution pipes can be pre-insulated pipes or steel pipes lying in a passage in the cellar of the building.
Shut-off and differential pressure valves. Drain valve Horizontal distribution pipe from ceiling in passage and branchings with valves. Fig. 3:15

The risers are vertical distribution pipes, distributing the water to the radiators on each floor. A radiator circuit consists of pipes distributing the water from the riser to each radiator. The radiator circuit can be made for one or two-pipe systems.

Centrally placed riser Visibly placed riser Radiator circuit

Horizontal distribution pipes Cut away of a building Fig. 3:15 36 8 STEPS - CONTROL OF HEATING SYSTEMS Cut away of a building with duct

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2. Pipe material Standard steel pipes are used for larger pipe dimensions, joined together through welding. The connection to bigger valves and devices are made with flanges. Smaller pipes are of threaded steel pipes with its dimensions adapted to standardized pipe threads. Soft pipes delivered in coils of steel, copper or heat resisting plastic with a diffusion barrier, are used for the connection between riser and radiators. The joint is made with compression fittings of various types. 3. Piping The distribution pipes can be laid as pre-insulated pipes, in the ground or under a building, or be hung from the ceiling in the cellar of the building. The risers are placed centrally, in shafts in the building, or at an outer wall, exposed or in shafts. Soft pipes are laid insulated on the load-bearing system of joists and are covered with a layer of concrete.

Soft pipes of steel, copper or plastic are, of smaller dimensions, used in heating systems. Fig. 3:17

Insulated pipes which will be embedded in concrete. Fig. 3:18

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4. Compensation for the linear expansion due to temperature variations The linear expansion for steel pipes is about 0,12 mm/m pipe at 10 C temperature change. Measures should be taken when it is a question of long exposed piping of steel or copper pipes.
Fixing point Fixing point

The linear expansion is absorbed in special compensators, for example bellows which can expand or contract. An easier way would be to make an expansion loop on the pipeline or to move the pipeline sideways to obtain an expansion loop. It is important that the pipes can move towards the expansion unit, and that the branches are not blocked. The pipes must be fastened so that they will not touch walls or other parts of the building, otherwise, any pipe movement may cause disturbing noises. 5. Insulation All the pipes including those within a building are insulated to make the heat losses to the consumers radiators as small as possible. The radiators are to emit heat and the emitted heat volume is controlled by the thermostatic valves. 6. Flow The flow in the distribution unit is going to vary in systems with thermostatic valves, in spite of the fact that the flow temperature is adjusted to the outdoor temperature. The reason for this is that the conditions vary from room to room in the building and the flow temperature must be adjusted to be able to hold the room temperature in the room which doesnt receive any incidental heat. Less heat is required in rooms with incidental heat gain from various sources. In those cases the radiator thermostats reduce the heat transfer, i.e. the flow. Incidental heat gain comes from people, the sun, cooking and electrical appliances and it is very unevenly spread throughout the building. Furthermore, the thermal mass in the building has to be considered.

Expansion loop

Fixing point Expansion of pipes can easily be picked up by intelligent mounting of the pipes. Fig. 3:19

Insulated pipe. Fig. 3:20

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7. Pumps The pumps on the secondary side are of two kinds: pumps with a dry motor pumps with a wet motor In a pump with a dry motor, the motor and pump housing situated some distance from each other. The shaft connecting the motor and impeller is visible, and there is a sealing joint where the shaft enters the pump housing. The sealings, mechanical flat sealings, are nowadays very safe and tight, requiring practically no maintenance. In a pump with a wet motor, the pump housing and motor are built together as one unit. The rotor of the motor is located in the system water, and a thin wall made of non metallic material separates the stator from the system water. 8. Pump control The varying flow in the secondary system makes it beneficial to control the pump according to its pressure and varying flows. The control can be made in accordance to several principles of function: constant pressure at the pump constant pressure at the last valve at the end of the system proportional pressure pressure control parallel to the pipe resistance Constant pressure means that the pressure is not increasing when the flow is decreasing. Proportional pressure means that the pressure decreases at decreasing flow along a straight line which, at the flow 0, is equal to half of the pressure at calculated flow. Pressure control parallel to the pipe resistance means that the pump pressure follows in accordance with the graph for the pipe resistance at decreasing flow, but only down to half of the calculated pressure. The differential pressure controls can be integrated in to the wet pumps, and it is the pressure increase across the pump that is controlled. Frequency converters and separate pressure sensors can be used for all sizes of pumps.
50

Pumps with dry motors. Fig. 3:21

Pump with wet motor Fig. 3:22 % p, P


100

pn=Q xp0

Pn=Q 0xP0
0 0 50 100%

The resistance varies by the square and the effect for the pump by the cubic of the flow change Fig. 3:23 8 STEPS - CONTROL OF HEATING SYSTEMS 39

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Production

Distribution

Consumption

Consumption
The units emitting heat to the rooms are the heat consumers. They may be called heaters from the aspect of the rooms. The most commonly used type of heaters are the radiators of pressed and welded steel. There are also radiators of cast iron, but they are seldom used, and finally there are convectors and convection radiators in different models. Floor heating based on heat resistant plastic pipes has been used to a great extent during the past twenty years. 1. Radiator and convector systems The connection of heaters can be made according to two principles: one-pipe systems two-pipe systems
60C 52 C 47C

60 52 40 One-pipe system with temperature drop. Fig. 3:25

47

Unit with thermostatic valve for connecting radiator to a one-pipe system. Fig. 3:24

The one-pipe systems can for instance comprise one apartment. The heaters are equipped with special valves in which the distribution of the flow between heater and heating coil takes place. According to the requirement the flow to the heater is controlled with a thermostatic valve. The flow in the circuit is always constant and the circuit must be thoroughly insulated to prevent heat from being supplied to the room when there is no need. Soft copper pipes are the most commonly used pipe material, but soft thin-walled steel pipes and pipes of heat resisting plastic with a diffusion barrier are also being used. As a rule the pipes are fixed directly onto the insulation and embedded in concrete. The

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requirements for controlled reduced heat consumption have resulted in a reduced use of one-pipe systems, from about 15% five years ago to about 12% today.

60 40

60 40

Two-pipe system with temperature drop. Fig. 3:26

Two-pipe systems offer greater flexibility and more options regarding piping layout and efficient control of the room temperature. The heaters are equipped with special valves for the connection to flow and return with a thermostatic valve in the flow. From a centrally placed riser, the pipes can be laid parallel with T-branchings to each radiator or as a Tichelmann-coil (very seldom used in Europe), in order to provide the same available pressure for each heater. The piping can also be made with a separate flow and return pipe to each heater. The riser can be laid exposed on a wall with visible connecting pipes to a heater on each side of the riser, but this solution can cause disturbing noises between the floors.

Unit with thermostatic valve for connecting radiator to a two-pipe system. Fig.3:27

Tichelmann-coil. Fig. 3:28

Risers on the outside walls. Fig. 3:30

Separate flow and return pipe to each radiator. Fig. 3:29 8 STEPS - CONTROL OF HEATING SYSTEMS 41

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2. Pressure distribution Two-pipe systems cause different available pressures in various units of the system. The risers and the distribution pipes to which horizontal one-pipe systems are connected are also two-pipe systems and each onepipe circuit has its own available pressure. One-pipe systems have a constant flow, and a distribution of pressure and flow can therefore be made with manually adjustable valves, and a hydraulic balance can be obtained. In two-pipe systems, with a control of the temperature in each room, the flow will vary and thereby also the available pressure, which in turn means that a pre-set adjustment will only function at full flow. At a decreasing flow the resistance reduces by the square of the flow change across the adjustment, and the exceeding differential pressure must be handled by the thermostatic valve or by the floor heating valve. Imbalance and disturbing noises may arise. Thermostatic valves should not have a higher differential pressure than 25 kPa.

Required pressure Excessive pressure Pressure distribution in a two-pipe radiator circuit. Fig. 3:31

Excessive p for the radiators

p for pipes Available p p for risers

Excessive p for risers

Required p for horizontal pipes

Required p for risers Pressure distribution in a two-pipe system. Fig. 3:32 42 8 STEPS - CONTROL OF HEATING SYSTEMS

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3. Differential pressure controls In order to accommedate varying flows and pressures in a heating system, there are automatic adjusting valves differential pressure controls. Via impulse tubes they sense the pressure in the flow and return of the riser, and possible pressure changes are transferred via a diaphragm to a cone in the valve housing, and thus the differential pressure remains constant. Thermostatic valves connected to a riser with differential pressure control will be exposed to virtually insignificant changes of the differential pressure, and above all they will never be exposed to a higher differential pressure than the one set on the differential pressure control.

Differential pressure control. Fig. 3:33

Thermostatic valves are generally used in most installations. Fig. 3:34 Differential pressure control on every riser. Fig. 3:35

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troom0C Recommended Closed valve


22 21 20 19 18 75 80 85

0 1 2 3 4 90

p-band 0C p-band 0C p-band 0C

4. Control of the room temperature In order to reduce the heat consumption, but nevertheless offer comfort, there are requirements or recommendations in most countries to use thermostatic valves on radiators and convectors as well as the corresponding control equipment for floor heating. Thermostatic valves have to be mounted on each heater to give a good result. They are to have a heat authority larger than 1,0, which means that they are to have at least that heat amount available at the valve which is required to keep the temperature set on the thermostat. The thermostatic valves must also be able to sense the present room temperature. 5. Correct flow temperature It is important that the room control has the right pre-conditions in order to work with a control of the temperature in each room: available pressure should be equal to or higher than required available heat amount should be equal to or larger than required The mounting of differential pressure controls at the bottom of each riser and a control, if necessary an adjustment, of the available pressure at the riser located farthest away can manage the first item. The available heat volume is adjusted by the flow temperature. If the flow temperature is raised, more heat is emitted from the heater, the room temperature increases a little, the thermostat reduces the flow and there will be a larger temperature difference and a larger amount of heat is available. The room control should have heat authority. A higher flow temperature reduces the p-band for a thermostatic valve. The p-band is the temperature increase by the sensor, required to make the thermostatic valve pass from a nominal position to a closed valve. Thermostatic valves are tested at 2C p-band, but in practice the p-band is less than 1C and the thermostatic valve therefore reacts efficiently even to small temperature changes in the room. At a too low flow temperature, the heater does not emit sufficient amount of heat. In these cases the thermostat opens the valve completely and the whole system gets unbalanced, unless a rough pre setting of the flow has been made.

The thermostat is working within the recommended area. Fig. 3:36

tflow0C

troom0C
22 21 20 19 18 75

Recommended

Closed valve
0 1 2

Correct flow temperature


80 85

3 4 90

tflow0C
The flow temperature is important for the functioning of the thermostat Fig. 3:37

troom0C
22 21 20 19 18 75

Recommended

Closed valve
0 1 2 3 4

80

85

tflow0C

90

No heat authority

Good heat authority

Good heat authority gives a small p-band and good use of the incidential heat gain. Fig. 3:38 44 8 STEPS - CONTROL OF HEATING SYSTEMS

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6. Floor heating systems Floor heating provides a very high comfort level. The whole floor area is warm and all the surrounding surfaces will obtain radiant heat which increases their temperature. Modern floor heating systems are based upon light pipes of plastic, which can be manufactured and handled in substantial lengths. The most common pipe material is cross linked polyethylene, PEX, with an external diffusional barrier, which on the whole eliminates any penetration of oxygen through the pipe wall. The coils emanate from centrally placed distributors. They can be laid according to three different methods: single laying, which is the easiest way of laying double laying helical laying The coils are cast into concrete, and there must always be an insulation under the coils in order to reduce the heat emission downwards. Each room should have its own coil to make it possible to control the heat supply to the room. Floor heating emits, at a room temperature of 20C, about 11 W/m2 floor area and per C temperature difference between the floor surface and the room air. The temperature of the floor surface should not exceed 27C if you are going to stay on the floor for a long time. The required flow temperature is low, often not more than 40C, and the temperature drop across the coils is calculated to be between 5 and 10C.

HD PEX Glue Oxygen barrage PEX-pipes for floor heating. Fig. 3:39

Single

Double

Helical laying

Different kinds of laying. Fig. 3:40

Pipes Concrete

Pipes Concrete Insulation

Insulation

Concrete

Floor heating in different floor constructions. Fig. 3:41 8 STEPS - CONTROL OF HEATING SYSTEMS 45

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Actuator

Transformer

Room thermostat

7. Control The control of the room temperature is made with an electric thermostat, opening and closing a control valve via a thermo-hydraulic motor. The electric thermostat contains an electric resistance, which is activated when the thermostat opens the control valve. The resistance emits heat in the thermostat, which after a while, believes that the room temperature has increased and closes the control valve. This type of on-off control has proved to be very efficient in the use with floor heating. The type of circuit layout chosen is of little or no significance. 8. Ventilation In the colder parts of Europe, mechanical exhaust air systems (a fan exhausting air out of the building), is the most common in dwellings. In the southern parts, natural ventilation is applied. Offices and industrial buildings have other requirements, and in these buildings both supply and exhaust air are mechanized. The supply air volumes in these systems are also considerably larger and require a pre-heating of the supply air to obtain an acceptable comfort. The supply air is treated in special units before being distributed to the different rooms through a ducted system. Special inlet terminal devices are used to diffuse the supply air into the rooms without creating draught or noise. The supply air devices consist of a filter unit for cleaning the air. Thereafter the air is heated to a little below the room air temperature and then it passes the exhaust fan of the unit. Beside these functions, the devices can be used to cool or humidify the air. The control of the temperature of the supply air is made by a shunt circuit, containing a control valve and a circulation pump. The control valve supplies the required heat and a control station with a sensor in the supply air duct ensures that the correct temperature is obtained. The control can also be made by self-acting controls. Air has a low heat capacity. You can change its temperature rapidly, and that is why the control must be stable. Oscillations in the control systems are devastating. The distance between battery and shunt circuit should be the shortest possible. A change of the temperature in the air supply duct must result in a changed temperature of the radiator as quickly as possible. For the same reasons, differential pressure controls are mounted to keep a constant pressure across the control valves. The flow in the battery circuit should be constant, which can be accomplished by adjustment of a valve or with a pressure controlled circulation pump.

Room temperature will be controlled for every room. Fig. 3:42 Variable flow constant temperature Ventilation unit Constant flow Control valve p-control.

Shunt for ventilation unit with p-control. Fig 3:43 Ventilation unit Variable flow constant temperature Constant flow Control valve p-control. Sensor

Shunt for ventilation unit with p-control and selfacting control valves Fig. 3:44 Air damper Filter Heat exchanger Heater Fan Principle for supply air unit. Fig. 3:45 46 8 STEPS - CONTROL OF HEATING SYSTEMS

Manifold

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CHAPTER 4 EVALUATION OF SYSTEMS AND PRODUCTS

Evaluation of systems and products.


The evaluation is based on experiences from systems used in Europe and the systems currently used in China.The results are described in the chapters Design instructions as proposals for ready systems. However, a rapid development continues within all fields and new evaluations ought to be made at regular, not too long, intervals

Combined heating and power plant Fig. 4:1

Local central boiler plant

Sub-station

District heating
District heating means that the combustion, the central boiler plant, including all the required transports, are located at one site, serving a large area. This location should be chosen so that the disturbances of the residents is kept at a minimum, as regards noise, pollutants and transports. District heating systems can be designed for direct or indirect connection. Direct connection is cheaper in the construction process of the system, but in the long run, the whole system becomes more sensitive. A leakage in an installation can even empty the pre-insulated pipes and the central boiler plant of water. The static pressure for the central boiler plant also prevails in the radiators of the apartments.Indirect connection means that the installations of the building form a system completely separated from the pre-insulated piping network by a heat exchanger. In the same way, the pre-insulated piping network is separated from the boiler by a heat exchanger. Each part of the system can therefore work at its own temperature and its own static pressure. Recommendation: District heating with indirect connection should be used.

Direct connection. Fig. 4:2

Indirect connection. Fig. 4:3 8 STEPS - CONTROL OF HEATING SYSTEMS 47

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CHAPTER 4 EVALUATION OF SYSTEMS AND PRODUCTS

Central boiler plant


Efficient operation of a central boiler plant requires automatic control and supervision. On the whole, the cost of the automatic controls are the same regardless of the size of the central boiler plant. Automatic control does not become profitable until the produced effect exceeds 50 MW. The efficiency of new boilers of this size is about 88 90%. The production of electricity by steam turbines becomes profitable if it is combined with district heating in so-called combined heating and power plants. The boiler effect in the combined heating and power plant should be at least 200 MW. About 40% of the production is electricity and 60% heat. A combined heating and power plant should be in operation all year round. During the winter months, the combined heating and power plant delivers heat to the local district heating networks and uses the return water for cooling the condensate from the steam turbine. Cooling towers are used for condensing of the steam in cases when the district heating network is not sufficient for cooling. During the summer, the heat can also be used to run cooling cycles. The efficiency of combined heating and power plant is about 90 92%. Recommendation: Local central boiler plants should be larger than 50 MW, and they should eventually be connected to a combined heating and power plant of at least 200 MW. Local central boiler plants considered to have a long remaining life, should be equipped with flue gas cooling in order to improve their efficiency.

Local central boiler plants connected to a combined heating and power plant. Fig. 4:4 48 8 STEPS - CONTROL OF HEATING SYSTEMS

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Fuel.
With modern techniques, it does not matter what sort of fuel you are using since the exhaust gases can always be purified. But a fuel containing less pollutants also emits less pollutants and therefore requires less purification of the flue gases. Coal is a domestic fuel and will therefore be used for the a foreseeable future. The local heating plants should be using as pure coal as possible even before renovation or rebuilding. After rebuilding of boilers with a fluidized bed, coal of the best quality should still be used. Coal of a lower quality can be used in the combined district heating and power plants, which have been provided with large scale purification equipment. The quality of the coal should be improved as much as possible before delivery. A reduction of the ash content can be made by washing the coal. This in turn has a great influence on combustion, efficiency and discharges. Recommendations: All the coal for local heating plants should be of a high quality with low content of sulphur and ash.

Open coal mine. Fig. 4:5 8 STEPS - CONTROL OF HEATING SYSTEMS 49

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Combustion.
Presently, the most efficient method for combustion of coal is the fluidized bed. Combustion can occur at atmospheric pressure or at overpressure. Coal, ground to pieces 6 mm or smaller, is mixed with water or air and then sprayed into the fire, where a glowing and whirling mass is formed, emitting heat to the tubes of the boiler. The temperature in the fire is kept at a constant and relatively low level, about 850 870C by controlling the supplied fuel amount and the percolation through the tubes. The low combustion temperature results in a decrease of the discharges of SOx to about 400 mg/nm3, about 75% purification. The discharges of NOx are less than 500 mg/nm3. Recommendations: Small central boiler plants, up to about 40 MW, should be removed, and the pre-insulated pipes should be connected to a larger local district heating network. The boilers in local heating plants requiring a thorough renovation, should instead be replaced by modern boilers with a fluidized bed or gas boilers. New plants are only built with these modern boilers. Smallest size 50 MW.

Air Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion

Coal and lime

Air Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion Pressurised Fluidized Bed Combustion

Coal and lime

System for fluidized bed combustion. Fig. 4:6

50

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Exhaust emission control.


The combined heating and power plants which are in operation all year round, should be provided with equipment for thorough purification of the exhaust gases, above all SOx and NOx and particles, but also heavy metals. Equipment for sulphur purification normally removes more than 90 % and when it comes to nitrogen oxides, the discharges are lower than 200 mg/nm3. The local heating plants must concentrate on better coal qualities in order to reduce the discharges and also on bag filters to collect the particles. Discharges lower than 5 mg/nm3 are common. When the local heating plants are connected to a combined heating and power plant, the operation time will be considerably reduced and hopefully to under 20%. Under these circumstances the total discharges during one year may be accepted at the present. The local heating plants are thereafter equipped with boilers with a fluidized bed and only used when the production capacity of the combined heating and power plant is not sufficient. Recommendations: All boilers in local heating plants should, as soon as possible, be equipped with filters to remove the particles from the flue gases, and exhaust gas coolers to increase the efficiency as well as to reduce the discharges of SOx.

Boiler Bag filter

A simple but effective purification of the exhaust gases can be done by using bag filters. Fig. 4:7

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Temperatures.
The flow temperature of the water, through which heat exchangers transfer heat to the local pre-insulated piping network, should be 130C, and the return temperature about 70C. These temperatures are chosen so that existing systems can be operated under these circumstances. Recommendations: The flow temperature of the boiler circuit should be 130C and the return temperature 70C.

130 0C

Static pressure.
The constant pressure of the boiler circuit is determined by the present steam pressure and the highest point of the boiler circuit. The steam pressure must be available also at the highest point in the system. At 130C, at maximum boiler temperature, the steam pressure is 200 kPa (2 bar) and to that must be added the height of the system converted into kPa. Recommendations: The static pressure should not be higher than that which is technically justified.

Boiler
130 C 15 m 100
20 0
30 0

400
0

0 kPa 5

Static pressure for boiler. Fig.4:9 52 8 STEPS - CONTROL OF HEATING SYSTEMS

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Expansion systems.
An open expansion system requires that the tank be placed with its lower edge 20 meters over the highest point of the boiler circuit. Such a placement is difficult to accomplish without having to take expensive measures. In any case, there will be difficulties in accomplishing service and maintenance. A closed expansion system can be placed at any level within the central boiler plant. The only disadvantage is the required supervision and control of the safety valves, and that there is qualified personnel in the central boiler plant, capable of handling the safety valves. Recommendations: Closed expansion systems should be used where technically qualified personnel are available for supervision and maintenance.

130 C
15 m

20 m

Boiler

kPa

A closed expansion system is most preferable. Fig. 4:10

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Distribution Consumption

Distribution-Consumption.
Safety valve Expansion volume

Primary side

Secondary side

Accumulator Expansion volume in the accumulator. Fig. 4:11

1. Accumulator. The main purpose of the accumulator is to even out differences between the heat delivered from the boilers and the consumption in the buildings. The heat requirement in a building can vary rapidly when, for instance, the sun shines on a whole wall face, or lights are turned on in the whole building at nightfall. When the local systems are connected, the accumulator can be used to manage a short period with a larger heat requirement, without having to start up another boiler. When the combined heating and power plant is in operation, the accumulator may allow the plant to manage the variations during a twenty-four hour period without the assistance of other boilers. An accumulator is a large tank of water and it must be made for the working pressure of the system. By increasing the volume of the accumulator with the expansion volume required by the system plus 20% for the gas, the accumulator also functions as a closed expansion tank. Recommendations: An accumulator should be part of every local district heating network, which eventually should be connected to a combined heating and power plant or to other local district heating networks. The accumulator is charged via heat exchangers from the local boiler and from the combined heating and power plant. The accumulator is also used as an expansion system.

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2. Temperature. The flow and return temperatures in the local district heating network should be at 120C and 65C respectively. The temperatures are based upon current values for existing systems. The flow temperature can be adjusted according to the outdoor temperature, down to about 70C when producing domestic hot water, otherwise down to 30 40C, which leads to reduced losses from the pre-insulated pipes. Recommendations: Flow temperature of 120C, return temperature of 65C. The flow temperature should be adjusted according to the outdoor temperature, but all the sub-stations must have access to at least the required heat amount.

Safety valve

Expansion volume

120-70 C

Accumulator Temperatures for the primary system. Fig. 4:12

3. Static pressure. The temperature of 120C requires a steam pressure of 100 kPa (1 bar) in the highest located part of the system. The static pressure makes the level difference, converted into kPa, from the pressure gauge to the highest point plus the steam pressure 100 kPa. The same problem applies with the placing of an open expansion tank as for the local boiler. The accumulator functions well as a closed expansion tank. Recommendations: The static pressure should not be higher than that which is technically justified. A closed expansion tank should be used.
An elevated sub-station influences the static pressure. Fig. 4:13

4. Pre-insulated pipes. For systems with working temperatures over 100C, there are today only pre-insulated pipes available, consisting of steel pipe, polyurethane foam and a mantle of HD polyethylene.The systems are highly developed and there are pipes in all required dimensions. Laying and mounting is safe and relatively straightforward. The heat losses in the pre-insulated piping network should be as small as possible. Recommendations: Pre-insulated pipes should be used. Check all the welding with X-rays, they are pressure vessels. All the systems should be pressure tested with a pressure of 1,3 times the maximum working pressure. A leakage alarm should be installed.

Pre-insulated pipe. Fig. 4:14

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5. Flow. The type of flow in the pre-insulated piping network, varying or constant, is determined by the way the joint is made where the heat exchangers are connected. A well functioning district heating system implies low return temperatures, which can only be obtained with a varying flow. A two-way valve, increasing or decreasing the flow through the heat exchanger according to needs, provides a low return temperature and varying flow.

Two and three-way valves. Fig. 4:15

Control valves. There are two and three-way seat valves. The seat valves have a cone working towards a seat. The cone is shaped differently depending on the field of application. We usually speak of the characteristics of the cone, which describes the ratio between the lift height of the cone and the flow change which is the result thereof. In order to obtain a satisfactory functioning in a radiator system, it is a good thing if a certain change of the lift height of the cone in the primary control valve results in the corresponding change of the heat emission from the radiators. For this purpose a cone with a logarithmic characteristic is required. Other characteristics are linear ones, for instance in thermostatic valves, and also exponential ones.

s% 100

1 50

Valve authority. The valve authority or the pressure authority of the valve states the valves share of the resistance in the circuit where it is placed, 30% for three-way valves and 50% or more for two-way valves. These values are only applicable to the sizing circuit. With regard to other valves the available differential pressure has to be calculated, and the valve should preferably use the whole pressure available to the valve.

50

100

Linear 1 , quadratical 2 , and logarithmic 3 , characteristics for valves. The lift range for the cone, s, shown in %. Fig. 4:16 56 8 STEPS - CONTROL OF HEATING SYSTEMS

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Two-way valves. A two-way valve has one inlet and one outlet, and the cone and the seat are placed in between, making it possible to control the flow through the valve. Connection. The design of the connection determines its function. The simplest connection design is when a pump is feeding water to the valve which increases or decreases the flow as required. When the water has passed the consumer unit, a heat exchanger for example, it returns to the pump. The flow in the circuit will vary. Two circuits are obtained if a shunt is placed after the control valve, between flow and return, and after that a circulation pump. The circuit before the shunt will give a varying flow, when the control valve is adjusting the flow as required, and the circuit after the shunt will have a constant flow with varying temperatures. Whether the control valve is placed in the flow or in the return pipe is of no significance as far as control is concerned, but if the shunt is placed high up in the system, the best situation is to have the valve in the return pipe, which will reduce the risk of air entering the consumer units. A shunt for a ventilation device should be placed as close to the radiator as possible to avoid temperature oscillations. A two-way valve may be used to provide a constant flow in the supply circuit, but in that case a shunt is required before the control valve, in which the resistance is as large as the resistance through the control valve in nominal position. (Since three-way valves already have an automatic shunt in the control valve, they would be the natural choice).

More or less flow in the primary circuit controls the temperature in the secondary circuit. Fig. 4:17

Shunt for control of the temperature in secondary circuit. Fig. 4:18

The above shunts with three or two-way valves with no pump in the main circuit give the same result. A pre-setting valve in the by-pass is required when using twoway valve. The resistance in the by-pass should be equal to that of the two-way valve. Fig. 4:19 8 STEPS - CONTROL OF HEATING SYSTEMS 57

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p 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 5 10 2 3 1

Differential pressure control. In systems with varying flows, large variations arise in the available differential pressure, which means that the control valves, sized for the lowest available differential pressure, are forced to work with a many times larger pressure. At these high pressures the valves become too large and this could easily result in oscillations which, except for unnecessary wear, causes higher return temperatures and affects the other valves in the system. The differential pressure controls keep a constant pressure at varying flows. Construction. A differential pressure control consists of: valve body control unit The valve body contains a cone and a seat. The control unit consists of a diaphragm, a setting unit with a spring pack and a connection for impulse tubes on each side of the diaphragm, and also the impulse tubes. An impulse tube can be built into the valve body. Fucntion. The differential pressure control can be mounted before or after the part of the system over which it is to control, the controlled circuit. One impulse tube is connected before the controlled circuit and on the positive side of the diaphragm. The other one is connected after the controlled circuit and on the negative side of the diaphragm. Differential pressure controls with a built-in impulse tube are made to be mounted either before or after the controlled circuit.

The figure above illustrates the pump head at various flows. The area 2 represents the necessary pump head for the circuit apart from the valve. Area 3 represents the differential pressure the valve has to handle. Fig. 4:20

Setting handle Connection for the + impulse tube

Impulse tube

Diaphragm house Valve This combination provides the control valve with the same available pressure when the flow fluctuates. Fig. 4:22

Differential pressure control. Fig. 4:21 58 8 STEPS - CONTROL OF HEATING SYSTEMS

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Flow limitation. In large systems, there may be requirements for limiting the flow to the connected units, so that none of them can take any flow away from the others. Principle. The principle is: The flow is limited by keeping a constant differential pressure over a resistance. Solutions. The differential pressure is kept constant with a differential pressure control. The resistance can be a throttle orifice, a fully open control valve or an adjusting valve. There are also complete flow controllers, in which a differential pressure valve and an adjusting valve are built together as one unit.
Constant p Max flow Constant p
ce tan s i s Re

Flow control

p control Flow control can be arranged with a flow controller with built in resistance or with a p controller and the fully open control valve as resistance. Fig. 4:24

Resistance Limitation of flow requires constant p and some kind of resistance. Fig. 4:23

Recommendations: The flow in the pre-insulated piping network should be varying. Two-way valves should be used for controlling the heat supply to the heat exchangers. Differential pressure controls should be mounted at the control valves and they should also be used for the maximum limitation of the flow, along with the control valve.

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CHAPTER 4 EVALUATION OF SYSTEMS AND PRODUCTS

6. Heat exchangers. Modern district heating systems, with requirements of low return temperatures, work well together with heat exchangers with a small water content. There are in principle two kinds of heat exchangers: plate heat exchangers coil units Both types provide a comparatively small resistance in spite of a high water rate. High water rate is good, because it leaves less depositions in the exchanger. Recommendations: Plate heat exchangers or coil units should be used.

Plate heat exchanger Heat exchangers. Fig. 4:25

Coil heat exchanger

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7. Pump. Circulation pumps used in district heating systems give a larger pressure increase at lower flows. At the same time, the requirement for pressure is less as the resistance decreases by the square of the flow change. The high differential pressure causes problems at the control valves in the form of noise, poor control and hunting, but it also involves unnecessary electric consumption for operation of the pumps. While the resistance alters by the square of the flow change, the electric consumption alters by the cube of the flow change. Consequently here is money to be saved.

ppump psystem pmin

100

Flow % Min p = 150kPa

300 200

50 0

150
100

Pressure control, with the sensor at the end of the system, guarantees a minimum available pressure in the system. There will still be big differences in available pressure at different flows. Fig. 4:26

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Principles for pressure control. There are several principles for controlling the differential pressure provided by a pump: constant differential pressure at the last consumer constant differential pressure at the pump proportional differential pressure parallel to the resistance in the pipe system A constant differential pressure at the last consumer guarantees that all the sub-stations have the required pressure, which gives a lower differential pressure by decreasing consumption, and at the flow of almost zero, the low differential pressure is predominant throughout the whole system. The available differential pressure for valves is determined at a minimum flow. Valves close to the pump will at a maximum flow, have a considerably higher differential pressure than that they are sized for. Principles for the control of electric motors. There is one type of control for the electric motors in question: a frequency converter A frequency converter converts the alternating current into direct current and then into alternating current for the moment required frequency. Frequency converters are used together with standard induction motors and are available in sizes from 1,1 200 kW shaft effect. The efficiency is high, about 96%, and installation and use are simple. Recommendations: Pumps on the primary side should be equipped with frequency converters for pressure control. The pumps should be placed in the flow pipe to ensure the water level in sub-stations located high up. The lowest available pressure at the last consumer should be kept constant. The control valves should be sized for this lowest pressure. The problems with large variations remain, though somewhat smaller, considering the available differential pressure at the control valves. Differential pressure control is always a requirement for reliable, safe function.

Frequency converter. Fig. 4:27

Even with a pressure controlled pump the available pressure will fluctuate so a differential pressure control is required. Fig. 4:28

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8. Metering. Heat meters are used in district heating networks to distribute the costs according to consumption, which is an efficient way of lowering the heat consumption. Metering can be made centrally for the whole building, and then the costs are distributed according to apartment area.
Heat meter

Heat meter Heat meter Heat meters register consumption and heat losses from the pipe network. Fig. 4:29

Principles. Heat meters for district heating consist of: flow meter temperature sensor counter

Counter Flow meter Temperature sensor

Heat meter. Fig. 4:30 8 STEPS - CONTROL OF HEATING SYSTEMS 63

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There are several kinds of flow meters: impeller indicator


Counter
00135

ultrasonic meters The impeller indicators are the oldest ones, and they consist of an impeller set in motion by the water flow. At small flows, the impeller indicators have great margins for error, and they are sensitive to larger flows than those which they have been sized for. The impeller, its shaft and its bearings are exposed to hard wear by impurities in the water. Regular services are therefore required. Servicing every second year is standard for a district heating network. Ultrasonic meters have no moving parts, and they work with a sound signal, transmitted to a receiver from where it is transmitted back. The difference in frequency between the two signals is a measure of the flow rate, which multiplied by the pipe area gives the flow. The ultrasonic meters are insensible to impurities and have a large accuracy of metering within the whole metering range, which is considerably larger than the one for the corresponding impeller indicator. Temperature sensors should be placed in the flow and in the return to meter the temperature drop across the plant. In the counter, in this case a computer, the temperature drop is multiplied by the flow, and the result is the consumed heat amount. The consumption can be read from the meter, via a modem or a cable, laid in connection with the pre-insulated pipes. Recommendations: Metering of the outgoing heat amount from the central boiler plant, as well as of the heat deliveries to the various buildings, is to be made in order to check the efficiency of the production and distribution. This metering makes it possible to study the effect of different measures taken, but it also gives a signal if something is wrong. For this purpose, ultrasonic meters are presently the only alternative.

Turbine wheel Housing

Mechanical flow meter, principle. Fig. 4:31

Transmitter, receiver

Reflector Ultrasound flow meter, principle. Fig. 4:32

Reflector

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CHAPTER 4 EVALUATION OF SYSTEMS AND PRODUCTS

Production

Distribution

Consumption

Heating systems.
Heating systems is the comprehensive term for all the installations for the heating in a building i.e. the production, the distribution and the consumption unit. One or two-pipe systems. The great difference between one and two-pipe systems is the flow temperature to the radiators connected to the circuits respectively, and consequently the resulting return temperature. In the one-pipe systems, the flow temperature becomes lower for each connected radiator, and in the two-pipe systems, the flow temperature is the same for all the radiators, irrespective of the heat losses from the pipes between them. The temperature drop across a one-pipe coil, 20 - 25C, is the same as the one across each radiator in a two-pipe system, but at an incidental heat gain, the thermostatic valves are closing, and the return temperature then decreases in a two-pipe system, while it increases in one-pipe systems. The flow is constant in one-pipe systems and varying in twopipe systems. The differential pressure controlling of the pump in twopipe systems may cut the operation costs for the pump between 70 to 80%. You cannot make that kind of saving in a one-pipe system.
Q=n% Q=100% t 250C Q=P/t

Q=100-n%

The flow is the same to all radiators in a one-pipe circuit. In twopipe systems the flow will be determined from required heat and temperature drop across the radiator Fig. 4:33 8 STEPS - CONTROL OF HEATING SYSTEMS 65

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CHAPTER 4 EVALUATION OF SYSTEMS AND PRODUCTS

1. One-pipe systems. The gradually lower flow temperature in one-pipe systems is compensated by the increase of the radiator surface. The surface increases the lower the flow temperature becomes. If the flow temperature decreases below the required value, i.e the available heat amount is too small, it becomes impossible to compensate by an increased flow. The heat emission from the pipes in a one-pipe circuit cannot be controlled, and the emission can be substantial especially from uninsulated pipes. If one or several thermostatic valves have closed the flow to respective radiators, the flow in the circuit continues with a higher temperature and the heat emission from the pipes increases. The gravity forces, especially in high-rise buildings, increase the circulation in the circuit considerably. The flow in the one-pipe systems is constant and has to be adjusted for each circuit.
W/m pipe
25
400

Pipe size
80/89 65/76

ca 3 m

ca 1,5 m
300

50/60 40

ca 0,6 m
32

25

200

25

There are roughly 6 meters of uninsulated pipes in each room Room temperature: Flow temperature: 20 0C 90 0C
100

20 15 10

Vertical pipe DN 25 Heat losses : 105 W/m x 0,8 = 84 x 3 = 252 W Horizontal pipe DN 25 Heat losses : 105 x 3 = 315 W Sum: Fig. 4:34 567 W
0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120

Temperature above room temperature 0C Heat losses from uninsulated horizontal pipe. For vertical pipe reduce by 20 % One pipe above another reduce by 12 % Three pipes above each other reduce by 20 % Fig. 4:35

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Existing one-pipe systems. Existing one-pipe systems usually have problems with the distribution of heat between various one-pipe circuits and between the separate rooms. The distribution between one-pipe circuts. The distribution between the one-pipe circuits can be adjusted with adjusting valves, providing the available differential pressure is constant. In high-rise buildings, the gravity forces will cause a varying available pressure, depending on the current flow temperature, and then an automatic flow control is required on each one-pipe circuit in order to distribute the flow properly. Heat emission from radiators. The heat supply to a radiator is controlled by the flow temperature, the temperature drop and the flow amount. The heat emission from a radiator is controlled by the difference in temperature between the radiator surface and the air temperature of the room. If we increase the flow through a radiator from zero, at a constant flow temperature, the heat emission will increase considerably up to a certain temperature drop across the radiator. A further increase of the flow will above this level give a very small increase of the heat emission.
95 C 70 C 54 m

Vertical one-pipe system. Fig. 4:36

Heat emission 0
t C 40 30 25 20 16 1 13 12 10 8

Tflow 90 0C
6 5 4

Heat emission 0
1

3m

1,5 m

tflow 90 0C
13 12 10 8

t C 40 30 25 20 16

,5

,5

6 5 4

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

50

100

Q% Heat emission from radiator with 900C flow temperature at 30% to radiator. Small temperature drop means that the flow must be reduced with some 70-80% before there will be a significant change in heat emission from the radiator. Fig. 4:37

Q% Heat emission from radiator with 900C flow temperature at 10% to radiator. Small changes in flow will have a larger influence on the heat emission from the radiator. Fig. 4:38 8 STEPS - CONTROL OF HEATING SYSTEMS 67

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CHAPTER 4 EVALUATION OF SYSTEMS AND PRODUCTS

The reason for this is that when the surface temperature of the radiator is almost the same across the whole surface, the heat emission cannot become any larger. It is the difference in temperature between the surface of the radiator and the room air which determines the heat emission. The heat emission will not change if the difference in temperature isnt altered.
A by-pass is required when using thermostatic two-way valves. Fig

A small flow through a radiator provides a large temperature drop. A large flow results in the opposite. It is first at a temperature drop of 1520C that a flow change really affects the heat emission. The temperature drop has to be relatively large, more than 15C if you want to be able to control the heat emission from the radiators in a onepipe system. Flow distribution to the radiators A flow distribution to the radiators requires a by-pass pipe through where the remaining flow can pass. It is the difference in resistance between the radiators that determines the flow distribution. A large flow through a radiator requires a large resistance in the by-pass. In cases where the radiators and the by-pass pipes are serially connected in a one-pipe system, the resistance in all the radiators and by-pass pipes are added to the resistance in the one-pipe circuit. The available differential pressure is the same for both radiator circuit as well as by-pass, so the difference in resistance across the circuits respectively is determined by the ratio between the two different flows. This means that the resistance in the by-pass pipes should, at a 30% flow through the radiator circuit, be 0,3/0,7=0,45 of the resistance in the radiator circuit. At a 10% flow through the radiator, the resistance in the by-pass pipes should be 0,11 of the resistance in the radiator circuit. How does the temperature drop across the radiator affect the temperature drop across the circuit? The temperature drop across the radiator does not affect the temperature drop across the circuit. The emitted heat amount however, affects the temperature drop across the circuit. If a thermostatic valve should reduce the flow through the radiator, to reduce the heat emission, the result would be a larger temperature drop across the radiator. But the water temperature in the circuit after the radiator will have a somewhat higher temperature because less heat has been taken from the water.

l/h 1000 700 500 300 200 100 70 50 30

RTD-G 15, 20 and 25

l/s ,3 ,2

1 25 20 2 15

,1 ,07 ,05 ,03 ,02 ,01

0,1 0,01 ,001

,2 ,3 ,4 ,5 ,7 1,0 ,02 ,03 ,05 ,07 ,1 ,002 ,004,006 0,01

2 ,2

3 kPa ,3 mWG

,02 ,03 Bar

A comparison of the resistance in the by-pass and the radiator circuit at 30 and 10% flow respectively through the radiator circuit shows that the 10% flow is preferable. The resistance through a thermostatic valve and a radiator is only slightly larger than the resistance through the valve only. A flow chart for thermostatic valves can therefor be used to illustrate the difference in increased resistance at 30 and 10% respectively through the radiator circuit. The resistance in the radiator circuit is at 30% three times as large as the square of the change in flow, 32= 9. Example: 1 Q = 300, p = 1,7 kPa. Ten equally large radiators in a one-pipe circuit requires 10 x 1,7 = 17 kPa in Higher p. 2 Q = 100, p = 0,19 Kpa ( 1,7/9 = 0,19 ). Ten equally large radiators in a one-pipe circuit only requires 10 x 0,19 = 1,9 kPa in higher p.

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Two or three-way valves. The heat emission from a radiator in a one-pipe circuit can be controlled by influencing the flow through the radiator. The largest heat requirement, at a design outdoor temperature, is adjusted with the flow temperature and a full flow in the one-pipe circuit and the calculated distribution to each radiator. The flow temperature is then adapted according to the present outdoor temperature. A control valve on the radiator can only decrease the heat supply from the level in question. The two-way valve in a one-pipe system is to have a low resistance with a size equal to the pipe having a resistance which provides a desired distribution to the thermostatic valve and radiator in question.There are specially made inserts which are pressed down into the by-pass providing a suitable distribution for the valve sizes respectively. The heat emission from the radiators is then determined by the flow temperature and there is no reason for changing the distribution. Two-way valves are cheap, easy to install and do not require any special settings to function. A three-way valve in these systems requires an adjustment of the distribution to the radiators, and there must be the same distribution to all the radiators of the circuit in question. When the required adjustments have been made, the functioning is the same for the three-way valve as for the two-way valve with its by-pass pipe. Three-way valves are more expensive, the adjustments are difficult to make in a proper way, and there is always the possibility of changing these adjustments afterwards. Recommendations: Install two-way high capacity thermostatic valves on all the radiators, with the same dimension as the one of the circuit. Install a by-pass pipe of the same size and equip the by-pass with a bypass insert which provides the required resistance corresponding to the control valve in question. Equip all one-pipe circuits with flow limiters.

Thermostatic three and two-way valves. Fig. 4:41

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CHAPTER 4 EVALUATION OF SYSTEMS AND PRODUCTS

troom oC
22 21 20 19 18 75 80

Closed valve
0 1

3 4 85 90 tflow 0C

p-band oC
0 1 3 4

2. Two-pipe systems. For two-pipe systems, nominal size is applicable as well as the same temperature drop for all the radiators. The thermostatic valves are chosen according to the current flow and the flow temperature determines how large the p-band will be. The resistance across a two-pipe valve and a radiator is normally so large, 5 kPa, that the gravity forces are insignificant. An increased flow temperature in a two-pipe system means that the thermostatic valves will decrease the flow through the radiators, and the temperature drop becomes larger throughout the whole system. At the same time, the p-band of the valves decreases, which makes the thermostatic valves more efficient. They are, in other words, saving more heat. The thermostatic valves are maintaining the hydraulic balance in the two-pipe systems as long as they have good heat authority. The available heat amount should be sufficient to keep at least the set temperature. If the flow temperature is decreasing during a twenty-four hour period or more, so that the heat authority becomes less than 1,0, the room temperature will decrease after a while and the thermostatic valves open completely. An adjustment of the flow to each radiator is under these circumstances required to maintain the hydraulic balance. Two-pipe systems are superior to one-pipe systems. Some advantages are: the same nominal radiator size for all the radiators a better use of the incidental heat gain the p-band is set by the flow temperature the return temperature is set by the flow temperature a lower return temperature at incidental heat gain pre-setting of the flow to each radiator easier to adjust at changed operation conditions considerably lower operation costs for a pressure controlled circulation pump

A higher tflow 86 instead of 820C, gives a reduction of the p-band from 1,5 to 0,40C. That means the thermostat will use more of the incidental heat gain, it will be more effective. Fig. 4:42

troom oC 22
21

Closed valve

No heat authority

19 18 75

90 tflow oC Night set back of the tflow to any point under the temperature for good heat authority, takes the thermostat out of order. Fig. 4:43

80

85

70

8 STEPS - CONTROL OF HEATING SYSTEMS

p-band oC

20

Good heat authority

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CHAPTER 4 EVALUATION OF SYSTEMS AND PRODUCTS

Vertical or horizontal systems. Vertical radiator systems imply that the riser is laid at an outer wall, and that one, maximum two radiators per floor are connected to the riser. There are two important disadvantages with this system. For one thing, there are many risers conducting noise between the apartments. Secondly, when using one-pipe systems there are problems in how to limit the number of radiators per one-pipe circuit. One as well as twopipe systems can be used. There are also difficulties insulating the risers placed visually in the rooms. Horizontal radiator systems imply that several apartments on the same floor share a riser, how many depending on the planning. The riser can, in this case, be laid centrally in the house and be insulated so that all floors obtain the same flow temperature. The piping to the radiators is installed horizontally on a wall or embedded in the floor and can be installed separately for each apartment as well as for multiples. When using two-pipe systems, there is the possibility of metering the flow to the radiators in each apartment and also keeping the available differential pressure constant on each floor. The disadvantage is the laying of the pipes to the radiators. Horizontally laid pipes on a wall by the floor or by the ceiling are neither pretty to look at nor hygienic, and near the floor cause problems if doors are to be passed. The casting of pipes into floors requires that the floor construction is made in two steps, one bearing construction, upon which the pipes are laid and one screed laid after having pressure tested the pipes. Embedded pipes ought to be insulated and require such conditions that they do not need to be exchanged until the building has served its time. One- as well as two-pipe systems can be used. Centrally placed risers and horizontal laying to the radiators are advantageous, above all when constructing a new building, but this can also be made in existing buildings. Some advantages are: a smaller number of risers no noise transfer between the apartments the possibility of flow metering per apartment differential pressure control for each floor small radiator circuits reducing the requirement of adjusting

Noice is transferred adjoining apartments through raiser. Fig. 4:44

Pipes embedded in floor. Fig. 4:45 8 STEPS - CONTROL OF HEATING SYSTEMS 71

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One-pipe system Fig. 4:46

Circuits resistance: ca 0,1 kPa/m, incl. single resistance. 54 2+ 18 3 = 162 m 162 0,1 = 16,2 kPa Gravity forces: density kg/m3 95oC = 962,2 70oC = 977,8 = 15,6 kg/m3 p = 54 15,6 x 9,81 = 8.264 Pa = 8,3 kPa. Total p at 95 oC = 16,2 + 8,3 = 24,5 kPa Flow at The resistance varies by the square of the flow change. Q2 p1 = p2; Q2 16,2 = 24,5; Q = 95oC:

Gravity. The forces arising due to the differences in water density at various temperatures, gravity forces, become large in high-rise buildings and at high temperatures. There are also great variations due to the current flow temperature, if the flow temperature is controlled according to the outdoor temperature. In an 18-storey building, the gravity forces are 8,3 kPa at 95C flow temperature and at 25C temperature drop. At a heat requirement of 50%, the temperature drop is 12,5C and the flow temperature 55C, which gives gravity forces of 3,1 kPa (approximate values). The pressure conditions in the systems are affected equally, whether it is a question of one or two-pipe systems, or vertical or horizontal ones. Regarding the one-pipe systems with thermostatic valves, the flow will increase in the one-pipe circuits. The thermostatic valves close a little to preserve the set room temperature, but the flow in the circuit increases and the return temperature becomes higher. The solution to this problem is to install a flow limiter on each one-pipe circuit. Then the flow will remain the same, independent of the variation of the gravity forces in flow temperature and temperature drop. Note that a stationary adjustment does not work because of the varying available differential pressure. Two-pipe systems with thermostatic valves on all the radiators will also adapt themselves to the new pressure conditions so that the heat supply is preserved. The size of the flow will be the same, as well as the return temperature. You may have a problem with noise disturbance, if the total available differential pressure at the thermostatic valves becomes too high, more than 25 kPa. Thermostatic valves for two-pipe systems can manage a differential pressure of 80 kPa, as far as controlling is concerned. The same conditions are guaranteed, independent of the size of the gravity forces, if differential pressure controls, with a stationary value of 10 kPa, are installed at the bottom of the risers up to the 6th floor, or for the apartments of each floor. Recommendations: Centrally placed risers, differential pressure control and horizontal two-pipe radiator circuits provide the best conditions to obtain a well functioning system with good possibilities of metering and reducing the heat consumption, as well as cutting operational costs for a pressure controlled circulation pump. This solution can also manage large gravity forces as well as other variations of the differential pressure.

54 m

3m

1,5 m

Q = 1,23; The flow will increase with 23%


Flow limiter

24,5 ; 16,2

Two-pipe system Fig. 4:47

95 C

70 C

Circuit resistance: 2 54=111 m 111 0,1 = 11,1 kPa Thermostatic valve incl radiators = 5 kPa Total p = 16,1 kPa Gravity forces: 8,3 kPa Total p at 95oC = 16,1 + 8,3 = 24,4 kPa The increase in flow will be very small due to the thermostatic valves.

p control

p control on each riser will secure the same p even when the gravity forces are large.

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3. Thermostatic or manual valve. Radiator valves are intended to be used when controlling the heat emission from radiators. There are in principle two types: manually controlled thermostatically controlled Manually controlled valves are adjusted by hand when someone finds it too hot or too cold. The flow temperature must be adapted to the outdoor temperature at the building in question with great accuracy. Incidental heat gains from heat sources other than the heating system cause over-temperatures and over-consumption. Manual valves have very steep characteristics, which make it difficult to adjust to intermediate values. They are either closed or fully open. Thermostatically controlled valves, thermostatic valves. The thermostatic valve holds the set temperature, i.e. it detects the room temperature in question and adjusts the heat supply to the radiator according to the current requirement. With the correct setting of the system, (the flow temperature and the constant differential pressure) the thermostatic valve uses incidental gains from other heat sources and overtemperatures are avoided. A thermostatic valve consists of two parts: valve body control unit (a thermostat built-in to a construction mounted on the valve body)

Heat emission %
100

50

0 100 Lift range % Heat characteristics for radiator with manual valve. Fig. 4:48 0 50

Heat emission % 100

50

0 0 50 100

Lift range % Heat characteristics for radiator with thermostatic valve. Fig. 4:50

Thermostatic valve Fig. 4:49 8 STEPS - CONTROL OF HEATING SYSTEMS 73

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Valve body. There are several kinds of valve bodies, straight and elbow and also different sizes. The sealing around the spindle affecting the cone, is constructed as one unit making it, easy to exchange during operation. Control unit. There are several kinds of control units. The most common ones are: control unit with a built-in thermostat sensor control unit with a separate sensor, connected with a capillary tube Principle for a thermostat. The principle for the thermostat is simple. A substance, liquid, wax or gas, is enclosed in a body, and when the substance changes its temperature, it also changes its volume. The body, often a bellows, then expands or contracts, and this change in form is transferred to the valve cone so that the flow to the radiator increases or decreases. Experience has shown that a gas/liquid filled bellows gives the best result and the best safety of operation. Thermostatic valves are proportional controls, regulating the heat supply in relation to the difference between the temperature set on the thermostat and the temperature detected by the thermostat. If the thermostat detects a much lower temperature than the one set on the thermostat, the valve opens more than if the difference is smaller. The thermostatic valves should be set at the desired room temperature, and the flow temperature at the valve should be at least so high that the set room temperature can be obtained. Recommendations: Thermostatic valves with the right valve size, the right control unit, with the possibility to set a maximum temperature and the correct setting of the system (pressure, flow and flow temperature) provide an improved comfort and a reduced heat consumption. A well constructed system can save more than 20%, in one as well as two-pipe systems.

Control unit with separate sensor. Fig. 4:51

Control units with built in sensor, wax cartridge and gas/liqued filled bellows Fig. 4:52

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4. Weather compensation. In a heating system with manually controlled valves, it is obvious that the flow temperature must be adjusted according to the outdoor temperature, (the requirement) so that the approximate desired room temperature is obtained. Function. A weather compensator consists of: control unit control motor, control valve sensor for outdoor temperature sensor for flow temperature sensor for return temperature, optional timer, optional The centrally placed control station adjusts the flow temperature according to the outdoor temperature. A sensor placed outdoors on the north side of the building detects the temperature and sends this information to the control station. A curve can be set in the control station, which governs the desired flow temperature at different outdoor temperatures. The control station compares the desired value with the real value via a sensor in the flow pipe. If the two values does not correspond, the position of the cone is altered in the control valve via a control motor. The controls can also check that the return temperature does not become too high, via a special sensor mounted in the return pipe. Timers are used to decrease and to increase the flow temperature at certain times.
Weather compensator. Fig. 4:53

It is difficult to reach a good result without automatic control. Fig. 4:54 8 STEPS - CONTROL OF HEATING SYSTEMS 75

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tflow oC
100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20

Why is weather compensation necessary? It is important that the flow temperature does not become too high for one-pipe systems, as the whole flow in a circuit always passes through the pipe circuit emitting heat to the rooms, even if the heat requirement is zero or very small. The lowest required flow temperature must first and foremost always be available, so that the desired room temperature can be maintained. The same thing applies to the two-pipe systems , i.e the lowest required flow temperature must always be available at all the radiators to maintain the desired room temperature. A too high flow temperature causes either losses from pipes passing through rooms which are not supposed to be warm, or over-temperatures in rooms where the thermostatic valves have closed the supply to the radiators. Setting of the right flow temperature. The flow temperature providing the worst located room with desired room temperature is the right one. The curve set in the control station gives the required flow temperature at various outdoor temperatures, but there are different ways of setting it. The curve can be parallel displaced upwards or downwards, and it can be made steeper or more flat according to requirements. The setting of the curve in the control station can be made quite theoretically, but it is better to set it at some degrees below zero and to base the flow temperature upon the actual requirement. Read the flow temperature, the temperature drop and the room temperature at the worst located radiator. Has the desired room temperature been obtained and is the temperature drop sufficiently large?

toutdoor oC The flow temperature will be controlled by the weather compensator according to the outdoor temperature. Fig. 4:55 troomoC
22 21

Closed valve
0

No heat authority

Good heat authority

1 2 3 4 90

20 19 18 75

80

85

0ne-pipe system Two-pipe system

tflow oC

The flow temperature for one-pipe systems must be very close to the minimum temperature for good heat authority. For two-pipe systems the range of flow temperatures that gives good control is wider. Fig. 4:56

76

8 STEPS - CONTROL OF HEATING SYSTEMS

p-band oC

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Periodic setting-back of the flow temperature. A setting-back of the flow temperature during a shorter or a longer period of time is made to reduce the heat consumption. A condition for making a saving is a decrease of the room temperature and that it doesnt take as much heat consumption when resetting the room temperature after a set-back period as it would have, had the system been run without the set-back period. Buildings accumulate much heat, heavy buildings more than light ones. The accumulation means that it takes a long time before the room temperature drops when the heat has been completely or partly turned off. If a decreased room temperature is obtained, it also means that the temperature of the building body has dropped and that the same heat amount must also be supplied before the room temperature comes up to normal again. A simple calculation shows that there is almost no saving to be made in a short temperature set back period over one night. We could for instance assume a building with no accumulation, where the room temperature can be lowered from 20C to 16C and raised from 16C to 20C without any time consumption. If this set back is made for one night, eight hours in such a building, the mean temperature over twenty-four hours will be: (2016+168)/24=18,7C; The temperature decrease during twenty-four hours is 1,3C and each degree with a lower temperature is calculated to give a saving of 5%, 51,3=6,5%. If we make the same calculation with a reasonably heavy building; a decrease of the room temperature with 0,4C takes four hours and the re-heating takes just as long a time, we will receive the following values: the mean temperature during the eight hours will be about 0,2C lower, 20-0,2 =19,8C (2016+19,88)/24=19,9C; The temperature decrease during twenty-four hours will be 0,1C and the saving 50,1=0,5%. Recommendations: Weather compensation has a function in the heating systems with thermostatic valves. It is essential that the heat authority is always kept over 1,0 for the worst located radiator. A periodical set-back of the flow temperature gives no saving for only one night, but longer set-back periods may be profitable, several days for example. Note that the re-heating period must start in good time, when a decrease of the room temperature has been obtained, and that a higher flow temperature than the outdoor temperature requires is required during the re-heating period.

troom oC with night set back troom oC


20 19 18 17 16 15 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24

Mean temperature

Time Night set back with no time constant gives a small reduction of heat comsumption: 1,3C 5 %=6,5 %. Fig. 4:57

troom oC with night set back troom


20 19,5
oC

Mean temperature

19 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24

Time Night set back with a normal time constant gives in practice no reduction of heat comsumption: 0,1C 5 %=0,5 %. Fig. 4:57

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3
Heat emission
t C

2
40 30 25 20 16

Tflow oC
12

100 90 80 70 60 50

1,2 1,1 1,0 0,9 0,8 0,7 0,6 0,5 0,4 0,3 0,2 0,1 0 0 1,0 2,0

95 10 8 6 5 4

5. Flow. Thermostatic valves in two-pipe systems give a varying flow, provided that they have heat authority. It is true that the weather compensator adjusts the temperature according to the requirements, but the incidental heat gains from people, electricity, cooking and the sun are substantial. Besides, there is a certain decrease of the flow temperature between the first and the last connected radiator, despite well insulated pipes. As the last radiator is supposed to have access to the required heat amount, this means that the first radiator has access to much more heat, which is throttled by the thermostatic valve. The thermostatic valve keeps the set temperature, and this fact in addition to all the incidental heat gains gives variations in the flow, in spite of the set flow temperature. Differential pressure control. There are large variations in the available differential pressure in systems with varying flows, which means that thermostatic valves sized according to the lowest available differential pressure, are forced to work with many times greater pressure. The valves are too large at these high pressures, and oscillations easily arise, a fact which, except for unnecessary wear, gives higher return temperatures and affects the other valves in the system. The differential pressure controls keep the pressure constant even at varying flows.

tflow for the last radiator in a circuit is 90 oC 1 t is 25oC.


o 2 tflow for the first radiator is 95 C which will

give 5% more heat. t will be 28oC.

3 9% to give the same room temperature and


Fig. 4:59

The thermostatic valve will reduce the flow by

p radiator circuit Available p on 18th floor

p radiator

p 5 kPa

Available p on 1st floor

p riser p radiator circuit p radiator

Available differential pressure in a high-rise building. Fig. 4:60 78 8 STEPS - CONTROL OF HEATING SYSTEMS

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Construction. There are specially designed differential pressure controls for heating systems. One type with a constant differential pressure of 10 kPa and one type with an adjustable differential pressure of between 5 and 25 kPa. A differential pressure control consists of: valve body control unit The valve body contains a cone and a seat. The control unit consists of a diaphragm, a setting unit with a spring pack and a connection for an impulse tube. An impulse tube is built-in to the valve body.
Drain valve Valve body p controls with fixed and adjustable differential pressure respectively. Connection for impulse tube

Function. The differential pressure control can be mounted in the flow or in the return of the riser or the branch, across which it is to control the differential pressure, the controlled circuit. Usually the mounting is made in the return pipe. An impulse tube is then connected between the flow pipe and the plus side of the diaphragm. The second impulse tube is built-in to the valve body.

Shut off screw Adjustment handle Connection for setting handle. Fig. 4:61

p 10 kPa

Available p on the 1 floor

Reduced by the p controller p radiator circuit p radiator

Differental pressure controls provide every floor with the same available pressure on every floor Fig. 4:62 8 STEPS - CONTROL OF HEATING SYSTEMS 79

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Flow limitation. The thermostatic valves in two-pipe systems are responsible for the flow limitation as long as they have heat authority. It is, should the available heat amount become too small, sufficient to make a rough pre-setting to manage the flow distribution, thanks to the constant differential pressure kept by the differential pressure control. One-pipe systems have, as a rule, a constant flow and the current flow must be set separately for each circuit which theoretically can be made with a pre-set adjustment valve. As shown above, the gravity forces are large in high-rise buildings and they also vary with the flow temperature and the temperature drop. A manually adjusted valve will therefore in these cases not work, but an automatic flow limiter is required here.
m3/h
10 7 5 3 2 1,0 0,7 0,5 0,3 0,2 0,1 1 p 0,1 0,01 2 0,2 ,02 3 4 5 ,3 ,4 ,5 7 10 ,7 1 0,1 20 30 40 60 2 ,2 3 4 5 ,3 ,4 ,5 l/s 3 2 1,0 0,7 0,5

2 1

0,3 0,2 0,1 ,07 ,05 ,03 100 kPa 7 10 mWG ,7 1,0 Bar

,04 ,06

Shut off screw

The flow through a fixed adjustment will vary when the differential pressure fluctuates. 1 p 16 kPa, Q 600 l/h 2 p 25 kPa, Q 740 l/h Fig. 4:63

Principle. The principle is: The flow is limited by keeping a constant differential pressure over a resistance.
Drain valve Setting handle Flow control valve Fig. 4:64 80 8 STEPS - CONTROL OF HEATING SYSTEMS

Valve body

Flow limiters for heating systems consists of: valve body control and setting unit The valve body contains a cone, a seat and a drain valve. The control and setting unit consists of a diaphragm, a spring pack and a handle for the setting.

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Function. The flow limiter is mounted in the return pipe and the built-in diaphragm keeps the differential pressure constant at 15 kPa across the cone and the seat. The setting of the flow is made by altering the resistance over the cone and the seat. The valve also has a shut-off function.
m3/h 10 7 5
3 2 1,0 0,7 0,5 0,3 0,2 1 p 0,1 0,01 0,1 2 0,2 ,02 3 4 5 7 10 ,3 ,4 ,5 ,7 1 ,04 ,06 0,1

l/s 3 2
2 2 2 2 2
0,1 ,07 ,05 ,03 20 30 40 60 100 kPa 2 3 4 5 7 10 mWG ,2 ,3 ,4 ,5 ,7 1,0 Bar 1,0 0,7 0,5 0,3 0,2

Constant p, 1 over an adjustable restriction, 2 creates a flow limitation. Fig. 4:65

Recommendations: The flow will vary in the two-pipe systems with thermostatic valves. Pre-set adjustments are therefore only functioning when the thermostatic valves have no heat authority. A rough pre-setting can be made to manage the distribution at longer set-back periods of the flow temperature. Differential pressure controls with a pre-set differential pressure of 10 kPa should, in buildings of a maximum six floors, be mounted at the bottom of the risers and in the branches on each floor in taller buildings. The available differential pressure for the riser or for the radiator circuits on each floor will then always be the same, independent of the gravity forces. Theoretically speaking, the flow in one-pipe systems is constant, but in high-rise buildings, the gravity forces will give a flow, varying with the flow temperature and the temperature drop. Each one-pipe circuit, vertical or horizontal, must therefore be equipped with an automatic flow limiter.
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6. Static pressure. At maximum temperatures below 100C, there is no requirement for a steam pressure. Only the height of the building/system determines the static pressure. Expansion systems. Closed expansion systems with safety valves require regular supervision and control. They are therefore not suitable since you cannot have qualified personnel available in all the buildings all the time. Open expansion systems do not require as much supervision and no service, providing they are made of the proper materials. All the expansion systems must always be in open connection with the part of the system from where the heat is supplied. The circulation pump in the flow or in the return pipe? A heating system with an open expanison tank is a communicating vessel and the location of the circulation pump, in the flow or in the return, is of great importance. The open expansion tank has two functions. It is to: pick up the volume change of the system caused by temperature variations see to it that all parts are filled with water, whether the pump is in operation or not
Static pressure. Fig. 4:66

If the pump is placed in the return pipe, the available pressure, i.e the static and dynamic pressure put together (the pressure which can be read from the water guage) will increase at the connection of the expansion pipe to the system. The present total pressure for the expansion system, pE, can be calculated. Then, from the water guage after the pump, read pressure, p1, reduced by the resistance in the pipe, appliances if there are any, and the level difference up to the connection of the expansion pipe gives pE. pE converted to meter is equal to the difference in level between pE and the highest point of the expansion pipe, i.e. at the bottom of the expansion tank. Experience shows that the static pressure should be equal to the highest point in the system plus 65% of the pump head converted into meters. The bottom of the expansion tank should be located at this height. If the pump is placed in the flow, the available pressure will be lower at the beginning of the expansion pipe, i.e. the water level in the expansion pipe sinks when the pump is in operation.

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Minimum level for filled system

Expansion tank

Radiator

Communicating vessels Boiler

Heating circuit

The expansion system and the heating circuit are communicating vessels. The water level in the expansion system, or the pressure in closed systems, are equal to the level in the circuit when there are no circulation.

Necessary static pressure depending on whether the circulation pump is in the return or the flow pipe.

pE pE Plevel ppump =p1 - p2 p1 p2 pE p1

pE = pp1 - pp1-pE - plevel What you read on the pressure guage is the total pressure, i.e. the static and the dynamic pressure. The pump in the return pipe will, when activated, raise the water level in the expansion pipe and lower it in the heating circuit. pE p2 The total pressure where the expansion pipe is connected to the system, pE, is equal to the pressure after the pump, p1, minus the resistance in the pipes and the difference in level between the pump and the connection of the expansion pipe. pE converted to meters. p1 pE pE ppump =p1 - p2 p2 is equal to the difference in level between pE and the highest point of the expansion pipe, i.e. at the bottom of the expansion tank. Experience shows approx. 0,65 ppump.

The pump in the flow pipe will give the opposite result to the pump in the return pipe and there is no risk of air entering the heating circuit.

pE = pp2 + pp2-pE + plevel

Yet, the whole system should be filled with water even when the pump is not in operation to avoid corrosion, and the bottom of the expansion tank should be placed about 0,5 1 m higher up than the highest point of the system. Recommendations: The pump should be placed in the flow. An open expansion tank is placed in a warm area, with its bottom 0,5 1 m over the highest point in the system.
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7. Pump. Pressure control of pumps. Circulation pumps used in heating systems, give a larger pressure increase at lower flows. At the same time, the requirement for pressure is less as the resistance reduces by the square of the flow change. The high differential pressure causes problems at the thermostatic valves in the form of noise, worse control and oscillation, but it involves an unnecessary electric consumption for operating the pumps. While the resistance alters by the square of the flow change, the electric consumption alters by the cube of the flow change. Consequently money is to be saved here. Principles for pressure control. There are several principles for controlling the differential pressure provided by a pump: constant differential pressure at the pump constant differential pressure at the last consumer proportional differential pressure parallel to the resistance in the pipe system A constant differential pressure at the pump gives a higher available differential pressure at a decreasing flow, and at a flow of almost zero the differential pressure will be the same throughout the whole system. The available differential pressure for valves and branches is determined at a full flow. At a decreasing flow the differential pressure will increase more and more the farther out in the system you go and valves and branches receive a higher available differential pressure. A constant differential pressure at the last consumer gives a lower available differential pressure at a decreasing consumption and at a flow of almost zero the low differential pressure prevails throughout the whole system. The available differential pressure for valves and branches is determined at a maximum flow. At a maximum flow the valves and the branches close to the pump will have a considerably higher differential pressure than which they are sized for.

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pnec =20 kPa

Flow chart showing pump head and resistance in the heating circuit. The diagram to the right shows available pressure for each riser at 50 and 100% flow. pdim shows the lowest pressure available for each p control and risers. Fig. 4:70

pnec =40 kPa p kPa p kPa


pp um

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Q 0

al ont z i r ho p

e pip

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

Q 50

pnec

Q 10 0

p d

im

50

100 %

p available for each riser at 50 and 100% flow.

Fig. 4:71 Without pressure control. p kPa p kPa

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Q 0

ppump pnec

ipe al p t n izo hor p

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

Q 50

Q 10 0

p d

im

50

100 %

p available for each riser at 50 and 100% flow.

Fig. 4:72 Constant pressure control. 8 STEPS - CONTROL OF HEATING SYSTEMS 85

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pnec =20 kPa

Flow chart showing pump head and resistance in the heating circuit. The diagram to the right shows available pressure for each riser at 50 and 100% flow. pdim shows the lowest pressure available for each p control and risers. Fig. 4:73

pnec =40 kPa p kPa 100 90 80 70 60 p p pum 50 ipe 40 al p t n 30 izo hor p 20 10 0 Q 0 50 100 % Fig. 4:74 Proportional pressure control. pnec p kPa p kPa

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

Q 10 0
Q 50
pdim

p available for each riser at 50 and 100% flow.

p kPa

100 90 80 70 60 50 ppump 40 pe l pi a t n 30 izo hor p 20 10 0 Q 0 50 Fig 4:75 Parallel pressure control.


86

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

pnec

Q 10 0
Q 50
pdim

100 %

p available for each riser at 50 and 100% flow.

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A proportional differential pressure means that the differential pressure, available after the pump at maximum flow will be reduced to half at a minimum flow. The available differential pressure for valves and branches is determined at a minimum flow. At a maximum flow, the valves and the branches close to the pump will have a considerably higher differential pressure than that which they are sized for. A differential pressure controlled parallel to the resistance in the pipe system means that the pump curve will run parallel to the system curve, but only down to half of the differential pressure at a maximum flow. The available differential pressure for valves and branches is determined at a minimum flow. At a maximum flow the valves and the branches close to the pump will have a considerably higher differential pressure than that which they are sized for. Principles for the control of electric motors. There are different types of control for the electric motors in circulation pumps: A frequency converter is the most flexible solution. A frequency converter is used together with standard induction motors and is available in sizes from 1,1 200 kW shaft effect. The efficiency is high, about 95%. Installation and use are simple. Recommendations: Pressure controlling of pumps should be used in larger systems. A constant differential pressure at the last branch provides the best possibility for the largest cut in operational cost for the pump. The pressure sensor is placed at the last branch and is set at the lowest required differential pressure. The resistance of a riser is equal to the resistances across a thermostatic valve with a radiator, the pipes in the riser and the resistance across a differential pressure valve, 8 kPa for Danfoss ASV-P or PV. The lowest required differential pressure at a shunt is equal to the resistances across the control valve, the differential pressure valve and also in the pipes between the pressure sensor and the shunt, should there be any. A frequency convertor controls standard induction motors. Considering available differential pressure at risers and branches, the problems with large variations remain even though somewhat smaller. Controlling the differential pressure is a requirement for good and safe functioning.

Pressure controlled pump with a frequency converter. Fig. 4:76

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8. Metering. Metering of the heat volume per apartment implies a more personal responsibility for the heat costs but is not as accurate. Someone living in the centre of the building may turn off the heat completely without receiving much lower temperature than his neighbours, while someone having a gable apartment, highest up in the building, will get considerably higher heat costs for the same apartment area. A conversion factor can be calculated, based upon the theoretical heat requirement for apartments with a gable wall and/or roof surfaces, compared to the corresponding apartments without these surfaces.
A gable apartment on the top floor requires more heat than an equally large apartment in the centre of the building. Fig. 4:77

Flow metering per apartment. In buildings with insulated, centrally placed risers, and a two-pipe radiator circuit per apartment, the heat consumption can be metered for each apartment with a flow meter, preferably an ultrasonic one, bearing service and precision in mind. The flow meter is placed in an easily accessible position, in the stairwell. It can be equipped with a remote control for metering. An adjustment of the consumption for gable apartments and apartments with a roof should be made. Heat metering per radiator. Heat meters, installed on each radiator and providing a measure of the consumption through evaporation, seem to be a simple solution, even for existing buildings. For vertical one-pipe systems however, much heat is supplied from the pipes and can not be metered by using this method. The tenants also have the possibility meter manipulating of the meters and meter reading is also time-consuming. Recommendations: A heat meter per apartment is the most efficient and safest way of metering the consumption. This method requires twopipe systems, a separate connection for each apartment. It is (not) advisable to meter the heat consumption of one-pipe systems with an evaporation meter for each radiator, however there is no other method. To be consistent the consumption of domestic hot water should also be metered per apartment. A flow meter placed in the stairwell has proved to be the best solution. To be consistent the consumption of domestic hot water should also be metered per apartment. A flow meter placed in the stairwell is the best solution.

Flow meters are used to measure the heat amount for each apartment. Fig. 4:78

Evaporational heat meter on radiator. Fig 4:79 88 8 STEPS - CONTROL OF HEATING SYSTEMS

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Chapter 5 Instructions for designing district heating systems

Instructions for designing district heating systems.

The methods and systems chosen at new systems and restoration of existing systems should be subject to a long-term planning. At the same time, we have to consider future development. The solutions listed below are those which seem to be the most suitable for this purpose during the next few years. District heating is considered the long-term solution, but it has to be made more efficient. Small production plants are hard to manage from an environmental- and an efficiency point of view. Smaller systems should be removed, the load should be connected to larger production plants. When the local district heating networks have reached a sufficient number, they should be connected to a combined heating and power plant. Distances of 14-15 km or more between district heating networks creates no problem with the modern preinsulated pipes. The combined heating and power plants produces electricity and heat all year round. The local heating plant are on Stand-by. They are started when the combined heating and power plants cannot meet the total heat requirement. Large plants in operation day and night. They are required to achieve the most efficient combustion with the smallest possible discharges. When all the local district heating networks share the same operation conditions, it will, in the long run, be possible to connect them to a large combined heating and power plant. The primary system/ the district heating can be divided into: production, central boiler plant distribution, preinsulated pipes consumption, sub-station
8 STEPS - CONTROL OF HEATING SYSTEMS 89

Production
Fig. 5:1

Distribution

Consumption.

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Chapter 5 Instructions for designing district heating systems Environment.


Most of what we are doing in our ordinary lives affects the environment in one way or the other. Some things are clear to the naked eye: the smoke and the soot when we are lighting a fire, for instance. Other things can be more difficult to detect: as how much more smoke and soot that is formed if we do not efficiently utilize the heat we are producing. Or: a unit in a central boiler plant must be exchanged after five years instead of 20 years, due to inefficient operation. The consumption of coal has negative effects on the environment in the central boiler plant and its closest surroundings, but the area from where the coal is collected is also indirectly affected. The transport to and from the central boiler plant also has negative effects on the environment through its consumption of energy. The most efficient way of reducing the negative effects on the environment is to reduce the consumption of coal through a more effective use. 1. Durability. There are two reasons for exchanging components in a district heating system: the component is worn out, for example a bearing in a pump a new product provides a better efficiency Components with no moving parts do not wear out, and their technical life is calculated to 50 years. Boilers of a good quality can last for about 30 years with a proper maintainance. 2. Production. In the production plant the temperatures are high and the wear is extreme. An efficient operation process, a reduced consumption of fuel, a large reduction of discharges and an increased durability of the components are measures that have to be considered. Small central boiler plants, up to 30 MW, should be replaced by connection to district heating networks, with larger boilers combusting more efficiently with fluidised beds.

Efficient systems reduce the negativ effects on the enviroment. Fig. 5:2

Worn out components should be exchanged. Fig. 5:3

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3. Fuel. The fuel in the district heating Main Power Stations will in general during a foreseeable future be coal and gas (only within certain areas). Irrespective of fuel type, impurities in the fuel has to be kept as low as possible. International standards apply. A decrease of the ash content in coal causes an immediate increase of the efficiency and reduces the discharges radically. This decrease can be accomplished by washing the coal, and this should be made without delay, even for existing boilers. Crushing and washing of coal should not be made at the district heating Power Station but rather in connection with the mining process. By choosing coal containing small quantities of sulphur, the discharge of sulphur decreases in the combustion process. Internationally there is only coal with less than 1% sulphur for sale. The use of better coal in all the boilers results immediately in smaller discharges and ought to be used as soon as possible. Coal of high quality should, in the long run, be used in the local heating plants, while coal with a lower quality is to be used in the combined heating and power plants where an efficient purification of the flue gases takes place. 4. Combustion. The combustion has to be efficient, as it reduces the impurities in the flue gases and utilizes the heat contents of the coal. Combustion of coal, based upon pulverised coal and burned with a fluidised bed, has proved to be the best combustion technique at present. The impurity content in the flue gases is already low without the purification. This combustion technique should be used in new plant and when replacing old boilers, both local and in combined heating and power plants. Combustion that is efficient and durable for a long time, requires automatic operation and sound operating conditions. 5. Flue gas purification. All the discharges coming from the flue gases should be reduced to the lowest possible level. No distinction is made between small and large plants, regarding discharge of particles. The best result in 1998 is, up till now, 40 mg/m3. The local heating plants, with effects of more than 40 MW,
Coal and lime Particles mg/m3 SOx mg/m3
EC 50-100 Mininmum 40 400 - 2.000 160 - 270

NOx mg/m3
650 - 1.300 80 - 540

Allowed discharges according to IEA Coal Research air pollutant emission standards for coalfired plants database, 1991. The values regard new plants. The first value is for large plants and the second value for small ones.

Boilers with fluidised bed combustion are very effective even from the environmental point of view. Air

Boiler with fluidised bed combustion. Fig. 5:4 8 STEPS - CONTROL OF HEATING SYSTEMS 91

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Chapter 5 Instructions for designing district heating systems


should be equipped with bag filters. Electric filters may be more efficient when it comes to combined heating and power plants. The discharges of SOx and NOx should be reduced to international levels, in the CHP plant 1998 =25 mg/MJ, but it is not possible to introduce such an efficient reduction of SOx and NOx into the local heating plants for economic reasons as they are only allowed to be used at peak load. Boilers with a fluidised bed emits small quantities of SOx and NOx. Local heating plants do not, for that reason, have to be equipped with further purification of the flue gases, as they are only in operation for a short time, after having been connected to combined heating and power plants. The combined heating and power plants should be equipped with purification of SOx and NOx. 6. Handling of ashes. The ash quantity is dependent on the quality of the coal. The washing of coal reduces the ash contents and the better washing the less ashes. The handling of ashes is important regarding the environment and should be carried in closed vehicles. The large volume of ash also involves consideration for its long term use. The transport of ashes should be made in tight vehicles or containers so that the surrounding environment is not affected. 7. Handling of coal. Coal which is stored or moved openly should be handled in a way that the wind cannot carry away dust. Spraying with water or chemicals are tested methods.
Transport of coal and ashes can effect the environment in more than one way. Fig. 5:5

Unloading, tipping, crushing or grinding of coal should be made in such a way that the surroundings are not disturbed by noise, or dust.

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8. Water quality. The water in the primary system should be of such a quality that there is no risk of corrosion or coatings. All the water brought to the system should be within the following requirements: Conductivity pH-value Hardness Appearance O2 max 10 S/cm 9-10 0,1 tH clear and sediment free 0,02 mg/litre

Leakage is not acceptable. The material and the construction of shaftand spindle inlets should be made so there can be no leakage. The water for refilling should be treated in the same way. The systems should not be emptied of water, even though they are not in operation. Flushing of the systems. During the whole installation process of a production plant, all impurities, such as scales, sand, gravel etc., should be removed from the system, and the connections should be flushed before the system is finally filled. The requirements for flushing and water quality applies to the production- as well as to the distribution unit.

Thermal deairiation Heating

Feed water

Return line

Heat exchanger Ion reduction Water treatment Fig. 5:6 Dosage of chemicals Particle filter

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Local district heating system.


1. Effect ranges. Local district heating systems should lie within the range of 40-60 MW. The effect refers to the actual heat requirement in the buildings. The combined heating and power plant should deliver about 60% of the total connected heat requirement, at optimum distribution between electricity (40%) and heat production (60%). Minimum output, electricity and heat, is to be 200 MW. The local heating plants should be connection to a combined heating and power plant only be used at peak loads and at operational break down and maintainance the combined heating and power plant. 2. Existing boilers. Existing boilers, of 40-60 MW, in good condition that do not need to be exchanged within a reasonable time, should use coal with a low content of ashes, the combustion should be made with a high efficiency. Flue gas coolers should be installed to raise the effictively and then the condensate, SOx must be taken care of effectivly. The boilers should be in operation night and day and turned off only for cleaning.
Boiler A simple but effective purification of the exhaust gases can be done with bag filters and cooling the gases will raise the effeciency Flue gas cooler Bag filter

Purification of the exhaust gases Fig. 5:7 94 8 STEPS - CONTROL OF HEATING SYSTEMS

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Flue gas purification with bag filter should be installed, and as maintenance work is required, other measures should be taken for a change-over to the supply from a combined heating and power plant. In principle, the same procedure applies on both smaller and larger boilers, but the smaller ones should be removed as soon as possible, and their system is to be connected to larger plants with flue gas purification. 3. New boilers. When new boilers are installed, either in new or existing district heating networks, the out put should be of about 40-60 MW, the combustion should be made with a fluidised bed. The coal quality has to be good, i.e. low contents of sulphur and ashes, and the combustion should be done continuously as long as there is any need of it. Two or more local heating plants of this size can at an early stage be connected to preinsulated pipes. It is better to have one heating plant with a capacity of 100% in operation, than to have three with a capacity of 33% each. The discharges of SOx and NOx stays at an acceptable level with this combustion technique, even without purification. When the local heating plants are later connected to the combined heating and power plant, the operation times will be reduced to perhaps 15-20% per year, the SOx -and NOx levels are then acceptable. The discharges of particles must be limited. This is done by using bag filters. Heat losses in the production units. There are many surfaces with high temperatures emitting a lot of heat in the production units. All warm surfaces should be well insulated in order to increase the efficiency of the plant. A high room temperature which is a result of a bad insulation or none, is shortening the life of the devices required in an advanced plant of this type, not to mention the electronic equipment. Furthermore, people have to be able to work efficiently within the plant.
Connecting two or more district heating networks will rise the efficiency and the reliability. Fig.5:8

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4. Accumulator. The accumulator has two purposes: to level off the differences between production and consumption to be an expansion system for the distribution unit The accumulator should have volume enough to manage a heat requirement of 12 hours.
Rustproof steel Insulation

Waterproof coating

The accumulator is made of steel with the same pressure class as the rest of the distribution network. It is anti-corrosively treated on the outside as well as on the inside and is equipped with outside insulation, for example extruded polyurethane, and a tight surface layer. In order to be able to pick up the water volume change, the required expansion volume plus 20 % is added to the volume of the system. The expansion volume is filled with nitrogen gas and the pressure is raised to the required level. Safety valves with the required capacity, opening at a maximum working pressure, should be installed. They have to be easily accessible for service and testing. Heat exchangers. Heat exchangers for transfer of heat from the local boiler as well as from combined heating and power plant are connected to the accumulator. The exchangers are installed outside the accumulator, a charging pump, transfers the heat into the accumulator. An additional pump or valve system is required, to allow the stored heat in the accumulator to be used in the district heating on demand. The local boilers are detached from the distribution network with a heat exchanger before installing the accumulator. The boiler circuit can be run with the optimum conditions for the fuel consumption, temperatures and pressures.

An accumulator must be protected from corrosion both on the outside as well as on the inside and also be well insulated. Fig. 5:9

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5. Expansion systems. Closed expansion systems should be used. It is easier to adjust them to possible changes in systems or in operating conditions. It is also easy to increase the static pressure, should, for example, a cavitation arise. Closed expansion vessel with inert gas for the keeping pressure. Closed expansion vessels are exposed to the same pressure as the rest of the system and must therefore be constructed as pressure vessels. Closed systems must be equipped with safety valves, opening and letting excessive pressure out if boiling should occur. The opening pressure is equal to the maximum working pressure of the plant. The safety valves require a permanent control. Expansion systems for the boiler circuit. A pressure vessel with a volume corresponding to the expansion of the system plus approximately 10%, as a margin, is installed in a suitable location in the production plant. The expansion circuit of the boiler is connected at the bottom of the vessel. The pressure is maintained by assistance of a compressor or with nitrogen straight from gas bottles. A gas pillow lies above the water surface at a constant pressure. Nitrogen is used because it prevents corrosion. Expansion systems for the distribution unit. Before installing the accumulator, the same type of closed vessel is used as for the boiler circuit. The accumulator is sized for an extra volume (for the gas), which is 20% larger than the expansion volume required for the distribution unit. The pressure maintenance is effected in the same way as for the closed expansion vessels.
Safety valve Expansion volume

Safety valve. Fig. 5:10

Primary side

Secondary side

Accumulator Expansion volume in the accumulator. Fig. 5:11 8 STEPS - CONTROL OF HEATING SYSTEMS 97

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6. Circulation pumps. When considering the required static pressure, the circulation pumps should be placed in the flow. The pumps in the boiler circuit and the charging pumps for the accumulator should be sized to be able to manage the resistance in the current circuits, including heat exchanger and control valves, if there should be any. Dynamic pressure. With regard to the local distribution systems, the lowest obtainable differential pressure of 150 kPa has to be available in all the sub-stations, and the stated maximum water rates should be strived for in the preinsulated piping network. The same conditions also apply to the central distribution network.
The minimum p, 150 kPa, should always be available in all sub-stations. p pump

p
600 500 400 300 200 100 0

p system Flow and return pipe

p min
100

Flow %

Min p = 150 kPa

50 0

Dynamic pressure Fig. 5:12

The specific heat amount of water is based on 1 kg at 15oC. Calculations for heating systems are normally made with 1 kg water equal to 1 litre and that is not physically correct because the volume and the specific heat will change with the temperature. This deviation is still small compared to the differences between calculated and real requirements.

Flow. The flow is determined on the basis of heat requirements and temperature drop. The theoretically calculated heat requirements are usually higher than the real ones, and therefore an exact calculation of the flow is not necessary. When the system has been commerioned, a measurement of the real values is important, in order to run the plant in the best way possible.

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7. Pre-insulated pipes. Pre-insulated pipes with a high-quality insulation and a safe waterproof protective cover should be used for all the heating distribution systems. They should be constructed and installed in such a way as they last as long as possible. Stated maximum water rates should be strived for which will give a smaller external diameter and therefore a smaller heat emitting surface. The standard insulating thickness should be used. Material. Pre-insulated pipes consist of an internal steel pipe. On the outside there is foam insulation and the waterproof external layer consists of a polyethylene pipe. The insulation is foam with the steel pipe as an internal and the polyethylene pipe as an external mould. The construction function as one unit from an expansion point of view. There are preinsulated pipes in dimensions from the smallest to the largest, dout 27 1.220 mm. Linear expansion due to variations in temperature. The mounting of pre-insulated pipes is made at temperatures far below the normal operating temperature. The pipes therefore expand operating, 0,12 mm/m pipe and a temperature raise of 10C. The pre-insulated pipes are functioning as one unit, i.e. the forces arising when the steel pipe is expanding are transferred to the external plastic pipe through the insulation. The plastic pipe, in turn, is held in position by the friction against the poured sand. A linear expansion does not occur, but the wall of the steel pipe picks up the expansion. The mounting and the re-filling are done without any special measures taken for an expansion pick-up. Once the pipes have been welded and the joint has been tested, the caps for the external mantle are mounted and the cavity filled with foam. After that there is a re-filling of sand around the joint. Open pipe ends should be covered to avoid sand and other impurities from entering the pipes. The system should be flushed before use.

Pre-insulated pipe. Fig. 5:13

Open pipe ends should be covered. Fig. 5:14

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Sizing of pipes. A high water rate in pre-insulated pipes is important from several aspects. It results in smaller pipes which have the advantage of being cheaper and causes smaller heat losses. The temperature drop across a certain distance becomes twice as large at the same temperatures if the flow is halved. At the same time, the resistance in the circuit is reduced to a quarter, and the operational cost of the pump will only be an eighth. 8. Heat exchangers. A sub-station is situated in each building, maybe several in long, highrise buildings. It is cheaper to distribute heat in a primary distribution system than to construct up a secondary one. Coil units or plate heat exchangers can be used for hot water as well as for domestic water systems. Both these types contain very small water quantities, and therefore an increased consumption requires that the whole primary system reacts quickly. The water flow rate in heat exchangers ought to be high, so that the deposits do not remain in them. The flow resistance across an exchanger is usually 20-50 kPa.

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Chapter 5 Instructions for designing district heating systems Operating conditions.


1. Temperature levels. The boilers in the combined heating and power plant with an electrical production will work with steam, but a temperature of 130C ought to be chosen for the distribution out to the local district heating networks. The same temperature should also be applied to the boilers in the local district heating systems. Maximum temperature in the local distribution unit is 120C. 2. Return temperatures. Low return temperatures should be strived for, partly because the flue gas coolers, if any, require it, partly because a low return temperature means a large temperature drop, i.e. the flow pumped around in the district heating network is low. The return temperature should be around 70C.

Boiler

Accumulator

130 oC 70 oC Temperatures in a local district heating system. Fig. 5:1

120 oC 70 oC

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3. Temperature drop in the distribution network. Proper functioning requires the same flow temperature at all the substations. Good insulation and a relatively high water rate through the pipes are required to achieve this. Heat losses of up to 30% may occur in a distribution network with low consumer energy density. In energy dense areas with pre-insulated pipes the losses are 3% or less. The stated maximum water rates should be strived for, see graph in chapter 8. 4. Static pressure. The local distribution unit will be working with a static pressure, which is the sum of the steam pressure (100 kPa at 120 C) and the difference in height between the pressure gauge in the production unit and the highest located sub-station. The pump should be placed in the flow. The static pressure of the local boilers depends on their maximum working temperature. The steam pressure is 200 kPa at 130 C and that pressure is to be added to the height of the boiler converted into kPa. If the circulation pump is placed in the flow pipe, it is enough with an addition of 10-20 kPa (as a safety margin) to the static pressure to get all the parts of the system water filled at operation.

The static pressure is determined by the maximum water temperature and the height of the highest part of of the system. To avoid boiling, a pressure that is higher than the steam pressure at the temperature in question is required at the highest point of the system.
Water temperature C Steam pressure kPa/bar (gauge pressure) 47/0,5 99/1 193/2 262/2,6 518/5,2

110 120 130 140 160

12 m

14 m

Static pressure, boiler 130 oC. Steam pressure = 200 kPa Level pressure = 120 kPa Total = 320 kPa Static pressure in a local district heating system. Fig. 5:16 102 8 STEPS - CONTROL OF HEATING SYSTEMS

Static pressure, district heating network 120 oC. Steam pressure = 100 kPa Level pressure = 360 kPa Total = 360 kPa

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Under certain operating condition, the pressure in the control valves could become so low that cavitation occurs. Cavitation means that steam bubbles are formed (through boiling), and when these steam bubbles are pressed together, imploding, large forces arise damaging the valve cone and the valve seat. Cavitation ceases if the static pressure is raised. All the components included must be officially approved for the current working pressure. 5. Available differential pressure. The available differential pressure in the primary distribution system will vary with the flow in the system. The pump keep the differential pressure in the last sub-station constant at 150 kPa, at all flows. The differential pressure will vary for the rest of the connected sub-stations, from the maximum at 100% flow to approximately 150 kPa at a minimum flow. The control valves should be sized for the lowest possible available differential pressure, 150 kPa, minus the resistance in the heat exchanger in question.

p p1 p2
Valve min Steam

pvalve

When water passes through a valve the speed will increase over the seat and cone and then decrease. The increase in speed will use up some pressure. The result is pvalve min.some of that pressure returns when the speed decreases and the result is p2. If the pvalve min becomes lower than the steam pressure, cavitation occurs and the water will boil and bubbles of steam will form. When the speed decreases, the pressure will rise and the bubbles implode. This causes a loud noise and the large forces could damage surfaces of the valve. Fig. 5:17

% p, P 100

Q
50

pn=Q2xp0 Pn=Q3xP0

50

100% Q

The resistance changes by the square of the flow change and the effect for the pump by the cube. Fig. 5:18

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6. Water quality. The water quality is very important as regards to the durability of all the components included in the primary system. A plant can provide the production as well as the distribution units with water. The plant for water treatment should be designed so that it can also manage the refilling of the secondary systems. Refilling pipes to the various systems should be equipped with meters to obtain control over the refilled volumes. With regard to systems with mixed new and old constructions, a water change of 0,5 times per year is taken into account. The new preinsulated pipes are only refilled when considering new systems and sub-stations and a possible filling of the secondary systems. The following values apply of the water after purification.
A flow meter register the amount of water feeded. Fig. 5:19

Feed water

Flow meter

Conductivity pH-value Hardness Appearance O2

max 10S/cm 9-10 0,1 tH clear and sediment free 0,02 mg/l

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7. Pressure testing. Before a system or parts of it are commissioned it has to be pressure tested. The system in question is filled with treated water and all the air is purged. After that, the pressure is increased, with a pump, to at least 1,3 times the maximum working pressure. The pressure should be constant for at least 60 minutes, without dropping. Joints, connections and components should be visually checked during the pressure testing, to make sure that there is no leakage. The supervisor in charge should keep records of the pressure tests. The records should contain information on time, place, scope, current pressures at the beginning and the end of the test, and also leakages attended to. The records are then to be signed by the supervisor in charge.

Pressure testing of pre-insulated pipes. Fig. 5:20

8. Operating times. The local central boiler plants must be in operation until they are connected to an accumulator, another district heating network or a combined heating and power plant. If domestic hot water is to be produced as well, this applies all year round. When several local central boiler plants have been connected, just as many boilers are used as necessary to obtain the required effect. After being connected to a combined heating and power plant, they only respond to the peak loads. Combined heating and power plants producing electricity are to be in operation all year round. During the non-heating seasons, the combined heating and power plants should use the requirement of domestic hot water in the buildings for cooling, as far as possible. If there is requirement for air conditioning the heat can be used to run a cooling process.
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Chapter 5 Instructions for designing district heating systems Local control and supervision.
All the information required to operate a local district heating system efficiently can be gathered and processed only by computers. The concerns information about everything from the air temperature supplied to the combustion chamber in the boiler to the temperature in an apartment. The gathering of information is important to improve the operating process. The gathering comes out as statistics, and these statistics will at the same time serve as a control function for the operation. There is today, in 1998, computer software for this purpose which is well tried and able to co-operate with weather compensators, control motors and other equipment. Temperatures and pressures can be adjusted from the centrally placed computer if and when there is a need for it. 1. The control of boilers. There are a lot of operations to be automated and supervised will regard to local boilers to making the plant effective and less pollutive. On the whole, the supply of fuel should correspond to the requirement of heat. The introduction of an accumulator to which the boiler is connected, has made the task easier. A shortage or an excess of fuel during a short time is evened out by the accumulator.
A computer network control center can control the system and record and analyse large amounts of information. Fig. 5:21

The operating temperature as well as the return temperature of the boiler must be controlled the whole time. The filter and the flue gas temperature are important from an environmental and an efficiency point of view and must be checked regularly. Flue gas fans and circulation pumps should be controlled according to the current requirement.

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2. Control of the accumulator. The accumulator is a buffer between the boiler and the load. By containing water with a high temperature in the accumulator during periods with a smaller consumption, the boiler can work with a more even load, which gives better combustion and a smaller amount of impurities. Heat is avilable continuously. At low outdoor temperatures, the accumulator is completely charged, while it is only partly charged during spring and autumn. The heat transfer from the heat exchanger to the accumulator is controlled by a variable-speed circulation pump. The temperature of the water to the accumulator should correspond to the current charging temperature, and it can vary with the outdoor temperature or the expected outdoor temperature. Weather forecasts, expected temperature and wind force are all parts of the decision records at the operation and the control of a district heating network with an accumulator. 3. Control of the outgoing temperature in the district heating network. The maximum outgoing temperature is 120C and the return temperature is 60C. The outgoing temperature should be adjusted according to requirement, i.e. the outdoor temperature, down to the temperature required for the production of domestic hot water, 65-70C. The advantage of this is that the losses from the pre-insulated piping network decreases, and the flow down to this temperature is relatively constant. When the heating system requires lower temperatures, large variations in the flow are obtained. The same temperature is required for the operation of cooling processes during the summer as for the production of domestic hot water. The outgoing temperature can be lowered further according to the outdoor temperature in systems where domestic hot water is not produced. The outgoing temperature must never be so low that the required heat volume is not available at each sub-station or that the return temperature becomes too high. The control valves should at all times have good heat authority.
tflow oC 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 -15 -10

-5

10

15 20 toutdoor oC

The flow temperature will be controlled by the weather compensator according to the outdoor temperature. The dotted line represents the lowest temperature for domestic hot water production. Fig. 5:22

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4. Flow limitation. In cases where there is a rapidly increasing heat requirement, or when the production unit hasnt got enough energy, the solution would be to limit the flow to each heat exchanger. Flow limitation means that an exchanger does not receive a higher flow than it is set for. One exchanger cannot steal heat from the others. The most simple flow limitation consists of a control valve and a differential pressure control. The differential pressure control keeps the differential pressure across the control valve constant. The current differential pressure is the one required in order to assure a fully open control valve to provide the maximum required flow. With such equipment at each heat exchanger there will only be a maximum flow at each exchanger, even if the heat amount is not sufficient. When the flow temperature then increases, all the exchangers are receiving the same heat, until sufficient heat volume is available and the control valves begin to close up.

m3/h 10 7 5
3 2 1,0 0,7 0,5 0,3 0,2

kvs 4,0

l/s
3 2 1,0 0,7 0,5 0,3 0,2 0,1 ,07 ,05

kvs 4,0

0,1 1 0,1 0,01 2 0,2 ,02 3 4 5 ,3 ,4 ,5 7 10 ,7 1 0,1

pvalve 55 kPa Maximum flow 3 m3/h

,03 20 30 40 60 100 kPa 2 ,2 3 4 5 ,3 ,4 ,5 7 10 mWG ,7 1,0 Bar

,04 ,06

Constant p, across a fully open valve, creates limitation. Fig. 5:23 Fig. 5:24

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5. Differential pressure control. In systems with a varying flow, large variations arise in the available differential pressure for the control valves. A differential pressure control should be used if the difference between the calculated and the highest differential pressure is more than 50 % of the calculated one. If a differential pressure control is installed in the flow direction after the control valve, with one impulse tube connected before and one after the control valve, the differential pressure across the control valve will be constant. Possible variations in the available differential pressure, even very large ones, will not affect the control valve. If a control valve appears to be too large, a reduction of the differential pressure can adjust the control valve to the real requirement, with the help of the differential pressure control. This also applies in the opposite case.

m3/h
10 7 5 3 2 1,0 0,7 0,5 0,3 0,2 0,1 1 p 0,1 0,01 2 0,2 ,02 3 4 5 ,3 ,4 ,5 7 10 ,7 1 0,1

kvs -value

l/s
3 2

6,4 2 2,5 1

4 3 1,6

1,0 0,7 0,5 0,3 0,2 0,1 ,07 ,05

,03 20 30 40 60 100 kPa 2 ,2 3 4 5 ,3 ,4 ,5 7 10 mWG ,7 1,0 Bar

pvalve kPa kvs 1 2 3 6,4 4,0 2,5 pvalve kPa 10 25 61 Flow m3/h 2,0 2,0 2,0

,04 ,06

By changing p, across the valve you can make it correspond exactly to the requirement. Fig. 5:25

Fig. 5:26

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6. Pressure control of pumps. The pumps should be pressure or temperature controlled in all circuits with a varying flow. Temperature control applies to the charging pumps to the accumulator. Pressure control applies in all the systems where the control valves are adjusting the flow according to requirement, the local pre-insulated piping network with sub-stations for example. The variations in the differential pressure available to the control valves will be so large, even with pressure controlled pumps, that a differential pressure control is required to obtain the best operation. If the connection is made according to the Tichelmann principle, the variations will be the same.

ppump pmin p
200 100 0
0 100 200

Flow % 100 Flow pipe


0

150

Return pipe Min p = 150 kPa

0 100

With a Tichelmann laying of the distribution pipes the same p is always available in all sub-stations. The differences in p depending on various flows will however be the same as with conventional two-pipe laying. Fig. 5:27

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7. Heat metering. The only way of establishing what has been produced and what has been delivered is by metering the heat volume. The metering also makes it possible to estimate the efficiency of different units. The deliveries constitute a basis for invoicing. The modern heat meters based upon ultrasound are very efficient and safe in operation and they are available in all required sizes. A heat meter is used to register the outgoing heat from the combined heating and power plant. The obtained heat volume and the outgoing delivery to the sub-stations is registered at each local production unit. The production in the local boiler should be registered as well. Finally, the heat volumen obtained in each sub-station should be registered. The records made with values from these meters can reveal possible defects in pre-insulated pipe construction or in the control of certain units.

Powerplant Heat metering is the basis for invoicing. Fig. 5:28

Boilerplant

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8. Central control and supervision. The question of control and supervision becomes even more important in combined heating and power plants that also produce electricity. For one thing, there are more items to take into consideration when the production of electricity items is effected. Secondly, the local district heating systems, in any case the operation of the accumulator, should be controlled from the combined heating and power plant. It is essential that centrally you have the knowledge of how much cooling that can be obtained from the local district heating systems. When a local boiler is to be connected to assist the existing ones, you have to be able to control the operating process from a central point. The local computers should be connected to the computer in the combined heating and power plant.

Boilerplant

Sub-stations

The operations and maintenance are assisted and made more efficient via central data control and supervision. Fig. 5:29

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CHAPTER 6 INSTRUCTIONS FOR DESIGNING HEATING SYSTEMS.

Instructions for designing heating systems.

In order to obtain the required effect, a lower consumption, a smaller quantity of impurities and improved comfort, heat and domestic hot water installations in new and existing buildings have to be installed in a way that fits into the total pattern. The solutions stated below are those which appear to be the most suitable for this purpose for the years to come.

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Comfort.
The purpose when building houses and to supply them with heating and domestic hot water is to create better conditions for the residents. Comfort here is a question of creating conditions so that an apartment will be comfortable to live in. 1. Room temperature. Metering the room temperature with a thermometer is not a very good measure of comfort, but it is the simplest method of measuring we have. Heating systems are usually designed for a room temperature of 18-20 C, and that is for most cases sufficient. Elderly or sick persons may need a higher temperature to experience the same comfort as younger and healthy ones. The temperature difference vertically in a room should not be too great either. It is not nice if the feet are cold, while it is too warm in the area round the head. 2. Temperatures on the surfaces of the room. The heat transfers from warm to cold surfaces. A person sitting close to a cold window emits heat to the window, and after a while he/she will experience unpleasedt conditions. All surfaces with a lower temperature than the skin receives radiant heat from the person. How much is depends on the difference in temperature.

20oC 16oC

18 oC

16 oC Measured air temperature is not a measure of comfort. Fig. 6:1

t K 16
14 12 10 8 6 4 -20 -15

U=3

,0

U=2,0
U=1,5

U=1,2
-10

-5 0 Outdoor temperature oC Difference in temperature between room, 20C, and window of different window constructions. Window temperatures below +12C can cause radiant cooling. Window with sealed double glazing give a U = 3.0. Fig. 6:2

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A room with many cold surfaces (a corner room with a roof ) provides a lower level of comfort than a room with few cold surfaces (a room with only one exterior wall), due to the radiant heat. To increase the comfort, the temperature of the cold surfaces must be raised, which can be done in two ways; either by raising the room temperature or improving the insulation. A better level of insulation with regard to windows means having sealed double glazed units. Roofs should be better insulated, and a heat transmission coefficient of 0,3 W/m2K, about 100 mm mineral wool, is a minimum requirement. Gable walls should be insulated in the same way as roofs. 3. Downdraught Downdraught is a reverse convection. Air coming into contact with a surface that holds a lower temperature, cools down, becomes heavier and descends. Downdraught occurs mostly in the window areas, as the window has the lowest temperature in a room, but all the surfaces with a lower temperature than the room air causes downdraught. How much will depend on the difference in temperature. The cold air descends to the floor where it stays. Radiators below the windows can remove the downdraught providing they cover the whole width of the window. Heat emission through radiation to a cold surface, cold radiation, is often mistaken for down draught. The same measures apply on both down draught as well as cold radiation. To counter balance this, raise the temperature of the cold surfaces! 4. Ventilation. Ventilation removes impurities, such as small particles, odour and moisture, from the rooms. Odour and moisture are secreted from the human body, but they are also produced by cooking. The introduction of showers in the apartments increases the moisture production greatly, and a brief and effective ventilation is required. An easy way to ventilate is to simply open a window. If this is done briefly with a fully open window or even with cross draught, it is both efficient and cheap. If no extra measures are taken to insulate round the windows, these leaks are sufficient during the winter months, together with an efficient airing, to remove the odour and moisture.
The down draught from the window can be prevented by the heat from the radiator if the window bay and the windowledge are designed properly. Fig. 6:3

A brief cross draught is cheap and efficient. Fig. 6:4

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5. Wind influences. The air changes in the building increases when it is windy, and if one wants to preserve the room temperature at the set level, a higher flow temperature to the radiators is required. 6. Distribution of the heat. In principle, the room temperature should be the same in all the rooms of a building. If roof and gable walls are not insulated, it should be possible to keep a somewhat higher temperature in rooms with roof and/or gable walls.

The room temperature must be somewhat higher in rooms with more cold surfaces to keep the same comfort. Fig. 6:5

7. Domestic hot water. Each apartment should have access to domestic hot water in the kitchen and in the bathroom. The bathroom should be equipped with a floor drain and a shower. When a combined heating and power plant is in operation and is using the apartment, heating systems for cooling, the costs for a shower are small, but the value of hygiene and comfort is substantial.

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8. Hot water circulation. When the water in a riser for domestic hot water stands without tapping for a long time it will take room temperature. The first person wanting hot water will therefore run away a large amount of water before hot water reaches the tap. If a small circulation pipe is laid parallel to the riser and connected with the riser at the top, a gravity circulation is obtained so that hot water always is available.

A gravity circulating system makes water of the right temperature available throughout the whole system. Fig. 6:06

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Conditions.
1. Heat requirement. The heat losses in a building consist of: transmission ventilation domestic water 2. Calculation of the transmission losses. The transmission losses are losses through walls, floors, ceilings/roofs, windows and doors, arising due to the outdoor and indoor temperature differences. The size of these losses should be calculated at the outdoor design temperature for the specific geographical area, for example 10C, and a room temperature of 18-20C. The calculated transmission loss will always be considerably higher than the real value. When starting up the system the real losses are to serve as a basis for the adjustments made.
Heat emission t oC
40 30 25 20 16

tflow oC
1 100 12 95 90 10 2 80 70 60 50 8 6 5 4

1,2 1,1 1,0 0,9 0,8 0,7 0,6 0,5 0,4 0,3 0,2 0,1 0 0 tflow 95 75

1. Calculated 2. Measured

treturn 70 66

1,0 t 25 9

Q 1 2

2,0 Q Required heat 1,0 0,74

The calculated heat requirement is never equal to the actual requirement. Fig.6:7

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3. Ventilation. It is rather easy in buildings with mechanical supply and exhaust air, to calculate the heat requirement for the ventilating air. The size of the air flow and the specific heat content of the air are known as well as the required temperature rise. These factors are multiplied and the heat requirement for ventilation is determined. A fan exhausting air from an apartment, a kitchen fan for instance, takes in air through leaks in the building, and that air is warmed up by the radiators in the rooms. It is difficult to determine the size of the air flow at self draught or at airing through leaks. A lowest standard value is 0,5 air change per hour. However, the cold incoming air is to be warmed up by the radiators. Large forces arise in high-rise buildings due to differences in temperature between the air outside and the air inside the building, so called self draught forces. The stair-well in a high-rise building becomes a ventilating duct, removing large amount of heat from the building, especially if the outer door on the ground floor is open. Keep the outer door closed and put another door a few meters inside the outer door, a so called airlock ! 4. Incidental heat gain. Incidental heat gain from other heat sources than the heating system have to be used to reduce the heat consumption. The incidental heat gain will give over-temperatures if the heat supply from the heating system is not reduced correspondingly. Thermostatic valves are well suited to use the incidental heat gains with a preserved room temperature. The amount of the incidental heat gain will largely depend on the activity of the residents, and the amount of the incidental heat gain as part of the heat requirement of a room becomes larger the better the room is insulated.

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5. The wind influence on the heat requirements. The air change increases in the buildings in windy conditions. The harder the wind, the larger the air changes. An increase in volume of cold air supplied to the room has to be warmed up to room temperature. Otherwise the room temperature will decrease. It is not usually windy at the same time as we have design outdoor temperatures. Thus the radiator size needs no compensation for the wind influence, unless the experience/statistics from the area is/are showing something else. The flow temperature, however, must be raised in windy conditions. As an alternative, a slightly too high flow temperature is used and the thermostatic valves will keep the room temperature at the right level. Then the heat is there even in windy conditions. 6. Heat requirement per room. The total heat requirement per room is equal to the sum of the transmission and the ventilating requirement. The size of the radiators and the required flow are determined according to this value, at maximum load. 7. Control of the actual heat requirement. The actual heat requirement for a building cannot be obtained until the building is built and the system is in operation. The simplest way is to meter the current flow and the flow and return temperatures. A multiplication of the temperature difference and the flow gives the heat amount.
Heat requirement for domestic hot water Cold water: Hot water: Flow: +8 oC 65 oC 1 l/s

p1

ppump

p2

tflow

treturn Find ppump; p2 - p1; Find the flow from the flow chart of the pump and t for the circuit = tflow - treturn oC. Heat consumption = t x flow; Fig. 6:8

P = 1 3.600 57 0.86 = 176.472 W; P = 176 kW;

8. Domestic hot water. The heat requirement for heating domestic water is rather easy to calculate, the flow multiplied by the temperature raise, but the size of the accumulated flow is difficult to determine. The pipes for domestic hot water have to be made of copper or of heat resistant plastics.

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CHAPTER 6 INSTRUCTIONS FOR DESIGNING HEATING SYSTEMS.

Heating systems.
The heating system should be constructed and operated in a way that the stated requirements can be reached with regard to environment, comfort, operating economy and a low return temperature. Before a system or part of it is taken into operation it have to be pressure tested. The system in question is filled with treated water and all the air is let out. After that, the pressure is increased with a pump, up to at least 1,3 times the maximum working pressure. The pressure should be kept constant for at least 60 minutes, without dropping. Joints, connections and equipment should be checked visually during the pressure testing to make sure that there is no leakage. The supervisor in charge should keep records, of the pressure tests. The records should contain information on time, place, scope, current pressures at the beginning and the end of the test, and also possible leakages attended to. The records are then to be signed by the supervisor in charge. 1. Heat exchangers. Each building ought to be equipped with its own sub-station. It is appropriate in long buildings to have several sub-stations. The same applies to high-rise buildings, of more than 18 floors. These are however divided vertically. Sub-station. In the sub-station, the high temperatures in the primary system are converted to the level required by the system in the building. The systems are completely separated from each other, a fact which requires an expansion system and a circulation pump to make the secondary system work. Circuit diagram. If there is only one heat exchanger in the sub-station, there are no problems in connecting it, but a parallel connection of the exchangers is recommended when it is a case of several exchangers. Then each system will have its own control equipment and expansion vessel, as well as circulation pump.

Two parallel connected heat exchangers. Fig. 6:9

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2. Expansion system.
Expansion tank

Expansion system. An open expansion system, with the circulation pump installed in the flow pipe, is a simple and practical solution. There has to be room around the vessel for inspection and repair work. The connection of the expansion pipe to the heat exchanger must not be equipped with a shut-off device. Corrosion protection of expansion vessels. The expansion vessel and the upper part of the expansion pipe should be made of rust-proof material.

Expansion pipe

Pump in the flow pipe and no shut-off valve between the heat exchanger and the expansion tank. Fig. 6:10

The design circuit is the pipes from the heat exchanger to the radiator located farthest away. The resistance in this circuit is equal to the pump head. Fig. 6:11

3. Circulation pump. Circulation pumps should be installed in the flow, which will guarantee that there is water in all the radiators when the pump is in operation. The pumps should be reliable and equipped with a tight sealing shaft that requires no maintenance. It is advisable to place a unit for sludge separation after the pump, a filter for instance. The filter unit is constructed with shut-off devices so that it can easily be emptied of sludge. The flow is determined from the calculated heat requirements and the temperature drop. The pressure increase over the pumps is obtained from the pipe calculation. There is no reason for making any increases in these values. The pumps are already oversize with the increases made when calculating the heat requirements for the building. A too high differential pressure can cause flow noise in valves and radiators.

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4. Horizontal distribution pipe. Definitions. The horizontal distribution pipes distributes the water from the substation to other buildings and/or risers. Pipe material. Standard pipes joined together by welding are used for the larger units. The connection of valves and devices is made with flanges. Smaller pipe installations are of threaded steel pipe and the sizes are adapted to standardized pipe threads. Piping. The distribution pipes can be laid as pre-insulated pipes, in the ground, under a building or hung from the roof in the basement of the building, depending on how the building is constructed. Compensation of the linear expansion due to variations in temperature. The linear expansion for steel pipes is 0,12 mm per meter of pipe and a temperature change of 10C. The temperature change 10-95C gives 85 C, i.e. 8,50,12 mm =1,02 mm/m. Measures must be taken with regard to long pipework seetions. The linear expansion is absorbed up by expansion loops on the pipework or by shifting the pipe course sideways to create an expansion loop. It is important that the pipes can move towards the device picking up the expansion and that the branches are of such length, up to a passage through a wall or a vault, that they can pick up the expansion without failing. Insulation. The distribution pipes are insulated in such a way that the heat losses to the consumers are as small as possible. When the piping is visible, the insulation is provided with a protective surface layer. It is important for the functioning of the system that the flow temperature is the same for each connected riser.
Horizontal distribution pipes. Fig. 6:12

Length of expansion loops. Fig. 6:13

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5. Risers. Definition. Risers are the vertical pipes emanating from the horizontal distribution pipes up through the building. Each riser is equipped with shut-off and draining valves and possibly a differential pressure valve. Pipe material. Standard pipes joined together through welding are used for the larger installations.
Riser with shut-off and draining valves. Fig. 6:14

The connection of valves and devices are made with flanges. Smaller pipe dimensions are made of threaded steel pipes and the sizes are adapted to standardized pipe threads. Piping. The risers are placed in central shafts with branches on each floor. The branches are equipped with shut-off valves.

Pipe embedded in concrete

Floor

Compensation of the linear expansion due to variations in temperature. The linear expansion for steel pipes is 0,12 mm per meter pipe and a temperature change of 10C, i.e. approximately 1 mm/m in heating systems. Measures should be taken when the piping is 15 m long or more. The linear expansion is absorbed by expansion loops on the piping or by shifting the pipe course sideways to create an expansion loop. The pipes should be fixed so that they can move towards the device absorbing the expansion. The branches on each floor should be of a sufficient length or have a flexible insulation to be able to absorb the expansion. They must not be locked. Insulation. The risers are insulated in a way that the heat losses to the consumers are as small as possible. When the piping is visible, the insulation is provided with a protective surface layer. It is important for the functioning of the system that the flow temperature is the same at the branches on each floor.

Riser The expansion of the riser must be taken into consideration when the branch is installed. Fig. 6:15

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6. High-rise buildings. The equipment included in a heating system, radiators, pumps, valves etc., are designed to the highest working pressure, usually 600 kPa (6 bar). Each meter vertically corresponds to about 10 kPa. With an apartment height of three meters and an open expansion vessel placed at the roof on the top floor, it is possible to accommodate 19 floors ((600-30)/30=19 floors), but then there are no margins. A maximum of 18 floors would be more realistic. In buildings with more than 18 floors, the heat installation ought to be vertically divided. A building with 28 floors receives two heating systems, managing 14 floors each. There are two options for the upper floors. The heat exchanger can either be placed in the sub-station on the ground floor (A), or a separate sub-station is set up on the 15th floor (B). The sub-station on the 15th floor might also serve the 14 first floors, but in that case with a separate heat exchanger. (D) If the sub-station of both the heating systems is placed on the ground floor (A, C), the equipment installed for the highest located heating system (C) have to manage the higher static pressure occurring, more than 600 kPa. If the sub-station is placed on a floor halfway up the building, it will provide a correspondingly higher static pressure for the primary system, (steam pressure at 120C 100 kPa, height to the sub-station placed on the 18th floor 300 kPa, plus the possible difference in level between the floor in the production unit and the floor on the 1st floor of the connected building, sum = at least 400 kPa). The material on the primary side usually manages these pressures if the boilers are separated with heat exchangers.

28th floor

15th floor 14th floor

1st floor A

Sub-station in high-rise buildings. A or D for the lower part of the building B or C for the upper part of the building

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7. Radiator circuit, two-pipe horizontal. The horizontal two-pipe system emanates from a centrally placed riser with branches on each floor. A differential pressure control, keeping the differential pressure constant at 10 kPa, is installed on the branch on each floor. Then, branches are made for one radiator circuit to each apartment. Each branch is equipped with shut-off valves and flow meters. The radiator circuit is either laid as a two-pipe system with a parallel flow and return pipe, or as a Tichelmann-coil with the pipes insulated in the screed. With regard to existing buildings, the pipes are laid uninsulated on a wall. Adjustment. The thermostatic valves in a two-pipe system provide a varying flow and a varying differential pressure. A pre-set adjustment will only function at a maximum flow, when the flow decreases, the resistance over the adjustment changes by the square of the flow change.

Insulated pipes for the radiator circuit embedded into the floor. Fig. 6:17

p radiator circuit

p radiator

p 5 kPa

Available p on the 18th floor

p riser

Available p on the 1st floor

p radiator circuit

p radiator

Available differential pressure in the riser without differential pressure control. Fig. 6:18 126 8 STEPS - CONTROL OF HEATING SYSTEMS

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A simple and safe method for the balancing of two-pipe systems with a varying flow is based upon differential pressure controls at the bottom of each riser or for each radiator circuit/floor. The differential pressure control keeps the differential pressure constant independent of the changes in flow. Maximum differential pressure across the thermostatic valves is 25 kPa to prevent excessive noise.

p 10 kPa

Available p on the 18th floor p radiator circuit

p radiator Differential pressure control gives the same available pressure on each floor. Fig.6:19

It is sufficient with an approximate adjustment based upon heat requirement for each radiator. The adjustment will only take effect if and when the available heat volume is not enough to keep the temperature set on the thermostatic valve, i.e. at a long decrease in the flow temperature or at disturbances in the heat supply.

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8. Radiators convectors. There are three types: radiators convectors convection radiators, convector with a front plate giving radiated heat. Radiators emit heat through radiation but not through convection, or air movement, until higher temperatures are reached above 40C surface temperature at 20C room temperature. Convectors emit heat through convection. Convection radiators emit a smaller part of heat through radiation. Approximate distribution among radiation and convection for different heaters.: Radiation % Section radiators Panel radiators, single Convectors Convection radiators 15 32 10 Convection % 85 68 100 90

Section radiator. Fig. 6:20

Panel radiator

Convector

As systems they are pretty much equal but they should not be mixed in the same system, and from now on they will all be treated as radiators. Radiator size. The radiators are sized for a nominal heat requirement, and the flow will vary when the thermostatic valves adjust the heat supply to the current requirement. The best effect is reached if the connection with the flow is made to the upper tap-in, and the return to the lower tap-in on the same side of the radiator. Mounting. In order to prevent downdraught, the warm air from the radiators must be able to rise and meet the cold glass in the windows. Window ledges, if any, should be constructed so there is a gap along the whole window. The gap should be at least 30 mm wide, as close as possible to the window.

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The covering of radiators reduces the heat emission by obstructing the heat emission from the radiator to the room. The most common type of covering, which has only a grille in front of part of the radiator, reduces the heat emission disastrously. A better solution, if the radiator is to be concealed, is to make the front tight but with a 10 cm high opening at the floor. The width of the opening should be equal to the width of the radiator. An opening is made in the horizontal protection plate of the cover of the same length as the radiator. The depth of the opening should be 15-20 cm and it should be as close as possible to the window. This function will be even better if plates are placed closely, at both ends of the radiator so that a vertical passage is formed. The reason why many residents are using radiator screens is that the high surface temperature causes a strong radiant heat which is experienced as unpleasant, when you are close to the radiator. The flow temperature should therefore not be higher than that which is necessary to manintain the desired room temperature.

a+40 a

Alternative openings a

Open lattice > -15%

Small and tight lattice. Not recommended. > -30%

Acceptable cabinet ca -8 - 10%

Covering a radiator reduces the heat emission. Fig. 6:21

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Operating conditions.
1. Temperature levels. A flow temperature of 95C and a temperature drop of 20-25C have been referred to as the calculated values. If the radiators are sized correctly, a flow temperature of 95C is required for the last radiator. The temperature drop from the sub-station to the last radiator is about 5C in larger systems. Consequently the outgoing temperature from the substation should be 100C and that is not possible.
t C 40 30 25 20 1,2 1,1 1,0 0,9 0,8 0,7 0,6 0,5 0,4 0,3 0,2 0,1 0 1 2 16 100 12 90 10 80 8 70 6 60 5 50 4

3 4

90C is the highest temperature at which a radiator system can be operated under these circumstances, which means an outgoing temperature of about 95C from the sub-station. The adjoining heat emission curve for radiators is therefore made for a flow temperature of 90C. A lower flow temperature or a smaller temperature drop requires larger radiators. The lower flow temperature should be used if it turns out that a lower flow temperature can be used without influencing the desired room temperature, (the heat authority of the thermostatic valves or a low return temperature). A lower flow temperature provides improved comfort by reducing the difference in surface temperature between different surfaces in the rooms. A two-pipe radiator system requires that the flow temperature to all the radiators is pretty much the same if the system is going to function well. By metering the temperature drop across a radiator and then reading the room and the outdoor temperatures, it is possible to get an idea of how large the system in question is, compared to the actual requirement. The flow temperature is set at a level providing good heat authority for the last thermostatic valve of the design circuit. The calculated temperature drop across radiator or radiator circuit should be strived for. 2. Return temperature. The return temperature from the radiators should be at least as low as the required primary return temperature. 70C is the calculated value, but a lower temperature is preferable and should be strived for. A two-pipe system is the only solution that can guarantee a low return temperature at the right conditions.

1,0

2,0

1 first radiator in circuit, tflow 95oC, Q = 1,0 2 last radiator in circuit, tflow 90oC, Q = 1,0 If Q = 2,0 the temperature drop across radiator will be 50% lower. The flow temperature can be reduced while the heat emission remain the same. 3 first radiator in circuit, tflow 87,5oC, Q = 1,0 4 last radiator in circuit, tflow 85oC, Q = 1,0

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3. Temperature drops in the pipe system. Excessively large pipes result in low water rates and large heat losses. Large heat losses in pipes with a small area result in a large temperature drops, and it is important for a good functioning that the flow temperature is the same to all the radiators. Good insulation and the highest rates applies for a good functioning. The stated maximum water rates should be strived for. See graph in chapter 8. 4. Static pressure. At temperatures below 100C, the static pressure is equal to the height converted into kPa from the pressure gauge in the sub-station to the highest point of the system. The pumps should be installed in the flow. The static pressure is to ensure that all the parts of the system are filled with water, whether the circulation pump is in operation or not. 5. Expansion vessels. The expansion vessel should be placed on the roof on the top floor. The bottom of the vessel should be at the level for the static pressure, 0,5-1 meter above the highest point of the system. The space is warm, thus there is no risk of freezing, and it can be equipped with a floor drain so that a possible overflow does not cause any water damage. 6. Available differential pressure. The available differential pressure must not be so high that it causes disturbing noise. With regard to thermostatic valves, 25 kPa is applied today, as a maximum for the highest quality thermostatic valves. Differential pressure controls with a set constant differential pressure of 10 kPa guarantees quiet and well-controlled thermostatic valves.
The lower edge of the expansion tank should be placed above the highest point of the system. Fig. 6:23 Expansion pipe Expansion tank 0,5 - 1 m

The differential pressure controls give the same available differential pressure to each radiator circuit. Fig. 6:24

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7. Water quality. The requirements of the water used for filling the primary system also applies to the secondary system. The system must never be emptied of water, not even during longer breaks in operation. As regards possible repairs, only the parts of the system directly affected should be emptied. Leakages should be attended to immediately.
Feeding pipe Flow meter

The secondary system can be filled up with treated water from the district heating system but controlled. The amount of water fed into system is to be measured and leakages are not acceptable. Fig. 6:25

Water for filling the system is taken from the primary system. The refilling pipe should be equipped with a flow meter so you can register the quantity of the refill in order to control the losses. 8. Heat losses in the sub-station. There are many surfaces with high temperatures emitting a lot of heat in the production units. All warm surfaces should be well insulated in order to increase the efficiency of the plant. A high room temperature, which is a result of a bad insulation or none, is shortening the life of the equipment required in a modern plant of this type, not to mention the electronic controls. Furthermore, people have to be able to work efficiently within the plant. Ventilation assisted by of a thermostatically controlled fan reduces the over-temperatures which arise.

Good insulation increases the efficency and lower the temperature in the sub-station. Fig. 6:26
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Control.
It is in the apartments that the actual consumption occurs. Hot water emits heat to a room and comfort is created with the right heat supply. Comfort requires a control of the heat supply, that is, it must not be too warm or too cold. Comfortable environment and living conditions require efficient systems with control over heat supply and heat emission. 1. Control and supervision. The regular supervision of pressures and temperatures in sub-stations is necessary for an economic and environmentally sound operation of the local district heating system and in due course the combined heating and power plants. Information data on temperatures, water level or pressures in expansion vessels, the position of the cone in the control valve, current primary flow etc., is transferred to the computer in the local production plant, and alarms for excessive temperatures, a low water level etc. can be recorded. A computerized control and supervision makes it possible to optimize the operation and also increases the operating safety. Control valves. Two-way valves should be used on the primary side, which means that no more water than required is circulating in the system and that a large temperature drop can be maintained. Each heat exchanger should have its own control valve, which should be sized according to the current flow and the lowest available differential pressure. Avoid too large valves! The valve capacity is stated with a kv-value. The flow through the valve in m3/h, Q, at a differential pressure across the valve, pv, on 1 bar (100 kPa). The kvs-value states the flow at a fully open valve.

Control and supervision will be efficient when computerized. Fig. 6:27

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2. Control of flow and return temperature. The flow temperature should be adjusted according to the outdoor temperature with a weather compensator which can be connected to a computerized control and supervision system. The flow temperature should be set so that the worst located thermostatic valve will have good heat authority. Measure the flow and return temperature across the radiator! A too high return temperature is obviated by gradually increasing the flow temperature.

Measure the flow temperature to and the temperature drop across the last radiator in the design circuit. A small increase in flow temperature has a big influence on the temperature drop as well as on the flow.

tflow Heat emission t oC


1,2 1,1 1,0 0,9 0,8 0,7 0,6 0,5 0,4 0,3 0,2 0,1 0 40 30 25 20

72 C 16 100 90 80 70 60 50

tflow oC

12 10 8 6 5 4

1,0

2,0

1 : tflow 72oC, t 9oC, heat requirement 0,73. 2 : t 16oC, requires tflow 75oC. 3 : t 25oC, requires tflow 80oC. Fig. 6:28

kv 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 N RTD-N 15 0,04 0,08 0,12 0,20 0,27 0,36 0,45 0,60 RTD-N 20 0,10 0,15 0,17 0,25 0,32 0,41 0,62 0,83 RTD-N 25 0,10 0,15 0,17 0,25 0,32 0,41 0,62 0,83

3. Control of the room temperature. The room temperature is controlled by having thermostatic valves on each radiator. Even the last thermostatic valve is to have good heat authority. A rough adjustment of the required flow is made on each thermostatic valve. The thermostats can be limited to a maximum temperature of 18-22C. The temperatures should be higher where elderly or sick persons live. A thermostatic valve with a built-in thermostat should in most cases be used. When the valve cannot sense the actual room temperature, it is replaced by a separate capillary connected sensor, placed at a suitable point, in the room.

Pre-set values for thermostatic valves. Fig. 6:29

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4. Pressure control of pumps. All the circulation pumps in systems with varying flow should be equipped with pressure control. A constant differential pressure at the last branch/valve provides the largest saving. Using pressure control doesnt mean that differential pressure control valve should be excluded. p kPa
100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Q 0

p
Circuit

p kPa
100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Q 0

Radiator Circuit

p - control

Flow and return pipe to circuit

Flow and return pipe to circuit


50 100 %

50

100 %

Available differential pressure for a circuit close to the sub-station but with p control for the circuit. The pump has proportional pressure control. Fig. 6:30
p kPa 7,5

Available differential pressure for a circuit close to the sub-station. The pump has proportional pressure control. Fig. 6:31

4 kPa

55

p 10 kPa

p 4 kPa

17 m

55,5

p 10 kPa

50 m

8,5 49 9

49,5

9,5

50 p 50,5 kPa

p 10 kPa

Available differential pressure with the differential pressure control in the riser, up to six floors. Fig. 6:32

Available differential pressure with one differential pressure control for each radiator circuit in high-raise buildings. Fig. 6:33 8 STEPS - CONTROL OF HEATING SYSTEMS 135

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Requirement 5.600+9.400=15.000 W. Correction factor=5.600/15.000=0.37. Requirement 5.600+5.600=11.200 W. Correction factor=5.600/11.200=0.5.

5. Control of the available differential pressure. In buildings of maximum 6 floors, each riser is equipped with a differential pressure control providing 10 kPa. When the building has more than 6 floors, a differential pressure control, providing 10 kPa, should be installed on each floor. 6. Flow metering per apartment. Heat. Each apartment is equipped with a flow meter for the distribution of the heating costs. The flow meter should be accessible for reading from the stair-well, and possibly connected with the control and supervision system of the building.

Requirement 5.600 W. Correction factor=0. Requirement 5.600+1.700=7.300 W. Correction factor=5.600/7.300=0.77.

With regard to gable apartments and apartments with a roof, a compensating factor is calculated on the basis of heat requirement calculations made for a similar apartment in the centre of the building. Domestic water system. Domestic hot water is produced in a heat exchanger of the percolation type in the sub-station. A distribution pipe is laid in the ground floor of the building, from which risers are drawn up centrally through the building. Each riser is equipped with shut-off and draining valves. The branches on each floor are equipped with shut-off valves. Distribution pipes and risers should be made of a non-corrosive material and well insulated. A gravity pipe for the of hot water should be laid parallel to the tap water pipe. The circulation pipe should be laid uninsulated in the riser, and at the connection with the horizontal circulation pipe be equipped with an adjustment valve.

The heat comsumption, for apartments of the same size, will vary depending on how many outer wall and roof surfaces there are. A correction factor can be calculated based on the heat requirement per apartment or per square meter. Fig. 6:34

Principles for domestic hot water in installation with circulation pipe, shut-off and adjustment valves. Fig. 6:35

Flow meters for domestic hot water should be installed in the stair-well, one for each apartment.

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7. Control of domestic hot water. The outgoing temperature from the heat exchanger should be kept constant. A control valve on the primary side, regulated by an electronic control, which is either built-in to the weather compensator or placed separately, keeps the outgoing temperature constant. Self-acting controls can also be used. The maximum temperature at the tap is 65C and the minimum is 60C. The return temperature from the heat exchanger for domestic water should be below 60C, by a comfortable margin. 8. Control of domestic water in an apartment. The taps for personal hygiene, shower and wash-basin should be designed so that hot and cold water can be mixed to a suitable temperature. Max flow in the shower, 0,2 l/s. Max flow in the wash-basin, 0,1 l/s. Max flow in the kitchen, 0,2 l/s

<65 C

>60 C

Control of flow temperature for domestic hot water. Maximum and minimum temperatures are important. FIG. 6:36

Shower with mixer. FIG. 6:37 8 STEPS - CONTROL OF HEATING SYSTEMS 137

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CHAPTER 7 HOW TO SELECT SIZE OF PRODUCTS AND COMPONENTS.

How to select size of products and components.


Thermostatic valves.
Choice of valve size. Existing one-pipe systems. All the radiators must be equipped with thermostatic valves to be able to control the room temperature, use the incidental heat gain efficiently and distribute the heat according to requirements. This requires a by-pass at each radiator, and the resistance in the by-pass has to be larger than in the main pipe so that a certain amount of water is let to in the radiator. Good operation is obtained if the thermostatic valve has a low resistance, like valves intended for gravity circulation, and the by-pass is of the same dimension as the main pipe. The by-pass is equipped with a restriction creating the required resistance. Two-pipe systems. The valve size is determined on the basis of the required flow and the available differential pressure. Maximum differential pressure is limited to 25 kPa as far as noise is concerned. The available differential pressure for each thermostatic valve is obtained from the pipe calculation. Flow. The flow is calculated from the heat requirement in watts, W, and the temperature drop across the radiator in Kelvin, K. The valve size can then either be determined from a selection flow chart or be calculated.
By-pass insert

Existing one-pipe system with thermostatic valve and by-pass. Distribution through radiator and by-pass. Fig. 7:1

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Valve size. The last valve in the design circuit, (which determines the pump head throughout the entire system) ought to have a resistance of about 5 kPa. The other valves should be sized according to the differential pressure available for them, i.e. the penultimate valve in the design circuit has an available pressure equal to the resistance across the last valve plus the resistance in the pipes between the two valves.
p 5 kPa
1 6

p 80 kPa

140

133

125

p 72 kPa Available p for the risers in a two-pipe system. Fig. 7:2 RTD-N 15 l/h
500 300 200
100 70 50
kv 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 N RTD-N 15 0,04 0,08 0,12 0,20 0,27 0,36 0,45 0,60 RTD-N 20 0,10 0,15 0,17 0,25 0,32 0,41 0,62 0,83 RTD-N 25 0,10 0,15 0,17 0,25 0,32 0,41 0,62 0,83

p 9 kPa

kvs -value

Pre-set value
N 1 7 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

l/s
,1 ,07 ,05 ,03 ,02 ,01 ,007 ,005 ,003 ,002 ,001

0,60 0,45 0,36 0,27 0,20 0,12 0,08 0,04


1 0,1 0,01 2 0,2 ,02 3 4 5 ,3 ,4 ,5 7 10 ,7 1 0,1

30 20 10 7 5 3

Radiator l/h p kPa Pre-set 1 140 5 N 7 140 9 7 125 140 72* 3,5 140 140 80* 3,5 *too high p, will create a problem with noise.

pvalve

20 30 kPa 2 ,2 3 mWG ,3 Bar

,04 ,06

Finding the pre-set values for the thermostatic valves in the above heating system. Fig. 7:3

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Pre-setting. Adjusting a valve implies a calculation of the difference between the available and the required pressure for the valve. The resistance across the valve should then be increased, through adjustment, so that all the available pressure is utilized. The setting values providing the required resistance can be read from the selection flow charts.The values for each valve should be stated on the drawing so that the setting can be made in connection with the installation. Choice of control unit. There are many conditions influencing the function of the thermostatic valve. The control unit has to sense the room temperature to be able to control it.This is not possible if it is covered by a long curtain or a cabinet. Heat radiation from warmer surfaces, for example heating pipes, a warm floor, electrical devices etc., deceives the sensor into believe that it is warmer than it actually is in the room. Downdraught and draught from open windows or doors deceives the sensor into believe that it is colder in the room than it actually is. A control unit with a built-in sensor has difficulties in managing these problems. A control unit with a separate capillary tube connected sensor therefore should be chosen. The sensor can then be placed where it detects the right room temperature.

The control unit has to sense the room temperature to be able to control it. Fig. 7:4

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CHAPTER 7 HOW TO SELECT SIZE OF PRODUCTS AND COMPONENTS.

Control valves.
Primary systems. Two-way valves and consequently varying flow are recommended for the primary systems. Available differential pressure. A resistance of 100-120 kPa is recommended to be available in the design circuit for the control valve. As regards other control valves in systems without a pressure controlled pump the available differential pressure is obtained from the pipe calculation. When using pressure controlled pumps with the sensor located farthest away in the system all the control valves should be sized for the lowest available differential pressure of the system. In other words, the differential pressure set on the sensor, 150kPa, is recommended, minus the resistance in the heat exchanger in question, 20-50 kPa. Check the resistance in the heat exchanger with the supplier! If the available differential pressure at a valve should increase by 50% or more of the designed differential pressure a differential pressure control is recommended for that particular valve. The designed differential pressure is shared between the control valve and the differential pressure control.

ppump pmin p
600 500 400 300 200 100 0

psystem Flow % Min p = 150 kPa


100 50 0

If the pump is equipped with pressure control the valves must be calculated for the lowest available p. In this case 150 kPa, 1,5 bar, minus the resistance in the heat exchanger. Fig. 7:5

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Valve size. Enter information of flow and available differential pressure into the valve selection flow chart and then select the valve size! The dimension of the pipe in which the control valve is to be installed has no influence on the required valve size.

m3/h
50 30 20
10 7 5 3 2 1,0 0,7 0,5 0,3 0,2 0,1

Valve kvs - value


1
40 3 25 16 10
6,3 4,0 2,5

l/s
15 10 7 5
3 2 1,0 0,7 0,5 0,3 0,2 0,1 ,07 ,05

Example, control valve: t = 50 oC.

1 P = 1.500 kW; Q = 1.500 0,86 / 50 = 25,8 m3/h.

p available = 1,5 bar. p heat exchanger = 0,3 bar. 2 p = 1,5 bar - 0,3 = 1,2 bar. Values from diagram: 3 kvs = 25 m3/h, pv = 1,1 bar

1,6 1,0 ,63 ,4

2
10 1 0,1 20 30 40 60 100 2 ,2 3 4 5 ,3 ,4 ,5

,03 150 kPa

pvalve

7 10 15 20 mWG ,7 1,0 1,5 2 Bar

Sizing of the control valves in the adjoining district heating circuit. Fig. 7:6

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CHAPTER 7 HOW TO SELECT SIZE OF PRODUCTS AND COMPONENTS.

Secondary systems. Two-way valves should also be used in the secondary systems, with a main pump supplying the water out to each mixing loop or shunt. Available differential pressure. Two-way valve. A resistance of 10-15 kPa is recommended to be available for the control valve in the design circuit. The available differential pressure for other control valves in systems without a pressure controlled pump is obtained from the pipe calculation and as much as possible of the differential pressure should be used.
ppump psystem psystem p kPa
60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

pvalve < 15 kPa p 100% flow Design p without pump control or with constant p p at 0% flow with max p with proportional p pvalve With proportional or parallel pump control

Impulse tube

Available p with or without pump control at different flow. Fig.7:7

With regard to the pressure controlled pump with the sensor at the pump, all the control valves should be sized for the lowest differential pressure they will obtain. The designed differential pressure depends on which type of pressure control that is used: a constant differential pressure gives design values according to the pipe calculation a proportional control gives that design value which is 50% of the maximum differential pressure a pressure control parallel to the pipe resistance gives a design value that is 50% of the maximum differential pressure
This combination provides the control valve with the same available pressure when the flow fluctuates. Fig 7:8

a constant p at control valve located the farthest away gives design values for all the control valves equal to the lowest set differential pressure

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If the available differential pressure at a valve should increase by 50% or more of the designed differential pressure, a differential pressure control is recommended for that particular valve. The designed differential pressure is shared between the control valve and the differential pressure control. Valve size. Enter information of flow and available differential pressure into the valve selection flow chart and then select valve size! The dimensions of the pipe in which the control valve is to be installed has no influence on the required valve size.
Sizing of the control valves in the above heating circuit. m3/h
200 100
50 30 20
10 7 5 3 2 1,0 0,7 0,5 0,3 0,2 0,1 1 2 0,2 ,02 3 4 5 ,3 ,4 ,5 7 10 ,7 1 0,1 20 2 ,2

Valve kvs - value l/s


50
145

100 63
40 25 16 10

30 20
10 7 5 3 2 1,0 0,7 0,5 0,3 0,2 0,1 ,07 ,05

Exampel. Q = 3 m3/h ppump = constant pavailable = from the calculation of the design circuit, including valve 9. Here: from the above diagram + p valve no 9. Excessive p, pexc. = pavailable - pvalve ppump = psystem + p valve 9. psystem = 60 kPa. Sizing of control valve 9. See diagram: 3 m3/h, p<15 kPa kvs 10, p valve 9 = 9 kPa. Selecting valve size from diagram: Valve pavailable kvs pvalve 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 53+9=62 47+9=56 40+9=49 34+9=43 26+9=35 20+9=29 14+9=23 7+9=16 4,0 4,0 6,3 6,3 6,3 6,3 6,3 10 55 55 23 23 23 23 23 9

3 1 7 6 54 2

6,3 4,0 2,5 1,6 1,0 ,63 ,4

pvalve 7 1 26 20 12 6 7

,03 30 40 60 100 150 200 kPa 3 4 5 ,3 ,4 ,5 7 10 15 20 mWG ,7 1,0 1,5 2 Bar

pvalve

0,1 0,01

,04 ,06

Sizing valves from a diagram will not give the same mathematical accuracy as a calculation, but it is good enough when considering the inaccuracy of the underlying calculations. Fig 7:9 8 STEPS - CONTROL OF HEATING SYSTEMS 145

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CHAPTER 7 HOW TO SELECT SIZE OF PRODUCTS AND COMPONENTS.

Differential pressure controls. Only the differential pressure control can eliminate the pressure variations being the result of a varying flow in the systems, and only the differential pressure control can provide the control valves with good working conditions. The valve size is determined on the basis of the required flow and the available differential pressure. A differential pressure control keeping the pressure constant across a control valve has to be sized along with the control valve.
h

Controlled p gives the best result. Fig.7:10

Primary systems. Differential pressure controls are used in primary systems to keep the differential pressure constant across a sub-station or a valve in the substation. Available differential pressure. The available differential pressure for the sub-station, 150 kPa, minus the resistance across the heat exchanger, 30 kPa, is the available differential pressure for both the control valve and the differential pressure control, pv2 =150-30=120kPa.

Two parallel connected heat exchangers. Fig. 7:11

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Valve size. Divide pv2 by two and choose a control valve from the valve selection flow chart according to the p and the flow in question. The remaining p, i.e.120 kPa minus pv is the available differential pressure for the differential pressure control. Enter the differential pressure and the flow for the differential pressure control into the selection flow chart and then select size!
ppump p
600 500 400 300 200 100 0

psystem

pmin Flow % Min p = 150 kPa


100 50 0

If the pump is equiped with pressure control, the valves must be calculated for the lowest available p. In this case 150 kPa, 1,5 bar, minus resistance in the heat exchanger. All valves for which the available p will exceed the design p with more than 50% require a p control. Fig, 7:12 m3/h 50 30 20
10 7 5 3 2 1,0 0,7 0,5 0,3 0,2 0,1 10 1 0,1 20 30 40 2 ,2 3 4 5 ,3 ,4 ,5 60 100 150 7

Valve kvs - value l/s 15 0 2 4 4 25 10 7 16 5 10 3


6,3 4,0 2,5

Example, control valve and differential pressure control: t = 50 oC 1 P = 1.500 kW; Q = 1.500 0,86 / 50 = 25.800 l/h. p available = 1,5 bar. p heat exchanger = 0,3 bar. p = 1,5 - 0,3 = 1,2 bar. 2 p available for p valve = 1,2/2 = 0,6 bar; Values for p - valve from diagram: kvs = 40 m3/h; 3 pv = 0,41 bar

2 1,0 0,7 0,5 0,3 0,2 0,1 ,07 ,05 ,03 kPa

1,6 1,0 ,63 ,4

4 p available for control valve = 1,2-0,41 = 0,79 bar kvs = 40 m3/h; pv = 0,41 bar; Pre-set value for the p control = 0,41 bar;

pvalve

10 15 20 mWG

Fig, 7:13

,7 1,0 1,5 2 Bar

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CHAPTER 7 HOW TO SELECT SIZE OF PRODUCTS AND COMPONENTS.

Setting value. A differential pressure control keeps the differential pressure constant across a circuit. The setting value for the differential pressure control is equal to the resistance in that particular circuit. Secondary systems. In the secondary systems differential pressure controls are used to keep the differential pressure constant across a control valve or a part of the system, for example a riser or a two-pipe radiator circuit containing several thermostatic valves. Available differential pressure. In secondary systems, the resistance in the design circuit, of which the differential pressure control is a part, is calculated. It is important when calculating to check the requirements for the differential pressure control in question. Some of these differential pressure controls require a minimum differential pressure to function properly. The resistance across the differential pressure control in the design circuit is obtained from the selection flow chart. Enter the flow in question into the selection flow chart then select valve size and read the resistance. For the other circuits the available differential pressure is obtained from the pipe calculation. Valve size. Differential pressure control across a control valve. In the designed circuit first of all check if the differential pressure control requires a minimum differential pressure. Is this the case, select a size of control which requires at least this pressure. Even if the resistance across the smallest valve is not large enough make sure that at least the minimum differential pressure is available. Select accordingly the size of the control valve. The available pressure in the other circuits is divided by two. The control valve is selected first and the remaining differential pressure is used for selection of the differential pressure controller.

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ppump
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

pvalve < 15 kPa


8 9

p Pa
60 50 40 30 20 10 0

psystem

Example p 100% p at 0% With max p With proportional p pvalves no Q = 3m2/h ppump = constant pavailable = from the calculation of the design circuit, including valve no 9. Here: from the above diagram p valve 9. Excessive p pexc. = pavailable - pvalve ppump = psytem + p control and differential pressure valves no 9. psystem = 60 kpa. Sizing of the control and differential pressure control valves no 9. See flow chart: 9. 3m3/h p control valve <15 kPa. p valve no 9 kvs 10, p = 9 kPa. The p control valve will be the same size and p pvalves = 18 kPa. ppump = 60 + 9 + 9 = 78 kPa. Selecting valve size from flow chart: Divide the total available p by 2. Find in flow chart the cutting point between flow, 3 m3/h, and the p available for the valve. Choose the first valve size which is big enough. Find p across the chosen valve, that is the set pressure for the differential pressure control. The two valves will have the same size. Valve pavailable kvs pvalve pvalves
Total 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 53+18=71 44+18=6 39+18=57 34+18=52 29+18=47 24+18=42 19+18=37 12+18=30 1 valve 35 31 28 26 23 21 18 15 6,3 6,3 6,3 6,3 6,3 10 10 10 23 23 23 23 23 9 9 9 46 46 46 46 46 18 18 18

Available p with or without pump control at different flow Fig. 7:14

Design p Without pump control or with constant p With proportional or parallel pump contol

Sizing of the control valves and differential pressure control valves in the above heating circuit.
m3/h 200
100
50 30 20
10 7 5 3 2 1,0 0,7 0,5 0,3 0,2 0,1 1 2 0,2 ,02 3 4 5 ,3 ,4 ,5 7 10 ,7 1 0,1 20 30 40 2 ,2 3 4 5 ,3 ,4 ,5 60 7

Valve kvs-value m3/h


145

l/s
50 30 20
10 7 5 3 2 1,0 0,7 0,5 0,3 0,2

100 63 40 25 16 10
6,3 4,0 2,5 1,6 1,0 ,63

7 9 8

42 6 3 1 5

0,1 ,07 ,05 ,03 100 150 200 kPa 10 15 20 mWG Bar

,4

Calculation of valve no 9. kv = p =

pvalves

0,1 0,01

0,15

; kv = 7,8; => valve with kv 10,0;


2 p = 0,09 bar; => 9 kPa. v

,04 ,06

,7 1,0 1,5 2

3 ( 10 );

Choosing valves from a flow chart will not give the mathematical accuracy as a calculation, but it is good enough when considering the inaccuracy of the underlying calculations. Fig. 7:15 8 STEPS - CONTROL OF HEATING SYSTEMS 149

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Differential pressure control of risers. With regard to the design circuit, it is first of all a question of checking if the differential pressure control requires a lowest differential pressure. If so, choose a size of control that requires at least this pressure, or make a reservation for the lowest required pressure for the control, even if the resistance across it is not very large. Concerning the other circuits, the flow and the available differential pressure are entered in the selection flow chart and a suitable valve size is chosen.
p 5 kPa p 9 p 80 kPa p 9 140 133 125 p 9 kPa 7

1 6

p 72 kPa

Available p for the risers with p-control valves. Fig. 7:16

l/h
500 300 200
100 70 50 30 20
kv 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 N RTD-N 15 0,04 0,08 0,12 0,20 0,27 0,36 0,45 0,60 RTD-N 20 0,10 0,15 0,17 0,25 0,32 0,41 0,62 0,83 RTD-N 25 0,10 0,15 0,17 0,25 0,32 0,41 0,62 0,83

Valve kvs - value

Set values
140 125 7

l/s
,1 ,07 ,05 ,03 ,02 ,01 ,007 ,005 ,003 ,002 ,001

N 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

1 0,60 0,45 0,36 0,27 0,20 0,12 0,08 0,04


1 0,1 0,01 2 0,2 ,02

10 7 5 3

1 7 125 140

140 140 140 140

5 9 9 9

N 7 7 7

pvalve

Radiator

l/h

p kPa

Pre-set

3 4 5 7 10 ,3 ,4 ,5 ,7 1 ,04 ,06 0,1

20 30 kPa 2 3 mWG ,2 ,3 Bar

Calculation of the pre-set values for the valves in the above system with p control valves in the riser. Fig. 7:17

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Setting value. A differential pressure control keeps the differential pressure constant across a circuit. The setting value for the differential pressure control is equal to the resistance in that particular circuit.

p 5 kPa p 9 p 9 140 20 p kPa 89 85 133 19 81 126 18 22 2 18 p 9 kPa

1 6 7 1

Q in each riser = 980 l/h Available p for the p-control valves at each riser. Fig. 7:18

ASV-P, ASV-PV m3/h 10 7 5


3 2 1,0 0,7 0,5 0,3

Min. available p Valve kvs-value l/s 3 Max. pvalve 10 2 6,3 1,0 4,0 0,7 2,5 0,5 18-20 1,6 0,3 0,2
0,1 7 10 20 30 40 60 2 3 4 5 100 kPa 7 10 mWG

Sizing of p-valve in riser. Q in each riser = 980 l/h p riser = 9 kPa. Valve no 1 , se diagram. kvs = 4,0, pvp = 6 kPa p-valve with fixed p = 10 kPa and minimum available p = 8 kPa gives 18 kPa. Valves 2, 18, 19 and 20. p-valve Q l/h pavail.- priser = pvp avail kvs pvp 2 18 19 20 980 980 980 980 22 81 85 89 10 10 10 10 12 71 75 79 4,0 6 1,6 37 1,6 37 1,6 37

pvalve

,7

,06

,1

,2

,3 ,4 ,5 ,1

Sizing of the p-valves in the riser Fig. 7:19 8 STEPS - CONTROL OF HEATING SYSTEMS 151

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Flow limitation.
Flow limitation is required in both primary and secondary systems. Primary systems. In a primary system, it is the flow to a whole sub-station or to the applied heat exchangers that should be limited. The heat supply is controlled by a control valve and if the differential pressure across this valve is kept constant with a differential pressure control the sub-station contains the required components to limit the flow. Calculate the differential pressure that is necessary across the fully open valve to obtain required flow. Set the differential pressure control so that it will provide the differential pressure and the maximun flow is limited.
k vs 4,0

pvalve kPa

Example, limiting the flow in a primary circuit. Control valve kvs 4,0 Ex. no 1. 2. 3. Q m3/h 3 4 1 pvalve. 55 100 6,3 pvp-set 55 100 6,3

Combined flow limiters consisting of a differential pressure control and a setting valve are available. The differential pressure control keeps a constant differential pressure across the integrated pre-set valve. The size of the flow is determined by changing the resistance across the setting valve. When large sizes are required a flow limitation is obtained as a differential pressure control can keep a constant differential pressure across a integrated pre-set valve. The valve size is determined in a selection flow chart on basis of the available differential pressure and the flow.
m3/h 10 7 5
3 2 1,0 0,7 0,5 0,3 0,2 0,1 1 0,01 2 0,2 ,02 3 4 5 ,3 ,4 ,5 7 10 ,7 1 0,1 20 2 ,2

kvs-value

l/s 3 2
2
1,0 0,7 0,5 0,3 0,2 0,1 ,07 ,05

1 3 4

The p necessary for a specific flow through a fully open control valve is equal to the setting p for the differential pressure control. Calculation 1 pv = 2 3

( 43 ) ; pv = 0,56 bar => 56 kPa; 4 pv = ( 4 ) ; pv = 1 bar => 100 kPa; pv = ( 1 ) ; pv = 0,0625 bar => 6,3 kPa; 4
2 2 2

,03 30 40 60 100 kPa 3 4 5 ,3 ,4 ,5 7 10 mWG ,7 1,0 Bar

p 0,1

Fig. 7:20

,04 ,06

Limiting the flow in a sub - station equiped with p control valve Fig. 7:21 152 8 STEPS - CONTROL OF HEATING SYSTEMS

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Secondary systems. In secondary systems the limitation of the flow could come into question to a shunt coupling, a riser or a one-pipe circuit. If there already is a control valve and a differential pressure control in a shunt coupling, use these for the flow limitation too! Calculate the resistance across a fully open control valve at the maximum required flow and set the differential pressure control on this differential pressure! In other cases there are flow limiters keeping the differential pressure constant across a built-in adjustment valve. They are often sized according to the available differential pressure and the required flow. Setting value is read in the selection flow chart.

m3/h
10 7 5 3 2 1,0 0,7 0,5 0,3 0,2 0,1 1 p 0,1 0,01 2 0,2 ,02 3 4 5 7 10 ,3 ,4 ,5 ,7 1 ,04 ,06 0,1

kvs-value

l/s
3 2 1,0 0,7 0,5 0,3 0,2

Example, limiting the flow in a primary circuit. Control valve kvs 1,6 p-valve kvs 1,6 Ex. no 1. 2. 3. Q m3/h 0,4 0,8 1,5 pvalve. 5,8 25 90 pvp-set p-contr 5,8 25 90 ASV-PV ASV-PV AVP

3 2 1 1,6

0,1 ,07 ,05 ,03 20 30 40 60 100 kPa 2 3 4 5 7 10 mWG ,2 ,3 ,4 ,5 ,7 1,0 Bar

The p necessary for a specific flow through a fully open control valve is equal to the setting p for the differential pressure control. ASV-PV: setting range 5-25 kPa. AVP: setting range 5-50, 20-100 and 80-160 kPa. Calculation 1 pv = 2 3

( 0,4 1,6 ) ; pv = 0,0625 bar => 6,3 kPa; 0,8 pv = ( 1,6 ) ; pv = 0,25 bar => 25 kPa; 1,5 pv = ( 1,6 ) ; pv = 0,88 bar => 88 kPa;
2 2 2

Limiting the flow for a control valve in a secondary circuit with p control. Fig. 7:22

Fig. 7:23

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Flow limitation in a one-pipe circuit p available > p1-pipe circuit + pv pv = 25 kPa Example, ASV-Q ASV-Q Capacity l/h 15 100-800 20 200-1400 25 400-1600 32 500-2500

Setting value 1-8 2-14 4-16 5-3

Q = 1100 l/h Choose ASV-Q 20 (always choose the smallest possible valve) Setting value = 11

p one-pipe circuit pv

p available Flow limitation in a one-pipe circuit Fig. 7:24

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Control equipment.
Different control equipment is required for different purposes. The control of the flow temperature to radiators requires one type of control, hot water heating requires another, and ventilation devices require a third type. For the last two cases there is also a choice between electronic and self-acting control. Radiator systems. The flow temperature in radiator systems is controlled according to the outdoor temperature by a weather compensator. The electronic central control can be equipped with timers with twentyfour hours or weekly functions. This is however only the case if the heat supply is set back during a period of several days and nights and if the system is not connected to a computer. A pump stop is an optional function which shuts off the circulation pump when the outdoor temperature is so high that the building requires no heating. The limitation of the return temperature is usually not required in the two-pipe systems with thermostatic valves. A computerized supervision and control system is a labour-saving and efficient way of controlling large systems with many sub-stations.

Weather compensator Outdoor temperature sensor Surface sensor Reversible gear motor

Necessary control equipment for sub-station Fig.7:25

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Hot water heating. Water is heated in a heat exchanger or in an accumulator. The heat supply for the two types of hot water heating can be controlled by a weather compensator with an extra function for this purpose or selfacting controls for the accumulating hot water tanks. For heat exchangers up to 30 apartments there are self-acting controls with flow compensation available.

Flow compensated thermostatic valve for control of domestic hot water temperature. Fig. 7:26

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Pipes and heat exchangers.


Pipes for heating. When designing pipe systems an economic water rate has to be maintained. Too low a rate will give large-size pipes, deposits in the pipes, larger heat losses and temperature drops, but of course also a lower flow resistance and thereby lower operating costs for the pump. An optimization reflecting the costs for pre-insulated pipes gives water rates of approximately 0,6 m/s for the internal diameter of 27 mm to 3,6 m/s for the internal diameter of 1.220 mm. The corresponding values for insulated standard pipes in the heating system of a building will give about 0,3 m/s for pipes with an internal diameter of 10 mm and 1,5 m/s for an internal diameter of 150 mm.

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Pipes for domestic water.


There are three types of pipe material to choose from for the domestic water - galvanized steel, copper and plastic. All of them can as a rule be used for cold water, but copper and plastic are superior. For hot water only copper and special plastic pipes can be used. Copper pipes are sensitive to high water rates and they are environmentally hazardous, (copper is transported together with the sewage down to the purification plant and will there affect the purification process negatively). Maximum rates in an easily exchangable pipe: cold water 2 m/s hot water 1,5 m/s For plastic pipes there are no limits to the water rate, but pipes intended for domestic hot water must endure the temperature in question for many years 50 years according to international standards, NKB Product rules, 3, July 1986 and DIN 16892. Heat exchangers. Modern heat exchangers, plate and coil units, contain small quantities of water and the flow channels are narrow. By making them short and by laying a large number of them parallel, the flow resistance is kept at a low level in spite of a relatively high water rate. The high water rate is necessary to prevent deposits from settling on the heat transferring surfaces. The resistance across the coil unit is in the range of 20-30 kPa and for the plate heat exchanger the resistance is up to 50 kPa. The choice of size is made according to the instructions from the manufacturer. There are domestic water selection flow charts, based on empirical values, giving the total consumption for various number of apartments.

Domestic hot water, Q l/s


2,5 2,0 1,5 1,0 0,5 0 1 10 50 100 150 200

Effect, P kW
400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 250

Number of apartments

Maximum required flow according to the Swedish Board for District Heating Fig. 7:27

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Heat meters.
Heat meters register the delivery to each building/apartment, but they also indicate if anything goes wrong in the system. As there are large variations in the flow, a flow meter must also be able to measure low flows with great accuracy. The primary network. Meters on the primary side register the heat consumption, i.e. flow and temperature drops. The meters should be based on ultrasound, and the integration unit should be able to communicate with a central computer. The theoretical maximum flow determines the size of the flow meters.The ultrasonic meter has an advantage of being able to measure the lowest flows very well, independent of size. Each heat exchanger for heating and for domestic hot water should be equipped with a heat meter. The secondary network. On the secondary side, it is sufficient to measure the flow for each apartment. Based on this, make a percentage calculated distribution between the apartments of the total heat supply to the building. Then use a flow meter, mechanical or ultrasonic to register the flow to each apartment. The variations in flow can be considerable, so it is important to carefully register the low flows here. Flow meters based upon ultrasound are therefore the most suitable choice, especially when considering the large numbers and the fact that the ultrasonic meters require practically no maintenance. The choice of the flow meter sizes is made according to the theoretical maximum flow to each apartment. If the distribution of the heating costs is to be consistent, the hot domestic water to each apartment ought to be registered too, which requires that the riser for hot domestic water be placed centrally, in the stair-well, and that separate pipes are laid from there to each apartment.

Accumulator Heat meter

Heat meter

Heat meters register consumption and heat losses from pipe network. Fig. 7:28

Flow meters register the flow to each apartment Fig. 7:29

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CHAPTER 7 HOW TO SELECT SIZE OF PRODUCTS AND COMPONENTS.

Pressure control of pumps.


The pressure control of pumps should be applied on the primary and the secondary sides to reduce the consumption of electricity. The effect on the available pressure will be marginal as the differential pressure control is applied on control valves or parts of the systems. The primary network. The required pressure and flow on the primary side is always so high that it requires a pump with a separate motor. The motor is a standard induction motor and a frequency converter is therefore the most suitable choice for control. Frequency converters are available in the same sizes as the ones being standard for the standard induction motors. There are therefore no problems in selecting the size. Choose a frequency converter corresponding to the size of the motor! The secondary network. There are pumps with a wet motor and a built-in pressure control available for the secondary side. These pumps should be used as far as possible and when their capacity isnt sufficient to meet the requirements, dry pumps and frequency converters should be chosen. The largest cut in the operating costs for the pump is obtained when the differential pressure is kept constant at the last riser/valve.
% p, P 100

Q 50 p n =Q x p 0 P n =Q
3 0 2

xP

0 Q 0

50

100%

The resistance varies by the square of the flow change and the effect of the pump by the cubic Fig. 7:30

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TECHNICAL DATA, FORMULAS AND CHARTS


Diagram for local district heating plants and heating and power plant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .162 Diagram for heating and domestic hot and cold water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .163 Heat emission from radiators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .164 Conversion chart for radiators in one-pipe systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .165 Reduction of heat emission from radiators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .166 Heat losses from uninsulated pipes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .167 Pressure drops in steel pipes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .168 Resistance in heating systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .169 Sizes of steel pipes for heating systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .169 Flow chart for thermostatic radiator valves in one-pipe system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .170 Flow chart for thermostatic radiator valves in two pipe system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .171 Flow chart for p control valves for risers or circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .172 Flow chart for control valves in heating systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .173 Flow chart for control valves in district heating systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .174 Flow chart for p control valves in district heating systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .175 Heat requirements for domestic hot water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .177 Flow limiters for one-pipe circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .178 Calculation of one-pipe systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .180 Calculation of two-pipe systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .182 SI-units, Greek alphabet, Physical properties for water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .184

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Diagram for local district heating plants connected to a heating and power plant.

Flue gas cooler Safety valve Boiler


130 C 70 C 130 C 70 C

Safety valve

Accumulator

Exp. tank Heat exchanger Flue gas cooler Safety valve Boiler
130 C 70 C 130 C 70 C

Heat meter

Safety valve

Accumulator

Exp. tank Heat exchanger


130 C 70 C

Heat meter

Flue gas cooler Safety valve Boiler


130 C 70 C 130 C 70 C

Safety valve

Heating and power plant

Accumulator

Exp. tank Heat exchanger

Heat meter

Local heating plant

162

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Diagram for heating and domestic hot and cold water.

Flow meter p - control Expansion tank

Domestic hot water Domestic cold water

> 6 storeys

Flowmeter

< 6 storeys

Control valve

90 C 65 C

Heat meter
120-70 C

Domestic hot water 60 Circulation Domestic cold water

<6

>6 Storeys

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Heat emission from radiators.

n = 1,3 troom = 20 oC tflow = 90 oC t = 25 oC


t oC

40

30

25

20

16

Two-pipe system with thermostatic valves. Measured 1 : tflow 75 oC, t 8 oC Heat requirement : 0,83, Q = 2,47 tflow 80 oC : 2 t 16 oC, Q = 1,23 Every point along the horizontal line 0,83 gives the same heat emission.

Heat emission

12
4

1,2 1,1 1,0 0,9 0,8 0,7 0,6 0,5 0,4 0,3 0,2 0,1 0

90 80 70

10 8 6

5 6

1 2

60 50

5 4

0,5

1,0

1,5

2,0

2,5 Q Q

The influence of gravity forces on heat emission from a radiator in a twopipe system For a correctly sized radiator 3 ( with manual radiator valve in a two-pipe system ) the heat emission will increases only by 5% when the flow increases by 23%, 4 , depending on gravity forces. The temperature drop across the radiator however will decrease by 5 oC and that is significant, because it reduces the capacity of the whole system all the way down to the heating and power plant.

Resuls t for one- and two - pipe circuits, and required pump capacity when thermostatic valves utilize internal and external heat gains.
Point Heat gain % 3 0 5 10 6 20 Two-pipe circuit Flow t Circuit resioC stance % % 100 25 100 66 33 44 47 39 22 Pump capacity % 100 29 10 One-pipe circuit Flow t Pump caoC pacity % % 100 25 100 100 22,5 100 100 20 100

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Conversion chart for radiators in one-pipe circuits.

Fc
2,0 1,9 1,8 1,7 60 65

tflow oC
70

75 1,6 1,5 1,4 1,3 1,2 85 80

2
1,1 1,0 0,9 0,8 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

90

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

t oC

Conversion chart for panel and section radiators in one-pipe circuits. Enter the current tflow and temperature drop and find the conversion factor, Fc. Multiply the heat requirement by Fc and select size of the radiator according to the new value. Example. Calculated heat requirement: 1.230 W. tflow : 82 oC, t: 15 oC, 1 Fc = 1,16 2 Converted heat requirement: 1.230 x 1,16 = 1.427 W. Formula for calculating Fc:

F=

49,33 x ln

( )
t2 - tr

t1 - tr

t1 - t2

Panel radiator Section radiator Convector

n 1,28 1,29 1,3 - 1,33

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Reduction of heat emission from radiators fixed in some type of enclosure Alternative openings

10 - 100 mm

30 - 100 mm

a+40

> 100 mm

No enclosure 0%

Shelf with opening 0%

Shelf close to the wall 10 -2%

Open fronted recess with a shelf 12 -6%

Encased with Encased with grille in front small grille in front. Not > -15% recommended. > -30%

Acceptable cabinet. -8 - 10%

The control unit has to sense the room temperature to be able to control it.

Radiation from a radiator depending on the treatment of the surface. Material Surface treatment Oil paint Aluminium or copper bronzes Zinc white Lead white Enamelled Aluminium 166 White Matt green Radiation % 100 100 75 101 99 101 96 8 Steel, cast iron

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CHAPTER 8 TECHNICAL DATA, FORMULAS AND CHARTS

Heat losses from uninsulated horizontal pipe. Heat emission W/m pipe 400

DN/0

80/89 65/76

50/6 300 40 32

200

25

20 15 10 100

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Temperature above room temperature oC For vertical pipe reduce by 20% One-pipe above another reduce by 12% Three pipes above each other reduce by 20%

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Pressure drop in steel pipes for heating installations. m3/h


200 150 100 70 50 40 30 20 15 10 7 5 4 3 2 1,5 50 40 32 kPa/m 25 20
1,0

DN mm
3,0

l/s
50 40 30 20 15
2,0

150 125 100

10 7 5 4 3 2 1,5 1 ,7 ,5 ,4 ,3 ,2 ,15 ,1

80 65

l/h 1000
700 500 400 300 200 150 100 70 50 40

15 10

,07

0,4

0,5

0,3 0,2 m/s


,05 ,07 0,1 0,15 0,2 15 0,3 0,4 0,5

,05 ,04 ,03 ,02 ,015 ,01

10

20

30 40 50 mmWG/m

k = 0,00003 m Density = 1.000 kg/m3

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p for values at differnt rates. Symbol Units Branch tee Through tee Elbow, smooth Bend m/s
3 2 1,0 0,5 0,3 0,2 0,1 ,01
,02 ,03 ,05 0,1 ,2 ,3 24 6 1 3

Coefficient of resistance, 1 1 0,2 1 value

The values for the coefficient of resistance for tees, elbows and bends. The pressure drop is calculated from: p = 0,5 2 ,

,5

2 3 4 5 7 10 p kPa

Recommended portion of pipe losses for different systems or part of systems. Type of system Unit Friction % Heating Small buildings 50 - 60 Large buildings 60 - 70 Sub-stations Primary and secondary side 20 - 30 Distribution pipe net work Primary side 80 - 90

Sizes of steel pipes for heating systems. Working pressure 1,0 MPa (10 bar) Nominal diameter External diameter Wall thickness Internal diameter mm inch mm mm mm 8 1/4 13,50 2,25 9 10 3/8 17,00 2,25 12,5 15 1/2 21,25 2,75 15,75 20 3/4 26,75 2,75 21,25 25 1 33,50 3,25 27,00 32 1 1/4 42,25 3,25 35,75 40 1 1/2 48,00 3,50 41,00 50 2 60,00 3,50 53,00 65 2 1/2 75,50 3,75 68,00 80 3 88,50 4,00 80,50 100 4 114,00 4,00 106,00 125 5 140,00 4,50 131,00 150 6 165,00 4,50 156,00 8 STEPS - CONTROL OF HEATING SYSTEMS 169

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Flow chart for RTD-G 15, 20 and 25

RTD - G 15, 20 and 25 l/h 1000 700 500


300 200 100 70 50 30 0,1 ,2 ,3 ,4 ,5 ,7 1,0 ,02 ,03 ,002 2 ,2 3 4 5 ,3 7 10 20 2 ,2

Valve size
25 15 20

l/s ,3 ,2
,1 ,07 ,05 ,03 ,02 ,01 kPa mWG Bar

pvalve

0,01 ,001

,05 ,07 ,1

,5 ,7 1
0,1

,004,006 0,01

,02 ,03,04 ,06

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Flow chart for thermostatic valves in two-pipe system RTD - N 15 l/h


500 300 200
100 70 50 30 20 10 7 5 3

Pre-set value
N 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

l/s
,1 ,07 ,05 ,03 ,02 ,01 ,007 ,005 ,003 ,002 ,001

pvalve

1 0,1 0,01

2 0,2 ,02

3 4 5 7 10 ,3 ,4 ,5 ,7 1 ,04 ,06 0,1

20 30 kPa 2 ,2 3 mWG ,3 Bar

Pre-set value kv values

1 0,04

2 0,08

3 0,12

4 0,20

5 0,27

6 0,36

7 0,45

N 0,60

RTD - N 20 - 25 l/h
500 300 200
100 70 50 30 20 10 7 5 3 1 2 0,2 ,02 3 4 5 7 10

Pre-set value
N 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

l/s
,1 ,07 ,05 ,03 ,02 ,01 ,007 ,005 ,003 ,002 ,001

20 30 kPa 2 ,2 3 mWG ,3 Bar

pvalve

0,1 0,01

,3 ,4 ,5 ,7 1 ,04 ,06 0,1

Pre-set value kv values

1 0,10

2 0,15

3 0,17

4 0,25

5 0,32

6 0,41

7 0,62

N 0,83 171

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CHAPTER 8 TECHNICAL DATA, FORMULAS AND CHARTS

Flow chart for p control valves for riser or circuit in heating systems.

ASV-P, PV 15-40 and ASV-M 15-40 m3/h


20
10 7 5 3 2 1,0 0,7 0,5 0,3 0,2 0,1 1 2 0,2 ,02 3 4 5 7 10 20 30 40 60 80 2 ,2

kvs-value

l/s
5 3 2

10 6,3 4,0 2,5 1,6

1,0 0,7 0,5 0,3 0,2 0,1 ,07 ,05 ,03 kPa

pvalve

0,1 0,01

,3 ,4 ,5 ,7 1 ,04 ,06 0,1

3 4 5 7 8 mWG ,3 ,4 ,5 ,7 ,8 Bar

Working range: ASV-P 10 kPa ASV-PV 5 - 25 kPa. Minimum available p for good functioning: 8 kPa. Example Q: 300 l/h. p riser: 7kPa. p radiator including valve: 5 kPa. p-control kv 1,6. pvp = 3,4 kPa, 1 Necessary p = 7+5+8 = 20 kPa.

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Flow chart for control valves in heating systems.

m3/h
200 100
50 30 20
10 7 5 3 2 1,0 0,7 0,5 0,3 0,2 0,1 1 0,1 0,01 2 0,2 ,02 3 4 5 7 10

kvs-value
145

l/s
50

100 63 40 25 16 10
6,3 4,0 2,5 1,6 1,0 ,63

30 20
10 7 5 3 2 1,0 0,7 0,5 0,3 0,2 0,1 ,07 ,05

,4

,03 20 30 40 60 100 150 200 kPa 2 ,2 3 4 5 7 10 15 20 mWG Bar

pvalve

,3 ,4 ,5 ,7 1 ,04 ,06 0,1

,3 ,4 ,5 ,7 1,0 1,5 2

Formulas. p : bar. Q: m3/h. kv =

Q ; p = p

( ) (

Q 2 ; Q = kv kv

p ;

Q Q 2 Q p : kPa. Q: l/h. kv = 0,01 ; p = 0,01 ; Q = 100x kv p ; kv p

Q kv Q Q 2 p : kPa. Q: l/s. kv = 36 p ; p = 36 kv ; Q = 36 p ;

( )

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Flow chart for valves in district heating systems.

m3/h
200 100
50 30 20
10 7 5 3 2 1,0 0,7 0,5 0,3 0,2

kvs-value
145

l/s
50

100 63
40 25 16 10
6,3 4,0 2,5 1,6 1,0 ,63 ,4

30 20
10 7 5 3 2 1,0 0,7 0,5 0,3 0,2 0,1 ,07 ,05

pvalve

0,1

2 0,2 ,02

3 4 5

7 10

,03 20 30 40 60 100 150 200 kPa 2 ,2 3 4 5 7 10 15 20 mWG Bar

0,1 0,01

,3 ,4 ,5 ,7 1 ,04 ,06 0,1

,3 ,4 ,5 ,7 1,0 1,5 2

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Flow chart for p control valves in district heating systems.

AVP 15 - 32 m3/h
20
10 7 5 3 2 1,0 0,7 0,5 0,3 0,2 0,1 1 0,1 0,01 2 0,2 ,02

kvs-value
5 3 2

l/s

10 6,3 4,0 2,5 1,6

1,0 0,7 0,5 0,3 0,2 0,1 ,07 ,05

pvalve

3 4 5

7 10

20 30 40 60 80 2 ,2

,03 kPa

,3 ,4 ,5 ,7 1 ,04 ,06 0,1

3 4 5 7 8 mWG ,3 ,4 ,5 ,7 ,8 Bar

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Flow chart for p control valves in district heating systems.

IVD-IVFS kvs 0,63 - 25,0 m3/h AFP kvs 50 - 125 m3/h m3/h
200 100
50 30 20
10 7 5 3 2 1,0 0,7 0,5 0,3 0,2 0,1 1 0,1 0,01 2 0,2 ,02 3 4 5 7 10

kvs-value
125 80

l/s
50 30 20
10 7 5 3 2 1,0 0,7 0,5 0,3 0,2 0,1 ,07 ,05

50
25 20 16 10
6,3 4,0 2,5 1,6 1,0 ,63

,03 20 30 40 60 100 150 200 kPa 2 ,2 3 4 5 7 10 15 20 mWG Bar

pvalve

,3 ,4 ,5 ,7 1 ,04 ,06 0,1

,3 ,4 ,5 ,7 1,0 1,5 2

p-regulator, working range: Maximum p valve IVF kvs: Maximum p valve AFP:

IVD 5 - 50 and 20 - 250 kPa. AFP 20 - 120 and 50 - 250 kPa 0,63 and 1,0 = 1.000 kPa 2,5 = 630 kPa 4,0 - 25 = 800 kPa 1.200 kPa

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Heat requirement for hot water according to the Swedish Board of District Heating

Domestic hot water, Q L/s.


2,5 2,0 1,5 1,0 0,5 0 1 10 50 100 Number of apartments. 150

Effect, P kW
400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 200 250

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Flow limiter, ASV-Q 15, Flow limiter, ASV-Q 20

m /h 1,0 0,9 0,8 0,7 0,6 0,5 0,4

p v kPa 20 30

Set values
40 50 60 70 8 6,5 5 4 3 80

ASV-Q 15 20 25 32

Capacity l/h 100 - 800 200 - 1400 400 - 1600 500 - 2500

Set value 1-8 2 - 14 4 - 16 5 - 30

0,3

0,2 0,15 1 0,1 0,07 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 p v Bar

m /h 2,0 1,5

p v kPa 20 30

Set values
40 50 60 70 14 12 10 80

1,0 0,9 0,8 0,7 0,6 0,5 0,4 0,3

8 6 4

2 0,2

0,2

0,3

0,4

0,5

0,6

0,7

0,8 p v Bar

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Flow limiter, ASV-Q 25, Flow limiter, ASV-Q 32

m /h 2,0 1,7 1,5 1,2 1,0 0,9 0,8 0,7 0,6 0,5 0,4

p v kPa 30 40

Set values
50 60 70 16 14 12 10 8 6 80

0,3

0,4

0,5

0,6

0,7

0,8 p v Bar

m /h 4,0

p v kPa 30 40

Set values
50 60 70 30 80

3,0

25 20

2,0 1,5 1,2 1,0 0,9 0,8 0,7 0,6 0,5 0,4 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7

15

10

0,8 p v Bar

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Calculation of one-pipe system

1,5 m

1200

1200

1200

1200

1200

1200

1200

1200 0

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000 3 x 12 = 36 m 6

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000 1

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1200 10 m 10

1200 6m 9

1200 6m 31 m 8 6

1200 6m 7 6m 5

1200 6m 4

1200 6m 3

1200 6m 2

1200

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Calculation of one-pipe system

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Calculation of two-pipe system

1200

1200

1200

1200 3m 5 6

1200 4 1000

1200 3 1000

1200 2 1000

1200 1 1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

10

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

11

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

12

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

13

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

14

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000 3m

15

1000

1000

1000

1000

1200

1200

1200 31 m 17

1200

16 3m

1200 6m

1200 6m

1200 6m

1200

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Calculation of two-pipe system

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SI-units. Effect, P. W kcal/h


1 1,163 0,85985 1

Pressure, p. Pa kPa
1 1.000 100.000 10.000 0,001 1 100 10

bar
0,00001 0,01 1 0,1

mWG
0,0001 0,1 10 1

Flow, Q (). l/s m3/h


1 0,278 3,6 1

Temperature, t (). Kelvin K Celsius oC


0 273,15 373,15 -273,15 0 100

Greek alphabet.
alfa

beta


my


ny


xi


omega

eta

theta

iota

gamma delta

epsilon seta

kappa

lamda

ro

sigma

omikron pi

tau

chi

psi

ypsilon phi

Physical properties for water. Temperature oC


0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150

Pressure p kPa
1,3 43,26 98,54 170,11 261,36 375,97

Density kg/m3
999,84 999,70 998,205 995,65 992,2 998,14 983,21 977,78 971,80 965,33 958,35 951,0 943,1 934,8 926,1 916,9

Isobaric heat capacitivity cp J/ (kg x K)


4218 4192 4182 4178 4178 4181 4184 4190 4196 4205 4216 4245 4287 -

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