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University of the Philippines Diliman

An Exposure to Urban Poor Community: San Rafael, Mambugan, Antipolo

Maria Kristina Angela Gaviola Erica Olavario Mary Louise Ramos Carl Martin Rebong Thomas Herald Vergara


Chapter 1 The Problem and Its Setting This chapter contains the introductory part of the paper which includes the barangay profile of the place. It also introduces the problems that the group has seen.

Introduction Barangay Mambugan was created under R.A. 3590 on June 22, 1963. It is the 4th smallest in terms of size and 6th smallest in terms of population among the 16 barangays in Antipolo City. The barangay is bounded by barangay Sta. Cruz in the east, barangays Mayamot and Cupang in the north, and Municipality of Cainta in the west. It has a total land area of 829.60 hectares. According to the data, barangay Mambugan has a population of 49,107 as of 2007, 70% of the population are informal settlers while the remaining 30% belongs to the middle class and upper class. It has 29 subdivisions and 52 depressed areas. One of these depressed areas is San Rafael.

Mission Succeed as a model, effective government and responsible leadership, working in partnership with the citizenry in building a quality community.

Vision A quality community where people live, work, do business, progressive, peaceful and environment friendly.

Socio-Economic Profile With the emerging development of the Barangay, the primary source of income is salary or wage where white collar workers practice their profession either within or outside Antipolo City, while the blue collar laborers and workers are employed in constructions, factories and other industries comprises the 70% of the total adult population belonging to the labor force potentials. About 20% are business men while the remaining 10% do not engage in the labor force. These are the retirees and volunteers.

Poultry and Livestock-Raising Poultry and livestock-raising can be found in some households within the barangay.

Industry Due to the rapid growth rate in population and households, the demands also increases in terms of employment and services. Remarkable increase in industries and commercial establishment has been noticeable most especially Manila Water within the territorial boundary of the barangay.

Statement of the Problem The main objective of this paper is to find solutions to different problems in Sitio San Rafael. Specifically, it aims to give solutions to these problems:

1. Poverty 2. Bad Habits 3. Education 4. Health and safety.

Scope and Delimitations This paper is focused in Sitio San Rafael, Mambugan, Antipolo City.

Chapter 2 Documentation The group decided to conduct their visits every Monday in Sitio San Rafael, Mambugan, Antipolo City. January Leaving from UP, the group took a jeepney ride to Katipunan, then to Antipolo. The jeepney was long with open windows alongside the seats. With the booming music coming from the large speakers, the barkers shouted and persuaded passer byes to ride on their jeepneys. The group rode on one of them and soon enough, it took off for Antipolo. Minutes later, the trip took longer than it should have been. The jeep kept on stopping on all possible stopovers for passengers. It moved carelessly, evading cars then coming to an abrupt stop from time to time, which can make someone queasy. Then, people were starting to get cramped inside the jeep, and the loud music did not improve some of the passengers mood. The heat, smoke, noise, and cramped passengers were awful combination, but people seemed used to it. Members of the group observed that passengers did not care much about how they were uncomfortably seated from one another, to an extent that some were not actually sitting anymore. Since the group was looking from an outsiders view, maybe the anticipation of the most the members was for people to complain to this kind of system. Everyone was paying their fair, but not everyone was able to exercise their purchase fully. Plus, for some reason, jeepney drivers enjoyed loud music, which have been bothersome for the group members, then again, people did not mind them.

And so the group went on and stopped at the Baranggay Hall of Mambugan. They informed their guardian, Tita Menchi of their arrival, as what have been instructed by their professor. After introducing themselves to their respective guardian, the group marched off to Tita Menchies place. The sun was beaming and the air was dry and warm, and it appeared to be a typical day for the residence of Mambugan. They saw several stores put up, and people went on with their business. Students were on their way to school, while workers and employees hurriedly walked past them. The placed looked like a typical urban poor community. When they reached Ate Menchies home, they were greeted by her daughters and their friend. She also has her bunso who was very shy to approach the group but eventually did. The house looked cozy, like it was not as fancy as the ones people picture in television but it was well maintained and provided. Everything that a person needs was already there. The group started with small talks with Tita Menchie about their area and how her family is doing. They learned that San Juan had its own chapel, and their group was led by the Eastern Catholic Church. Things run a little different in their area than those typical Roman Catholic Churches. She mentioned that they used to have unsettled issues with the initially established church nearby, but it was taken down after learning that Eastern Catholic Priests were leading them. She talked about the projects, meetings, and programs of their group for the church. They work as choir and staff, with the help of other members of the organization. With that, they were able to establish a consistent religious group that aims for the strengthening of their faiths, but also able to reach their beliefs to other people, especially to the youth in their area.

Tita Menchie also mentioned that of all her children were studying, taking their elementary and high school years at nearby schools. However, her son had to quit college and start working for his college fees. While her husband was working as a permanent security guard at a firm, while she stays home to take care of her family. She seemed contented for what she and her family have, for she did not complain, not even once how life was so difficult for them. Although, she had regrets about her son quitting college, she was hopeful that he would be able to save money and study again. After an hour or two, Tita Menchie started preparing for the groups lunch. Meanwhile, one of her daughters friend was having problems with her birth certificate. Apparently she wanted to work in a factory nearby but she was a two years younger to work. She wanted to change her birth year, but it was impossible. The members of the group even gave some suggestions but then again, it was basically wrong and tricky. Eventually she laughed it off and gave up. They helped in preparing their lunch and ate. They served galunggong with petchay and a pitcher of orange juice. The whole group ate while exchanging stories and questions. After lunch, Tita Menchie told the group to roam around San Juan with her daughters, while she stayed home preparing for her bunsos school in the afternoon. With the guidance of Jessa and her sister and friend, they led the group through the narrow alleys of homes, to the steep way to the place called Overlooking, where one can see the whole city of Antipolo, and nearby cities as well. They went on, the grouped observed that the place did not seem to have proper disposal area. The creek they passed by was also polluted with waste. More houses sprouted as they went on. Along the road, there were stray dogs and their wastes scattered in the pavement. Leaves and

trash can also be found everywhere. Children played around with their playmates or their mothers and siblings. The place looked peaceful despite the number of people all around and noises that the kids were making. After an hour or so, the group was drenched with sweat and decided to head back. They dropped Tita Menchies bunso to school and while waiting for her to go inside, they played some games with her and her little classmates. The parents were also observing the group while playing with their children, until a teacher came out and asked for the children to go to school. The group headed to the nearest jeepney stop and bid their goodbyes. They headed home, the scene in the jeepney was the same, a cramped ride, faster this time. February On February 18, the group decided to visit San Rafael without knowing that residents will be celebrating the anniversary of their church. Just in time of their arrival, the mass was about to begin, which was led by their CWTS2 professor. The group sat in front and listened to the three pastors. They were surprised since it is beyond their expectations that there will be a big celebration afterwards, so they quietly waited for someone to tell them what to do. The children were catered and attended to first, and then everyone followed. The food was provided and prepared by whole neighborhood, they have made so much that it was impossible to finish everything. They were very generous. The event appeared to be very important to the residents since most of them even cancelled their appointments just to join the celebration. All those people gathered seemed to be quite fond of each other. As they talked and fooled around, it proved how bonded they were.

March The last visit that the group conducted, they headed straight to the Mambugans Baranggay Hall to ask for their Mambugans profile. Apparently, they have been told to rely on the web based copy of the profile. While the group was there, they inquired the staff in the hall regarding San Rafael and Mambugan, in general. We were answered with hospitality and they were kind enough to discuss the places map. Then, the group strode to Tita Menchies home and found her helping her daughter in preparation for graduation. At first, the group thought that maybe they have caught them at a bad timing, nevertheless, Tita Menchie and her family were happy to see the group and warmly welcomed them. They were offered with drinks and was chatted comfortably. After a while, it was time for the graduation ceremony to commence, so everyone headed out while Tita Menchies husband left their dog to guard their house. Yes, they usually leave their house open with only a dog guarding it. As Tita Menchies family made their way to her daughters school, the group decided to stay back and do their own tour. They retraced their way from alleys from their previous trips and observed for the very last time. The grouped searched for more plausible problems and their solution to address these difficulties. They have discussed and raised some points along the way until they decided to head back in UP for a better and critical analysis.

Chapter 3 Analysis of Problems and Recommendations Our group has identified several problems present in the sitio of San Rafael. Poverty Similar to other developing countries in Asia, poverty stricken sitios in the Philippines are also widespread and San Rafael is one of these sitios. Poverty is perhaps one of the most enduring and challenging problems as it results to further complications such as malnutrition, hunger, violence, poverty related crimes and educational underachievement. Moreover, when this problem is left unchecked it may result to what is called a poverty trap, poverty then persists from generation to generation. Poverty in San Rafael is evident in a number of ways. First, people in the area dont own the land on which their houses are built. This means that there may come a time that someone will ask them to leave and whether they like it or not they will be forced to leave. Second, there are cases of school drop-outs. Some youths are forced to stop studying because their parents can no longer finance their education. These results to a labor force without much skill and knowledge and this will then give way to another problem. Youths who have not finished their secondary education will have a hard time getting a job since most employers look for at least a high school graduate and if ever they do get a job, it is with certainty that they will only get a low paying job. Obviously, this situation will make it hard for them to support their own family in the future hence they may suffer from the poverty trap. Third, some youths are also forced to earn money since their parents do not earn enough; this desire to work goes so far

that some of them even attempt to fabricate their birth certificates claiming that they are already 18 years old. Bad habits Without the right attitude, one cannot expect to develop himself. This goes for everybody regardless of his socio-economic standing. One of the factors believed to cause a poverty trap is bad habits. If the poor do not decide and make up their minds that they will do their best to get out from poverty and if they will identify themselves with the status of being poor then without doubt poverty will persist from generation to generation. Bad habits in San Rafael can be seen in events such as some family men are already drunk as early as noon. Fathers are expected to work for their family; they are expected to make sure that his family is financially stable. If they will act irresponsibly then it will make it harder for them to respond to the financial challenges they are facing. Furthermore, it is not ideal that children grow up seeing their father spending their time drinking alcohol instead of working for the family. Vices such as sugal or taya can be seen on some peoples conversation. These add to the worsening of the situation. Instead of saving it for emergencies or for childrens needs, some people choose to risk it for chances of getting larger amount of money. Tertiary education A highly productive labor force will only be possible if the citizens are equipped with the needed skills and knowledge. Education is an important factor in ensuring both short and long term economic growth. A number of countries have already proven that education yields high returns. The benefits we derive from education are certainly

greater than its cost. Singapore is an example of a country who invested first and foremost in education to boost its economy. Tertiary education is somehow unreachable for the people in San Rafael. There is no public college nearby. The nearest state college to them will cost a lot in terms of the allowance that will be needed for transportation and food hence some of those who seek tertiary education just study in the nearest private college, either way, tertiary education still costs a lot. A probable cause of a lower degree of education is due to unplanned pregnancy for most teenage women. In a sense, it hinders to focus solely on their education since they have acquired a new role that they must committedly play. While in some cases, some are too afraid of the societys judgment of their actions, forcing them withdraw from school and concentrate on parenthood.

Health and Safety Houses are built too close to each other and are constructed with materials vulnerable to accidents. It would also be difficult for people to take precautions if encountered with emergencies and calamities. With this, they will be faced with the more unwanted threats of casualties. For one, when faced with unexpected fire, it would most likely to spread easily with liable materials. It would be most difficult to safely escape the fire with the narrow alleyways and cramped spaces. Stray animals also roam freely in the area. They are possible source and carriers of diseases and viruses, namely rabies. Additionally, they are unsanitary and their wastes are to be found everywhere. Children who play with these animals are

exposed to infection if not addressed hastily. There is also a threat with the animals instinct of attacking bystanders. On another light, Waste Management is also a big issue that calls for attention. Canals are left polluted and unguarded. Foams already started to form in the murky water with wrappers of chips, plastic bags and the like. The creek and canals reeked most of the time. This is an indicator of the worsening case of pollution in the area. It engraves the citizens of Mambugan to much danger, as to water sources and food may be contaminated. The smell is also a concern that threatens ones health.

Recommendations Livelihood training programs It is suggested that the barangay officials come up with training programs that will provide the people with some skills which will enable them to work, be more productive and earn money. This is a solution that can easily be done by the local government because it wont cost them a lot. In addition, the needed planning and implementation wont be that complex. The local people can also contribute in carrying out this solution. They can contact non-governmental organizations which will execute the project for them. There are a number of NGOs whose interest is to help people become financially self-reliant. An example is UPLIFT which stands for Urban Program Livelihood Finance and Training.

Seminars Seminars regarding responsible parenthood, family planning, reproductive health and the importance of hard work will also benefit the community. It is crucial that parents realize their part in nurturing and making sure that their children grow up into fine adults. Again, these can be done by the local government and NGOs. Furthermore, local citizens who are aware of the importance of responsible parenthood can initiate a talk with those who seem to neglect their duties.

Scholarships Though it will be of great help if a public college will be built near the barangay, the possibility of its execution is in question. A local college cannot just be built anywhere without much thought. With the limited funds of the government and with the overwhelming number of projects that should be done, it is in question whether utilizing the funds for building a college near the barangay will yield more benefits than the implementation of other development projects. Hence, it is suggested that the people of the community resort to scholarships instead. To make sure that there will be available scholarships for the students in San Rafael, the following measures can be done: Barangay officials can allocate a portion of the income generated by the barangay Barangay officials can also ask some support from the local government of Antipolo. The local government of the city has its own funds and can also be disbursed for the provision of services such as free education that would promote human development and raise the quality of life.

Local people as well as the barangay officials can also demand to their congressman that a portion of his/her Priority Development Assistance Fund be allocated for the scholarships of the students.

Waste Management and Turning Organic Wastes into Useful Compost Practical Action recognizes the positive benefits of composting for families. With better management of waste, households can produce rich compost that can be used on gardens to improve the soil, thereby increasing productivity. This provides families with a variety of fresh vegetables to eat, as well as a small income from the surplus vegetables. Composting reduces the volume of generated wastes that would have to be transported and disposed of. It offers several benefits such as enhanced soil fertility and soil health-thereby increased agricultural productivity, improved soil biodiversity, reduced ecological risks and a better environment. Composting is the biodegradation of organic matter under aerobic conditions where materials are transformed into compost. Dead leaves, kitchen wastes and vegetables are considered as organic wastes. Compost is odorless and pathogen free brown mixture that is specially used as soil conditioner, if it accurately decomposed. Home composting is now being encouraged as a means of reducing the organic waste being discarded and sent to the landfills. These organic substances are bulky to handle and contribute to numerous liquid and gaseous emissions that deteriorate dumpsite environments. A good home composting programs can significantly reduce the quantity of organic waste adding to the mainstream and subsequent emissions upon

final disposal. Valuable products (compost) are produced while reducing the costs incurred for collection, transportation and final disposal at dumpsite.


Road down from the Church

Canals filled with Wastes

Houses in Front of the Sitio

Houses are too close to each other

Water Station at the Sitio

Wandering Dogs

Too Narrow Roads

Improper Waste Disposal

Roosters used for Cockfights

Sitios Multi-Purpose Hall