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What shall we do with our girls1? A personal narrative concerning The Amazons - The First Ladies Fire Brigade Armidale, Australia.
Version: Draft 1, 4/4/2013. Merilyn Childs, Associate Professor of Digital Futures, Australian Institute of Digital Futures University of Southern Queensland, Queensland. [Recommendation for citing this article: Childs, M. (2013). What shall we do with our girls? A personal narrative concerning The Amazons - The First Ladies Fire Brigade 1901-1903 Armidale, Australia. Version Draft 1, pp.1-27, http://womeninfirefighting.blogspot.com.au/ (Date sourced).]

Acknowledgment This narrative would not have been possible without the generosity of others. Neil McGrath (formerly Archival Assistant, NSWFB) first told me that he had heard about a ladies fire brigade in Armidale. Bill Oates (UNE Archivist) encouraged me to visit the UNE Archival Collection2 in August 2008 and what an amazing experience it was. Pat McGufficke, Secretary Armidale Family History Group Inc. included my request for information in a monthly newsletter. Three Leonies Leonie Farrugia, Leonie Mercer and Leonie Snell have been generous in their help. My apologies if I have made errors or omissions in this narrative! I welcome feedback and will produce a revised version, and do plan to do further work3 to develop this account of the Amazons. Background This narrative is a summary only much more work is yet to be done. It began as a labour of love and intrigue in November 2004 when I invited some colleagues of mine to visit the Museum of Fire in Penrith, New South Wales. At the time I was an academic working at the University of Western Sydney, and at the same time, academic advisor to the NSW Fire Brigades where I facilitated leadership and promotional programs for a decade (1996-2006). By 2004, after eight years, Id never worked with a female fire fighter. Yet there, on a pillar

The title of this paper is drawn from an article written by Captain J.T.A Webb to the Armidale Chronicle 9/11/1901, p.4, which he began by asking What shall we do with our girls? See Attachments. 2 I was also granted permission to reproduce images of the Amazons, so long as thumb nails were used, and source acknowledged. 3 Context is important too- Armidale for example, provides an important context for the Amazons, as does the prevalence of ladies brigades in England.

2 in the Museum, deep within a male history, hung one old, dusty and grainy photograph of a group of twenty or so women who were clearly fire fighters. The caption to the photograph told me that these were women of the Womens Fire Auxiliary and that they had existed during World War II.

That moment began for me a journey in search of a heritage that female fire fighters in the twenty first century did not know that they possessed. Here was a photograph of women fire fighters during the war. Yet women had not been permitted to be recruited or employed as paid fire fighters until after anti-discrimination legislation was passed within states and territories of Australia, largely during the late 1970s and early 1980s. It was not until 1985 for example, that the first women fire fighters were recruited into paid fire fighting in New South Wales forty years after the end of the war. I found the contrast remarkable. I made a commitment at that time to explore, and share, the invisible and unknown history of female fire fighters in Australia.

The opposition to women fire fighters during the 1980s was strong. Many obstacles were put in aspiring womens way. Unions argued they would lower the standards and put male fire fighters at risk. Commentators, outraged at the idea, argued building female toilets in station houses was a waste of money; better spent on new equipment. Cartoonists lampooned women fire fighters as sexual objects; and wives of fire fighters bemoaned the possibility of loose women destroying marriages. In those days there were only firemen and women were seen to be physically incapable and bodily unsuited to fire fighting work. Few pluses were identified. One was that women might serve the services by providing a civilising influence and the development of good manners for male fire fighters. This was only twenty years ago! I began to wonder what it had been like during World War II. What was the Womens Fire Auxiliary? What happened to the women who did fire fighting as part of the war effort? What did they do, and how were they received as fire fighters? These questions lead me to somewhere unexpected, and to forty years before World War II to a journey to Armidale NSW Australia, to the UNE Archives, up a set of stairs to witness an old wooden picture frame with the original images of the Amazons the First (1901) and Second (1903) Ladies Fire Brigade. There began a new journey in collaboration with costumier Gracie Matthews to reproduce previously lost historic female fire fighters uniforms of the Amazons, based on photographs of the originals provided by the UNE Archivist Bill Oates. As part of my key

3 note address4 to the Australasian Women in Fire Fighting Conference, Darling Harbour Sydney NSW, 2006 descendants of Minnie Webb5 (the first known female Captain of a fire brigade in Australia) Leonie Snell and Mrs Netta Derby, were honoured 6, along with members of the Womens Fire Auxiliary (WWII) by Commissioner Greg Mullins, AFSM, NSW Fire Brigades, and a standing ovation from 180 delegates (95% female operational firefighters and support staff).

Image 1: The first female Station Officer of the NZ Fire Services, Nella Booth, meeting Netta Derby, descendant of the first female Captain of the Amazons Ladies Fire Brigade.

The Amazons Imagine 1901 as a period of time for women. The Victorian Era remained in its prime. Active women had only just begun to develop acceptable fashion standards for the newly developed bicycles. As one history of womens fashions pointed out; the following pressing questions was posed in The Ladies Standard Magazine, April 1894, p. 98. "What shall we wear?" is a query rising from every channel of woman's life: for upon each occasion we must be suitably clad to enjoy its peculiar benefits. This is especially noticeable for such exercise as bicycling, for, in this case, it is not only

You can see records related to the Australasian Women in Fire Fighting Conference, the recreated uniforms, and photographs and video related to honouring the Amazons by visiting my blog http://womeninfirefighting.blogspot.com.au/ 5 One of the conference rooms was also named The Minnie Webb Room. 6 At the time I was early in my research about the Amazons, and was not aware of the descendents of the Schmutter women.

4 a matter of appearing well, but the health, the comfort and safety demand a carefully selected costume and equipment. Too often the answer was corsets that were laced tightly over heavy undergarments, leggings to the knees, and above the waist a camisole and long-sleeved shirt worn beneath a coat. Imagine a woman fire fighter dressed in such garb! It sounds impossible. Yet an all women Australian fire fighting crew was deployed in Armidale, in 1901, and the women were dressed in uniforms that reflected the fashion of the times.

Image 2: The Amazons in operational uniform, 1903. Reprinted with permission, UNE Archives. May not be reproduced without permission.

This all women fire fighting crew was known as the Amazons in honour of an all female fire fighting crew of the same name that had existed in England earlier in the nineteenth century. There it was not uncommon for women to be fully trained in the use of ladders, fire engines and hoses and for it to fall upon them to defend great country mansions, hospitals and ladies colleges unaided by male fire fighters. Silent black and white newsreels still exist of the English ladies fire brigades [See News Reels].

5 The Amazons was established by Captain J.T.A Webb7 of the Armidale Fire Brigades8. Unlike some commentators of the 1980s9 who opposed women entering fire fighting, Captain Webb believed in the capacity of women to be serious fire fighters.

Image 3: Captain J.T.A Webb established the Amazons.

Captain Webb wrote to the Armidale Chronicle on the 9th November 1901, These girls are thoroughly drilled in handling the engine, reel, fire escape and builders ladder (sic). They jump from greater height than is usually attempted at fire competitions. They handle the hose on top of a 50 foot ladder with a pressure of water that makes it difficult to control even on terra firma. In answer to his

J.T.A Webbs story is itself interesting, and I have read through the many memos he sent to the central office in Sydney at the Museum of Fire, Penrith. Descendents of the Webb family continue to live in the Armidale area. Con Webb was also Captain of the Armidale Fire Brigade. 8 There was no fire brigade in Armidale in 1889 when the Great Fire had destroyed the Court House Hotel. As this was the second major fire in Beardy Street in two years, further efforts were now made to establish a fire brigade. A Fire Brigade Board was formed and it received a 1000 grant from the NSW Government for buying a fire engine. The fire engine duly arrived and was commissioned in September 1891. http://www.armidaleindependent.com.au/wordpress/index.php/2011/05/the-court-house-hotel-fire/ 9 In truth, I struck the same anti female firefighters during media interviews in the 21 st Century.

6 own question What shall we do with our girls he answered, Perhaps it would be better to ask What cannot we do with them .

Image 4: Captain Minnie Webb demonstrates her skill jumping into the sheet. Reprinted with permission, UNE Archives.

J.T.A Webb originally came from England, where it was not uncommon for ladies fire brigades to be established, and trained to do the same tasks as male fire fighters. The following images are drawn from my private collection memorializing female firefighters in England (WWI)10 and Ireland11 (See below). Silent film footage12 can be viewed of female fire fighters in England during WWI.

10 11

1917 Northern England 1908, Franco British Exhibition (of Irish maidens Ballymaclinton) 12 http://www.britishpathe.com/video/womens-fire-brigade-aka-firewomen/query/female+fire+fighter http://www.britishpathe.com/video/womens-wartime-fire-brigade-aka-ladies-fire-brigad/query/ON+032+G http://www.britishpathe.com/video/women-fire-fighters/query/ON+032+G

Image 5: The king inspects firewomen, 1917

Image 6: Ballymaclintons Colleen Fire Brigade

On 28th January 1903 Captain Minnie Webb wrote in the Sydney Morning Herald that, at a local Fire Brigades demonstration, eight local girls aged 17 and under, gave an exhibition of engine reel, ladder and rescue work, which evoked great enthusiasm. Captain Webb herself jumped from the elevated platform 35 feet (sic) to the canvas (jumping sheet) and also carried a comrade down a 35 foot ladder (sic). The Amazon Fire Brigades was noted as the only organisation of its kind in Australia. Crossle, drawing on the Armidale Express (Armidale Express 1 Jan 1901, 4th Jan 1901, 15th Feb 1901 in Crossle, 2001, p.7) noted that the celebration of Federation (1st January 1901) included display by the ladies fire brigade team.
One grand feature in the procession was the display by the Armidale Fire Brigade, under Captain Webb.

Image 7: The Armidale Fire Brigade, lead by Captain Webb

Crossle (ibid) continued:

There was a display by the ladies fire brigade team, who were tastefully attired the same in uniforms of dark blue with red facings, white caps, and tan boots paid for by a generous gentleman of the district, who desires that his name not be mentioned.

Image 8: The male and female firefighting display, Tattersalls Hotel, 1900?

10 Later in the day:

The team of the ladies fire brigade then gave a run and played tow streams of water on an imaginary fire, after which a dividing breech was put on and three streams of water was displayed. The firemen (sic) then gave another run, and this was followed by a telescope ladder run, one of the ladies mounting the ladder, which was 40 ft. in height, and throwing therefrom a very powerful stream of water from the hose she skillfully handled. After this came a sensational builders ladder run. A high stage which had been erected was set on fire, and a young lady who was on this burning stage, after lowering the hose, with great presence of mind, jumped off the height into a sheet which was held below by firemen to catch her.

Image 9: Captain Minnie Webb leaping into the sheet.

The account of the day goes on to record (Crossle 2001, p.7): In the evening the brigade gave a rescue display on the dhow ground, in which a young lady, again, appeared on a flaming stage, and a fireman ascended to her by ladder and skillfully threw her into a sheet held by firemen standing below.


Image 10: Pulling the pump, rolling the hose.

Image 11: Fire fighting display, combined Amazons and Armidale Fire Brigades, date unknown. Minnie Webb can be seen mid-air having jumped from the balcony into the sheet below.13


Gilbert & Rose (1982, p.111) records this photo shows an impressive demonstration at Tattersalls Hotel, about the turn of the century. Captain J.T.A Webbs daughter, Minnie, of the Womens Fire Brigade, is in vertical flight just above the tarpaulin.


Women of the Amazons Ladies Fire Brigade

Captain Minnie Webb Minnie Webb, Captain of the Amazons, was daughter of Captain Tom (T.J) Webb of the Fire Brigades.

Image 12: Minnie Webb in operational uniform (Left) and recreated uniform, 2006 (we did not reproduce the cap!)

Minnie Webb went on to become a trainer nurse at Armidale and New England Hospitals (HRCP0660, UNE Archives) and a nurse at Kiola Private Hospital, Minnie Street Armidale c1911 (Record HRCP0659, UNE Archives).


Image 12: Sister Minnie Webb, 1911.

A letter to me from her niece Murial Haynes (See attachments), indicated that Minnie Webb later married (to Wilfred Walsh) and lived in Sydney at 30 Moonbie Street Summer Hill.

Image 13: Minnie Webb went on to live at 30 Moonbie Street Summer Hill.

14 As noted earlier in 2006 I invited Mrs Netta Darby and Ms Patricia Webb, descendants of Minnie Webb, to be honoured during the key note address of the Australasian Women in Fire Fighting Conference. For the conference, I had completed a project that recreated the dress and operational uniforms of the Amazons (as well as the uniforms worn by female fire fighters during WWII).

Image 14: Mrs Netta Darby (left) and Ms Patricia Webb, descendents of Minnie Webb.

Figures 15 (left) and 16: Recreated dress and operational uniforms of the Amazons14

Project completed by Dr Merilyn Childs 2006, in collaboration with costumier Gracie Matthews. Gracie and I speculated on the colours of the operational uniform based on black and white photographs, and largely guessed


View the photostream associated with the Australasian Women in Fire Fighting Conference. View the video that includes the honour shown to Mrs Netta Darby and Ms Patricia Webb, descendants of Minnie Webb.

The Schmutter women The Schmutter women were members of The Amazons, an amazing bunch. Brothers also worked in the paid brigades. The photos here do not belong to Merilyn Childs, but have been kindly provided by the descendents of the Schmutter family. I have noted them as copyright to protect these descendents. Acknowledgement: Three Leonies are descendents of the Amazons: Leonie Farrugia, Leonie Snell and Leonie Mercer all three women helped to provide information about the Amazon women. Leonie Mercer provided the following information concerning the names of the women in the Amazon photograph (dress uniforms). The following images were selected from HRCP1797, UNE Archives, by Leonie Mercer, and attempts to identify the women are noted below. Figures 17 to 30 (below): Leonie Mercers notes that attempt to identify the women if the Amazons who were her relatives.

Leonie Mercer noted: I think this is MAY (because it looks like my nephew, my sister & my grandmother)

LILY (Leonie Snell her granddaughter has already identified her in the centre of the 1901 photo)

right but Crossles (2001, p.7) reported that the uniforms were dark blue with red facings our recreated uniform lacked the red!


Leonie Mercer noted: I think this is GRACE (Have attached photos of her)

Leonie Mercer noted: Could this be ADA? (Mainly because she looks very similar to Grace and is obviously older than the other girls)

EDITH Leonie Mercer noted: My grandmother So you can see similarities


YOUNG EDITH Leonie Mercer noted: I think you can see a likeness here to the one that I think is May but around the eyes I think look like what I have said is Ada & Grace

Leonie Mercer noted: Not a very good photo. The 3 at the front (according to Leonie Snell) are Lily in the middle and (I think May & Grace).

Leonie Mercer noted: ADA I dont have younger photos

Leonie Mercer noted: LILY I dont have younger photos


Leonie Mercer noted: IS THIS GRACE?

Leonie Mercer noted: GRACE Conclusion

Leonie Mercer noted: GRACE

The women of the Amazon Ladies Fire Brigade have faded into history15, but hopefully through this work, and work reported in my Blog, their existence can be celebrated. Superintendent Webb pondered; To what extent this Lady fireman (sic) business is going to reach was answered by history not very far. The clever, plucky brigade of girls did not start a revolution. The Amazons remained a local initiative of a handful of pioneering women, almost forgotten by history. In 2006 I reported a study of the numbers of paid female fire fighters in Australia16, and the percentages remain, in most states in Australia, below 5%.


Although when I visited Armidale, the local MacDonalds fast Food restaurant had a picture of the Amazons on their wall. 16 http://www.em.gov.au/Documents/AJEM_Vol21_Issue2.pdf, page 29-34.

19 That said, female volunteer firefighters continue to make an important contribution to fire fighting in Australia. In 2013, at the time of writing, there remain no clear statistics about the numbers of female firefighters paid or volunteer in Australia. Hopefully when future research is done, the question posed by McLennan et al (2005) to guide their study (is fire fighting a suitable job for a woman?17 wont be on the agenda. The 2010 study by the Bushfire research CRC noted that most male firefighters felt accepted (91%) compared with 76% of female firefighters, and conversely, while 2% of men indicated that they were not entirely accepted, the figure was 17% for women (Birch 2011, p.10)18. This is an astonishingly high figure of feeling not accepted, and confirms my own study, completed in 2005, that 25-33% of women has experienced some form of bullying, harassment, negative comments or a sense of not belonging to the fire services within which they worked or volunteered. Were this figure reported in any other industry it would be seen as scandalous but perhaps an Australian ambivalence or indifference to female firefighters allows a blind eye to be turned to what would be unacceptable behaviour in many industries. Branch-Smith & Pooley (2010)19 offer ideas about how to change these circumstances, and more work needs to be done, building from an assumption of the value of female firefighters. Normalising gender and other diversities within the fire services is what the aims should be. Faded in to history? Almost but not quite!

Image 31: Contemporary female firefighters model the dress and operational uniforms of the Amazons, and the Womens Fire Auxiliary (WWII) at the Australasian Womens Fire Fighting Conference, Darling Habour Sydney, as part of the key note address by Dr Merilyn Childs20.
17 18

http://proceedings.com.au/tassiefire/posters_pdf/poster_jmclennan.pdf http://www.bushfirecrc.com/managed/resource/volunteerism_int_rpt_synopsis_final_2.pdf 19 http://trove.nla.gov.au/work/81051565?q&sort=holdings+desc&_=1364795318942&versionId=177915750 20 See the photostream http://www.flickr.com/photos/72653074@N08/sets/72157633022487774/


Correspondence from Pat McGufficke, Secretary, Armidale Family History Group Inc.30 May 2006, forwarding information provided by Leonie Farrugia: From: C and L Farrugia Sent: Wednesday, 24 May 2006 6:42 PM To: Pat & Peter Edwards Subject: Armidale Amazon Information Regarding Miss L.Schmutter b 1886 Page 13 NEWSLETTER May,2006

* Lilly Schmutter was the 3rd Child of Phillip Schmutter [Gas Manager in Armidale] and Sarah Sly born 1886 in Armidale,NSW , and died 26 May 1946 Armidale,NSW .Buried Armidale Cemetery. * Married 1905 in Armidale,NSW to Thomas Snell born 26 December 1878 Tamworth,NSW,-died 10 June 1956 Sydney,NSW * Children of LILLY SCHMUTTER and THOMAS SNELL are: i. ADA SNELL, ii. THELMA SNELL, ii. AMELIA EDITH SNELL, iv. THOMAS STANLEY SNELL, v. ALLEN LESLEY SNELL, vi. JEAN ATKINS SNELL, vii. PHILLIP SNELL, viii. JOYCE DOREEN SNELL * * * Thomas Snell was in the Fire Brigade in Armidale. Allan Snell was also in Armidale Fire Brigade. Thomas Snell Jnr was high up in the Sydney Fire Brigade.

Hope this information may be of help to Dr.Childs. Regards Leonie Farrugia

21 Correspondence from Greg Haynes, descendant of Captain Webb.

From: Greg Haynes Sent: Thu 6/07/2006 11:49 PM To: Merilyn Childs Subject: My Mothers Email Address Hi, Further to my earlier email I will send you my mother's email address. I will also let her know that you are interested in Minnie and the Amazons. I am sure she would be most willing to pass on anything she knows. Her address is: (supplied). I don't know whether you also knew that John Thomas was apprenticed to a Crimean Veteran who had lost a leg at the battle of Sevastopol in 1854 - he told John Thomas about the terrible cold as he stumped around the forge in Armidale. (I am a History teacher and recorded my grandfather's early experiences before he died in 1979 so I have been interested in this period for years). Actually I only found out about the Amazons today as my son was taking a vacation care group to the museum of fire. I knew that my great grandfather had started the fire brigade and have see his picture in the Armidale fire house but did not know that he had also started a female group. This might fit into the context of women in a relatively affluent town having the vote (or agitating for the vote in the new Commonwealth and the temperance movement) wanting to prove their equality and community mindedness. Greg

Correspondence from Murial Haynes, mother of Greg Haynes (above).

22 Correspondence from Leonie Mercer


29th July 2009 This is another of Phillips children Stanley Schmutter with his sisters boy Tom Snell. There were two more sons but I am not sure yet whether they were members too. Leslie (Con) Schmutter was only a year younger than Stan so may have been a fire-fighter too. Seems like everyone else in the family was The other son was Edward Schmutter. He was the eldest boy and he died in 1901 aged 18. He is the only sibling that I dont have a photo of. I have lots of information about him though because he made the headlines when he died. He was accidentally shot by one of his mates and died the next morning. There was an inquest and it took up almost a whole page of the Armidale paper. I found it all at State Records and had my daughter type it up because the print was so small. The way he was described he sounds like the type of fellow that would have been a member of the fire brigade. He was a very active member with the freemasons and they conducted his funeral. I would love to find that he was and that there was a photo of him out there somewhere. Leonie Date lost. Hi Merilyn, This is the Schmutter family: Phillip Schmutter Father Edward b1883 Ada b1884 Lily b1886 Leonie Snells grandmother May b1888 Grace b1892 Stan b1894 Leslie (Con) b1895 Edith b1897 My (Leonie Mercer) grandmother Pearl b1900 Leonie Farrugias grandmother I cut the faces of the Fire-fighting girls out of the main photo that I got from The UNE Heritage centre and they only look like small files so they might not turn out very well when you attach them to your webpage. Let me know and I will see if I can make them into a better resolution to use. I hope I have included all of the photos. Let me know if you need anything else. Bye for now Leonie


Stanley Russell SCHMUTTER

and his nephew

Thomas Stanley SNELL

1894 1954
Son of Phillip SCHMUTTER Grandson of Heinrich SCHMUTTER Jnr Great Grandson of Heinrich SCHMUTTER Snr

1913 1971
Son of Lillian SCHMUTTER Grandson of Phillip SCHMUTTER


Apologies for poor copy:

26 Establishing the NEGS School Fire Brigade, 1923. Captain Webb went on to establish a Schoolgirls Brigade at NEGS in 1923. In my mind, this confirms the speculation I have made that the establishment of the Amazons, and then the girls brigade at NEGS, fit within the English tradition of ladies fire brigades. Jean Newall (date to be confirmed, p.133-134) wrote a wonderful account of the establishment of the Brigade, drawing on accounts reported in the NEGS school magazine, The Chronicle, of April 1924, in which the events of the previous year were reported, the girls gave their own account of the establishment of the school Brigade: After the fire at Cunningham it was decided to form a School Fire Brigade. As Sports Day was not very far away we thought it would vary the programme to give a display during the afternoon. To make our display as perfect as possible Captain Webb came out to drill us, and before very long we were able to handle the hose and elevate the ladder. The display on Sports Day (5th October) was a great success. The girls, who had to be saved by jumping into the sheet, landed quite safely and no one fell off the ladders or was burnt, so I think I am quite safe in saying everyone went away with the impression that we knew a great deal about handling fire brigade implements. During the afternoon we heard that Mr Frank White (of Saumarez) was supplying the Brigade with uniforms, and the thought that the NEGS Fire Brigade was not be a name only, thrilled us all. Having uniforms raised the discussion as to who was to be in the Brigade. It was finally decided that the girls to whom the uniforms would be of most use would be the Captains of the School. The next discussion was the type of uniform we should have. All agreed that a felt hat, top boots, a belt and a big coat reaching to the knees was essential. Later a brass F.B. was added to the hats, giving them quite a professional air. The uniforms, however, were not complete for us to wear in the procession at the Diamond Jubilee, but despite the fact that we possessed only regulation boots, belt and F.B. we manned the fire engine and drove with great glee in the procession. We certainly caused great consternation, and in fact, without knowing it, we won the prize for the most original competition. When the full uniforms arrived we were immediately taken out and photographed. All of us, I think, felt very elated by the red bands on the top, and two rows of brass buttons down the front of our coats. This year there is a general fire practice every three weeks, and the school is now well trained in the intricacies of fire drill. Captain Webb died in May 1924, and the UNE Archives hold photographs of his funeral procession21.


HRCP3676, HRCP3677, HRCP3678, HRCP3679.


References Birch, A. (2011). Recruiting and retaining volunteer firefighters in Australia: an integrative summary of research (synopsis), La Trobe University , Melbourne, Australia http://www.bushfirecrc.com/managed/resource/volunteerism_int_rpt_synopsis_final_2.pdf Branch-Smith, C. A., & Pooley, J. (2010). Women firefighters' experiences in the Western Australian volunteer bush fire service. Australian Journal of Emergency Management, 25(3), 12-18. Gilbert, L.A. & Rose, D (1982). An Armidale Album: Glimpses of Armidales history and development in word, sketch and photograph (Ist Ed)/ New Wngland Regional Art Museum Association, Armidale, NSW. McLennan, J. Birch, A., Beatson, R. And Cowlishaw S. (2007). Volunteer firefighting: A suitable job for a woman? Proceddings of the 7th Inndustrial/Organisational Psychology Conference, June, Adelaide. http://proceedings.com.au/tassiefire/posters_pdf/poster_jmclennan.pdf Newall, J. (Date to be confirmed). Early morning sensation: fire at NEGS, Armidale and District Historical Society Journal and Proceedings, No. 48, pp. 127-140. Webb, J.T.A. (1901). Ladies Fire Brigade, Armidale Chronicle, 9/11/1901, p.4.