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WRITERS: Rizka Elyza, Yoyoh Hulaiyah Nasrullah Salim Nyoman Iswarayoga

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ENERGY EFFICIENCY for HOTELS


ISBN 979-96211-7-8
This campaign is a collaboration between Pelangi with Alliance to Save Energy funded by the US-Asia Environmental Partnership

SOURCES: Agus Maulana Totok Sulistyanto Johannes Berchmans EDITORS: Nugroho Nurdikiawan Felicia Ruiz Roopa Kamesh DESIGNER: Arief Darmawan

2005 www.pelangi.or.id

Head of Jakarta Tourism Body

Introduction
Assalamualaikum Wr. Wb. It is of great honour for me to pass my highest appreciation to Pelangi for publishing a guidebook on energy. This guidebook can be used as a refernce for many including those in the tourism sector, particularly hotels. This guidebook is expected to provide a complete and practical information to achieve a balance between enhancing business while preserving the environment. This balance will then assist developments in the tourism sector.

Wassalammualaikum Wr. Wb. Jakarta, Mei 2005

Foreword
Indonesia is running out of oil. From a lucrative foreign exchange earner, oil has come to be a foreign exchange burner as nowadays its import level has exceeded its exports level while the domestic price of oil is heavily subsidized. With about $50 per barrel of international oil price, Indonesia stands to provide about $7 billion subsidies on oil per year. This is more than the annual budgets of the Departments of Education and Health combined. But oil remains a dominant source of primary energy in Indonesia, and is also still a large contributor to electricity generation. Knowing what it could do with the subsidies, the government is set to gradually eliminate subsidies, and to bring the price of energy primary and secondary at its economic level, even close to the international level. Experiences have taught us that low energy price provides no incentive to use energy efficiently. Removal of energy subsidies, while increasing the energy price, will impel more efficient behavior. And the best form of energy is one that is not consumed. The building sector has been a large consumer of electricity in the urban sector. It has been shown through case studies that as deep as 25 percent of electricity consumption can be cut by low- and no-cost efficiency measures; and can even be deeper with higher costs. For every kilowatt-hour electricity not consumed in the urban sector, it is one kilowatt-hour more electricity available for those who have until now been denied access to electricity, as well as less pollution to the villages around the generation facilties not to mention less greenhouse gas emissions. It is to this end that this guidebook is prepared. It will provide practical guidance to hotel owners and operators on how to use electricity more efficiently cut electricity down significantly, especially with low- and no-cost measures. The guidebook is the compilation from lessons learnt from case studies in small- and mid-sized hotels in Jakarta to show other hotels to follow suit. The guidebook will allow anyone interested to replicate what has been tried and practiced by less than a handful of hotels in Jakarta, anywhere else in Indonesia and in the world.

On behalf of Pelangi, I would like to acknowledge contributions that have made this effort possible. First, I would like to thank the Alliance to Save Energy (ASE), especially Felicia Ruiz and Roopa Kamesh for a constructive partnership. I would also like to thank the Directorate General of Electricity and Energy Use, Tourism Board, and The Indonesian Assocoation of Hotels and Restaurants.. I would certainly acknowledge Ananta Gondomono during the earlier stage of this project and Nyoman Iswarayoga during the latter part for their diligent supervision. . This guidebook would not exist without the hardwork of Pelangis Energy Program, Rizka Elyza, Yoyoh Hulaiyah and Nasrullah Salim, also Pelangis Infokom team. Lastly, I would like to acknowledge the support of the United States Asia Environmental Partnership (a part of the United States Agency for International Development) in Indonesia, especially Suzanne Billharz, without whom this project would not have been possible.

Agus P. Sari

Executive Director
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Table of Content
Why This Guidebook? How to Develop an Energy Efficiency Program in Your Hotel
Step 1: Conducting an energy audit Step 2: Determining efficiency target Step 3: Developing an Action Plan Step 4: Staff motivation and training Step 5: Monitoring Step 6: Calculating your savings Step 7: Evaluation

Financing

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ENERGY EFFICIENCY for HOTEL

Getting the Most of Your Energy Efficiency Program


Air Conditioning Lighting Boiler

What you can do to be more energy efficient


Upper management Finanace manager Engineering staff Laundry staff Front Office staff Kitchen staff Housekeeping staff

Why This Guidebook?

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ENERGY EFFICIENCY for HOTEL

Hotels are large consumers of electricity and face increasing costs to provide a high quality of service to guests. Hotels can benefit from cost savings without compromising the quality of service to guests by implementing energy efficiency measures and practices.
Energy efficiency is the ability to use less energy to perform the same function. It is achieved through various measures including improved maintenance of equipment, better insulation, and installation of efficient equipment. It is estimated that hotels worldwide could cut energy costs by 25% or more by adopting proven energy efficiency measures.
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Energy efficiency has become increasingly important given the current fuel prices in Indonesia. The price of fuel has increased continually in recent years, causing a significant hike in hotel energy expenditure. In general, prior to 1997, energy would constitute 10% of a hotels total expenditure. This figure has now risen to approximately 25%. Energy efficiency is a valuable resource that creates a winwin solution on multiple fronts. It saves energy consumers money, increases comfort, protects the environment, and enhances the economy. When energy efficiency is combined with smart energy practices like turning off lights, air conditioners, and televisions that are not in use all of the benefits above are compounded. Energy efficiency also means improving competitive edge in the hospitality industry through profits acquired from savings. A reduction in monthly utility bills allows the use of savings to improve other areas within a facility and puts a hotel in a more price-competitive position.

There are numerous ways to implement energy efficiency measures successfully within a hotel without compromising on guest services. This guidebook is aimed at hotel managers, engineering staff and others who maintain hotel buildings and provides comprehensive information on steps that need to be taken to implement an energy management program within a hotel. Topics covered include energy audits, lighting, Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning systems (HVAC), electric systems, good housekeeping measures and staff motivation. Case studies have been provided to highlight the effectiveness of energy efficiency programs.

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ENERGY EFFICIENCY for HOTEL

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How to develop an energy efficiency program in your hotel

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ENERGY EFFICIENCY for HOTEL

Successful hotel energy management programs are typically initiated by management staff through a detailed costbenefit analysis highlighting the energy and money savings potential of energyefficiency improvements. The progress and ultimate success of the program depends in part on the participation of all levels of management in program design and execution.
The first step in an energy management program once staff commitment has been secured is to carry out a comprehensive energy audit of the building. An energy audit is required to determine the energy savings potential of the hotel and to set efficiency-improvement targets. To achieve these targets, management staff must develop an integrated action plan. During the implementation phase, it is imperative to conduct timely monitoring to ensure that activities are on the right track. An evaluation of the program follows the implementation period to assess whether efficiency targets have been met. Figure 1 identifies the various steps that are part of a comprehensive energy audit.

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Figure 1. Flowchart in Energy Efficiency Program

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ENERGY EFFICIENCY for HOTEL

How to develop an energy efficiency program in your hotel

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Step 1:

Conducting an Energy Audit


An energy audit is an essential component of a successful energy management program. The energy audit involves a thorough examination and analysis of a hotels current energy requirements, and identifies potential savings opportunities. It provides historical energy use data that can be utilized as a viable basis to determine appropriate actions to improve the efficiency of the hotel. The end result for most audits is an action plan consisting of various ways in which the hotel can implement energy saving recommendations resulting from the audit. The following section explores the steps involved in conducting a hotel energy audit.

Baseline Data Collection


Historic energy use data for all the energy intensive systems in the hotel is critical to identifying energy savings opportunities. By examining this data, one can identify the areas of highest improvement potential and establish a baseline from which to measure the impact of the energy saving projects. This information not only provides an overview of the hotels energy use pattern but is also crucial in prioritizing improvement projects. The important factors to consider include:

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ENERGY EFFICIENCY for HOTEL

How to develop an energy efficiency program in your hotel

A. Sources of Energy

Energy sources vary and can include electricity, fuel oils, and natural gas. Consumption data for all energy sources should be recorded during an energy audit. The energy data collected should be expressed in units of energy and not in Rupiah/Dollar. The unit of measure for electricity is kWh; for gas is Kg; and for diesel fuel is liter. The hotel can use their energy bill as a reference to fill in the following table. An important note is to ensure that the energy data collected is expressed in the quantity of energy and not in Rupiah. The quantity for electricity is kWh; gas is Kg; and diesel fuel is liter. Use your energy bill for your reference to fill in the following table.

Table 1. Annual Energy Consumption for Hotel X

Type of Energy
ELECTRICITY CITY GAS LPG SOLAR
kWh Rupiah M3 Rupiah Kg Rupiah Liter Rupiah

JAN

FEB

MAR APR

MAY JUN

JUL

AUG SEP

OCT

NOV

DEC

TOTAL

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B. Energy Consumption per Functional Room

Energy data must be collected for all rooms within the hotel, including guestrooms, kitchens, meeting rooms, lobbies, etc. Energy use will vary based on the room type, due to the different appliances installed in each room. It is important for hotels to maintain a database of electrical appliances, to identify the energy intensity i.e. the energy consumption per square meterof individual rooms. Hotels can use these intensity figures to compare their performance to the Indonesian national standard. The following table provides a template for recording the energy intensity of various rooms. Individual hotels can modify this table to suit their needs. Data for the table can be obtained by conducting a walk through of each room and collecting energy data based on the information provided on the nameplates of the various appliances.

Table 2. Energy Consumption for Different Types of Rooms in Hotel X

Functional room
Guest Room Lobby Meeting Room Ballroom Coffee Shop Restaurant Kitchen Office Restroom
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Lamps
ILB CFL TL

AC

Fan

Dryer

TV

Refrigerator

TOTAL

ENERGY EFFICIENCY for HOTEL

How to develop an energy efficiency program in your hotel

C.

Energy Consumption of Energy-Intensive Equipment

Many of the services provided by hotels require the use of energy intensive equipment, including boilers, chillers, lifts/elevators, water pumps, etc. Developing an energy consumption database, which lists all the energy-using equipment in the hotel, generates a clear picture of energy-use requirements of each equipment type. The following table provides a model template to record the energy consumption data of a hotels energy-intensive equipment. Individual hotels can modify this table to suit their needs. Data for the table can be collected from the energy data information provided on the equipment nameplates. Together these two data sets energy consumption per room data and energyintensive equipment data (available on page 18 and 20 respectively) will be used to profile electricity use throughouthotel.

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Table 3. Energy Intensive Utility

No. 1.

Equipment Name Plate Desscription


Water Pump
- water source: a). PDAM, b). Artesian - how many units - pump capacity:... lt./minute - daily intensity capacity:... m3/day - power of pump:... - operational hour/day:... - How many unit:... Unit; year of installation - Service rating: Hz: ; pf = .. ; 3 ph kW = .. - Standby rating: rpm = .; bat= ..; kVA = .. - Daily time use on average: - Daily fuel consumption = lt/month - How many times undertaking maintenance and services How many times - How many times undertaking overhaul: .. Times per year - How many units: . Unit; Year of installation: - kemampuan daya angkut per unit: kg atau .. Orang - Merk yang digunakan: . Type: .. - Number of units:... Unit; Year of installation:... - Hot water system used: - Daily usage intensity : hours/day - Usage time : . until .. - Boiler specification :

Notes

2.

Generator

3.

Lift

4.
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Boiler

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ENERGY EFFICIENCY for HOTEL

How to develop an energy efficiency program in your hotel

No.

Equipment Name Plate Desscription


Boiler Kitchen Chiller
Type: .; rating: . MBH Opertating pressure: psia (. Psia max); Max pressure steam: Psig; Heat surface: Sq.ft Max firing rate: . MBH; Valve cap: . Lb./hr - Type of Refrigerant used : - Arae division usage of area 1: ; set temperature: oC usage of area 2: ; set temperature : oC usage of area 3: ; set temperature : oC - Type of AC used : number of units: .. - AC capacity : PK .. Unit - Area used : - Fuel used : - Monthly fuel consumption : /month - Fuel used : - Monthly fuel consumption : /month

Notes

5.

6. 7. 8.

AC Cooking Icemaker

D. Data of Occupancy

Data on the hotel occupancy rate is crucial for accurately profiling the energy-use patterns in guestrooms, especially in Melati (non-star) hotels. It is one of the fundamental variables in determining rates of energy efficiency within a Melati hotel. Melati hotels unlike star hotels do not generally employ highly energy intensive equipment and hence depend mainly on comparisons of the occupancy data with energy use and energy intensity to calculate efficiency.
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Table 4. Occupancy Rate for Hotel X

ROOM TYPE
STANDARD DELUXE JUNIOR SUITE SUITE ROOM

JAN
ROOM (UNIT)

FEB
% ROOM (UNIT)

MAR
% ROOM (UNIT)

APR
% ROOM (UNIT)

MAY
% ROOM (UNIT)

JUN
% ROOM (UNIT) %

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How to develop an energy efficiency program in your hotel

JUL
ROOM (UNIT) %

AUG
ROOM (UNIT) %

SEP
ROOM (UNIT) %

OCT
ROOM (UNIT) %

NOV
ROOM (UNIT) %

DEC
ROOM (UNIT) %

TOTAL

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Measurement and Observation


The data collection process described above will enable hotel managers to obtain an accurate picture of electrical use throughout the hotel. However, this profile can be enhanced with the collection of additional data on the power factor, demand factor, load factor and power quality. Advanced measurement tools coupled with support from knowledgeable staff is required to collect this data. Specific instruments required for conducting an advanced audit include: 1. A computer with an online measurement program 2. Data acquisition hardware 3. A clamp on amp meter or multi meter with measurement capacity AC/DC 1000 A, 0,5 A, 220 V 4 wire 4. A portable data logger
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Power Factor is the ratio of the actual power used in a

circuit, (expressed in watts or kilowatts) to the apparent power drawn from a power source (expressed in volt-amperes or kilovoltamperes). As an example, a 400-W appliance with a power factor of 0.8 would require a power source of 500 VA to drive it properly. This is why loads with poor power factors need larger-thanexpected generators to power them. A high power factor value indicates that the electricity distribution system is performing well. The power factor value has to be more than 0.85 to avoid penalty charges set by the Indonesian Electric Power Utility - PLN. Many big hotels have installed capacitor banks to improve power factor values; however, it is important to evaluate power quality before installing capacitors.

Demand Factor is the ratio of the maximum demand on

the electricity generation and distribution systems to the total connected load on the system (installed capacity), usually expressed as a percentage. Demand factor shows the proportion of electricity used to the total electricity installed capacity. An ideal demand factor is between 60 and 80 percent. The total electricity capacity installed will depend on the power contract established between the hotel and PLN. If the demand factor is low, there is a possibility that the power contract from PLN is too high. Reducing the power requested through the contract with the utility will help the hotel reach an ideal installed capacity level and will provide savings through the monthly electricity subscription
fee to PLN.

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ENERGY EFFICIENCY for HOTEL

How to develop an energy efficiency program in your hotel

Load Factor is the ratio of average energy demand (load) to maximum demand

(peak load) during a specific period. It is a measure of efficiency that indicates whether a systems electric use over a period of time is reasonably stable or if it has extreme peaks and valleys. A low load factor value indicates high fluctuations in hotel electricity use that leads to a higher average price per kilowatt-hour. Since PLN charges off-peak and peak electricity tariffs, it is imperative for the hotel to manage its load factor by avoiding high levels of electrical use during peak hours (6 pm to 10 pm). The hotel is recommended to appropriately schedule electrical load to off-peak hours to improve the conditions. The ideal load factor is between 80 and 90 percent.

Power Quality is a measure of the frequency and severity of deviations in the

incoming power supply from the standard voltage or current. These deviations may affect the safe and reliable operation of equipment including TVs, computers and other sensitive appliances. A poor power quality will have a detrimental effect on compters and other computer-based equipments. An ideal power should be below 3%

In addition to collecting data on the variables highlighted above it is also important to identify potential energy wastage problems in the hotel. A walk-through analysis of the whole facility will provide this information. Hotels can record data on any energy waste during the walk-through that is conducted to collect information on energy consumption per room. The following table is a sample checklist hotels can modify to suit their individual needs.

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Table 5. Baru

Problems Found
Lightings
Lamps are turned on unnecessarily Using too many lamps Incandescent Light Bulb are still use in several areas Conventional ballast are still used for several fluorescent lamps Lighting controls do not function properly Dust on lamps Heavy curtains obstruct natural lighting etc Doors and Windows are open when AC is in operation Temperature setting unnecessary too low Air filter is dirty Leakage in piping Remote control is not working properly Dust on fins Unnecessary use TVs are turned on when nobodys watching Appliances such as TVs are turned off on standby power Thermostat is not set accordingly Hot food is placed into chiller without cooling first Chiller is located near thermal sources Chiller is over capacity

Air Conditioner

Fan Other Application Kitchen Chiller

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ENERGY EFFICIENCY for HOTEL

How to develop an energy efficiency program in your hotel

Analysis
A detailed analysis of the data collected is required to identify energy-efficient recommendations for the hotel. The analysis includes calculating the energy intensity and end-use balance in the system.

A. Energy Intensity Consumption

It is important to obtain the energy intensity of the hotel to generate an initial benchmark as well as to assess the energy-efficiency potential of each room and the hotel as a whole. These hotel intensity values when compared to the Indonesian national standard help identify the need for efficiency improvements. From table 2 in PAGE 18 one can calculate the energy intensity per room each type. The following equation can be used:

Box 1. Energy Intensity Formulae For example: Your standard room area is 45 m2, and the total energy consumption is 200 kW, therefore your energy intensity is 4,45 kW/m2.

Area

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Tabel 5 below is the Indonesian Energy Consumption Intensity (ECI) standard for commercial buildings that can be used as a comparison of the hotels energy intensity.
Table 5. Indonesian Energy Intensity Standard

Air Conditioned Room (kWh/m2/month)


Very efficient Efficient Fairly Efficient Fairly Inefficient Inefficient Very Inefficient 4.17 7.92 7.92 12.08 12.08 14.58 14.58 19.17 19.17 23.75 23.75 37.50

Non Conditioned Room (kWh/m2/month)


Fairly Efficient Fairly Inefficient Inefficient Very Inefficient 1.67 2.50 0.84 1.67 2.50 3.34 3.34 4.17

B. Electrical Balance

If it is found that energy use is inefficient, by knowing the electrical balance, you can determine which equipment should be given priority to obtain the largest savings. Improving efficiency within all equipment and machinery will result in maximum savings. Electrical balance is derived from the composition of electricity consumed by each appliance. Data collected in Tables 2 and 3 can be used to calculate en estimation of monthly energy consumption, by using them in the following formulae:

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ENERGY EFFICIENCY for HOTEL

How to develop an energy efficiency program in your hotel

Electricity consumption = Power (kW) x usage hour (hour) x 30 days


For example: AC Split with a capacity of 1 PK , Power: 800 watt. If the AC is used for 8 hours each day, the monthly electricity consumption is: Electricity consumption = 800 watt * 8 hours * 30 days = 192 kWh The result is a division of electricity consumption based on the equipment being used. In general, it will be illustrated similar to the following figure 2.

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Figure 2. Electrical System Distribution 51% 7% 5% 10% 10% 14% 3% AC Refrigerator TV Water Pump Kitchen Chiller Lighting Exhaust Fan

The distribution depicted differs from hotel to hotel. By understanding how much energy is being consumed throughout the hotel, one can determine which part of the hotel is most energy intensive. Management

can then implement an action plan that focuses on reducing energy use in every energy intensive area.

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Analysis conducted by the professional auditor will covered the following:


1. Electricity load profile Load curves provide a graphical representation of the hotels electricity use over a selected period of time such as a 24 hour period. For commercial users those with large power contracts the electricity bill is based on peak and off-peak load hours. Electricity fees charged during peak load hours are higher than fees charged during off-peak hours. 2. Power factor under 0,85 The power factor is the ratio of real power to apparent power. Power factor caused by inductive loads such as transformers, electric meters, and certain types of lighting, reduces the electrical systems distribution capacity. A low power factor (in the case of Indonesia, below 0.85) can also result in fees from the utility. 3. Equipment load assessment This assessment characterizes the use of equipment based on operational periods. This analysis is used to identify the efficiency potential of equipment as well as to reschedule operation time to avoid high fees during peak load periods. 4. Review of the electrical system: critical and non-critical loads, balance of phases, load profiles and schemes, and power contract This review is conducted to identify areas of electricity use that can be altered to reduce overall electricity use. This can be done by evaluating several parameters of performance including identification of critical and non-critical loads, phase balance, load profiles and schemes, and power contract.

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Step 2:

Determining Efficiency Target


Specific targets for improving overall efficiency within the hotel can be derived from energy audit results. Once targets are identified, it is vital to obtain management buy-in for efficiency improvements to ensure implementation success. The easiest way to formulate an energy efficiency target is by using the difference between the hotels energy intensity and the national intensity standard of the specific country. The difference between the two will help determine resulting savings for the hotel. The formula below can be used to calculate the energy savings potential of a hotel:
Efficiency opportunity = ECI x totalconditioned area x electricity tariff

12 months/year Where: ECI is the difference between your energy intensity to the national standard, expressed in kWh/ (m2.year) Total conditioned area is the total area of your hotel, expressed in m2 Electricity tariff is current tarrif applied by PLN, for hotel it is ranging from type to type of subscriber.
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How to develop an energy efficiency program in your hotel

Case sample of potential energy savings


For example, if your standard room (15 m2) energy intensity is 15 kWh/m2/ month, in aorder to be classified as an efficient building, you have to lower your intensity by 7.08 kWh/m2/month. Then, according to the standard, your standard room has the energy efficiency potential of Rp. 56,286 per each standard room you have. Energy efficiency potential =7.08 kWh/m2/month * 15 m2 * Rp. 530/kWh = Rp. 56,286

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Step 3:

Developing an Action Plan


An action plan, with a defined timeline for implementing recommendations is crucial to meeting the efficiency targets developed above. The success of any action plan depends on approval and support from the hotels senior management. An action plan is the core of an energy efficiency program. It defines key steps required to meet each efficiency target, staff accountability, and the start and end dates for activities. It should also define various financial investment requirements to implement activities. The action plan also helps ensure that the energy saving opportunities identified within the hotel are implemented and provides a plan for monitoring results. Action plans can be developed on a quarterly, semiannual, or annual basis. These plans should not be created for a time period longer than one year. In practice, the hotel management does not develop the action plan. However, once the action plan is created, it should be presented to senior management for approval. Within any action plan, it is important to highlight how the plan contributes to organizational goals. Key staff members from various departments within the hotel generally draft the action plan. Support from staff members and their understanding of their roles and responsibilities determines the level of
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How to develop an energy efficiency program in your hotel

success in the implementation of any action plan. Once the action plan is finalized and approved by management, it should be implemented based on the scheduled dates. Staff members integral to the implementation of the action plan may need training to ensure timely realization of savings goals.

There are 3 main types of action plans:


1. Short term action plan
This plan includes project recommendations with payback periods of less than six months, such as housekeeping improvements, calibration of equipment, maintenance, etc. This plan includes project recommendations with payback periods between 6 and 12 months, such as the replacement of light bulbs, installation of automatic control devices, and the substitution of fuel.

2. Mid-term action plan

3. Long term action plan

This plan includes project recommendations with the payback periods of more than one year, such as replacing old air conditioning systems, and refrigerators, with new units that are more energy efficient.

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Table 6. Example of Action Plan

Recommended Measures
No Cost Recommendations
Setting AC termostat to 23-24 Celcius degrees Reducing lighting operation time to 10 hour/day Regularly clean AC filter

Potential saving
Kwh/Month Rp/Month US ($)

Low Cost Recommendations Medium to higher cost recommendations

Replacing old refrigerant with hydrocarbon

Replacing conventional ballast TL lamps with electronic ballast TL lamps. Installing key card system

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How to develop an energy efficiency program in your hotel

Implementation Planning Period Back (tahun) Jan Feb Maret April Mei Juni

Juli

Aug

Sept

Okt

Nov

Des

The table above is only one example of action plan. Actual action plans may differ from one hotel to another depending on its energy use.
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Step 4:

Staff Development and Motivation


Staff participation from all divisions of the hotel is vital to the success of an energy efficiency program. Prior to program implementation, staff members should receive training on program benefits, including methods of program implementation and the savings potential to be realized through good housekeeping and other maintenance measures. Training should not be limited to technical information, but should also address ways to increase staff motivation. The importance of the energy efficiency program must be clear to all staff members. Big hotels usually have sufficient funding to invite energy consulting firms for professional training programs. However, smaller hotels with smaller budgets must often find creative was to provide their own training. Training materials on energy savings can be acquired from various sources, including books, magazines and websites on hospitality and tourism initiatives. Please refer to the box on Sources on Hotel Energy Efficiency for further information on staff training.

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How to develop an energy efficiency program in your hotel

Source on hotel Energy Efficiency


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Energy Star for Hospitality http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=hospitality.bus_hospitality Green Hotels Association http://www.greenhotels.com/ Greening your Property http://www.p2pays.org/ref/04/03267.pdf Restaurants, Energy Innovators Initiative http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca/Publications/infosource/Pub/hospitality_sector/ english/index.cfm?PrintView=N&Text=N Info Listrik http://www.pln.co.id/info_listrik.asp Training materials developed by Pelangi http://campaign.pelangi.or.id/ energi/ee/eedh/eedh.php?w=materi

A successful energy efficiency program can never be fully realized without the support of the hotel staff. Therefore, in order to motivate staff, it is important for management to consider providing incentives. For instance, the profits gained through energy efficiency can and should be shared with staff members. Other incentives, such as salary increases, health allowances, and improved staff facilities, can all lead to increased levels of staff motivation. Transparency of information also serves as a motivating factor for staff. Management should clearly communicate to hotel staff information about the energy costs and energy savings related to the energy management program. This will help staff understand the importance of energy efficiency and their role in the process. Remember: a dedicated staff is your most valuable asset.
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Step 5:

Monitoring
Monitoring is an essential step in the implementation of an action plan. Monitoring is important to assessing whether the plan has been implemented effectively. If implementation of the action plan is ineffective, monitoring can quickly identify which part is not effective, enabling a hotel to modify the action plan as required. Monitoring is also useful to anticipate unwanted situations, such as a change in service or comfort that might occur in the future, and how to overcome these situations.

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Example of comfort risk implementation


By reducing the chillers operational hours to 4 hours, a hotel can save Rp 5 million per month. The chiller was rescheduled from 4 AM to 2 AM to 6 AM to 12 PM or 4 hours less that usual. This means that when the chiller is switched off, only air circulation occurrs. Technically this can be done without reducing the comfort level since the difference of temperature at nigh is not so high. However, in implementing this, there may be complaints from guests. Monitoting on the optimal time to switch of the chiller is important since guests comfort is vital.

Monitoring also helps to analyze the level of staff acceptance in implementing this program. Monitoring can help to identify problems encountered by the staff. This can be carried out through regular group meetings together with the management. It is recommended that each hotel develop a standard operating procedure (SOP) for the various staff members involved in the program. The implementation of measures can then be monitored based on the SOP.

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Step 6:

Calculating Energy Savings


The easiest way to calculate energy and cost savings is to compare energy expenditures before and after the implementation of energyefficiency measures. To determine cost savings, electricity bills from before and after implementation of the efficiency program should be compared. It is important that management establish an energy database with past energy consumption data to establish baseline electricity consumption (as described in Step 1). This baseline data can then be compared with post-implementation energy consumption data. Table 8 provides an example.

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How to develop an energy efficiency program in your hotel

By comparing energy intensity before and after program implementation, one can also calculate energy savings. Use the same formula as presented on page 27. Compare the result with the Indonesian energy-efficiency standard to measure annual energy consumption. Another way to calculate energy savings is to conduct a second energy audit and compare pre- and post- implementation data. Based on the data entered in the table, do the resulting energy savings meet the savings goals outlined in the action plan?

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Tabel 8. Annual Energy Consumption for a Hotel

Type of Energy
Electricity City Gas LPG Solar
kWh Rupiah kWh Rupiah kWh Rupiah kWh Rupiah

JAN
Before After

FEB
Before After

MAR
Before After

APR
Before After

MAY
Before After

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JUN
Before After

JUL
Before After

AGU
Before After

SEP
Before After

OCT
Before After

NOV
Before After

DEC
Before After

TOTAL

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Step 7:

Evaluation
Evaluation of the energy-efficiency program is crucial, regardless of whether or not the resulting energy savings met the established targets. Effective project evaluation can account for what has been accomplished through project activities, as well as provide feedback to enable hotel decision makers to make informed choices for the future. Conducting a program evaluation can increase the effectiveness of the project and motivate program management. There are two types of evaluation that should be conducted to assess the effectiveness of the program: staff evaluation and technical evaluation. STAFF EVALUATION To evaluate the degree of support and cooperation from the staff, management can survey the staff using questionnaires. This will not only provide information on how the energy-efficiency program is running but also allow for input from your staff. Please use the following example for your reference, and adjust accordingly. TECHNICAL EVALUATION To evaluate technical aspect of your energy efficiency program a hotel can require integrated monthly reports from the chief engineer and finance manager. The following table is intended to help hotels evaluate their energy-efficiency program.

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ENERGY EFFICIENCY for HOTEL

How to develop an energy efficiency program in your hotel

Program Evaluation Survey


1. How is the acceptance from the staff about the energy efficiency program? a) Very good b) Good c) Poor d) Very Poor

2. How is the implementation participation from the staff? a) Very good b) Good c) Poor d) Very Poor 3. Are there complaints from the staff when implementing the EE program? a) None b) Few c) Moderate d) Many

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4.

If there are complaints, please list the complaints below ................ .. .. Do you receive complaints from guests relating to your energy efficiency program? a) None b) Few c) Moderate d) Many If there are complaints, please list below ................ .. .. While running the program, the quality of service in your hotel has? a) Improved b) Remained the same c) Worsened

8.

5.

How well-informed is the staff with regard to your energy efficiency program a) Very good b) Good c) Poor d) Very Poor Did you encounter problems related to human resources during implementation? If yes, please specify your problems below ................ .. .. Can you provide any inputs for the energy efficiency program? Please specify them. ................ .. ..

9.

6.

10.

7.

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ENERGY EFFICIENCY for HOTEL

How to develop an energy efficiency program in your hotel

To evaluate technical aspect of your energy efficiency program a hotel can set up a policy of monthly reporting from the chief engineer and finance manager. This will be an integrated report. Please use the following table to evaluate the energy efficiency program. Tabel 9. Comparison between energy consumption and annual revenue
No

ITEMS
Total rooms Rooms occupied Occupancy (%) Electricity consumed per month Cost per kwh Electricity cost Elect.consumption / occupied room Elect.charges / occupied room Elect.consumption / available rooms

UNIT
Unit Unit %

JAN

FEB

MAR

APR

MAY

JUN

JUL

AUG

SEP

OCT

NOV

DEC

1. 2. 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Kwh Rp Rp/kwh Kwh/unit room Rp/kwh/ unit room Kwh/unit room Rp/kwh/ unit room
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10 Elect.charges /

available room

No

ITEMS

UNIT
Rp
% %

JAN

FEB

MAR

APR

MAY

JUN

JUL

AUG

SEP

OCT

NOV

DEC

11 Total Revenue 12 Electricity cost to

total revenue 13 Electricity cost to total wages

The above table only includes evaluation for electricity efficiency. If your hotels energy efficiency program includes gas and diesel, also include in the tabel,

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ENERGY EFFICIENCY for HOTEL

How to develop an energy efficiency program in your hotel

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Financing

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ENERGY EFFICIENCY for HOTEL

Whos going to pay the investment?


Project recommended, such as replacing incandescent bulbs with compact fluorescent bulbs, are often constrained by the required initial investment. Who will pay? Where can we obtain funds for such an investment? This seems to be the major constraint in implementing an energy efficiency program, and it creates a misconception that energy efficiency is cost-centered instead of revenue-centered. Usually this constraint has greater effects on small hotels, such as Melati-class hotels. These hotels often have problems securing regular cash flow, let alone funds for implementing an energy-efficiency program. Part of this is because upper management does not see past the initial investment, and does not immediately recognize that most efficiency improvements pay for themselves in very little time, and then continue to save energy and money for many years to come.

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An important concept that must be understood by management staff is the concept of payback period, or the return on an investment. Payback period (PP) is defined as the ratio of the initial investment to the resulting annual savings from the operation of the equipment. In other words, payback is the time required for the investment to save enough money to pay for itself. Payback Period (year) = Initial Investment / Annual Saving Return on Investment (ROI) is defined as the ratio of the total maximum profit during the appliances economic life to the initial investment. ROI usually factors in the time value of money. ROI ( percent) = total maximum profit / Initial investment x 100

Projects with highest ROI and lowest PP are considered to be the most beneficial due to low investment risk. The maximum payback
period is generally five years. A time period of more than five years is occasionally considered unprofitable for several reasons, including the equipment aging, inflation rate, etc.

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ENERGY EFFICIENCY for HOTEL

Financing

Start small
To obtain an initial investment, a hotel can start by implementing no-cost and low-cost measures derived from the energy audit. The benefits obtained from the implementation of such measures should not be underestimated. The hotel can achieve savings with no initial investment, just by switching off unused lights, cleaning AC filters, resetting the AC temperature, and turning off electrical appliances instead of using standby power. A study conducted by the Jakarta based organization Pelangi at two Melati hotels showed that by the implemention of no-cost and low-cost recommendations at these hotels, decreased energy use by 10 percent. If your hotel spends an average of Rp 6.000.000 (approximately 622USD) per month on electricity, a10 percent reduction in energy consumption though low- and no-cost efficiency projects would save Rp 600.000/month (approximately 62USD). In 2 months, you can use these savings to proceed with additional low-cost projects, such as replacing incandescent bulbs with energy-efficient bulbs. Energy audits show that lighting typically constitutes about 40 percent of total electricity consumption. Assume that you plan to two months of savings from the hypothetical example above to to replace 100, 40-watt incandescent light bulbs that use 100 lighting points with 100 new energy-efficient 11-watt CFLs .
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If the price of one unit of CFL is Rp 30.000 (approximately 3USD), and its average daily usage is nine hours per day, then the savings are as follows: Electricity Savings = (40 11) watt * 100 lighting points * 9 hour/day = 26,1 kWh/day = 783 kWh/month If the price of electricity is Rp 500 per kWh (approximately 0.05USD), then the electricity saved will equal Rp. 391.500 (approximately 41USD). If the initial investment for the purchase of 100 CFLs is Rp. 3.000.000, then the project payback period is eight months. Payback period = Rp 3.000.000/Rp 391.500 = 7.66 months = 8 months Bear in mind that you still have savings from no-cost methods amounting to Rp 300.000 per month. In total, the savings you receive equals Rp 961.500 per month. In a few months, the accumulated savings
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from low-cost methods can be used to invest in medium- to high-cost methods. These include replacing the AC, refrigerator, or washing machines with more energy-efficient models, or even installing a key-tag system in the rooms. Once this is achieved, savings can be allocated to provide better welfare for employees, or used to improve other facilities in the hotel. This will help your hotel improve its competitive position and increase employee loyalty. allocated to provide better welfare for employees, or used to improve other facilities in the hotel. This will help your hotel improve its competitiveness and increase employees loyalty.

ENERGY EFFICIENCY for HOTEL

Financing

Financing sources
Higer-cost energy efficiency projects can be financed with funding from banks or other financial institutions. Below are several examples of financing options that energy-efficiency projects.

Environmental Fund

The Ministry of Environment has created a specific environmental financial scheme. This scheme provides a maximum loan of Rp 3 billion with a low interest rate, channeled through several private banks in Indonesia. Hotel can apply for this funding by filling out a simple, standardized form instead of writing a full business proposal MoE then provides a technical appraisal of the project while the bank performs a financial appraisal of the project and borrower.

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Energy Service Companies


An Energy Service Company, or ESCo, is a company that specializes in managing energy retrofit projects. In addition to offer financing services, ESCos perform energy audits, develop efficiency project recommendations, and install or oversee the installation of energy efficiency measures. ESCos offer two options for funding (1) the initial investment required by the hotel will be covered by the ESCo itself Or, (2) The ESCo will provide a guarantee to a third party (generally a bank) that the average energy savings resulting from the conservation retrofit will be equal to that required by the hotel to cover the debt service and other fees associated with the project. The loan will then be paid back based on energy and cost savings achieved each month by the hotel. This scheme offers a win-win solution to hotel energy management.

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ENERGY EFFICIENCY for HOTEL

Financing

Private Banks
Bank credit is generally easy to obtain Banks usually require the hotel to submit a business proposal, and provide collateral and a guarantor to assure a loan. The maximum loan differs from bank to bank, although on average, the maximum credit is 90 percent of the value of the collateral. In January 2005, the Central Bank of Indonesia enacted the January Package, which benefits micro-credit schemes. The January Package states that loans for environmentally-friendly projects will receive a lower interest rate. By using external funds from banks or other financial institutions, a hotel can move directly towards implementing low-cost, medium-cost, and even highcost efficiency projects. In this manner, efficiency targets can be achieved faster. An important factor to be considered when looking a finance options is the interest rate associated with external funding. Although the amount may not seem significant, it needs to be subtracted from total estimated savings to reflect true savings to the hotel.

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Getting the Most of your Energy Efficiency Program


Air Conditioner Lighting Boiler

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ENERGY EFFICIENCY for HOTEL

What do comfortable air-conditioned guest rooms, hot water in guest bathrooms, laundry, and room service have in common? All of them require energy in the form of electricity, gas or even diesel fuel to function effectively.
In a typical hotel, lighting, air conditioning, and water heating represent up to 70 percent of total energy use, making those systems the best targets for energy efficiency programs. Many full-service hotels can benefit from quick no- and low-cost solutions for energy efficiency. The following chapter reviews lighting, air conditioning and boiler systems, and outlines several best practices that can help maximum energy savings in these systems.

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Air Conditioning System


Indonesia is a hot and humid country. Electric fans, air conditioners (AC), and improved ventilation devices help Indonesians stay cool. Because, it is no longer considered a luxury an properly-functionin airconditioning system is essential to successful hotel operation. What is thermal comfort? It is the condition at which air temperature, circulation and cleanliness do not influence the performance of human beings. For tropical countries, the standard thermal comfort temperature ranges from 24 to 26oC, with humidity of 50 to 60 percent. Air conditioners produce cool air to lower the temperature of a given space. The air-conditioning process is highlighted in the figure below.

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Getting the Most of your Energy Efficiency Program

The compressor compresses cool refrigerant, causing it to become a hot, highpressure refrigerant gas (red in the diagram above). This hot gas runs through a set of coils, dissipates its heat, and condenses into a liquid. The refrigerant liquid runs through an expansion valve, and evaporates to become cold, low-pressure refrigerant gas. This cold gas runs through a set of coils, around which a fan blows air, allowing the gas to absorb heat from the air and cool down the space inside the building.

Figure 3 How an air conditioner


A A B

Expansion valve Compressor

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The refrigerant used in an air conditioner plays an important role in the efficiency of that air conditioner. High-quality refrigerants, such as a hydrocarbon-based refrigerant, require less electricity and resultin in higher efficiencies. Box 6 describes a case study from a pilot hotel study in Jakarta, Indonesia. Graha Wisata Cibubur, located at Bumi Perkemahan Cibubur, is one of the selected hotels for this pilot project. In one of the training modules, there was a demonstration on how to replace refrigerant for one of Split AC of 2,5 PK capacity.Prior to the replacement of refrigerant, the performance of AC was measured. This is useful for comparison. Initially, the AC used R22 freon, and then this was replaced with HC22. It should be noted that since the chemical characteristics of the material is different, whenever the freon is replaced it should be totally emptied from the AC. Hydrocarbon Freon cannot be mixed with normal freon. The replacement may be carried out directly, with no specific treatment or additional device.The result of the replacement was surprising. The electric current decreased to almost 30% which means the system is now 30% more efficient. The use of hydrocarbon not only makes the performance of equipment more efficient, but is environmentally friendly. This type of Freon is made from natural material, not synthetic. So it is safe to be released into the air without concerns of damaging the ozone layer.

The results of measurement before and after the replacement are as follows:
BEFORE Cos 0 = 0,84 Voltage = 220 V Current = 2,1 mA Temperature = 16,1 C AFTER Cos 0 = 0.84 Voltage = 220 V Current = 1,5 mA Temperature = 14,5 C

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Getting the Most of your Energy Efficiency Program

Based on the capacity for conditioning, air conditioners may be classified into 5 types: 1 Window Air Conditioner: Evaporator, Condensor and Fan installed
in one unit. The capacity of AC of this type is usually low, ranging between 0,5 - 1 PK.

2 Split AC: The Evaporator and its fan are installed in the area to be

conditioned, while the compressor, condenser and the fan are installed outside the building. Usually, the capacity of this type ranges between 0,5 - 3 PK.

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3 Chiller water plants: In principle, the operation is similar,

but the condenser is cooled using water, not air cooling. In addition, it requires a Cooling Tower. Generally, a Chiller plant is used for central air conditioning of big buildings, so that the evaporator does not directly condition the air but cools the water. The air is cooled by an evaporator then flows to the FCU and AHU for air conditioning the building. AC of this type is generally equipped with a centrifugal compressor.

4 Rooftop liquid chiller:

It is similar to AC Package, but the installment of the evaporator is hanging on the roof.

5 AC floor mounted package:

The operation is similar to Split AC, but the capacity is bigger, ranging between 5 - 20 PK and should be tightly mounted on the floor

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In deciding to install an AC, particularly one with a small capacity (window, split, packaged), the following points are to be considered: What square footage space needs to be covered, and are there many windows? If there are many windows, how much heat is absorbed by the windows ? Is there any shading, such as trees? Can air still flow into the room?

A Buying Guide for Air Conditioners


The price of every new air conditioner will depend on the type, window or split, and its cooling capacity. Cooling capacity will be represented in BTU per hour or simply called tonnage. Every 12,000 BTU/hour equals to 1 tonnage. Often, size of an air conditioner installed is oversized which will waste energy.

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Here are some tips for selecting the correct size air conditioner.
The guidance provided below is general in nature. An air conditioning vendor or outside consultant can provide a more accurate cooling load estimate. Software tools are also utilized to aid in this analysis. 1. Determine the total area of the space you want to condition. Divide the total area (m2) by 55 to roughly estimate the minimum tonnage requirement. Example: If the space is 20 m2, then the minimum tonnage requirement will be 0.363 tonnage. 2. Determine the average occupance of the space. For every 10 people present in the room at the same time, add 0.5 tonnes to your minimum requirement. If the space averages less than 10 people, there is no need to add extra tonnage.

3. Determine how the number of electrical appliances and light fixtures are present in the space. For every 1500 watts of electricity used, add 0.5 tonnes. Example: Consider a space with four computers and four CFL lamps. One computers usually consume about 300 watts and one CFL comsumes 30 watts. Therefore, the total wattage for this space is about 1320. Since the number is near 1500, you should add 0.5 tonnes. 4. Calculate your minimum total tonnage. Many manufacturers produce different types of air conditioners. Be sure to buy the correct size based on your room requirements. Example: Minimum Requirement =0.363 + 0.5 =0.863 1 tonnage = 12,000 BTU/hr 0.863 tonnage = 10,356 BTU/hr Based on the above calculations, the minimum requirement would be 10,356 BTU/hr.

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Getting the Most of your Energy Efficiency Program

Besides cooling capacity, the air conditioners performance is another important factor to take into consideration before purchasing an air conditioning system. There are numerous methods for determining the performance of an air conditioner. Two common indicators are: 1) The Coefficient of Performance (COP) The Coefficient of Performance (COP) or the performance coefficient is the ratio of the degree of heat (in kW unit) removed from the evaporator to every unit of energy consumed (kW). In other words, COP is the ratio between the capacity of the compressor (kW) and each ton of heated refrigerant (TR) absorbed by the evaporator. 2) The Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER) Another common measure is the Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER). The EER is the ratio of the capacity for cooling (in Btu) per hour to the consumption of energy (in watts). Box 7 How to calculate COP and EER:

How to calculate COP & EER


If the spesification of an AC/Chiller is at 1 kW/TR ( 1 kW/TR = 3,5) and total power of 1 kW and 12,000 Btu/hour, therefore: EER = 1200/1000 = 12 COP = EER/3.5 = 3.43

Rule of Thumb:

The higher the EER and COP, the more efficient the AC/Chiller is
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Two basic approaches help make the air conditioning system more efficient. These are decreasing the cooling capacity or increasing the performance of the equipment. Box 8 Tips for efficiency and decreasing AC load

Tips for efficiency and decreasing AC load


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Avoid air leaks into and out of the room Decrease number of equipment that produces heat, such as; computer, UPS battery, light (use energy saving lights), etc Avoid and control items which increase humidity , for example: wet cloth, wall, etc. Avoid outer walls from direct sunlight Do not make the room too cool (Standard cooling: 250 C + 10 C, 55 +5% RH). Avoid contact with sunlight/thermal radiation through windows by using glass film or double glass. Provide plants for shade at buildings where the roof is directly exposed to sunlight. When a partition for a room is required, install the air conditioner in the right place to enable even air distribution.

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Getting the Most of your Energy Efficiency Program

Regular maintenance is required to maximize performance,. In practice, many enterprises employ professional services to maintain their air conditioning systems, mainly to refill the Freon. Since Freon is flammable, this is a job best left to professionals. However, a hotel can perform some maintenance by itself. The basic purpose of an air conditioner is to transfer heat. To achieve maximum heat transfer and efficiency of the system, all surfaces within the system must be clean including the filters, coils and fans. Box 9 Tips for efficiency and decreasing AC load

Tips for efficiency and decreasing AC load


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Place the condenser (air cooling condenser) in a cool, dry place with sufficient air circulation. Put the condensor away from source of heat or direct contact with sunlight. Periodically, clean dust and dirt from condensers fan. Turn off AC when a room is not in use for long hours/time (use timer switch). Check the evaporator fan and condenser when noise is produced during operation, this is usually caused by a lose screw. Use the correct AC capacity; not too high and not too low. The system is not standardized. It is about 600 BTU/hour.m2. It means, for space footage of 20 m2, the correct capacity is about 12000 BTU/hour. Cooling also depends on the refrigerant. Use the correct capacity, suited to the specification, not too high and not too low. Use refrigerant that is environmentally friendly and energy efficient, such as hydrocarbon refrigerant. For installment, consult professional mechanics. Select AC with the highest cooling capacity for the same amount of energy.

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The Lighting System


In general, hotels maintain lighting systems that offer guests a bright, comfortable and secure environment. There are two important factors to be considered here: whether or not the illumination system is wasteful and whether the lumen requirement for the area is being met. Please refer to table 7 below to identify standard illumination requirements for your

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Getting the Most of your Energy Efficiency Program

Table 7. Standard Requirement for Hospitality Sector

Area
Public area, garden Corridor, rarely visited warehouse, restourant Office, lobby, lift, stairs, active warehouse, parking area Convention hal, office and shops, cashier Bed rooms, laundry room, kitchen

Standard Requirement (lument/m2)


30 75 150 300 300-400

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Hotels still use inefficient incandescent light bulbs to light their facilities. Many people find the light of incandescent bulbs more aesthetically appealing than other bulbs. It is important to note, however, that incandescent bulbs are big energy consumers. Hotels are recommended to ensure that their lighting system meets the standards provided in table 7. These standards can be met utilizing a variety of different types of commonly available lamps.

1. Incandescent light bulb

The use of this type of lamp is very common since the price is rather cheap. But pay attention to the low efficacy of this lamp only 1020 lumens per watt. Almost 85% of total power consumed by this lamp is converted into heat. The life time of this lamp is only 750 hours.

2. Fluorescent light (TL Lamps)

Nowadays, the use of this type of lamp is even more popular than the incandescent light bulb. In addition to higher efficacy, the life time is also longer - up to 20,000 hours. Unfortunately, this lamp needs additional ballasts which consume more power. This can be improved by using electronic ballasts for more efficient power consumption.

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Getting the Most of your Energy Efficiency Program

3. CFL

This is the most efficient lamp available in the market, with high efficacy of 50-60 lpw plus up to 12,000 hour of lifetime. Available in compact sizes, these lamps are highly recommended for use in hotels.

4. Halogen
This type is similar to the incandescent light bulb, but with a longer lifetime, up to 3,000 hours. It produces a specific color and is generally used in places where activities visually require a brighter and specific color.

5. High Intensity Discharge (HID)

This type of lamp is used for outdoor needs, such as: parking area, streets, warehouses, etc. The life time ranges between 10,000 to 25,000 hours.

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When buying lamps, pay attention to the lamps efficacy, measured in units of lumens per watt (lpw). Lumens per watt is defined as light measured in lumens produced per watt of electricity consumed by the lamp. The rule of thumb when buying a lamp: the higher the efficacy ratio the better the lamp. An incandescent light bulb has 10 to 20 lpw while a CFL has 50 to 60 lpw. The initial price for an incandescent light bulb is 20 percent lower than that of a CFL. However, if you consider the total lifespan of both types of bulb, you will find that CFLs are often cheaper. Please refer to box 4 for additional details.

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Getting the Most of your Energy Efficiency Program

Box 4. Comparison between Incandescent Light Bulb and CFL

UNIT
Power Price Lifetime Watt Rp Hour

ILB
40 5.000 750

CFL
11 25.000 10.000

Monthly Expenditure
Daily Usage Electricity Cost per kWh Total Electricity Cost Hour/day Rp/KwH Rp/month

2,5
10 560 6.720

33
10 560 1.848

For one year period


Electricity Cost Lamp Investment Cost Total cost Rp/year Rp/year 80.640 24.000 104.640 22.176 25.000 47.176

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In a fluorescent or TL lamp, power is consumed to produce light (lumens) and to power the ballast. A ballast is an electronic device used as a regulator for current and voltage. There are two types of ballasts, conventional and electronic. A conventional ballast can flicker and even produce buzzing sounds. Unlike its conventional counterpart, electronic ballasts produces no buzzing sound and does not flicker. This type of lamp is able to reduce electricity consumption as much as 30 percent. Installing dimmers with the CFLs will result in further increases to efficiency. Replacing conventional ballasts with electric ballats will result in significant cost and energy savings for the hotel. Numerous devices available in the market today assist with controlling lamps. These include:

1. Timer
This device is often used for outdoor illumination (gardens, parking areas, gazebos, etc.). The timer needs to be set based on the requirement of the hotel before the device is used.

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Getting the Most of your Energy Efficiency Program

2. Movement sensor
This device automatically turns lamps on and off when it senses human movement. It is ideal for corridors.

3. Photocell
This device measures natural light. When natural light levels are low, the device automatically turns on a lamp, and vice versa. For improved efficiency, combine this device with a dimmer.

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Energy Efficiency Tips on Illumination System


1. Turn off lamps that are not required 2. Make the most of natural sunlight.
Turn off lamps, and open curtains

3. Clean lamps and fixtures.

Dust on lamps and fixtures can lower light levels by as much as 5 percent

Sometimes, people add more lighting when all that is required is a thorough cleaning of existing fixtures. Unnecessary lighting only wastes energy.

4. Be careful when designing lighting systems. Use the


reference on page 73.

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Getting the Most of your Energy Efficiency Program

5. Use energy efficient lamps.

Various types of energy efficient lamps are now available in the market. Although the initial price is more expensive, in the long run, when monthly cost of electricity is factored in, energy efficient lamps are definitely cheaper.

6. Use lighting control technology, such as timers,


motion sensors, and photocells

7. Consider replacing old lamps with new ones

Advanced technologies can often save energy. Energy efficient lights can produce the same amount of brightness with less energy and cost.

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Boiler
A boiler is a vessel that functions as a water heater. The fuel used to heat boilers can be either gas, oil, or coal. In Indonesia, most of fuel used is diesel fuel.
There are two primary types of boilers, firetube and watertube boilers. A firetube boiler consists of a tank of water with pipes running through it. Hot gases run though these pipes to heat the water. In watertube boilers, water runs through a rack of tubes positioned in front of a fuel burner, which heats the water in the tubes. Both systems produce steam, which is used to meet hot water, HVAC, and other needs. Boiler systems can be either an open or closed system. In an open system, heat is not recovered from waste streams, while in a closed system, the heat is recaptured and reused through a variety of methods.

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Getting the Most of your Energy Efficiency Program

Figure4. How boilers work Boiler efficiency is commonly defined as how efficiently the boiler turns fuel into steam or hot water i.e. the ratio of steam or hot water produced to fuel burned. It represents the difference between the energy input and energy output. This can be determined by measuring the completeness of the fuel burnt and the effectiveness of the heat transfer to the water or steam. Optimum boiler efficiency results in reduced energy consumption, prolonged boiler life and resultant cost savings.
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A boiler spends 25 to 30 percent of its total used energy for the heating process alone. Maximum heat transfer from burner to water is important to maintain the efficiency of the boiler, and a common problem in this area is scaling. Proper water treatment can prevent boiler scale. If existing staff do not have sufficient water treatment expertise, professional engineers can be hired to perform this task. A steam trap maintenance program is essential to maximizing boiler efficiency. Blocked and failed steam traps reduce efficiency significantly, but lead to dangerous situations as condensed water builds up in the distribution system. Using a highefficiency boiler can reduce heating costs can by 10 to 30 percent, and gas consumption may be reduced by about 20 percent.

Boiler measurement can be conducted using an electronic or chemical type analyzer that samples flue gas to determine gas composition. If the boiler efficiency is lower than that stated in its design specification (75-80 percent for atmospheric boilers), then conduct the following steps: Clean the fire side of the heat exchanger. De-scale the water side of the heat exchanger. Clean the burners. For atmospheric boilers, check and adjust the gas pressure in the manifold. For forced draft boilers, check and adjust the air and gas flow rates. Conducting regular checks and measurements will reduce fuel consumption and the time required to heat water, increasing the boilers efficiency and resulting in operation cost reduction. Overall, this will also prolong the boilers lifetime.

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Here are some tips to maintain the efficiency of a boiler:


1. 2. 3. Perform regular maintenance. Use automatic controls to appropriately operate the boiler. Ensure that control systems are maintenance properly. Improper operation of the control system can result in an inefficiency of up to 20 percent. Properly insulate the system. Use insulated expansion tanks and heat exchangers. Prevent scale accumulation in boiler tubes, which impedes flow and heat transfer, through effective water treatment. This also minimizes boiler blowdown and results in potential efficiency gains of 10 -12 percent. Inspect steam distribution systems. Leaks, faulty valves, faulty steam traps, etc. can be costly. This could result in potential energy savings of up to 5 percent.

8. 9. 10.

11.

4. 5. 6.

12.

7.

Regularly cleaning strainers upstream of steam traps to prevent particle accumulation can yield efficiency gains of 10-15 percent. Insulating your pipes, valves, fittings, etc. can yield energy savings of 2-5 percent. Minimize surplus combustion air by adjusting fans, dampers, seals and optimizing overfire draft controls. Reducing air and oxygen by 15 percent and 1.5 percent, respectively, can provide a 1 percent gain in efficiency. Lower the water temperature of boilers to reduce short-cycle convective and radiant heat losses. A potential increase in efficiency of 1 percent is gained by reducing stack temperatures by 4.5oC. Consider replacing your boiler if it is already more than 25 years old. Newer boilers are usually designed with highly efficient technology, which can reduce fuel consumption by up to 30 percent, or even more.

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Getting the Most of your Energy Efficiency Program

There are also some other things that need to be noted:


1. Boiler service will require the services of a qualified tradesperson. 2. Combustion air must be provided as per installation code. 3. Air shortage problems occur mostly with natural draft boilers. 4. Regular visual inspections should be performed. Watch for the following conditions: either a lazy yellow flame or hard blue flame; dirty or sooty heat exchanger surfaces; damaged combustion chamber walls; backdrafting; flame roll out; and condensation in the boiler or vent.

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What you can do to be more energy efficient

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The success of an energy efficiency program within a hotel depends on active participation from all staff from housekeeping to management. Everyone needs to work together in order to reach the hotels energy savings goals.
Here are some tips on what staff in different departments within the hotel can do to participate in an energy efficiency program:

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Top-level management
Including an Energy Incentive Program as part your hotels energy efficiency program within the hotel, is an excellent idea. Such a program provides rewards to those going out of their way to contribute to the program. Incentive programs serve as a source of motivation for staff. Here are some tips for a manager: Serve as a good example by being actively involved in the implementation of the energy efficiency program and projects. Work with the Human Resource Development (HRD) manager to create an energy-efficiency standard operating procedure for staff from all levels within the hotel. Monitor and evaluate the energy efficiency program at regular intervals to ensure success. Always allow time to discuss any difficulties the staff might be facing in the implementation of the energy efficiency program. Encourage the production of campaign materialsbrochures, stickers, posters, etcto motivate hotel staff and guests to participate in the energy efficiency program Re-allocate some of the saveings from the program to employee welfare projects. This takes the form of a bonus program or staff outings. Create an Energy Efficiency Staff of the Month program to motivate staff to perform to the best of their capabilities

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What you can do to be more energy efficient

Finance manager
Record and chart monthly energy bills to monitor the efficiency rate of the hotel. Share the database to encourage staff and management to implement energy efficiency measures. Provide reader-friendly energy use summary statistics

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Engineering staff
Schedule and conduct regular maintenance and cleaning of all appliances to ensure that equipment is functioning properly. Work closely with housekeeping. Always remind them to use and maintain appliances in an energy efficient manner. Create a database for appliances. Data should include procurement dates, maintenance schedules, energy consumption data and other information. Keep up-to-date on the latest efficient technologies and practices.

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What you can do to be more energy efficient

Laundry staff
Ensure washers and dryers run only when fully and properly loaded If the hotel has adequate space, air-dry laundry Perform regular maintenance and cleaning of equipment. Turn off all washing equipment when not in use.

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Front office staff


Disseminate information to guests on the existing energy management program in your hotel to create awareness. Turn of unused equipment Turn off lights and air conditioning in unoccupied rooms. Work closely with housekeeping staff and communicate energyefficiency tips.

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What you can do to be more energy efficient

Kitchen staff
Avoid turning on all equipment first thing in the morning. Turn things on as you need them Do not allow fans to blow directly onto any cooking surfaces or equipment. Use sinks full of water rather than running water for washing pots or cleaning vegetables. Do not overfill refrigerator shelves. Proper cooling occurs when air can circulate thoroughly. Avoid opening and closing the doors of the refrigerator too often. Ensure the refrigerator doors close and seal properly. Defrost freezers to reduce frost buildups.

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Housekeeping staff
Turn of lights, a/c and appliances in unoccupied rooms Do not let the tap run while cleaning tubs and sinks. Open drapes and shades to allow natural light to enter once a room Make sure all cooling and lighting systems are off when rooms are not in use.

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Your successful Energy Efficiency Program.


When you have finished reading thoroughly this book, you should be able to decide how to manage and implement your own energy efficiency programme. Remember, a good and successful programme is achievable through good design process. Design, act and evaluate carefully the seven steps by considering each system where you can apply optimally each of your efficiency plans. Consider an energy audit to your hotel. You can hire professional auditors for this task who are going to provide you with full analysis of your energy system. They are also able to give specific reccomendations and help you constructing action plans for energy efficiency. Air conditioner and illumination system are the most common energy intensive system in the hotel but if your hotel does have other energy system such as boiler, do inspect and examine whether they are already operating in efficient manner. Evaluate the operation of every energy intensive appliances and identify the opportunity in energy savings by optimising their performances and/or improving the operation procedures. Initiating energy efficiency programme does not necessarily mean high-cost investment. There are many ways where you can start gaining saving by only doing good practices when operating your energy system. You can accumulate the savings

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month-by-month for future investment to apply further energy efficiency programme. Do contact the Ministry of Environment, Energy Service Company and/or private bank as funding schemes are often available to finance energy efficiency programme. You will also need a full support from staff at all levels to the programme. The key success of your energy efficiency programme is staff awareness and their continuous participation. Keep the staff continually informed how the programme progressing and what they can do to maximize the achievement. You should also keep their motivational and awareness level high by rewarding their participation through many ways such as special training, incentive scheme and formation of energy efficiency club.

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