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Design Considerations for an LLC Resonant Converter

Hangseok Choi Power Conversion Team

www.fairchildsemi.com

1. Introduction
Growing demand for higher power density and low profile in power converter has forced to increase switching frequency However, Switching Loss has been an obstacle to high frequency operation

High frequency operation

Overlap of voltage and current

Capacitive loss

Reverse recovery loss

1. Introduction
Resonant converter: processes power in a sinusoidal manner and the switching devices are softly commutated 9 Voltage across the switch drops to zero before switch turns on (ZVS)
Remove overlap area between V and I when turning on Capacitive loss is eliminated

Series resonant converter / Parallel resonant converter

1. Introduction
Series Resonant (SR) converter
Q1

resonant network
Ip Vd Lr Lm n:1 Ro + VO Cr

Vin
Q2

Ids2

The resonant inductor (Lr) and resonant capacitor (Cr) are in series The resonant capacitor is in series with the load
9 The resonant tank and the load act as a voltage divider DC gain is always lower than 1 (maximum gain happens at the resonant frequency) 9 The impedance of resonant tank can be changed by varying the frequency of driving voltage (Vd)
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1. Introduction
Series Resonant (SR) converter Advantages
9 Reduced switching loss and EMI through ZVS Improved efficiency 9 Reduced magnetic components size by high frequency operation

Drawbacks
9 Can optimize performance at one operating point, but not with wide range of input voltage and load variations 9 Can not regulate the output at no load condition 9 Pulsating rectifier current (capacitor output): limitation for high output current application

1. Introduction
Parallel Resonant (PR) converter

Q1

resonant network
Ip Vd Llkp Cr n:1 Ro + VO -

Vin
Q2

Ids2

The resonant inductor (Lr) and resonant capacitor (Cr) are in series The resonant capacitor is in parallel with the load
9 The impedance of resonant tank can be changed by varying the frequency of driving voltage (Vd)

1. Introduction
Parallel Resonant (PR) converter Advantages
9 No problem in output regulation at no load condition 9 Continuous rectifier current (inductor output): suitable for high output current application

Drawbacks
9 The primary side current is almost independent of load condition: significant current may circulate through the resonant network, even at the no load condition 9 Circulating current increases as input voltage increases: limitation for wide range of input voltage

1. Introduction
What is LLC resonant converter?
9 Topology looks almost same as the conventional LC series resonant converter 9 Magnetizing inductance (Lm) of the transformer is relatively small and involved in the resonance operation 9 Voltage gain is different from that of LC series resonant converter

LC Series resonant converter


Q1

LLC resonant converter

resonant network
Ip Vd Lr Lm n:1 Ro + VO Cr

Q1

resonant network
Ip Vd Lr Im Lm Cr n:1 ID Ro Io + VO -

Vin
Q2

Vin
Q2

Ids2

Ids2

1. Introduction
Features of LLC resonant converter
- Reduced switching loss through ZVS: Improved efficiency - Narrow frequency variation range over wide load range - Zero voltage switching even at no load condition

- Typically, integrated transformer is used instead of discrete magnetic components

1. Introduction
Integrated transformer in LLC resonant converter
9 Two magnetic components are implemented with a single core (use the primary side leakage inductance as a resonant inductor) 9 One magnetic components (Lr) can be saved 9 Leakage inductance not only exists in the primary side but also in the secondary side 9 Need to consider the leakage inductance in the secondary side

Q1

Q1

Integrated transformer
Ip Vd Llkp Im Lm Cr n:1 Llks ID Ro Io + VO -

Vin
Vd Q2 Lr Lm Ids2

n:1

ID Ro

Io + VO -

Vin
Q2

Cr

Ids2

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2. Operation principle and Fundamental Approximation


Square wave generator: produces a square wave voltage, Vd by driving switches, Q1 and Q2 with alternating 50% duty cycle for each switch. Resonant network: consists of Llkp, Llks, Lm and Cr. The current lags the voltage applied to the resonant network which allows the MOSFETs to be turned on with zero voltage. Rectifier network: produces DC voltage by rectifying AC current
Ip Im

Square wave generator


Q1

resonant network
Ip Vd Llkp Im Lm Cr n:1 Llks

Rectifier network
ID Ro Io + VO -

Ids2

Vin
Q2

ID Vd (Vds2) Vgs1 Vgs2 Vin

Ids2

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2. Operation principle and Fundamental Approximation


The resonant network filters the higher harmonic currents. Thus, essentially only sinusoidal current is allowed to flow through the resonant network even though a square wave voltage (Vd) is applied to the resonant network. Fundamental approximation: assumes that only the fundamental component of the square-wave voltage input to the resonant network contributes to the power transfer to the output. The square wave voltage can be replaced by its fundamental component

I p Vd Resonant net w or k

I sec

I p Vd Resonant net w or k

I sec

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2. Operation principle and Fundamental Approximation


Because the rectifier circuit in the secondary side acts as an impedance transformer, the equivalent load resistance is different from actual load resistance. The primary side circuit is replaced by a sinusoidal current source (Iac) and a square wave of voltage (VRI) appears at the input to the rectifier. The equivalent load resistance is obtained as
Iac I ac
pk

Io + + VRI Ro VO -

Rac =

8 Vo 8 VRI VRI = = = Ro 2 2 F Io I ac I ac

Iac VRIF VRI


Vo

I ac =

Io
2

sin( wt )

VRI F =

4Vo

sin( wt )

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2. Operation principle and Fundamental Approximation


AC equivalent circuit (L-L-L-C)
Vd + Cr Llkp Llks + Lm VRI Ro +

Vin

VO

sin(t ) VRO 2n Vo n VRI M= F = = = F 4 Vin Vd Vd Vin sin(t ) 2


F F

4n Vo

n:1

Rac =

8n 2

2 2 2 j (1 2 ) ( Lm + n Llks ) + Rac (1 2 ) o p
8n 2

2 Lm Rac Cr

Ro
n2Llks

Rac =
Rac

Ro 1 L p Cr

Cr

Llkp Lm

VdF

VROF

o =

1 , p = Lr Cr

Lp = Lm + Llkp , Lr = Llkp + Lm //(n 2 Llks )


- Lr is measured in primary side with secondary winding short circuited - Lp is measured in primary side with secondary winding open circuited

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2. Operation principle and Fundamental Approximation

Simplified AC equivalent circuit (L-L-C)


Vd + Cr Llkp Llks + Lm n:1
2

Assuming Llkp=n2Llks
M= 2n VO = Vin

Vin

VO
Ro -

VRI -

2 k ( 2) p k +1 2 2 (k + 1) 2 j ( ) (1 2 ) Q + (1 2 ) o o p 2k + 1

Lr = Llkp + Lm //(n Llks ) = Llkp + Lm // Llkp

L p = Llkp + Lm
Cr Lr Lp-Lr

1:

Lp L p Lr

Q=

Lr / Cr Rac

k=

Lm Llkp

Expressing in terms of Lp and Lr


Rac
VROF

VinF

M=
- Lr is measured in primary side with secondary winding short circuited - Lp is measured in primary side with secondary winding open circuited

2n VO = Vin

2 Lp Lr ( 2) Lp p
Lp 2 2 + (1 2 ) j ( ) (1 2 ) Q Lr o o p

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2. Operation principle and Fundamental Approximation

Gain characteristics
9 Two resonant frequencies (fo and fp) exist 9 The gain is fixed at resonant frequency (fo) regardless of the load variation k +1 = k
2. 0

fp

LLC r esonant C onver t er

fo Q=0.2
Q= Lr / Cr Rac
Q= 1 Q = 0. 8 Q = 0. 6

1. 8

1. 6

G ai n

M @ =o =

Lp Lp Lr

1. 4

Q = 0. 4 Q = 0. 2

1. 2

9 Peak gain frequency exists between fo and fp 9 As Q decreases (as load decreases), the peak gain frequency moves to fp and higher peak gain is obtained. 9 As Q increases (as load increases), peak gain frequency moves to fo and the peak gain drops

1. 0

Q=1
M= k +1 = k Lp Lp Lr

0. 8

0. 6
40 50 60 70 80 90 f r eq ( kH z) 100 110 120 130 140

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2. Operation principle and Fundamental Approximation


Peak gain (attainable maximum gain) versus Q for different k values

2.4

2.2

2.0

Peak Gain

k=1.5
1.8

k=1.75
1.6

k=2 k=2.5

1.4

k=3 k=4 k=5 k=7 k=9


0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4

1.2

Q
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3. Design procedure
Design example
- Input voltage: 380Vdc (output of PFC stage) - Output: 24V/5A (120W) - Holdup time requirement: 17ms - DC link capacitor of PFC output: 100uF

PFC
Q1

DC/DC
ID Ip Vd Q2 Llkp Im Lm Ids2 Cr Np:Ns Llks VO + Ro

VDL CDL

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3. Design procedure
[STEP-1] Define the system specifications
9 Estimated efficiency (Eff) 9 Input voltage range: hold up time should be considered for minimum input voltage

Vin min = VO. PFC 2

2 PinTHU CDL

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3. Design procedure
[STEP-2] Determine the maximum and minimum voltage gains of the resonant network by choosing k ( k = Lm / Llkp ) - it is typical to set k to be 5~10, which results in a gain of 1.1~1.2 at fo
M
min

VRO Lm + n 2 Llks Lm + Llkp k + 1 = max = = = Vin Lm Lm k 2

Gain (M)
Peak gain (available maximum gain)

max

Vin max min = min M Vin

Mmax

1.36

for Vinmin

Mmin

1.14

for Vinmax

M=

k +1 = 1.14 k

fo

fs

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3. Design procedure
[STEP-3] Determine the transformer turns ratio (n=Np/Ns)
Vin max n= = M min N s 2 (Vo + VF ) Np

[STEP-4] Calculate the equivalent load resistance (Rac)


8n 2 Vo 2 Rac = 2 Po

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3. Design procedure
[STEP-5] Design the resonant network - With k chosen in STEP-2, read proper Q from gain curves

k = 7 , M max = 1.36 peak gain = 1.36 110% = 1.5

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3. Design procedure
[STEP-6] Design the transformer - Plot the gain curve and read the minimum switching frequency. Then, the minimum number of turns for the transformer primary side is obtained as
N p min = n(Vo + VF ) 2 f s min B Ae

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3. Design procedure
[STEP-7] Transformer Construction
- Since LLC converter design results in relatively large Lr, usually sectional bobbin is typically used - # of turns and winding configuration are the major factors determining Lr - Gap length of the core does not affect Lr much - Lp can be easily controlled with gap length

Np=52T

Ns1=Ns2=6T Bifilar

Design value: Lr=234uH, Lp=998uH


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3. Design procedure
[STEP-8] Select the resonant capacitor
I Cr
RMS

n(V + 2 VF ) 2 [ ] +[ o ] 2 2n 4 2 f o Lm
2

Io

VCr

max

Vin max 2 I Cr RMS + 2 2 f o Cr

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4. Conclusion
Using a fundamental approximation, gain equation has been derived Leakage inductance in the secondary side is also considered (L-L-L-C model) for gain equation L-L-L-C equivalent circuit has been simplified as a conventional L-L-C equivalent circuit Practical design consideration has been presented

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Appendix - FSFR-series
Variable frequency control with 50% duty cycle for half-bridge resonant converter topology High efficiency through zero voltage switching (ZVS) Internal Super-FETs with Fast Recovery Type Body Diode (trr=120ns) Fixed dead time (350ns) Up to 300kHz operating frequency Pulse skipping for Frequency limit (programmable) at light load condition Simple remote ON/OFF control Various Protection functions: Over Voltage Protection (OVP), Over Current Protection (OCP), Abnormal Over Current Protection (AOCP), Internal Thermal Shutdown (TSD)

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Appendix - FSFR-series demo board

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Appendix - FSFR-series demo board

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