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IMPLEMENTAO DA NORMA ISO 27001

World leader in Risk Management and Compliance solutions. Create value and minimize your risks through our on-demand management systems.

Real ISO Corp. 626, Glenn Curtiss Uniondale, 11556 New York USA www.realiso.com

Modus Operandi ISO 27001 - Training


Implementation Guide Part One

Informative Aspects
Guide Objectives:
General view of Information Security Focus on security management Understanding an ISMS Understanding Risk Analysis Study of Information Security management processes

General aspects of Modus Operandi Information Security

What does Information Security mean?


Foreign hackers capturing CC numbers Large corporation websites being distorted for political reasons Virus attacks that render large corporations inactive Digital spies capturing and selling information on competition and huge databases Young people invading systems not knowing the true information value

What does Information Security mean?

Old-fashioned view!!!

Decision-Taking

Control Information

Decision-Making

A good decision depends on the quality of information

Information Security
Far beyond firewall!
Security does not depend upon IT alone Assuring security does not mean simply ensuring information secrecy Proper decisions depend on accurate information Security may generate perceivable value

What is information?
On paper: Memos, standards, formulas, designs, strategies.
On digital media: Disks, tapes, CDs, transmitted files. Sound: Meeting recording, messages left on telephone switchboards, cell phone mailbox.

Image: Document photos, identification photos, facilities photos, videotapes, digital videos.

Resources
Processing: Ability to handle information and generate results
Storage: Ability to store information. Does not change information Communication: Ability to transmit information. Should not change transmitted information

Last Paradigm: Responsibility


Due Diligence: shows that the company is carrying out security activities on a steady basis. Due Care: development of information security policies, risk analysis, and an ISMS. Shows that Management has taken the required decisions and actions to protect the company.

Warning: Not carrying out Due Diligence and Due Care may characterize administrative negligence.

Basic Principles
Confidentiality: given information that may not be made available or disclosed for people, entities or processes without permission. A concept to ensure that sensitive, confidential information is limited to an appropriate group of individuals or organizations.
Integrity: the condition by which information or information resources are protected from unauthorized changes. Information accuracy and completeness.

Basic Principles
Availability: information is to be delivered to the right people, when needed.

ISO 27001

Framework and Implementation

What is ISO 27001?


A standard with the requirements for a company to implement an information security management system It was originated from BS 7799, created by BSI British Standard Institute
Business process-oriented and not technology infrastructure-oriented Based on PDCA management cycle

What is ISO 27001?


Determines that a company must have an ISMS IS Management System
May be applied to any company type Enables a company to have its ISMS certificated

In line with ISO 9000, ISO 14000 standards

What ISO 27001 is NOT?


A technical standard
A standard developed for IT area

A guide for best practices. For that ISO 27002 is available


A methodology for information security management

IS Management System - PDCA


Understanding security requirements Assess business risks and requirements
Implementing and operating controls Technological, physical, and administrative Monitoring and reviewing System performance Indicators and objective metrics Improving on an ongoing basis Corrective and preventive actions

ISO 27001 Application


Why implementing an ISMS?
The System was developed with the aim of suiting and providing security controls that properly protect the companys information assets, increasing reliability of customers and other concerned parties

ISO 27001 Application


Basic Requirements
However, the following items may not be disregarded: 4 Information Security Management System 5 Management Responsibility 6 Internal ISMS Audits 7 Management Review of the ISMS 8 ISMS Improvement

Information Security Management System


The Security Management System should:
Follow PDCA model

Consider business context and Information risks Be business process-oriented


Comply with the standard requirements

Implementing ISMS -

Starting Point

System Scope
Which processes will my system act upon?
The scope defines which information assets the system will act upon It is interesting to define scope through business process approach Scope definition should be clear and allow identification of locations and assets involved

Information Security Policy


Management System guidelines
Policy should reflect the companys philosophy with regard to its information security It should provide directions to all concerned parties It should consider business requirements and applicable regulatory requirements

Information Security Policy


Strategic Line-up
Which are the main companys strategies?

How does information security relate to these strategies? Which are the companys security objectives?

Risk Analysis
Security Requirements for a Company
Information Security risks Regulatory and Contractual Obligations Set of principles, objectives and business requirements needed for information processing

Risk Analysis
National and International Standards References
ISO 13335-1 and ISO 13335-2

ISO Guide 73 Risk management Vocabulary


AS NZS 4360

What are Risks?


Risks are events that negatively impact the organizations ability to achieve their goals as far as the probability of their occurrence and the related consequences are concerned
Analyze risks means identifying and quantifying these events so that specific actions may be planned and developed

Risk Analysis
Objectives

To identify the main risks to information security in a systematic way To ensure compliance of Security Management process with ISO 27001 standard To present in a quantified way the events that may prevent the organization to achieve their goals Security Policy

Risk Analysis
Objectives

To provide an overview of the aspects that need to be managed to assure compliance to the Security Policy Risk Management is one of the main ways to ensure safety for diverse market segments

Risk Analysis
Methodology

What are the risks of non-compliance with Security Policy? Analysis of risks: Technological Physical Administrative

Risk Analysis
Methodology

Business focus: What are the risks really impacting my business Every organization area must be involved Direct participation of managers and those individuals responsible for information assets

Risk Analysis
Methodology

Identification and evaluation through: On-site analyses Interviews and meetings Authorized simulations Interim results must be submitted to approval

Risk Analysis
Business Processes

Information flow Consider the point where information is generated or starts to be part of the processes Consider emergence, life and destruction of information Identify flow main components

Risk Analysis
Information Assets

Information flow components Examples of assets: Computers, telephone, fax People, outsourced resources Forms, documents, reports Evaluate asset importance for the company

Information flow

Clientes Customers Atendente Telemarketing Telemarketing Operator

Mainframe

Telefone Phone Central Telefnica Telephone Switchboard

Telefone Telephone

Hub Estao de Trabalho Workstation Softwares: 1 -SysCall 2- Correio Eletrnico

Internet Router Server Internet Firewall

Example of Information Flow

Risk Analysis
Information Assets

Identify main components Equipment, software, services, etc.


Identify main network and information transmission segments Identify main information transmitted through flows

Risk Analysis Identifying Security Risks

Risk Analysis
Threats and Vulnerabilities

Threat: risk agent Hackers, spies, computer virus


Vulnerabilities: fault enabling threat action Software flaws, design errors, security gaps

Risk Analysis
Threats and Vulnerabilities

Events = association of threats and vulnerabilities


Identify potential events for each information asset

Evaluate possible scenarios Earthquake?

Risk Analysis
Threats and Vulnerabilities

Remind: potential events considering Information Security Policy


What are the possibilities of non-compliance with the Security Policy?

Risk Analysis - Exercise


Threats and Vulnerabilities

Gather into groups of 3


Identify possible events by considering the already defined Security Policy We will be discussing these events with the other groups within 30 minutes

Risk Analysis Methodology


Consequences (impact)

What is the damage to the company if the event really takes place? This estimation must consider: Revenue and financial losses Penalties and indemnifications Impact to the companys image Evaluate damage in face of loss of reliability, integrity and availability

Risk Analysis Methodology Exercise


Consequences (impact)

Gather into groups of 3


Identify the impact of identified events considering the impact to reliability, integrity and availability We will be discussing these impacts with the other groups within 20 minutes

Risk Analysis Methodology


incident History

Identification of the probability for the listed events to occur


Determining factors: Internal history (many times insufficient) External history (statistics and surveys)

Risk Analysis Methodology


Incident History

Participation of the company management What is the frequency by which the issues occur Great impact on the final risk rate Probability is one of the risk determining factors

Risk Analysis Methodology Exercise


Probability

Gather into groups of 3


Determine metrics for probability definition

Determine the probability for listed events to occur We will be discussing within 20 minutes

Risk Analysis Methodology


Result: Risks

Risks are the result from threats and vulnerabilities, when considering their probability to occur and related damages Risks must be quantified into a numeric scale Asset value must always be considered

Risk Treatment - Exercise


Consolidating Results

Gather into groups of 3


Define the best way to get risk final score

Quantify mapped risks up to now


Results will be discussed with the other groups

Risk Analysis Modus Operandi Risk Treatment

Risk Treatment
Risk Acceptance Criteria

Companies have distinct profiles Daring: speed, greater risk Conservative: stability, lower risk Risk acceptance criteria must be defined Management decision Risks must be advertently accepted or handled

Risk Treatment
Treatment Options

Apply controls for risk reduction Recognize and accept risks as per predefined criteria Avoid risks Transfer risks

IMPLEMENTAO DA NORMA ISO 27001

Risk Treatment
Selection of Controls

Conformance with the risk acceptance criteria Risks should be selected that will be handled by application of controls

ISO 17799:2005
Additional controls may be used

Documenting Security Controls


SC Security Control

Objectives Related Risks

Description How control is applied

Control Metrics What are the evaluation metrics and the service levels which the control must conform to

Example of content for a Security Control document

Evaluation of Results where is information evidencing control effectiveness

Risk Treatment
Risk Treatment Plan

Document indicating responsibilities for risk treatment Must indicate Residual Risk Must indicate deadlines Must describe how risks will be treated Document required in the course of the certification process

Risk Treatment
Residual Risk

Control implementation may be in two ways: By minimizing impact By minimizing probability Residual Risk is the new risk value after control implementation

Risk Treatment - Exercise


Documenting Controls

Gather into groups of 3 Select one or more controls from Attachment A of ISO 27001 standard Document and identify metrics as per items presented in CS document Results will be discussed with the other groups within 20 minutes

Risk Treatment
Statement of Applicability (SoA)

Describes all controls in Attachment A of the standard Identifies the ones that are applied and those that are not Justifies non-implementation of discarded controls Justifies implementation of selected controls Indicates additional controls Indicates where control application is described

Risk Treatment - Exercise


Statement of Applicability

Gather into groups of 3 Prepare a statement of applicability Results will be discussed with the other groups within 45 minutes

Risk Management
Security Policy Monitor and Review

Risk Communication

Identify Risks

Quantify Risks

Evaluate Risks

Treat Risks

IMPLEMENTAO DA NORMA ISO 27001

Risk Management

ISO Guide 73

IMPLEMENTAO DA NORMA ISO 27001

Modus Operandi Documentation and


Responsibilities

Documentation
Documentation Requirements
Statements of Security Policy and security objectives System scope as well as procedures and controls supporting the system Risk Analysis Report and Risk Treatment Plan

Documentation
Documentation Requirements
Procedures required to ensure effectiveness, operation and control for your security processes Remaining records required by ISO 27001 Statement of Applicability

Documentation
Document Control
System for document approval Document review and update Identification of changes and revision traceability Make sure the latest document version is always in place wherever it is used

Documentation
Document Control
Control of document distribution Ensure external document source identification Ensure document access control!

Documentation
Record Control
Records are documents evidencing that a given control or procedure has been performed Records have usually date and represent instances of a same document Examples of records: Completed forms Minutes of Meetings System Logs

Documentation
Record Control
The standard requires maintenance of records evidencing that System has been executed Records must be kept secure for predetermined periods Record maintenance requirements must be clearly identified

Document hierarchy

SM SC SI SR

Security Management Security Control Security Instruction

Security Record

Example of document arrangement

Relationship among documents

SM Security Management SC - Control SI SI SC - Control SI SI SC - Control SI SI

SR SR SR SR

SR SR SR SR

SR SR SR SR

Document Arrangement

Example of document arrangement

Document Control - Exercise


Controls x Instructions x Records

Gather into groups of 3 Select one or more controls from previous tasks Briefly describe the possible content for the control document. Create some instructions for this control Results will be discussed with the other groups within 30 minutes

Management Responsibility
Commitment with the System
Management must set a Security Policy They must make sure that security objectives and plans are in place They must define security roles and responsibilities

Management Responsibilities
Commitment with the System
Management must communicate to the whole organization the importance of achieving security objectives through compliance with Policy and individual responsibilities For these objectives to be met Management must provide the required resources

Management Responsibilities
Commitment with the System
Management must define the acceptable risk level according to methodology Management must periodically review the system in search of improvement opportunities Management must monitor and check efficiency of ISMS and Security Controls

Management Responsibilities
Resource Management
Management must provide the required resources to establish, implement, operate and maintain the System They must provide resources to make sure proper application of controls and compliance to regulatory and contractual requirements They must assure a periodic critical analysis and System improvement

Management Responsibilities
Training, Culture and Capabilities
Management must make sure that individuals have the required capability to perform their assigned tasks The organization culture level must be periodically evaluated and improvement actions performed Records must be kept of all training and remaining qualification services

Training
Capability and responsibility
Each function must have clearly defined responsibilities Job Description It must be assured that individuals performing these functions have due skills to perform them Training must be carried out in line with the required skills

Security Awareness
Maintenance

Processes

Technology

Awareness

Disclosure

Perimeter

People

Training

Responsibilities - Exercise
Basic Responsibilities

Gather into groups of 3 Briefly describe responsibilities of the following roles Process Manager, Asset Manager, Area Manager; Control Manager; Security Officer Results will be discussed with the other groups within 30 minutes

ISMS Monitoring
Performance evaluation
The organization must carry out monitoring routines and other controls to: Detect errors in process results Identify incidents and security flaws Check if security routines are being carried out Determine whether actions reflect business priorities

ISMS Monitoring
System Efficiency
The organization must carry out monitoring routines and other controls to: Check if ISMS procedures are being efficient Check if security controls are being efficient Check if security objectives are being met

Residual Risk and Security Incidents

Risks identified but not treated

Information Security Incidents


Risks not considered in the Risk Analysis Residual risk after treatment

ISMS Monitoring
Risk Management
The organization must periodically review risks by considering changes in: the organization technology business objectives and processes identified threats external events such as changes in the political social or economical scenario

Internal Audit
Process-oriented
Audits of all areas, business processes, procedures and controls Checking of compliance with ISO 27001 and regulatory / contractual requirements Checking of compliance with security requirements Checking of effective implementation and maintenance of security controls

Internal Audit
Basic Aspects

It is important to keep trained and skilled internal auditors to audit ISMS Experts to check technical compliance Audits must be planned: Audit Schedule Previous audit results must be considered when planning audits Auditors should never audit their own work

Audit Schedule
Technical knowledge

Physical and Technological Controls

Knowledge of processes and standards

Administrative Controls

Information Security Management

Knowledge of Management Systems

Example of audit segregation

Internal Audit
Audit Performance

They must be focused on the audit scope There must be an opening meeting Non-compliances found must be recorded as well as notes and incidents The audited ones must formally acknowledge the audit results

Internal Audit
Audit Techniques

Sampling audit Interviews with managers and employees Reading of controls and procedures and requesting of records Checking of work routine performance Simulation of scenarios

Management Critical Analysis of the System


General Aspects
This critical analysis must be carried out in order to assure system applicability and to identify improvement opportunities It is indicated to take place at least yearly System effectiveness and efficiency must be critically analyzed against target objectives

Management Critical Analysis of the System


Input Data
Results of internal audits and remaining critical analyses Feedback from the concerned parties Techniques, products or procedures that may be used by the System to increase efficiency Status of improvement actions and non-compliances Vulnerabilities and threats non-properly addressed in the last risk analysis

Management Critical Analysis of the System


Input Data
Results of security control efficiency monitoring Security strategic objectives and general ISMS indicators

Management Critical Analysis of the System


Output Data
Follow-up of actions generated in previous meetings Any change that may impact the system Recommendations for system improvement Plan with actions, objectives and persons in charge Security goals for the period Is ISMS properly implemented?

Critical Analysis Schedule

Input Data
System Efficiency Audit Results New Risks Business changes

Output Data Critical Analysis


Management
Improvement Actions

System Improvement
Ongoing Improvement

Most similar features among ISO standards Critical analysis actions, efficiency monitoring and audit should generate improvement actions Corrective and preventive actions must be considered
The organization must be capable of showing its ability to improve system with time

System Improvement
Corrective Actions

Identification and elimination of non-compliance causes Assurance that non-compliance will not recur Base for System improvement actions Results of corrective actions must be recorded Corrective action results must be periodically revised

System Improvement
Preventive Actions

Pro-activity: identifying non-compliances in advance Implementing preventive actions Results of such actions must be recorded Evaluated risks and possibility of changes in the initial scenario must be considered The cost for preventive actions is generally lower than the cost for corrective actions

Ongoing Improvement

Optimal security level is achieved after several PDCA turns

Certification Audit
Required actions

Full turn on PDCA Internal Audit and identification of the required improvements Evidences proving system life for approximately 3 months Evidences that Management critically analyzed ISMS and found it adequate to their needs

Certification Audit
Audit System

Pre-audit Certification Audit Periodical audits

IMPLEMENTAO DA NORMA ISO 27001

World leader in Risk Management and Compliance solutions. Create value and minimize your risks through our on-demand management systems.

Real ISO Corp. 626, Glenn Curtiss Uniondale, 11556 New York USA www.realiso.com