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To Ierances

14.1 Introduction
Today's technology requires that parts be specified with increasingly exact dimensions. Many parts made by different companies at widely separated locations must be interchangeable, which requires precise size specifications and production. The technique of dirnensioning parts within a required range of variation to ensure interchangeability is cailed tolerancing. Each dimension is allowed a certain degree of variation within a specified zone, or tolerance. For example, a part's dimension rnight be expressed as 20 k 0.50, which ~~JOW aS tolerance (variation in size) of 1.00 min. A tolerance should be as large as possible without interfering with the function of the part to minimize production costs. Manufacturing costs increase as tolerances become smaller. The cut-away view of the shaft journal in Fig. I4.1 illustrates parts that must rotate smoothly 011 ball bearings. If these parts were not toleranced ~&iilllfdCtured to a high degree of accuracy, Lvould not f~inction properly.

Figure 14.1 This shaft journal would not rotate smoothly on the ball bearings if adjacent parts had not been manufactured within extremely close tolerances

14.2 Tolerance Dimensions Figure 14.2 shows three methods of specifying tolerances on dimensions: unilateral, bilateral, and limit forms. When plus-or-minus tolerarlcing
is used, it is applied t o a theoretical tlimensiorl

267

UNILATERAL, BILATERAL, AND LIMIT TOLERANCES


UNILATERAL TOLERANCE ( V a r i a t i o n i n o n e dir.) BILATERAL TOLERANCE ( V a r i a t i o n in t w o dir.) L a r g e limit o n toD-;.

ORDER OF NUMBERS
Plus t o l e r a n c e o n top

/----2.250

I- - : : :
spcce

k--2.250
General .650

?.003---spcce

General

1-

.650
t.003

L-Tlght
Space

Tight

A . LIMITS

B. P L U S - M I N U S

-.oOO j

,- S m a l l
first

limit

1
, Large o n

\
LIMIT FORM
I

/i
Small to large

Figure 14.3 Place upper limits either above or to the right


General space Tight S p a c e

DIA F o r m

of lower limits. In plus-and-minus tolerancing, place the

plus limits above the minus limits.

Figure 14.2 These methods properly position and indicate


tolerances in unilateral, bilateral, and limit forms for both general and tight spaces.

POSlTIONING OF NUMBERS

called the basic dimension. When dimensions can vary in only one direction from the basic dimension (either larger or smaller), tolerancing is unilateral. Tolerancing that permits variation in both directions from the basic dimension (larger and smaller) is bilateral. Tolerances may also be given in limit form, with dimensions representing the largest and smallest sizes for a feature. When tolerances are shown in limit form, the basic dimension will be unknown. Figure 14.3 shows the customary methods of applying tolerance values on dimension lines. Figure 14.4 shows the ratios of tolerance numerals placed in dimension lines.

A.

PLUS-MINUS

TOLERANCES H .~ I 1 2 ~ 1 6
.

2.0400-i
I ,9980-T
B. L I M I T - F O R M
TOLERANCES

Figure 14.4 This drawing shows the spacing and ratios Of


numerals used to specify tolerances on dimensions.

14.3 Mating Parts


Mating parts must be toleranced to fit within a prescribed degree of accuracy (Fig. 14.5). The upper part is dimensioned with limits indicating its maximum and minimum sizes. The notch in

the lower part is toleranced to be slightly I allowing the parts to assemble with a clearance Mating parts also may be cylindrical fo such as a pulley, bushing, and shaft (Fig. 1 The bushing should force fit inside the provide a good bearing surface for the shaft. At the same time, the shaft and th should mate so that the pulley and bushing rotate on the shaft with a free running fit.

268

CHAPTER14 TOLERANCES

TERMINOLOGYOF TOLERANCES
Hole Shaft to1 = 0 0 2 5 to1 = 0 0 4 0
~

I4925

I 1.5040

L
E. M EAN I NG
Undercut (groove)

-M E Z l
1.5000

c . m

Largest Shaft
1

7
' )1 9 9 7 4 ,

'

Hole

1.5000 Tightest -1.4950 Fit A l l o w a n c e +.0050

1.5040
L o o s e s t Fit M a x C l e a r a n c e +.01 15 D.LOOSEST FIT

E 5

C.TIGHTEST

FIT

I
THIS

Figure 14.7 The allowance (tightest fit) between these


assembled parts is +0.005". The maximum clearance is

THESE TOLERANCES M E A N

+0.0115".
Figure 14.5 These mating parts have tolerances (variations in size) of 0.003" and 0.002", respectively. The allowance (tightest fit) between the assembled parts is 0.002".

414.4 Tolerancing: English Units


gushing hlV fit insic i i o l e in must

Shaft m u s t have a clea ra n c e

Term ino Iogy Figure 14.7, showing mating of cylindrical parts, illustrates the following tolerancing terminology and definitions.

f i t inside h o l e in
bushing

4
. , -

Tolerance: the difference between the limits prescribed for a single feature, or 0.0025 in. for the shaft and 0.0040 for the hole (Fig. 14.7A).
BUSHING PULLEY

SHAFT

Figure 14.6 These parts must be assembled with cylindrical that give a clearance and an interference fit.

Limits of tolerance: the extreme measurements permitted by the maximum and minim u m sizes of a feature, or 1.4925 and 1.4950 for the shaft and 1.5000 and 1.5040 for the hole (Fig. 14.7B). Allowance: the tightest fit between the two mating parts, or +0.0050 (Fig. 14.7C), allowance is negative for an interference fit. Nominal size: an approximate size of shaft and hole, usually expressed with common fractions, or 1.50 in. (1 1 / 2 in.) (Fig. 14.7).

14.4 TOLERANCING: ENGLISH UNITS

269

Minimum length -)
I-

~-

,1
I

I
1

I
A, INTERFERENCE

A.MINIMUM TOLERANCE
C.

B.MAXIMUM TOLERANCE

E.

FIT

TRANSITION FIT

LIN E FIT

Figure 14.9 Single tolerances can be given in applications


of this type in maximum (MAX) or minimum (MINI form,

Figure 14.8 This drawing shows three types of fits between mating parts in addition to the clearance fit shown in the Fig. 14.7.

than the hole and still be within the prescribed tolerances (Fig. 14.8B).

Basic size: the exact theoretical size from which limits are derived by the application of plus-and-minus tolerances, or 1.5000 (Fig. 14.7). The basic diameter cannot be determined if the tolerances are expressed in limit form. Actual size: the measured size of the finished part. Fit: the tightness between two assembled parts. The four types of fit are: clearance, interference, transition, and line. Clearance fit: the clearance between two assembled mating parts-the fit between the shaft and the hole that permits a minimum clearance of 0.0050 in. and a maximum clearance of 0.0115 in. (Figs. 14.7C and D). Interference fit: results in an interference between the two assembled parts-the shaft is larger than the hole, requiring a force or press fit, an effect similar to welding the two parts (Fig. 14.8). Transition fit: may result in either an interference or a clearance between the assembled parts-the shaft may be either smaller or larger
i

Line fit: may result in surface contact or clearance when the limits are approached (Fig.
14.8C).

Selective assembly: a method of selecting and assembling parts by trial and error and by hand, allowing parts to be made with greater tolerances at less cost as a compromise between a high manufacturing accuracy and ease of assembly. Single limits: dimensions designated by either minimum (MIN) or maximum (MAX), but not by both (Fig. 14.9); depths of holes, lengths, threads, corner radii, chamfers, and so on are sometimes dimensioned in this manner.

44.5 Basic Hole System


The basic hole system utilizes the smallest h d size as the basic diameter for calculating tolerances and allowances. The basic hole system is

1.

270

CHAPTER14 TOLERANCES

For rofthe hole is 1.500 in. Subtract the allowance, o.wM, from it to find the diameter o f t h e largest

in Fig. 14.7 the smallest diame-

CALCULATION OF LIMITS: INCH TABLES


CLASS R C 9 FIT (1 97-3.15 L i m i t s of Clearance See Appendix

D~A)
Hole 7.0
0

shaft, 1,495~ in. T~ find the smallest limit for the

a diameter,

subtract the tolerance from

Shaft -9.0 -13.5

HOLE

2.5000

BASIC DIA Lower Limi

14.6 Basic Shaft System


basic &aft system is applicable when shafts pe in highly precise standad SheS. m e largest diameter of the shaft is the basic diamaer for applying tolerances and allowances. The largest shaft size is used as the basic diameter because shafts can be machined to smaller size

Upper Limit

2.5070
SHAFT:

2.5000

BASIC DIA Lower Limit

Upper Limit

For example, if the largest permissible shaft

2.4910 L i m i t s of

Clearance

slze is 1.500 in., add the allowance to this dimendon to obtain the smallest hole diameter into which the shaft fits. If the parts are to have a n
d o w i n c e of 0.0040 in., the smallest hole would have a diameter of 1.5040in.

2.5000 2.49 10
t.0090

2.5070 2.4865
+ 0205

S i n c e b a s i c DIA a p p e a r s on h o l e , this is a Basic Hole System.

Figure 14.10 This example shows how to calculate limits and allowances for an RC9 fit between a shaft and hole wlth a basic diameter of 2 5000 inches Refer to Appendix 32

14.7 Cylindrical Fits


B4.1 standard gives a series of fits between

-The

features in inches for the basic hole systypes of fit covered in this standard are:

Rc:running or sliding clearance fits


E : clearance locational fits
L T : vansition locational fits

m:interference locational fits


pN: force and shrink fits

32-36 list these five types of fit, each OfWchhas several classes. RunningOrsliding clearance fits (RC) provide a similar mnning performance, with suitable hbrication allowance, throughout the range of The for the first two classes (RC 1 and RC 2) used chiefly as slide fits, increases more slOwlY N t h diameter size than other classes maintain an accurate location even at the

Locational fits (LC, LT, LN) determine the location of mating parts and may provide rigid or accurate location (interference fits) or some freedom of location (clearance fits). Locational fits are divided into three groups: clearance fits (LC), transition fits (LT), and interference fits (LN). Force fits (FN) are interference fits characterized by the maintenance of constant bore pressures throughout the range of sizes. The interference varies almost directly with diameter, and the difference between its minimum and maximum values 1s small enough to maintain the resulting pressures within reasonable limits. Figure 14.10 illustrates how to apply values from the tables in Appendix 32 for an RC 9 fit. The basic diameter of 2.5000 in. falls between 1.97 and 3.15 in. in the size column of the table. Limits are

14.7 CYLINDRICALFITS

271

CALCULATION CHART
CLASS R C 9 Running & Clearance Fit
( F r o m Ap-

METRIC SYSTEM TERMINOLOGY

pendix)

Basic Diameter/ Hole Limits:/ /

Sha$
0 70

/ Lymits:
/

- /

+ 7 .0 , / = k O

7 4r , , M a x y e ,d$&~e"\'i 2 . 5 0 0 0 /' 2.5000 1


I _ -

,--,

--.Cl135

2.5000

1
\

2.5000 -.0135

-e . m 7 o

.Q000

-.0090)

FUNDAMENIAL DEV (LE-rTER)

I
M I N SIZE

INTERNATIONAL. TOLERANCE

I LMAX SIZE
Mi / & k (A I I o w a nc e )
L a r g e s t Hole Smallest Shaft
/ 2.5070 , , , , / S r n a l l e s h $ h

Figure 14.12 The terminology shown here relates to metric fits and limits.

___ 2.5000
I _ -

2.4865

L a r g e s t Shaft-

2.49 10

,0205 __-

,0090 __-

Figure 14.11 Cylindrical fit information may be calculated in an organized manner as this chart demonstrates. (Thanks to Steve Horton.)

in thousandths, so convert the values by moving the decimal point three places to the left; for example, +7 is +0.00?0 in. Add the limits (+0.007 and 0.000 in.) to the basic diameter to find the upper and lower limits of the hole (2.5070 and 2.5000 in.). Determine the upper and lower limits of the shaft (2.4910 and 2.4865 in.) by subtracting the two limits (-0.0090 and -0.0135 in.) from the basic diameter (2.5000 in.). To get the tightest fit between the assembled parts (+0.0090 in.) and the loosest fit (+0.0205 in.), subtract the minimum sizes from the maximum sizes of the holes and shafts. These values appear in the Limit column of the table (Appendix 3 2 ) . This same method of using tables of fits applies to other types of fits and their respective tables: force fit, interference fit, transition fit, and

locational fit. Subtract negative limits from the basic diameter and add positive limits to it. A minus sign preceding a limits of clearance in the tables indicates an interference fit between the assembled features, and a positive limit of clearance indicates a clearance fit. Figure 14.11 presents a calculation chart for the tolerances shown in Fig. 14.10. The possibility of errors is reduced if you take the values from the tables and write them down in this manner.

14.8 Tderancing: Metric Sysktm


Terminology
The system recommended by the Internatlond Standards Organization (ISO) in ANSI B4.2 for metric measurements relates to fits that U S d Y apply to cylinders-hole and shaft-but you may also use these tables to specify fits between Paral. lel contact surfaces, such as a key in a slot. Figurer 14.12-14.14 illustrate most of the definitions

272

CHAPTER14 TOLERANCES

TOLERANCE SYMBOLS

___I

second choice

First Second C h o l c e Choice

'

__

~~~

~~

r--1

1 0
I/

1
I

First Second Choice Choice

Basic size

To1 e r a n c e i zone

___

100
1 1 0

1.1
I

1 2
1 4
IG
I -

120
140

I. 2

1.6

160
1 8

Fundamental deviation Basic size

IT G r a d e To1e r a n c e zone

1.8 2.2 2.8

180

1 1.5

20

200 220

22 25

--

250

28
30 35
40

280

J
4
3

300
350

B.

SHAFT

3.5

400

4.5 5.5
7 I

'
6

5n _ _
O

45
55 70

450

500
550

Fundamental deviation Basic size


-

1 40 f,7 j ' A
i
I _

IT Grade

600

7 Fit
--_I_-

700

c.
Figure 14.13 Basic stzes for metric fits should be selected first from the first-choice column and then from the secondchoice column.

FIT

40
Hole tolerance

1--

H8/f7
IShaft
tolerance

Figure 14.14 These tolerance symbols and their definitions apply to holes and shafts.

Basic size: the theoretical size, usually a diameter from which limits or deviations are cdculated (Fig. 14.12);select it from the table shown in Fig. 14.13 under the First Choice column.

Deviation: the difference between the hole or shaft size and the basic size. Upper deviation: the difference between the maximum permissible size of a part and its basic Size (Fig. 14.12). Lower deviation: the difference between the minimum permissible size of a part and its basic size (Fig. 14.12). Fundamental deviation: the deviation closest to the basic siLe (Fig. 14.12); in the note 40 H8 In Fig. 14.14, the H represents the fundamental deviation for a hole, and in the note 40 f7, the f represents the fundaniental deviation for a shaft. Tolerance: the difference between the maximum and iniriimum allowable sizes of a single part.

International tolerance (IT) grade: a series of tolerances that vary with basic size to provide a uniform level of accuracy within a given grade (Fig. 14.12); in the note 40 H8 in Fig. 14.14, the 8 represents the IT grade; there are 18 IT grades: ITO1, ITO, ITI, . . . , IT16. Tolerance zone: a combination of the fundamental deviation and the tolerance grade; the 18 portion of the 40 H8 note in Fig. 14.14 is the tolerance zone. Hole basis: a system of fits based on the minimum hole size as the basic diameter, with fundamental deviations; Appendixes 38 and 39 give hole-basis data for tolerances. Shaft basis: a system of fits based on the maximum shaft size as the basic diameter, with fundamental deviations; Appendixes 40 and 41 give shaft-basis data for tolerances. Clearance fit: a fit resulting in a clearance between two assembled parts under all tolerance conditions.

14.8 TOLERANCING: METRIC SYSTEM * 273

I S 0 SYMBOLS FOR PREFERRED FlTS


Hole Basis S h a f t Basis
_~__I_

Description
~

Hole

Hll/cll

Cll/hll

Loose Running Fit f o r w i d e


c o m m e r c i a l t o l e r a n c e s on external m e m b e r s

,-,

toler.

-,

Minimum r Maximum - Minimu,, clear a n ce 1 interfer. inierier.

H9/d9

.LL
W

v1

D9/h9

Free R u n n i n g Fit f o r l a r g e temperature variations, h i g h ru n n in g speeds, o r high journal pressures Close R u n n i n g Fit f o r a c curate location a n d modera t e speeds a n d journal pressures S l i d i n g Fit f o r a c c u r a t e f i t a n d location a n d free movi n g a n d turning, not f r ee running ~I _ ~

H8/f7
L

F8/h7
W -

H7/g5

G7/h6

A.CLEARANCE ~.INTERFERENCE FIT FIT B.TRANSITION FIT

I _

__~_
H7/h6
+ v1

H7/h6

._ LL
H7/k6 H7/n6
+

for Locational Clearance snug fits f o r parts that con be freely a ss em bled

..U
t~

;K7/h6
N7/h6
I

Locational Transition Fit occurate locations

for

Figure 14.16 Types of fits: (A) clearance fit, ( 8 ) transition fit, where there can be either interference or clearance, and (C) interference fit, where the parts must be forced together.

__-_
H7/p6 P7/h5

L o c a t i o n o l T r a n s i t i o n Fit f o r m o r e accurate locations a n d g r e a ter interfe rence ----- L o c a t i o n a l I n t e r f e r e n c e Fit f o r r i g i d i t y a n d a l i g n m e n t without special b o re pressures M e d i u m Drive Fit f o r s h r i n k f i t s on l i g h t s e c t i o n s ; t i g h t e s t fit usable f o r cast iron F o r c e Fit f o r o a r t s t h a t c a n be highly stressed a n d f o r s h r i n k fits.

Preferred Sizes and Fits


The table in Fig. 14.13 shows the preferred basic sizes for computing tolerances. Under the First Choice heading, each number increases by about 25% from the preceding value. Each number in the Second Choice column increases by about 12%. T o minimize cost, select basic diameters from the first column because they correspond to standard stock sizes for round, square, and hexagonal metal products. Figure 14.15 shows preferred clearance, transition, and interference fits for the hole-hasis and shaft-basis systems. Appendixes 38-41 contain the complete tables.
Preferred Fits: Hole-Basis System Figure 14.16

._ +
LL

H7/s6

b
C

S7/h6

?
H7/u6
+

U7/h6

r -

Figure 14.15 This list gives the preferred hole-basis and shaft-basis fits for the metric system

Interference fit: a force fit between two parts, requiring that they be driven together. Transition fit: may result in either a clearance or an interference fit between assembled parts. Tolerance symbols: notes giving the specifications of tolerances and fits (Fig. 14.14); the basic size is a number, followed by the fundamental deviation letter and the IT number, which combined give the tolerance zone; uppercase letters indicate the fundamental deviations for holes, and lowercase letters indicate fundamental deviations for shafts.

shows the types offits for the hole-basis system, In which the smallest hole is the basic diameter. Clearance, transition, or interference fits are possible when toleranced with the options of the holebasis system. Figure 14.17 compares the preferred fits for a hole-basis system. The lower deviation of the hole is zero, which means that the smallesi

[&;

274

CHAPTER14 TOLERANCES

PREFERHED FITS: SHAFT-BASIS SYSTEM


Uppercase letters for hole tolerance, lowercase letters f o r s h a f t tolerance

'p,g-If
t 0 r 0

SHAFT-BASIS

SYSTEM

. U

2 :
shoft

on

I - I O L E ~ B A S I S SYSTEM

5;
shaft tolerance; hole tolerance

\.-

Lowercase letters f o r uppercase letters f o r

C~

Clearonce-

Figure 14.17 This diagram illustrates the preferred fits for the hole-basis system listed in Fig. 14.15. Appendixes 38 and 39 give values for these fits.

Figure 14.18 This diagram illustrates the preferred fits for a shaft-basis system listed in Fig. 14.15. Appendixes 40 and 41 give values for these fits.

Preferred Fits: Shaft-Basis System Figure 14.18 compares the preferred fits of the shaft-basis system, in which the largest shaft is the basic diameter. Variations in fit between parts range from a clearance fit of C l l l h l l to an interference fit of U71h6 (see Fig. 14.15).

GALCUIATlQN QF METRIC FITS


H8/f7
FIT
C L O S E R U N N I N G FIT
B a s i c s i z e = 5 0 mm (See Appendix table) Close Hole R u n n i n g Fit Shoft

Standard Cylindrical Fits The following examples demonstrate how to calculate and apply tolerances to cylindrical parts. The solutions involve the use of Appendix 38, Fig. 14.13, and Fig. 14.15.
Example I(Fig. 14.19)

H8

f7

50039 5 0 COO

'

49 9751 49.950
-

0089 0 025
,

Shaft tolerance

= 0 025

d@4g'975-1
49 9 5 0

f%qUirerl: Use the hole-basis system, a close running fit, and a basic diameter of 49 mm.
Solution: Use a preferred basic diameter of 50 mIii (Fig. 14.13) and fit of H8lf7 (Fig. 14.15).

H o l e t o l e r a n c e = 0 039 Tightest Loosest Fit Fit

-$>

50.039-4
50.000

0.025

0.089
Upper Deviation Lower
EIEviotiot-

Shaft Hole

0 025

0.050

0.039

0.000

Hole: Find the upper arid lower limits of the hole in Appendix 38 under H8 and across from 50 mm. These limits are 50.000 and 50.039 rnm.

Figure 14.19 This drawing shows how to calculate and apply metric limits and fits to a shaft and hole (Appendix 38).

14.8 TOLERANCING: METRIC SYSTEM

275

LOCAIIONAL TRANSITION PIT--H7/K6

MEDIUM DRIVE FIT-I17/S6


F F
k

0 0
Fig stai
00.035 00.000

f---

8 . LIMIT F O R M

arc

Figure 14.20 These methods are for applying metric tolerances to a hole and shaft with a transition fit (Appendix 39).

Figure 14.21 These methods are for applying metric tolerances to a hole and shaft with an interference fit (Appendix 39).

Lir in sta

Shaft: Find the upper and lower limits of the shaft under f7 and across from 50 mm in Appendix 38. These limits are 49.950 and 49.975 mm. Symbols: Figure 14.19 shows how to apply toleranced dimensions to the hole and shaft.
Example 2 [Fig. 14.20)

Example 3 (Fig. 14.21)

for lin fra


40.

Required: Use the hole-basis system, a medium drive fit, and a basic diameter of 96 mm. Solution: Use a preferred basic diameter of 100 rnm (Fig. 14.13) and a fit of H7/s6 (Fig. 14.15). Hole: Find the upper and lower limits of the hole in Appendix 39 under H7 and across from 100 mm. These limits are 100.035and 100.000 mm. Shaft: Find the upper and lower limits of the shaft under s6 and across from 100 mm in Appendix 39. These limits are 100.093 and 100.071 mm. Appendix 39 gives the tightest fit as an interference of -0.093 mm, and the 100sest fit as an interference of -0.036 mm. M i n a signs in front of these numbers indicate an interference fit.

Required: Use the hole-basis system, a location transition fit, and a basic diameter of 57 mm. Solution: Use a preferred basic diameter of 60 mm (Fig. 14.13)and a fit of H7/k6 (Fig. 14.15). Hole: Find the upper and lower limits of the hole in Appendix 39 under H7 and across from 60 mm. These limits are 60.000 and 60.030 mm. Shaft: Find the upper and lower limits of the shaft under k6 and across from 60 nim in Appendix 39. These limits are 60.021 and 60.002 mm.

Symbols: Figure 14.21 shows how to apply toleranced dimensions to the hole and shaft-

Symbols: Figure 14.20 shows two methods of applying the tolerance symbols to a drawing.

276

CHAPTER14 TOLERANCES

CHAIN VS. DATUM DlMENSlONS

,t-rom A p p e t T d i x

Hole
Ha

Shaft

HOLE LIMITS

45,039 45.000

I
I

f7

I*
-~
J
I

This calculation IS for an H8/f7 fit for a nonstandard diameter of 45 mm (Appendixes 42 and 43).

nPre 14.22

Dimensions Accumulation of tolerances laid o f f (I4-; O 2 e n d to end -

I_

I- -'

; 6

a d sues that do not appear in Appendixes 38-41. Limits of tolerances for nonstandard hole sizes are in Appendix 42, and limits of tolerances for nonstandard shaft sizes are in Appendix 43. Figure 14.22 shows the hole and shaft limits for an H8/ff fit and a 45-mm DIA. The tolerance limits of 0.000 and 0.039 m m for a n H8 hole are from Appendix 42, across from the size range of 40-50 mm. The tolerance limits of -0.025 and -0.050 mm for the shaft are from Appendix 43. Calculate the hole limits by adding the positive tolerances to the 45-mm basic diameter and the shaft limits by subtracting the negative tolerances from the 45-mm basic diameter.

M a x i m u m variation f r o m

d a t u m = 02

021
~~

E. DATUM PLANE (BASELINE)

DIMENSIONS

Figure 14.23

14.9 Chak ~i'-:s;us Datum-Plane Dimensions


When parts are dimensioned to locate surfaces or geometric features by a chain of dimensions laid end to end (Fig. 14.23A), variations may accumulate in excess of the specified tolerance. For example, the tolerance between surfaces A and B is 0.02, between A and C it is 0.04, and between A and D it is 0.06, YOU may eliminate an accumulation of tolerances by measuring from a single plane called a datum plane or baseline. A datum plane is Usually on the object, but it can also be on the machine used to make the part. Because each plane in Fig. 14.23B is located with respect to a datum plane, the tolerances between the intermediate planes do

A Dimensions given end to end in a chain fashion may result in an accumulation of tolerances of up to 0.06" at D instead of the specified 0.02".

B When dimensioned from a single datum, the variations


of B, C, and D cannot deviate more than the specified 0.02" from the datum.

not exceed the maximum tolerance of 0.02. Always base the application of tolerances on the function of a part in relationship to its mating parts. Origin Selection When you need to specify a surface as the origin (datum plane) for locating H parallel surface, selection of the shorter one gives more accurate results (Fig. 14.24). However, the angular varia-

14.9 CHAIN VERSUS DATUM-PLANE DIMENSIONS

277

F
ORIGIN SURFACE

TAPER TOLERANCES
20.40.3X0.2=0.06+2=0.03 = R a d i a l T o l e r a n c e Zone

40

MEANS THIS

O R I G I N SURFACE

NOT THIS

Figure 14.24 Selection of the shorter surface as the origin surface for locating a longer parallel surface gives the greatest accuracy.
T H E S E TAPER N O T E S MEAN THIS

tion permitted is less for the longer surface in this case than it would be if the longer surface had been selected as the datum plane.

Figure 14.25 Indicate taper with a combination of tolerances and taper symbols. Here, the variation in diameter at any point is 0.06 mm, or 0.03 rnm in radius.

places might be given on the drawing as

14.10 Conical Tapers


Recall that taper is a ratio of the difference in the diameters of two circular sections of a cone to the distance between the sections. Figure 14.25 shows a method of specifyng a conical taper by giving a basic diameter and basic taper. The basic diameter of 20 nim is located midway in the length of the cone with a toleranced dimension. Figure 14.25 shows how to calculate the radial tolerance zone.

TOLERANCES XX.XX kO.10; XX.XXX t0.005

Tolerances of four places would be given directly on the dimension lines. The most common method of noting tolerances is to give as large a tolerance as feasible in a note, such as
TOLERANCES k0.05

A4.11 Tolerance Notes


You should tolerance all dimensions on a drawing either by using the rules previously discussed or by placing a note in or near the title block. For example, the note
1 TOLERANCE t -

and to give tolerances on the dimension lines for dimensions requiring smaller tolerances. Give angular tolerances in a general note in or near the title block, such as
ANGULAR TOLERANCES kO.5 or +30.

Use one of the techniques shown in Fig. 14.26 to give specific angular tolerances directly on angular dimensions.

64

14.12 General Tolerances-.fAetric Units

might be given on a drawing for less critical dimensions. Some industries give dimensions in inches with two-, three-, and four-decimal-place fractions. A note for dimensions with:two and three decimal

278

CHAPTER14 TOLERANCES

INTERNATIONAL TOLERANCE GRADES

or

meosur

tools---For

material

RFMING TURNING POWDER METAL.-SINTERED BORING M ILL1N G PLANING AND SHAPING DRILLING PUNCHING DIE CASTING

W r e 14.27 This diagram shows the international tolerm e (IT) grades and their applications (Appendix 37)

I
Medium
Series Coarse Series

Figure 14.28 Tolerance values may be selected from the international tolerance grades applicable to various machining processes

GENERAL TOLERANCES: LINEAR DIMENSIONS (MM)

! linear Dimensions
Tolerance linear dimensions by indicating plus and minus (+) one half of an international tolerance (IT) grade as given in Appendix 37. YOU may select the IT grade from the chart in Fig. 14.27, where IT grades for mass-produced items range from IT12 through IT16. You may also select IT grades from Fig. 14.28 for the particular machining process being used. General tolerances using IT grades may be expressed in a note as follows:
UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED ALL
UNTOLERANCEDDIMENSIONS ARE
Basic

Dimensions

Fine Series

0.5 t o 3
O v e r 3 to

-+ 0.05

* 0.05
i 0.1 i 0.15

* 0.1 * 0.1
f0.2
i0 . 3

--

* 0.2
f0.5

O v e r 6 t o 30 O v e r 3 0 t o 120 O v e r I20 t o 315 O v e r 315 t o

* 0.2
f 0.3

* 0.8
f 1.2
1 2
f 3

f 0.5

1000

O v e r 1000 t o 2000

* 0.5

* 0.8
i 1.2

& E .

Figure 14.29 You may select general tolerance values from this table for fine, medium, and coarse serles Tolerances vary with dimensions

This note means that a tolerance of k0.700 mm is allowed for a dimension between 315 and 400 mm. The value of the tolerance, 1.400 mm, is taken fromAppendix 37. Figure 14.29 shows recommended tolerances for fine, medium, and coarse series for graduated-

size dimensions. A medium tolerance, for example, may be specified by the following note:
GENEKtV. TOLERANCES SPECIFIED IN ANSI B4.3 MEDIUM SERIES APPLY.

14.12 GENERAL TOLERANCES-METRIC

UNITS * 279

TABLE OF GENERAL TOLERANCES


,/

'TOLERANCES FOR ONE AND NO DECIMA12PLACES


M e d i u m series f o r numbers with one decimal place Coarse series for numbers with no decimal places
~

Get v a l u e s f r o m previous table

Specifies a M e d i u m Series
I_~

r-L \, j

-~

. , ,

DIMENSIONS (mm)
GENERAL TOLERANCES

T O L E R ~ N C E S ARE APPLICABLE

///I

Figure 14.30 This table for a medium series of values was extracted from Fig. 14.29 for insertion on a working drawing to provide the tolerances for a medium series of sizes.

Figure 14.31 Placed on a drawing, thls table of tolerances would indicate the tolerances for dimensions having one or no decimal places, such as 24.0 and 24, denoting medrum and coarse series.

Equivalent tolerances may be given in table form (Fig. 14.30) 011the drawing, the grade-medium in this example-selected from Fig. 14.29. General tolerances may be given in a table for dimensions expressed with one or no decimal places (Fig.
14.31).
yi

ANGULAR AND TAPERTOLERANCES

mm p e r 100

kl.8

+0.9

,C 0 . 6

II- + 0 .3
1

General tolerances may also be notated in the following form:


UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED ALL UNTOLERANCED DIMENSIONS ARE k0.8 mm
Figure 14.32 General tolerances for angular and taper dimensions may be taken from this table of values.

Use this method only when the dimensions on a drawing are similar in size. Angular Tolerances Express angular tolerances as (1) an angle in decimal degrees or in degrees and minutes, (2) a taper expressed in percentage (mrn per I00 mm), or ( 3 ) milliradians. (To find milliradian, multiply the degrees of a n angle by 17.45.) Figure 14.32 shows the suggested tolerances for each of these units, based on the length of the shorter leg of the angle. General angular tolerances may be notated on the drawing as follows:
UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED THE GENERA1 TOLERANCES IN ANSI 84.3 APPLY.

A second method involves showing a portion of the table from Fig. 14.32 as a table of tolerances on the drawing (Fig. 14.33). A third method is a

note with a single tolerance such as:


UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED ANGULAR TOLERANCESAFE kO"30' (or k0.5").

280

CHAPTER14 TOLERANCES

PROPORTIONS OF SYMBOLS

_-ANGULAR

~~~~

~-

TOLERANCES DATUM
7

Fl%mr]
BASIC

0 ,

F EAT U R E CONTROL

T AR GET POINT

ZH-FRAME

HEIGHT

_-
~~l~~~ taken

TOLERANCE , - +- I -o

~ + o ~ o 1+ 0 2 0
o-d m i n u t e s
tcible
--

+oolo - - - - l ~

In d p g r e r q

from previou-

W E 14.33

ues

Extracted from F I ~ 14 32, this table of valInserted on a drawing would indlcate general tolerfor angles in degrees and minutes
H l & T

GEOMETRIC SYMBOLS
TOLERANCE CHARACTERISTIC STRAIGHTNESS SYMBOL

LA L L - A R O U N ~ PROFILE PR OF ILE SURFACE

I d I, ( 7
PROFILE LINE

k 2 H j

S T R A IG H T NESS

PER P E N OICU LAR IT Y AN GU LAR IT Y R U N OUT: C IR C U LAR

R U N O UT: TOTAL

I
OR RELATED FEATURES

I
PROFILE

I CYLlNDRlClTY
ANGULARITY

IINOWIWAL

l M I n PROFILE OF A LINE PROFILE OF A SURFACE n


L

Figure 14.35 Use these general proportions (based on the letter height used) for drawing feature control symbds and frames.

ORIENTATION PERPENDICULARITY PARA L L E L ISM

I
N
I

!
CIRCULAR RUNOUT RUNOUT TOTAL RUNOUT

eL

Symbols Figure 14.34 shows various symbols used to represent geometric characteristics of dimensioned drawings. Figure 14.35 shows additional symbols,
feature control frames, and their proportions, which are based on the letter height, H. On most drawings, a 1/8-in. or 3-mm letter height is recommended. Figure 14.36 depicts some feature control frames and their proportions.

ion of .ances d is a
1

Figure 14.34 These symbols specify the geometric characteristics of a parts features.

runout on a dimensioned part as covered by the


ANSI Y14.5M-1982 Standards and the Military Standards (Mil-sld) of the U.S. Department of

that

, and

Defense. Before discussing those types of tolerancing, however, Mre need to introduce YOU to size limits, rules, three-datum-plane and applications.

Size Limits Three conditions of size are used when geometric tolerances are applied: maximum material condition, least material condition, and regardless of feature size. I n the maximum material condition (MMC), a feature contains the maximum amount of material.

14.13 GEOMETRIC TOLERANCES

281

i
IIi
,
i

UnlP

"i IMMC

diameter of 25.6 mm.

282

CHAPTER14 TOLERANCES

.-

Figure 14.40 When an object is referenced to a primary datum plane, it comes into contact with the datum plane at at least three points. The vertical surface contacts the aondary datum plane at at least t w o points. The third datum plane comes into contact with at least one point on the object. The datum planes are listed order of priority in the feature control frame.

LIk!
Figure 14.41 Label the three planes of the reference system where they appear as edges. The primary datum plane (p) is given first in the feature control frame; the secondary plane ( S ) , second; and the tertiary plane (T), third. Numbers in frames are exact basic dimensions.

14.14 Rules

r..*U:ir&

Three general rules of tolerancing geometric features should be followed.

Rule 1 (Individual Feature Size) When only a to]erance of size is specified on a feature, the limits
Of ske control the variation in its geometric form. The forms of the shaft and hole shown in Fig. 14.38 are permitted to vary within the tolerance ranges of the dimensions.

Three-Datum-Plane Concept
A datum plane is used as the origin of a parts features that have been toleranced. Datum planes usually relate to manufacturing equipment, such as machine tables or locating pins. Three mutually perpendicular datum planes are required to dimension a part accurately. For example, the part shown in Fig. 14.40 sits on the primary datum plane, with at least three points of its base in contact with the datum. The part is related to the secondary plane by at least two contact points. The third (tertiary) datum is in contact with at least one point on the object. The priority of datum planes is presented in sequence in feature control frames. For example, in Fig. 14.41, the primary datum is surface P, the secondary datum is surface S, and the tertiary datum is surface T. Figure 14.42 lists the order of priority of datum planes A-C sequentially in the feature control frames.

Rule 2 (Tolerances of Position) When a tolerance of position is specified on a drawing, MMC, LMC, O r RFS must be specified with respect to the tolerance, datum, or both. The specification of S V m e t q of the part in Fig. 14.39 is based on a tolerance at KFS from a datum at RFS.
Rule 3 (All Other Geometric Tolerances) The RFS ,condition applies to all other geometric tolerances for individual tolerances and datum references if no 111odifyiIlg symbol is given in the feature control frame. If a feature is to be at MMC, it must be specified.

14.14 RULES F O R T O L E W C I N G

1)

283

SPECIFICATION OF THREE DATUM PLANES


PRIMARY 7,

EFFECTS OF DATUM P W E S

SECONDARY-7 PRIMARY 7

/ i

ONE DATUM
PRIMARY

TWO DATUMS
\

7
\

[+I

,-SECONDARY \ rTERT I ARY

00.04 @ I k i B I C l
I

I
I

THREE DATUMS

A.

PRIMARY A N D SECONDARY UNSPECIFIEQ

Figure 14.42 Use feature control frames to indicate from one t o three datum planes in order of priority.

HOLES AT TRUE POSITION


Datum axis
(center)

Figure 14.44 For the unspecified datum planes in (A), examples (B)-(D) illustrate the effects of selecting the datum planes in order of priority and of RFS and MMC.
/-Datum K

Figure 14.43 These true-position holes are located with respect to primary datum K and secondary datum M. Because datum M is a circle, the implication is that the holes are located about t w o intersecting datum planes formed by the crossing centerlines in the circular view, satisfying the three-plane concept.

14.15 Cylindrical Datum Features


Figure 14.43 illustrates a part with a cylindrical datum feature that is the axis of a true cylinder. Datum K is the primary datum. Datum M is associated with two theoretical planes-the second and third in a three-plane relationship. The two theoretical planes are represented in the circular view by perpendicular centerlitles that intersect at the point view of the datum axis. All

dimensions originate from the datum axis perpendicular to datum K; the other two intersecting datum planes are used for measurements in the x and y directions. The priority of the datum planes in the feature control frame is significant in the manufacturing and inspection processes. The part shown in Fig. 14.44 is dimensioned in three ways to show the effects of datum-plane selection and materid condition o n the location of the hole pattern. Figure 14.44B illustrates the effect of specifying diameter A at RFS as the primary datum plane and surface 3 as the secondary datum plane. During production the part is centered on cylinder A. The part is mounted in a chuck, mandrel, or centenng

284

CHAPTER14 TOLERANCES

INTERNAL DATUM PLANES

1 I

I
A NOTE ON
DRAW1 NG
CIRCUMSCRIBED CYLINDER

A N O T E O N DRAWING

BETWEEN CONTACT PI ANES -~

8 NOTE ON DRAWING

INSCRIBED CYLINDER

B NOTE ON DRAWING

@re 14.45 The datum axis of a shaft is the smallest circumscribed cylinder in contact with the shaft. The datum axis of a hole is the centerline of the largest inscribed cylinder in contact with the hole.

MAX SEPARATION BETWEEN CONTACT

If surface R were specified as the primary datum feature, it would contact datum plane B at no fewer than three points (Fig. 14.44C). The axis of datum cylinder A will be gauged by the smallest cylinder that is perpendicular to the first datum that will contact cylinder A at RFS. This cylinder identifies variation from perpendicular between planes A and R and size variations. In Fig. 14.44D, plane B is specified as the primary datum feature and cylinder A as the secondary datum feature at MMC. The part is mounted on the processing equipment so that at h s t three points on feature B come into contact with datum U. The datum axis is the axis of a circumscribed cylinder of a fixed size that is perpendicular to datum R. Using the modifier to specify MMC gives a more liberal tolerance zone than when RFS is specified.

Figure 14.46 The datum plane for external parallel surfaces IS the center plane between t w o contact parallel planes at their minimum separation The datum plane for internal parallel surfaces IS the center plane between t w o contact parallel surfaces at their maximum separation

Primary Diameter Datums For a n external cylinder (shaft) at RFS, the datum axis is the axis of the smallest circumscribed cylinder that contacts the cylindrical feature (Fig. 14.45A). That is, the largest diameter of the part making contact with the smallest cylinder of the machine element holding the part is the datum axis. For an internal cylinder (hole) at RFS, the datum axis is the axis of the largest inscribed cylinder making contact with the hole. That is, the smallest diameter of the hole making contact with the largest cylinder of the machinr element inserted in the hole is the datum axis (Fig. 14.45B). Primary External Parallel Datums The datum for external features at RFS is the center plane between two parallel planes-at minimum separation-that contact the planes of the object (Fig. 14.46A). These are planes of a viselike device at minimum separation that holds the part.

Dat~m Features at RFS


m e n size dimensions are applied to a feature at

RFS, the processing equipment that comes into cOnt:lct with surfaces of the part establishes the datum. Variable machine elements, such as chucks or center devices, are adjusted to fit the externalor internal features and establish datums.

14.15 CYLINDRICAL DATUM FEATURES

285

PRIMARY, SECONDARY, AND TEKTlAKY DATUM PLANES

B.cIRCULAR

TOL ZONE

Figure 14.48 A These dimensions give a square tolerance zone for the

Tertiary Datums The third datum (axis or center plane) for both external and internal features has

the further requirement that either the cylinder or parallel planes be oriented angularly to the secondary datum. Datum C in Fig. 14.47 is the tertiary datum plane.
E. MEANING

Figure 14.47 A part located with respect to primary, secondary, and tertiary datum planes.

14.16 Location Tolerancing


Tolerances of location deal with position, concentricity, and symmetry. Position roleranced location dimensions yield a square (01 rectangular) coordinate tolerance zone for the center of a hole (Fig. 14.48A). In contrast, WW position dimensions, called basic dimen locate the exact position of a holescenter, which a circular tolerance zone is specified 14.48B). In both the coordinate and true-positi ods, the hole diameter is toleranced by notes. In the true-position method, a fe trol frame specifies the diameter ofthe circ erance zone inside which the holes center

Primary Internal Parallel Datums The datum for internal features is the center plane between two

parallel planes-at their maximum separation-that contact the inside planes of the object (Fig. 14.46B).

Of

U.14

--

CIRCULAR T O L

ZONE

14.49 The coordinate method of tolerancing gives a square tolerance zone with a diagonal that exceeds the specified tolerance by a factor of 1.4.

Figure 14.50 The true-position method of tolerancing gives a circular tolerance zone with i t s center at the true position of the hole The circular tolerance zone can be 1 4 times greater than the square tolerance zone and still be as accurate

fie. A circular position zone gives a more precise & m c e of the holestrue position than a square. Figure 14.49 shows an enlargement of the
square tolerance zone resulting from the use of coordinates to locate a holes center. The diagonal across the square zone is greater than the specified tolerance by a factor of 1.4. Therefore the true-position method, shown enlarged in Fig. 14.50, can have a larger circular tolerance zone by a factor of 1.4 and still have the same degree of accuracy specified by the 0.1 square zone. If a variation of 0.14 across the diagonal of the square tolerance zone is acceptable in the coordinate method, a circular tolerance zone of 0.14, which is greater than the 0.1 tolerance permitted by the Ware zone, should be acceptable in the true-position tolerance method. The circular tolerance zone specified in the circular view of a hole extends the full depth of the hole. Therefore the tolerance zone for the cent e r h e of the hole is a cylindrical zone inside Which the axis must lie. Because both the size of *e hole and its position are toleranced, these two establish the diameter of a gauge Cylinfor checking conformance of hole sizes and their locations against specifications (Fig. 14.51).

CYLlNDRlCAL TOLERANCE ZONE


True position

No p o i n t o n rim o f hole lies inside tolerance cylinder

-~ Tote r a n c e

cylinder= M i n i m u m DIA o f hole minus the DIA of the circular toleronce zone

Figure 14.51 When a hole at MMC is located at true position, no element of the hole will be inside the imaginary cylinder obtained by subtracting the circular tolerance zone from the minimum diameter of the hole.

Subtracting the true-position tolerance from the hole at MMC (the smallest permissible hole) yields the circle that represents the least favorable condition when the part is gauged or assembled with a mating part. When the hole is not at MMC, it is larger and permits greater tolerance and easier assembly.

14.16

LOCATIONTOLERANCING * 287

I-

- 26.32

MAX

11-

26.00

4,

When

holes are at m a x i m u m size (12.84) t h e y c o n be a s f a r a p a r i a s 26.35 ( C to 1,:

A.SPECIFICATIONS
H o l e s a t MMC (12.70) l o c a i e d a t Max a n d M i n positions

-012.52

Gauye u w s

1-

- - -38

-26.00

52 - - 4

1
1

\---25.82

MIN--l

U s e 012.52 g a u g e p i n s 01 26.00 apart

W h e n holes a r z at m a x i m u m s i L e (12 84) t h e y c u t b e u s close C l 9 2 5 68 (C t o c

B.MEANING

O F SPECIFICATIONS

Figure 14.52 A These two holes at MMC are to be located at true position, as specified. 6 The two holes may be gauged with pins 12.52 rnm in diameter located 26.00 rnm apart.

B.CLOSEST TOGETHER

-012

5 2 G o u g o pins

Figure 14.53 A These two holes at MMC may have their centers spaced as far as 26.32 mrn apart and still be acceptable.

B The holes may be placed as close as 25.68 rnrn apart


when they are at maximum size.

Gauging a Two-Hole Pattern


Gauging is a technique of checking dimensions to determine whether they meet specified tolerances (Fig. 14.52). The two holes, with diametral size limits of 12.70-12.84, are located at true position 26.00 mm apart within a diameter of 0.18 at MMC. The gauge pin diameter is calculated to be 12.52 mm (the smallest holes size, 12.70, minus the true-position tolerance, 0.18), as Fig. 14.52B shows. Thus two pins with diameters of 12.52 mm spaced exactly 26.00 mm apart could be used to check the diameters and positions of the holes at MMC, the most critical size. If the pins can be inserted into the holes, the holes are properly sized and located. When the holes are not at MMC, or larger than the minimum size, these gauge pins permit a greater range of variation (Fig. 14.53). When the holes are at their maximum size of 12.84 mm, they can be located as close as 25.68 mm from center to center or as far apart as 26.32 mm from center to center.

Concentricity
Concentricity is a feature of location because it specifies the relationship of two cylinders that share the same axis. In Fig. 14.54, the large cylinder is labeled as datum A, which means the large diameter is used as the datum for locating the small cylinders axis. We use feature control frames of the type shown in Fig. 14.55 to specify concentricity and other geometric characteristics throughout the remainder of this chapter.

Symmetry
Symmetry also is a feature of location in which a feature is symmetrical with the same contour and size on opposite sides of a central plane. F i F 14.56A shows how to apply a symmetry feature symbol to the notch that is symmetrical about the parts central datum plane B for a zone of 0.6 fl

288

CHAPTER14 TOLERANCES

I-

- 26.32

MAX

11-

26.00

4,

When

holes are at m a x i m u m size (12.84) t h e y c o n be a s f a r a p a r i a s 26.35 ( C to 1,:

A.SPECIFICATIONS
H o l e s a t MMC (12.70) l o c a i e d a t Max a n d M i n positions

-012.52

Gauye u w s

1-

- - -38

-26.00

52 - - 4

1
1

\---25.82

MIN--l

U s e 012.52 g a u g e p i n s 01 26.00 apart

W h e n holes a r z at m a x i m u m s i L e (12 84) t h e y c u t b e u s close C l 9 2 5 68 (C t o c

B.MEANING

O F SPECIFICATIONS

Figure 14.52 A These two holes at MMC are to be located at true position, as specified. 6 The two holes may be gauged with pins 12.52 rnm in diameter located 26.00 rnm apart.

B.CLOSEST TOGETHER

-012

5 2 G o u g o pins

Figure 14.53 A These two holes at MMC may have their centers spaced as far as 26.32 mrn apart and still be acceptable.

B The holes may be placed as close as 25.68 rnrn apart


when they are at maximum size.

Gauging a Two-Hole Pattern


Gauging is a technique of checking dimensions to determine whether they meet specified tolerances (Fig. 14.52). The two holes, with diametral size limits of 12.70-12.84, are located at true position 26.00 mm apart within a diameter of 0.18 at MMC. The gauge pin diameter is calculated to be 12.52 mm (the smallest holes size, 12.70, minus the true-position tolerance, 0.18), as Fig. 14.52B shows. Thus two pins with diameters of 12.52 mm spaced exactly 26.00 mm apart could be used to check the diameters and positions of the holes at MMC, the most critical size. If the pins can be inserted into the holes, the holes are properly sized and located. When the holes are not at MMC, or larger than the minimum size, these gauge pins permit a greater range of variation (Fig. 14.53). When the holes are at their maximum size of 12.84 mm, they can be located as close as 25.68 mm from center to center or as far apart as 26.32 mm from center to center.

Concentricity
Concentricity is a feature of location because it specifies the relationship of two cylinders that share the same axis. In Fig. 14.54, the large cylinder is labeled as datum A, which means the large diameter is used as the datum for locating the small cylinders axis. We use feature control frames of the type shown in Fig. 14.55 to specify concentricity and other geometric characteristics throughout the remainder of this chapter.

Symmetry
Symmetry also is a feature of location in which a feature is symmetrical with the same contour and size on opposite sides of a central plane. F i F 14.56A shows how to apply a symmetry feature symbol to the notch that is symmetrical about the parts central datum plane B for a zone of 0.6 fl

288

CHAPTER14 TOLERANCES

I-

- 26.32

MAX

11-

26.00

4,

When

holes are at m a x i m u m size (12.84) t h e y c o n be a s f a r a p a r i a s 26.35 ( C to 1,:

A.SPECIFICATIONS
H o l e s a t MMC (12.70) l o c a i e d a t Max a n d M i n positions

-012.52

Gauye u w s

1-

- - -38

-26.00

52 - - 4

1
1

\---25.82

MIN--l

U s e 012.52 g a u g e p i n s 01 26.00 apart

W h e n holes a r z at m a x i m u m s i L e (12 84) t h e y c u t b e u s close C l 9 2 5 68 (C t o c

B.MEANING

O F SPECIFICATIONS

Figure 14.52 A These two holes at MMC are to be located at true position, as specified. 6 The two holes may be gauged with pins 12.52 rnm in diameter located 26.00 rnm apart.

B.CLOSEST TOGETHER

-012

5 2 G o u g o pins

Figure 14.53 A These two holes at MMC may have their centers spaced as far as 26.32 mrn apart and still be acceptable.

B The holes may be placed as close as 25.68 rnrn apart


when they are at maximum size.

Gauging a Two-Hole Pattern


Gauging is a technique of checking dimensions to determine whether they meet specified tolerances (Fig. 14.52). The two holes, with diametral size limits of 12.70-12.84, are located at true position 26.00 mm apart within a diameter of 0.18 at MMC. The gauge pin diameter is calculated to be 12.52 mm (the smallest holes size, 12.70, minus the true-position tolerance, 0.18), as Fig. 14.52B shows. Thus two pins with diameters of 12.52 mm spaced exactly 26.00 mm apart could be used to check the diameters and positions of the holes at MMC, the most critical size. If the pins can be inserted into the holes, the holes are properly sized and located. When the holes are not at MMC, or larger than the minimum size, these gauge pins permit a greater range of variation (Fig. 14.53). When the holes are at their maximum size of 12.84 mm, they can be located as close as 25.68 mm from center to center or as far apart as 26.32 mm from center to center.

Concentricity
Concentricity is a feature of location because it specifies the relationship of two cylinders that share the same axis. In Fig. 14.54, the large cylinder is labeled as datum A, which means the large diameter is used as the datum for locating the small cylinders axis. We use feature control frames of the type shown in Fig. 14.55 to specify concentricity and other geometric characteristics throughout the remainder of this chapter.

Symmetry
Symmetry also is a feature of location in which a feature is symmetrical with the same contour and size on opposite sides of a central plane. F i F 14.56A shows how to apply a symmetry feature symbol to the notch that is symmetrical about the parts central datum plane B for a zone of 0.6 fl

288

CHAPTER14 TOLERANCES

I-

- 26.32

MAX

11-

26.00

4,

When

holes are at m a x i m u m size (12.84) t h e y c o n be a s f a r a p a r i a s 26.35 ( C to 1,:

A.SPECIFICATIONS
H o l e s a t MMC (12.70) l o c a i e d a t Max a n d M i n positions

-012.52

Gauye u w s

1-

- - -38

-26.00

52 - - 4

1
1

\---25.82

MIN--l

U s e 012.52 g a u g e p i n s 01 26.00 apart

W h e n holes a r z at m a x i m u m s i L e (12 84) t h e y c u t b e u s close C l 9 2 5 68 (C t o c

B.MEANING

O F SPECIFICATIONS

Figure 14.52 A These two holes at MMC are to be located at true position, as specified. 6 The two holes may be gauged with pins 12.52 rnm in diameter located 26.00 rnm apart.

B.CLOSEST TOGETHER

-012

5 2 G o u g o pins

Figure 14.53 A These two holes at MMC may have their centers spaced as far as 26.32 mrn apart and still be acceptable.

B The holes may be placed as close as 25.68 rnrn apart


when they are at maximum size.

Gauging a Two-Hole Pattern


Gauging is a technique of checking dimensions to determine whether they meet specified tolerances (Fig. 14.52). The two holes, with diametral size limits of 12.70-12.84, are located at true position 26.00 mm apart within a diameter of 0.18 at MMC. The gauge pin diameter is calculated to be 12.52 mm (the smallest holes size, 12.70, minus the true-position tolerance, 0.18), as Fig. 14.52B shows. Thus two pins with diameters of 12.52 mm spaced exactly 26.00 mm apart could be used to check the diameters and positions of the holes at MMC, the most critical size. If the pins can be inserted into the holes, the holes are properly sized and located. When the holes are not at MMC, or larger than the minimum size, these gauge pins permit a greater range of variation (Fig. 14.53). When the holes are at their maximum size of 12.84 mm, they can be located as close as 25.68 mm from center to center or as far apart as 26.32 mm from center to center.

Concentricity
Concentricity is a feature of location because it specifies the relationship of two cylinders that share the same axis. In Fig. 14.54, the large cylinder is labeled as datum A, which means the large diameter is used as the datum for locating the small cylinders axis. We use feature control frames of the type shown in Fig. 14.55 to specify concentricity and other geometric characteristics throughout the remainder of this chapter.

Symmetry
Symmetry also is a feature of location in which a feature is symmetrical with the same contour and size on opposite sides of a central plane. F i F 14.56A shows how to apply a symmetry feature symbol to the notch that is symmetrical about the parts central datum plane B for a zone of 0.6 fl

288

CHAPTER14 TOLERANCES

I-

- 26.32

MAX

11-

26.00

4,

When

holes are at m a x i m u m size (12.84) t h e y c o n be a s f a r a p a r i a s 26.35 ( C to 1,:

A.SPECIFICATIONS
H o l e s a t MMC (12.70) l o c a i e d a t Max a n d M i n positions

-012.52

Gauye u w s

1-

- - -38

-26.00

52 - - 4

1
1

\---25.82

MIN--l

U s e 012.52 g a u g e p i n s 01 26.00 apart

W h e n holes a r z at m a x i m u m s i L e (12 84) t h e y c u t b e u s close C l 9 2 5 68 (C t o c

B.MEANING

O F SPECIFICATIONS

Figure 14.52 A These two holes at MMC are to be located at true position, as specified. 6 The two holes may be gauged with pins 12.52 rnm in diameter located 26.00 rnm apart.

B.CLOSEST TOGETHER

-012

5 2 G o u g o pins

Figure 14.53 A These two holes at MMC may have their centers spaced as far as 26.32 mrn apart and still be acceptable.

B The holes may be placed as close as 25.68 rnrn apart


when they are at maximum size.

Gauging a Two-Hole Pattern


Gauging is a technique of checking dimensions to determine whether they meet specified tolerances (Fig. 14.52). The two holes, with diametral size limits of 12.70-12.84, are located at true position 26.00 mm apart within a diameter of 0.18 at MMC. The gauge pin diameter is calculated to be 12.52 mm (the smallest holes size, 12.70, minus the true-position tolerance, 0.18), as Fig. 14.52B shows. Thus two pins with diameters of 12.52 mm spaced exactly 26.00 mm apart could be used to check the diameters and positions of the holes at MMC, the most critical size. If the pins can be inserted into the holes, the holes are properly sized and located. When the holes are not at MMC, or larger than the minimum size, these gauge pins permit a greater range of variation (Fig. 14.53). When the holes are at their maximum size of 12.84 mm, they can be located as close as 25.68 mm from center to center or as far apart as 26.32 mm from center to center.

Concentricity
Concentricity is a feature of location because it specifies the relationship of two cylinders that share the same axis. In Fig. 14.54, the large cylinder is labeled as datum A, which means the large diameter is used as the datum for locating the small cylinders axis. We use feature control frames of the type shown in Fig. 14.55 to specify concentricity and other geometric characteristics throughout the remainder of this chapter.

Symmetry
Symmetry also is a feature of location in which a feature is symmetrical with the same contour and size on opposite sides of a central plane. F i F 14.56A shows how to apply a symmetry feature symbol to the notch that is symmetrical about the parts central datum plane B for a zone of 0.6 fl

288

CHAPTER14 TOLERANCES

I-

- 26.32

MAX

11-

26.00

4,

When

holes are at m a x i m u m size (12.84) t h e y c o n be a s f a r a p a r i a s 26.35 ( C to 1,:

A.SPECIFICATIONS
H o l e s a t MMC (12.70) l o c a i e d a t Max a n d M i n positions

-012.52

Gauye u w s

1-

- - -38

-26.00

52 - - 4

1
1

\---25.82

MIN--l

U s e 012.52 g a u g e p i n s 01 26.00 apart

W h e n holes a r z at m a x i m u m s i L e (12 84) t h e y c u t b e u s close C l 9 2 5 68 (C t o c

B.MEANING

O F SPECIFICATIONS

Figure 14.52 A These two holes at MMC are to be located at true position, as specified. 6 The two holes may be gauged with pins 12.52 rnm in diameter located 26.00 rnm apart.

B.CLOSEST TOGETHER

-012

5 2 G o u g o pins

Figure 14.53 A These two holes at MMC may have their centers spaced as far as 26.32 mrn apart and still be acceptable.

B The holes may be placed as close as 25.68 rnrn apart


when they are at maximum size.

Gauging a Two-Hole Pattern


Gauging is a technique of checking dimensions to determine whether they meet specified tolerances (Fig. 14.52). The two holes, with diametral size limits of 12.70-12.84, are located at true position 26.00 mm apart within a diameter of 0.18 at MMC. The gauge pin diameter is calculated to be 12.52 mm (the smallest holes size, 12.70, minus the true-position tolerance, 0.18), as Fig. 14.52B shows. Thus two pins with diameters of 12.52 mm spaced exactly 26.00 mm apart could be used to check the diameters and positions of the holes at MMC, the most critical size. If the pins can be inserted into the holes, the holes are properly sized and located. When the holes are not at MMC, or larger than the minimum size, these gauge pins permit a greater range of variation (Fig. 14.53). When the holes are at their maximum size of 12.84 mm, they can be located as close as 25.68 mm from center to center or as far apart as 26.32 mm from center to center.

Concentricity
Concentricity is a feature of location because it specifies the relationship of two cylinders that share the same axis. In Fig. 14.54, the large cylinder is labeled as datum A, which means the large diameter is used as the datum for locating the small cylinders axis. We use feature control frames of the type shown in Fig. 14.55 to specify concentricity and other geometric characteristics throughout the remainder of this chapter.

Symmetry
Symmetry also is a feature of location in which a feature is symmetrical with the same contour and size on opposite sides of a central plane. F i F 14.56A shows how to apply a symmetry feature symbol to the notch that is symmetrical about the parts central datum plane B for a zone of 0.6 fl

288

CHAPTER14 TOLERANCES

I-

- 26.32

MAX

11-

26.00

4,

When

holes are at m a x i m u m size (12.84) t h e y c o n be a s f a r a p a r i a s 26.35 ( C to 1,:

A.SPECIFICATIONS
H o l e s a t MMC (12.70) l o c a i e d a t Max a n d M i n positions

-012.52

Gauye u w s

1-

- - -38

-26.00

52 - - 4

1
1

\---25.82

MIN--l

U s e 012.52 g a u g e p i n s 01 26.00 apart

W h e n holes a r z at m a x i m u m s i L e (12 84) t h e y c u t b e u s close C l 9 2 5 68 (C t o c

B.MEANING

O F SPECIFICATIONS

Figure 14.52 A These two holes at MMC are to be located at true position, as specified. 6 The two holes may be gauged with pins 12.52 rnm in diameter located 26.00 rnm apart.

B.CLOSEST TOGETHER

-012

5 2 G o u g o pins

Figure 14.53 A These two holes at MMC may have their centers spaced as far as 26.32 mrn apart and still be acceptable.

B The holes may be placed as close as 25.68 rnrn apart


when they are at maximum size.

Gauging a Two-Hole Pattern


Gauging is a technique of checking dimensions to determine whether they meet specified tolerances (Fig. 14.52). The two holes, with diametral size limits of 12.70-12.84, are located at true position 26.00 mm apart within a diameter of 0.18 at MMC. The gauge pin diameter is calculated to be 12.52 mm (the smallest holes size, 12.70, minus the true-position tolerance, 0.18), as Fig. 14.52B shows. Thus two pins with diameters of 12.52 mm spaced exactly 26.00 mm apart could be used to check the diameters and positions of the holes at MMC, the most critical size. If the pins can be inserted into the holes, the holes are properly sized and located. When the holes are not at MMC, or larger than the minimum size, these gauge pins permit a greater range of variation (Fig. 14.53). When the holes are at their maximum size of 12.84 mm, they can be located as close as 25.68 mm from center to center or as far apart as 26.32 mm from center to center.

Concentricity
Concentricity is a feature of location because it specifies the relationship of two cylinders that share the same axis. In Fig. 14.54, the large cylinder is labeled as datum A, which means the large diameter is used as the datum for locating the small cylinders axis. We use feature control frames of the type shown in Fig. 14.55 to specify concentricity and other geometric characteristics throughout the remainder of this chapter.

Symmetry
Symmetry also is a feature of location in which a feature is symmetrical with the same contour and size on opposite sides of a central plane. F i F 14.56A shows how to apply a symmetry feature symbol to the notch that is symmetrical about the parts central datum plane B for a zone of 0.6 fl

288

CHAPTER14 TOLERANCES

I-

- 26.32

MAX

11-

26.00

4,

When

holes are at m a x i m u m size (12.84) t h e y c o n be a s f a r a p a r i a s 26.35 ( C to 1,:

A.SPECIFICATIONS
H o l e s a t MMC (12.70) l o c a i e d a t Max a n d M i n positions

-012.52

Gauye u w s

1-

- - -38

-26.00

52 - - 4

1
1

\---25.82

MIN--l

U s e 012.52 g a u g e p i n s 01 26.00 apart

W h e n holes a r z at m a x i m u m s i L e (12 84) t h e y c u t b e u s close C l 9 2 5 68 (C t o c

B.MEANING

O F SPECIFICATIONS

Figure 14.52 A These two holes at MMC are to be located at true position, as specified. 6 The two holes may be gauged with pins 12.52 rnm in diameter located 26.00 rnm apart.

B.CLOSEST TOGETHER

-012

5 2 G o u g o pins

Figure 14.53 A These two holes at MMC may have their centers spaced as far as 26.32 mrn apart and still be acceptable.

B The holes may be placed as close as 25.68 rnrn apart


when they are at maximum size.

Gauging a Two-Hole Pattern


Gauging is a technique of checking dimensions to determine whether they meet specified tolerances (Fig. 14.52). The two holes, with diametral size limits of 12.70-12.84, are located at true position 26.00 mm apart within a diameter of 0.18 at MMC. The gauge pin diameter is calculated to be 12.52 mm (the smallest holes size, 12.70, minus the true-position tolerance, 0.18), as Fig. 14.52B shows. Thus two pins with diameters of 12.52 mm spaced exactly 26.00 mm apart could be used to check the diameters and positions of the holes at MMC, the most critical size. If the pins can be inserted into the holes, the holes are properly sized and located. When the holes are not at MMC, or larger than the minimum size, these gauge pins permit a greater range of variation (Fig. 14.53). When the holes are at their maximum size of 12.84 mm, they can be located as close as 25.68 mm from center to center or as far apart as 26.32 mm from center to center.

Concentricity
Concentricity is a feature of location because it specifies the relationship of two cylinders that share the same axis. In Fig. 14.54, the large cylinder is labeled as datum A, which means the large diameter is used as the datum for locating the small cylinders axis. We use feature control frames of the type shown in Fig. 14.55 to specify concentricity and other geometric characteristics throughout the remainder of this chapter.

Symmetry
Symmetry also is a feature of location in which a feature is symmetrical with the same contour and size on opposite sides of a central plane. F i F 14.56A shows how to apply a symmetry feature symbol to the notch that is symmetrical about the parts central datum plane B for a zone of 0.6 fl

288

CHAPTER14 TOLERANCES

I-

- 26.32

MAX

11-

26.00

4,

When

holes are at m a x i m u m size (12.84) t h e y c o n be a s f a r a p a r i a s 26.35 ( C to 1,:

A.SPECIFICATIONS
H o l e s a t MMC (12.70) l o c a i e d a t Max a n d M i n positions

-012.52

Gauye u w s

1-

- - -38

-26.00

52 - - 4

1
1

\---25.82

MIN--l

U s e 012.52 g a u g e p i n s 01 26.00 apart

W h e n holes a r z at m a x i m u m s i L e (12 84) t h e y c u t b e u s close C l 9 2 5 68 (C t o c

B.MEANING

O F SPECIFICATIONS

Figure 14.52 A These two holes at MMC are to be located at true position, as specified. 6 The two holes may be gauged with pins 12.52 rnm in diameter located 26.00 rnm apart.

B.CLOSEST TOGETHER

-012

5 2 G o u g o pins

Figure 14.53 A These two holes at MMC may have their centers spaced as far as 26.32 mrn apart and still be acceptable.

B The holes may be placed as close as 25.68 rnrn apart


when they are at maximum size.

Gauging a Two-Hole Pattern


Gauging is a technique of checking dimensions to determine whether they meet specified tolerances (Fig. 14.52). The two holes, with diametral size limits of 12.70-12.84, are located at true position 26.00 mm apart within a diameter of 0.18 at MMC. The gauge pin diameter is calculated to be 12.52 mm (the smallest holes size, 12.70, minus the true-position tolerance, 0.18), as Fig. 14.52B shows. Thus two pins with diameters of 12.52 mm spaced exactly 26.00 mm apart could be used to check the diameters and positions of the holes at MMC, the most critical size. If the pins can be inserted into the holes, the holes are properly sized and located. When the holes are not at MMC, or larger than the minimum size, these gauge pins permit a greater range of variation (Fig. 14.53). When the holes are at their maximum size of 12.84 mm, they can be located as close as 25.68 mm from center to center or as far apart as 26.32 mm from center to center.

Concentricity
Concentricity is a feature of location because it specifies the relationship of two cylinders that share the same axis. In Fig. 14.54, the large cylinder is labeled as datum A, which means the large diameter is used as the datum for locating the small cylinders axis. We use feature control frames of the type shown in Fig. 14.55 to specify concentricity and other geometric characteristics throughout the remainder of this chapter.

Symmetry
Symmetry also is a feature of location in which a feature is symmetrical with the same contour and size on opposite sides of a central plane. F i F 14.56A shows how to apply a symmetry feature symbol to the notch that is symmetrical about the parts central datum plane B for a zone of 0.6 fl

288

CHAPTER14 TOLERANCES