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# CAMS - LECTURE

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1. Classes of Cams
1.1 Uniform motion
The uniform motion cam moves the follower at the same rate of speed from the beginning to the end of the
stroke; but as the movement is started from zero to the full speed of the uniform motion and stops in the same
abrupt way, there is a distinct shock at the beginning and end of the stroke, if the movement is at all rapid.
1.2 Uniformly accelerated motion
The uniformly accelerated motion cam is suitable for moderate speeds, but it has the disadvantage of sudden
changes in acceleration at the beginning, middle and end of the stroke. A cycloidal motion curve cam produces
no abrupt changes in acceleration and is often used in high-speed machinery because it results in low noise,
vibration and wear. The cycloidal motion displacement curve is so called because it can be generated from a
cycloid which is the locus of a point of a circle rolling on a straight line.

2. Cam follower systems.
2.1 Open-track cams
2.1.1 Radial translating roller follower
2.1.2 Offset translating roller follower
2.1.3 Swinging roller follower

2.2 Closed-track cams

3. Displacement diagrams.
Design of a cam begins with the displacement diagram. A simple displacement diagram is shown in Fig. 3. One
cycle means one whole revolution of the cam; i.e., one cycle represents 360. The horizontal distances T
1
, T
2
, T
3
, T
4

are expressed in units of time (seconds); or radians or degrees. The vertical distance, h, represents the maximum
rise or stroke of the follower.
CAMS - LECTURE

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4. Types of Cam Displacement Curves.
To analyze the action of a cam it is necessary to study its time-displacement and associated velocity and
acceleration curves. The latter are based on the first and second time-derivatives of the equation describing the
time-displacement curve:
( ) t f nt displaceme y = = or ( ) f y =

d
dy
velocity
dt
dy
v = = =

2
2
2
2
2

d
y d
on accelerati
dt
y d
a = = =
Meaning of Symbols and Equivalent Relations:
y = displacement of follower, inch
h = maximum displacement of follower, inch
t = time for cam to rotate through angle , sec, = /, sec
T = time for cam to rotate through angle , sec, = /, or /6N, sec
= cam angle rotation for follower displacement y, degrees
= cam angle rotation for total rise h, degrees
v = velocity of follower, in./sec
a = follower acceleration, in./sec2
t/T = /
N = cam speed, rpm
= angular velocity of cam, degrees/sec = /T = /t = d/dt = 6N

R
= angular velocity of cam, radians/sec = /180
W = effective weight, lbs
G = gravitational constant = 386 in./sec2
f(t) = means of function of t
f()= means a function of
R
min
= minimum radius to the cam pitch curve, inch
R
max
= maximum radius to the cam pitch curve, inch
r
f
= radius of cam follower roller, inch
= radius of curvature of cam pitch curve (path of center of roller follower), inch
R
c
= radius of curvature of actual cam surface, in., r
f
for convex surface; = + r
f
for concave surface.

CAMS - LECTURE

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4.1 Constant-Velocity Motion:

T
t
h y = or

h
y =

T
h
dt
dy
v = = or

h
v = for T t < < 0
0
2
2
= =
dt
y d
a

4.2 Parabolic Motion:

For 2 0 T t and 2 0
( ) ( )
2 2
2 2 h T t h y = =
CAMS - LECTURE

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2 2
4 4 h T ht v = =
( )
2 2
4 4 h T h a = =

For T t T 2 and 2
( ) [ ] ( ) [ ]
2 2
1 2 1 1 2 1 = = h T t h y
( )( ) ( )( ) = = 1 4 1 4 h T t T h v
( )
2 2
4 4 h T h a = =

Examination of the above formulas shows that the velocity is zero when t = 0 and y = 0; and when t = T and y = h.

4.3 Simple Harmonic Motion:

(
(

|
|

\
|
=
T
t h
y
o
180
1
2
cos or
(
(

|
|

\
|
=

o
180
1
2
cos
h
y

|
|

\
|
=
T
t
T
h
v
o
180
2
sin

or
|
|

\
|
=

o
180
2
sin
h
v

|
|

\
|
=
T
t
T
h
a
o
180
2
2
2
cos

or
|
|

\
|
|
|

\
|
=

o
180
2
2
cos
h
a

CAMS - LECTURE

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4.4 Cycloidal Motion:

(
(

|
|

\
|
=
T
t
T
t
h y
o
360
2
1
sin

or
(
(

|
|

\
|
=

o
360
2
1
sin h y

(
(

|
|

\
|
=
T
t
T
h
v
o
360
1 cos or
(
(

|
|

\
|
=

o
360
1 cos
h
v

|
|

\
|
=
T
t
T
h
a
o
360 2
2
sin

or
|
|

\
|
=

o
360 2
2
2
sin
h
a

- End -