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LANGUAGELANGUAGE ININ SOCIETYSOCIETY ATTITUDESATTITUDES TOTO LANGUAGELANGUAGE
LANGUAGELANGUAGE ININ SOCIETYSOCIETY
ATTITUDESATTITUDES TOTO
LANGUAGELANGUAGE
LLanguageanguage AAttitudesttitudes TThehe feelingsfeelings peoplepeople havehave aboutabout theirtheir ownown
LLanguageanguage AAttitudesttitudes
TThehe feelingsfeelings peoplepeople havehave aboutabout
theirtheir ownown languagelanguage oror thethe
langlanguageuage ofof othersothers
(Crystal(Crystal 1992)1992)
AttitudeAttitude researchresearch WhatWhat languageslanguages dodo wewe like/like/findfind pleasant?pleasant? ––
AttitudeAttitude researchresearch
WhatWhat languageslanguages dodo wewe like/like/findfind pleasant?pleasant?
–– ResearchResearch showsshows:: ppatternsatterns oonlynly inin casecase ofof
familiarfamiliar languageslanguages oror varietiesvarieties ofof languagelanguage
–– ResponsesResponses toto unfamiliarunfamiliar LsLs andand DsDs formform nono
pattern,pattern, randomlyrandomly distributeddistributed
→→→→→→ NoNo inherentlyinherently uglyugly oror beautifulbeautiful
languagelanguages,s, nnothingothing inherentlyinherently goodgood oror badbad
aboutabout linguisticlinguistic itemsitems
→→→→→→ EvaluationEvaluation dependsdepends onon howhow wewe feelfeel
aboutabout thethe speakersspeakers ofof thethe particularparticular languagelanguage
oror varietyvariety
AttitudeAttitude researchresearch ((contcont.).) WhatWhat wordswords dodo wewe likelike // dislikedislike?? ––
AttitudeAttitude researchresearch ((contcont.).)
WhatWhat wordswords dodo wewe likelike // dislikedislike??
–– Swallow?Swallow? NiceNice oror notnot?? DependsDepends onon whatwhat itit
meansmeans,, birdbird oror activityactivity afterafter chewingchewing
–– Hungarian:Hungarian: „Ez„Ez nemnem kkőő,, hanemhanem márványmárvány.”.”
–– E’E’ nemnem kkőő,, ilyenilyen mámá(n)(n) van.van.
→→→→→→HHowow wewe feelfeel aboutabout linguisticlinguistic itemsitems isis notnot
determinedeterminedd byby theirtheir intrinsicintrinsic qualitiesqualities,, butbut eg.eg.
contextcontext
SUMMARYSUMMARY WeWe havehave prejudiceprejudice towardstowards certaincertain linguisticlinguistic features,features,
SUMMARYSUMMARY
WeWe havehave prejudiceprejudice towardstowards certaincertain linguisticlinguistic
features,features, +/+/--,, butbut itit isis notnot groundedgrounded inin
linguisticlinguistic rreaeasonsons,s, butbut political,political, socialsocial
ones.ones.
WeWe havehave prejudiceprejudice towardstowards people,people, notnot
langlanguageuage,, butbut asas languagelanguage rerevealsveals //
rereflectsflects aa lotlot aboutabout peoplepeople,, wewe thinkthink wewe areare
prejudicedprejudiced againstagainst languagelanguage
LINGUISTICLINGUISTIC PREJUDICEPREJUDICE OnOn societalsocietal levellevel:: clearlyclearly seenseen inin surveysurvey
LINGUISTICLINGUISTIC PREJUDICEPREJUDICE
OnOn societalsocietal levellevel::
clearlyclearly seenseen inin surveysurvey aboutabout Danish,Danish,
SwedishSwedish andand NorwegianNorwegian languageslanguages inin
1950s1950s
IndividualIndividual levellevel::
ourour attitudesattitudes towardstowards languagelanguage ofof gypsiesgypsies
EFFECTEFFECT OFOF ATTITUDESATTITUDES OnOn comprehensibilitycomprehensibility (intelligibility)(intelligibility) ofof
EFFECTEFFECT OFOF ATTITUDESATTITUDES
OnOn comprehensibilitycomprehensibility (intelligibility)(intelligibility) ofof
languageslanguages:: ppeopleeople thinkthink itit isis easiereasier toto
understandunderstand languageslanguages andand dialectsdialects whosewhose
speakersspeakers theythey thinkthink positivelypositively about,about, whowho
theythey likelike oror admireadmire
OnOn learnabilitylearnability:: itit isis easiereasier toto acquireacquire
admiredadmired languages,languages, wherewhere wewe havehave highhigh
motivationmotivation
AttitudesAttitudes oftenoften change:change: sensitivesensitive toto politicalpolitical andand socialsocial
AttitudesAttitudes oftenoften change:change: sensitivesensitive toto
politicalpolitical andand socialsocial changeschanges CanCan bebe seenseen
inin
–– WalesWales
–– CanadaCanada
–– ScandinavianScandinavian situationsituation
–– BelgiumBelgium
–– Somalia,Somalia, etc.etc.
COVERTCOVERT ANDAND OVERTOVERT PRESTIGEPRESTIGE StandStandardard VVarietyariety inin aa communitycommunity hashas
COVERTCOVERT ANDAND OVERTOVERT PRESTIGEPRESTIGE
StandStandardard VVarietyariety inin aa communitycommunity hashas
overtovert prestigeprestige
VernacularVernacular varietyvariety,, egeg locallocal accentaccent hashas
covertcovert prestigeprestige,, asas itit expressesexpresses groupgroup
identityidentity andand solidaritysolidarity
SpeechSpeech ratingrating exerciseexercise 1 2 3 4 5 1. pleasant unpleasant 2. attractive unattractive 3.
SpeechSpeech ratingrating exerciseexercise
1
2
3
4
5
1. pleasant
unpleasant
2. attractive
unattractive
3. self-confident
un-self-confident
4. likeable
unlikeable
5. fluent
not fluent
6. reliable
unreliable
7. sincere
insincere
8. ambitious
unambitious
9. friendly
unfriendly
10. intelligent
unintelligent
11. good sense of
humour
no sense of humour
12. leadership skills
leadership skills
13. highly educated
uneducated
14. high status job
low status job
DDifferencesifferences inin ratingsratings VernacularVernacular isis ratedrated lessless highlyhighly,,
DDifferencesifferences inin ratingsratings
VernacularVernacular isis ratedrated lessless highlyhighly,, (especially(especially
byby olderolder listeners)listeners) onon statusstatus--relatedrelated
featuresfeatures likelike confidence,confidence, ambition,ambition,
intelligence,intelligence, leadershipleadership skills,skills, educationeducation
andand highhigh statusstatus jobjob
LocalLocal accentsaccents raterate moremore highlyhighly onon
solidaritysolidarity relatedrelated featuresfeatures:: sincerity,sincerity,
friendliness,friendliness, reliability,reliability, sensesense ofof humourhumour,,
andand amongamong youngyoung peoplepeople
ATTITUDESATTITUDES TOTO STANDARDSTANDARD ENGLISHENGLISH ANDAND RPRP ““EnglishEnglish oughtought toto bebe thethe
ATTITUDESATTITUDES TOTO STANDARDSTANDARD ENGLISHENGLISH
ANDAND RPRP
““EnglishEnglish oughtought toto bebe thethe queenqueen ofof thethe curriculumcurriculum toto
anyany BritishBritish child.child. ItIt isis oneone ofof thethe thingsthings thatthat
definedefine hishis oror herher nationalitynationality.”.” ((EEditorialditorial inin TheThe
TimesTimes,, 30/4/88.)30/4/88.)
StandStandardard EngEnglishlish hashas anan enormousenormous legacylegacy
ofof overtovert prestigeprestige
HHasas aa preferredpreferred status,status, givesgives itsits usersusers socialsocial
advantagesadvantages andand increasesincreases theirtheir lifelife
chanceschances
ATTITUDESATTITUDES TOTO VERNACULARVERNACULAR FORMSFORMS SSpeakerspeakers ofof vernacularvernacular formsforms dodo
ATTITUDESATTITUDES TOTO VERNACULARVERNACULAR
FORMSFORMS
SSpeakerspeakers ofof vernacularvernacular formsforms dodo insistinsist onon
usingusing theirtheir ownown varietyvariety becausebecause ofof covertcovert
prestigeprestige
LowerLower workingworking classclass andand minorityminority childrenchildren
dodo thethe samesame,, dodo notnot wantwant toto soundsound likelike
theirtheir teachersteachers == representativesrepresentatives ofof middlemiddle
classclass valuesvalues
SOCIOLINGUISTICSSOCIOLINGUISTICS ANDAND EDUCATIONEDUCATION BasilBasil BernsteinBernstein’s’s restrictedrestricted
SOCIOLINGUISTICSSOCIOLINGUISTICS ANDAND
EDUCATIONEDUCATION
BasilBasil BernsteinBernstein’s’s restrictedrestricted andand elaborateelaboratedd
codecode(1970s,(1970s, UK)UK)
–– ElabElaboratedorated code:code: accurateaccurate grammargrammar andand
syntax,syntax, complexcomplex sentences,sentences, rangerange ofof lingling
devicesdevices toto expressexpress varietyvariety ofof (temporal,(temporal,
spatial,spatial, etc.)etc.) relations,relations, richrich vocabulary,vocabulary, esp.esp.
adjectivesadjectives andand adverbsadverbs
RestrictedRestricted codecode SShorthort,, simple,simple, unfinishedunfinished sentences,sentences,
RestrictedRestricted codecode
SShorthort,, simple,simple, unfinishedunfinished sentences,sentences,
grammaticallygrammatically incorrect,incorrect, syntacticallysyntactically poor,poor,
limitedlimited rangerange ofof vocabularyvocabulary
LanguageLanguage ofof intimacyintimacy ofof familiars,familiars,
everybodyeverybody usesuses itit onon certaincertain occasions,occasions,
thusthus everybodyeverybody hashas accessaccess toto itit
BUTBUT nnotot allall socialsocial classesclasses havehave equalequal accessaccess toto elabelaboratedorated code,code,
BUTBUT nnotot allall socialsocial classesclasses havehave equalequal
accessaccess toto elabelaboratedorated code,code, letlet alonealone
workingworking classesclasses andand theirtheir childrenchildren
LLowerower classclass childrenchildren atat aa disadvantagedisadvantage inin
school,school, wherewhere elaboratedelaborated codecode usedused
extensivelyextensively
SSchoolchool tryingtrying toto developdevelop child’schild’s abilityability toto
useuse elabelab codecode →→ →→ negativenegative effecteffect →→ →→
likelylikely educationaleducational failurefailure
VernacularVernacular dialectsdialects andand educationaleducational disadvantagedisadvantage MiddleMiddle classclass
VernacularVernacular dialectsdialects andand educationaleducational
disadvantagedisadvantage
MiddleMiddle classclass childrenchildren dodo betterbetter atat school,school,
havehave betterbetter examexam results.results. Similarly,Similarly,
mainstreammainstream cultureculture childrenchildren dodo betterbetter thanthan
minorityminority groups.groups.
→→ →→ CChildrenhildren whowho useuse aa vernacularvernacular areare
linguisticallylinguistically deprived.deprived. (???)(???)
BUTBUT IIss thethe vernacularvernacular reallyreally thethe cause?cause? CanCan wewe reallyreally talktalk aboutabout
BUTBUT
IIss thethe vernacularvernacular reallyreally thethe cause?cause?
CanCan wewe reallyreally talktalk aboutabout linguisticlinguistic deficitdeficit ofof
thesethese childrenchildren??
ShallShall wewe condemncondemn thethe vernacularvernacular andand forceforce
childrenchildren toto abandonabandon theirtheir locallocal // vernacularvernacular
homehome varietyvariety??
ConclusionsConclusions RatherRather thanthan condemncondemn andand stereotypestereotype varieties,varieties, wewe
ConclusionsConclusions
RatherRather thanthan condemncondemn andand stereotypestereotype
varieties,varieties, wewe shouldshould learnlearn toto acceptaccept aandnd
appreciatappreciatee themthem,, tthroughhrough acceptingaccepting andand
appreciatingappreciating theirtheir usersusers
InsteadInstead ofof changingchanging vernacularvernacular varieties,varieties,
changechange teachers’teachers’ // society’ssociety’s attitudeattitude toto
usersusers ofof vernacularvernacular formsforms