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Results: Datum height= 0.16662m Width of flume, b= 0.105m Depth of flow data Trial No.

Height of flow downstream/ Height of flow upstream/ Start of hydraulic jump, L1/ m 0.48 0.42 0.39 0.388 End of hydraulic jump, L2/ m 0.55 0.555 0.55 0.637 Length of hydraulic jump, L/ m =L2-L1 0.07 0.135 0.16 0.249

1 2 3 4

8.03 10.62 11.70 12.30

7.44 7.26 7.31 7.34

Rate of flow data Volume of water measured= 300L = 0.3m3 Trial No. 1 2 Volume of water/ L 300 300 Time, t/ s 57.86 38.28 38.56 38.92 32.78 32.49 32.49 29.72 29.70 29.76 Treatment of results Trial No. Depth of flow Depth of flow H1, Height upstream, H2, height of downstream, of flow d1/m flow d2/ m upstream/m (H1-Datum) downstream/m (H2-Datum) 0.188976 0.022356 0.203962 0.037342 0.184404 0.017784 0.269748 0.103128 0.185674 0.019054 0.29718 0.13056 0.186436 0.019816 0.31242 0.1458 Actual discharge rate, Qa/m3/s 0.005185 0.007774 0.009205 0.010091 Discharge Critical per unit depth, dc/m width, q/ m3/s/m 0.04938 0.062875 0.074038 0.082366 0.087667 0.092186 0.096105 0.098011 Average time, t/ s 57.86 38.59 Actual discharge rate, Qa/ m3/s 0.005185 0.007774







1 2 3 4

Trial No.

Velocity upstream, v1/ m/s 2.205012 4.127841 4.600959 4.849857

1 2 3 4

Froude Velocity Froude Number downstream, Number downstream, Critical velocity, v2/ m/s upstream, Fr 1 Fr2 vc/ m/s 1.320102 4.708465 2.181093 0.78537 0.711829 9.882657 0.707706 0.898895 0.671467 10.64194 0.593314 0.950972 0.659155 10.99984 0.551155 0.980554

Trial No.

1 2 3 4

Specific Energy upstream, E1/ m 0.27017 0.88624 1.097995 1.21865

Specific Specific Energy Energy at critical depth, Energy loss, downstream, Ec/ m ( ) E/m= E2/ m 0.126163 0.094204 0.128954 0.122849 0.15354 0.13828 0.167945 0.147016

0.001008 0.084733 0.139328 0.173027

Trial No.

Force upstream , F1/ N=

( )

1 2 3 4

0.256633 0.162399 0.186421 0.20163

Momentu m upstream, M1/kgm/s = 11.41819 32.2678 42.22477 48.79309


Force downstream,

( )

Momentum downstrea m, M2/


11.6748 32.4302 42.4112 48.9947

0.716009 5.461056 8.752734 10.91537

kgm/s = 6.83587 5.56445 6.16231 6.631576

7.55188 11.0255 14.9150 17.5470

Force at critical depth, Fc/N 2.025275 3.444139 4.363719 4.932541

Momentu m at critical depth, Mc/kgm/ s 4.05987 6.96707 8.727438 9.865081

(M+F)c 6.089805 10.4506 13.09116 14.79762

Classification of hydraulic jump for each of the trial no. Trial No. 1 2 3 4 Froude number upstream, Fr1 4.708465 9.882657 10.64194 10.99984 The classification of jumps for each trial no. Steady jump Strong jump Strong jump Strong jump Loss of energy in % ((E/E1)x100) 0.373054 9.560982 12.68931 14.19822

Length of hydraulic jump, L vs Froude number upstream, Fr1



Length of hydraulic jump, L/ m





0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Froude number upstream, Fr1

Loss of energy (%) vs Froude number upstream

20 18 16 14 Loss of energy (%) 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Froude number upstream, Fr1

Energy dissipation vs Froude Number upstream for the 4 trials

0.2 0.18 0.16 0.14 Energy dissipation, E 0.12 0.1 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 0 0 2 4 6 Froude Number Upstream, Fr1 8 10 12

Depth, d vs Specific Energy, E

0.16 0.14 0.12 Depth of flow, d/m 0.1 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 Specific Eneegy, E Trial No.1 Trial No.2 Trial No.3 Trial No.4

Depth,d vs (M+F)
0.16 0.14 0.12 Depth of flow, d/m 0.1 Trial No.1 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 0 0 10 20 30 (M+F) 40 50 60 Trial No.3 Trial No.4 Trial No.2

Procedure: 1) The flow rate was adjusted and the tailgate elevation set so that a stable acceptable hydraulic jump occurs midway through the channel. 2) Using a stopwatch, the time taken for the needle on the gauge of the hydraulic jump machine to make three revolutions was recorded for each trial of the experiment. Each revolution of the gauge represents 100 litres of water. This data is used to calculate the discharge, Q. 3) The depth of flow in front, behind the hydraulic jump was measured. 4) Using a meter rule, the length of the hydraulic jump was measured. 5) The steps were repeated for the other three discharge values.

Discussion: The graph of Energy dissipation, E vs Froude number upstream, Fr1 shows an exponential relationship between the two. The trend is that as Froude number upstream increases, energy loss increases but at a non linear rate. Each consecutive trial number for the experiment the flow rate was set to a higher value than it was before. The theory suggests that both the Froude number and specific energy are functions of velocity of the stream hence the rate of discharge, Q as can be seen in there equations Fr and Specific E. And Q. Therefore, increased velocities caused both the Froude number and the specific energy to increase. With an increase in Froude number upstream, there was more energy dissipated as the hydraulic jumps got more energetic, that is, an increase in specific energy upstream. From the graph this is clearly illustrated. The graph also shows that the energy loss, E of the hydraulic jump is a very low value for the first trial of the experiment with and approximate value of 0.001m. The energy dissipation in percentage (%) is 0.373%. This small energy loss corresponds to an upstream Froude number of approximately 4.7. The rate of flow for the first trial, that is, the velocity of the stream was relatively low compared to the other trials. From this trend it can be stated based on the graph that as the Froude number upstream falls below 4.7, the energy dissipation tends to 0 (a negligible value). This is where the experimental results do not coincide with the theoretical values. The classification of the hydraulic jump for this first run is a steady jump. The other three jumps are classified as strong. For a steady hydraulic jump, the energy dissipation theoretically supposed to range between 45-70%. The highest energy dissipation that was computed was for the 4th trial with a value of only 14.9%. The graph shows that the hydraulic jump is a very effective dissipater of energy as the Froude number upstream is high. This can be a very effective means of reducing unwanted energy in streams. If water from a steep spillway is fed into a channel, severe scouring of the bed may occur if rapid flow is allowed to continue. Hence, an application of hydraulic jumps is to dissipate much of the surplus energy and allow the stream to be safely discharge as tranquil flow. Energy can be dissipated as sound or heat and therefore, after the hydraulic jump, the water downstream may have a temperature higher than the one upstream. The length of the hydraulic jump is the horizontal distance between the front of the jump and the point just downstream of the last roller. The graph of Length of hydraulic jump vs Upstream Froude number showed that there was a linear increase of the jump length as the upstream Froude number increased. Theoretically the increased velocity would cause the Froude number to increase making the flow more critical. This would affect the distance the water would travel since velocity is a function of displacement. This can be observed from the graph hence the experimental data supports the theory. The length of the hydraulic jump is usually in the order of 5 times its height. For this graph, the second, third point and fourth point showed great deviation from the line of best fit than the first point. This can be considered erroneous. This can be due to various sources of errors such as parallax error, poor human averaging of the measurement of the last roller of a hydraulic jump or good sense of where the jump actually begins in the channel for a specified flow rate needed for the determination of the length of the hydraulic jump. There is also increased difficulty in measuring the start and end of the hydraulic jump for the other three trials due to the addition of the problem of increased turbulence and eddies. Human error can play a significant role in this case. For this experiment, the following assumptions must be made in order to reduce other potential errors and misconceptions:

1) The bed of the stream is horizontal so that the component of weight in the direction of flow may be neglected in calculations. 2) The rectangular cross section is uniform, that is, the width hydraulic jump is constant. 3) The velocities of each of the cross section (upstream, downstream of the hydraulic jump) are uniform and are used without significant error. 4) The depth is uniform across the width.

There were problems in obtaining the hydraulic jump at the centre of the channel since slight adjustments of the flow rate would cause the jump to move to the end of the channel but careful alterations of the conditions created hydraulic jumps which was generally produced in the middle of the channel. The position at which the hydraulic jump occurs is dependent on if the momentum relation is satisfied. The value of the depth downstream is determined by the conditions downstream of the jump and the rapid flow continues until the depth upstream has reached the value which fits the equation 10.25. The turbulence in a jump may be sufficient to induce large quantities of air into the liquid and as a result the depth immediately after the jump may be greater than that predicted by equation 10.25. The delta E equation tells that a hydraulic jump is possible only from rapid to tranquil flow and not vice versa. Factors that affect the stability of the jumps are flow rate, friction at the boundaries of the channel and position of the sluice gate. Hydraulic jumps are applied to dissipate energy in water flowing over dams, weirs and other hydraulic structures and prevent scouring downstream from the structure. To recover and raise the water level on the downstream side of a measuring flume and maintain high water level in the side of a measuring flume thus maintaining high water level in a channel for irrigation and other water distribution methods. To increase discharge of a sluice gate by holding back tailwater since the effective head will be reduced if the tailwater is allowed to drown the jump. To indicate special flow conditions, such as the existence of supercritical flow or the presence of a control section on that a gaging station may be located. To mix two chemicals together or to mix chemicals for water purification. to aerate water for city supplies and to remove air pockets from water that goes into supply lines thus preventing air locking. Some other sources of errors include parallax error when reading flow gauge and vernier scale, the flow may not have been fully stabilized when the reading were taken, inserting the depth gauge into the channel may have affected the position of the hydraulic jump, reaction time error when obtaining time for flow, it was assumed that the density of the water was 997kg/m^3 although the water wasnt pure since it was brown indicating that it contained other substances which may cause errors in the experiment such as different values of momentum and energy readings, additional energy losses due to friction. Conclusion: Within the limits of the experimental errors it was found that the experimental approach to the h.j. phenomenon was not without errors and difficulties, inclusive of stabilizing the jump ina fixed fume length, the method of obtaining the jump parameters and not being able to account for the add. Energy losses, however was comparable to theoritical calcs. It was obs. That the depth decrease upstream and the froude number increased and more energy was dissipated.

References: 1) Borthwick, M., Chadwich, A., Morfett, J. 2004. Hydraulics in Civil and Environmental Engineering. Taylor & Francis. 2) Massey, Bernard. 2006. Mechanics of Fluids. Taylor & Francis. 3) Sholichin, Mohammad,and Shatirah Akib.2010.Development of drop number performance for estimate hydraulic jump on vertical and sloped drop structure. International Journal of the Physical Sciences Vol. 5(11), pp. 1678-1687. Accessed November 2,2012. http://www.academicjournals.org/ijps/pdf/pdf2010/18%20Sept/Sholichin%20and%20Akib.pdf 4) Technological University Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST).(date unavailable).The hydraulic pump. Nay Pyi Taw State: Myanmar, Technological University Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST). Accessed November 2,2012. http://www.most.gov.mm/techuni/media/CE_04016_chap8.pdf