Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 12

4.13

Open Conductor Faults:

When one or two phases of a balanced three-phase line opens it creates an unbalance in the

system and results in the ﬂow of unbalanced currents. Such conditions occur in the system when

one or two conductors of a trnansmission line are broken due to storm or if fuses, isolators or

circuit breakers operate only on one or two phases leaving others connected. Such open conductor

¯

faults can also be analysed with the help of [ Z Bus ] matrices of sequence networks.

Figure 4.75: Open Conductor faults on a section of three phase system

In Fig. 4.75, a section of a three phase system between buses i and j is shown. Fig. 4.75 (a)

shows one conductor open while Fig. 4.75 (b) shows two conductors open between points k and

k . The positive direction of currents

a , such faults, the Thevenin’s impedance between two buses i and j is required and the relationship

I b and I c are shown in the ﬁgure. For the analysis of

¯

I

¯

¯

¯

between the elements of [ Z Bus ] and Thevenin’s impedances at each bus of the network needs

to be established.

¯

Let [ V 0 ] be the vector of open-circuit bus voltages corresponding to the initial (pre-fault) value

of bus current vector [ ¯ I 0 ] injected in a network with bus impedance matrix [ Z Bus ]. We can

then write

¯

208

[

¯

V 0 ]=[

Z Bus ][ ¯ I 0 ]

¯

(4.134)

If the bus currents are changed to a new value, [ ¯ I 0 +∆ ¯ I], the new bus voltage [ V] can be expressed as:

¯

[ V] = [ Z Bus ][ ¯ I 0 +∆ ¯ I]

¯

¯

[

Z Bus ][ ¯ I 0 ]+[ Z Bus ][∆ ¯

¯

¯

I]

¯

¯

=

= [ V 0 ]+[∆ V]

(4.135)

 ¯ ¯ where,[∆ V] represents the change in the values of the original bus voltage [ V 0 ].

Fig. 4.76 represents a power system with buses i and j taken out along with the reference node.

 V 0 ] and [ ¯ ¯ I 0 ] are zero. Currents [∆ ¯ ¯ The circuit is not energised so that [ I i ] and [∆ I j ] are

injected into the i th and j th buses respectively, through current sources connected between the node and the reference node.

¯

Figure 4.76: Change in bus voltage [∆ V] due to current [

209

¯

¯

I i ] and [I j ]

¯

The changes in bus voltage [∆ V] can be calculated from equation (4.135) as

¯

V 1

⎥ ⎥

¯

⎥ ⎥

⎥ ⎥

⎥ ⎥

¯

⎥ ⎦

j

1

i

V

¯

i

=

V

j

V N

N

1

¯

¯

Z i1

¯

Z j1

¯

Z N1

i

¯

Z

¯

Z ii

1i

j

¯

Z 1j

¯

Z ij

⎢ ⎡ Z 11

⎢ ⎢

⎢ ⎢

⎢ ⎢

⎢ ⎢

⎢ ⎢

⎢ ⎣

⋮ ⋮

Z jj

¯ ¯

Z ji

¯ ¯

Z

Ni

Z Nj

N

¯

Z

1N

¯

Z iN

¯

Z jN

¯

Z NN

¯

V 1

¯

V

¯

i

V

j

¯

V

N

=

Z 1i

¯

¯

Z

¯

ii

ji

Z

¯

Z

Ni

¯

I i +

¯

I i +

¯

I i +

¯

I i +

¯

¯

Z 1j I j

¯

¯

Z ij I j

¯

Z jj I j

¯

¯

¯

Z Nj I j

⎤ ⎡

I 1

¯

⎢ ⎢

¯

I i

¯

I j

¯

I N

⎥ ⎥

⎥ ⎥
⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢

⎥ ⎢ ⎢

⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢

⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢

⎦ ⎥ ⎣

The modiﬁed voltage at i th bus can be written as :

¯

¯

¯

¯

V i = V

0

i

+V i = V

i

0

+

¯

Z

ii

¯

I i +

¯

Z ij

¯

I j

¯

¯ ¯

Z ij

I i in equation (4.137), one obtains

 ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ V i = V i 0 +( Z ii −

Z ij )I i + Z ij (I i +I j )

(4.136)

(4.137)

(4.138)

Similarly the modiﬁed voltage at j th bus can be written as

¯

¯

¯

¯

V j = V

0

j

0

+ V j = V

j

+

¯

Z

ji

¯

I i +

¯

Z jj

¯

I j

¯

¯ ¯

Z ji

I j in equation (4.139) , one obtains

 ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ V j = V j 0 +( Z jj −

Z ji )I j + Z ji (I i +I j )

Since the network is symmetrical

¯

Z ji =

¯

Z ij

(4.139)

(4.140)

(4.141)

Thus the equations (4.138) and (4.140) can be represented by an equivalent circuit shown in Fig. 4.77, which is also the Thevenin’s Equivalent circuit of the network as seen from the i th and j th buses.

From the ﬁgure it can be observed that the Thevenin’s open circuit voltage between i th and j th

buses is (

¯

V

0

i

¯

0

V

j

).

210

Figure 4.77: The Thevenin’s Equivalent of the original network

To calculate the open circuit impedance between i th and j th buses, the initial voltages

¯

V

j

¯

0 and

0 are set equal to zero and an ideal current source I is connected between the two busses.

¯

V

i

¯

¯

Next, the resulting voltages V i and V j are calculated. Note that

¯

I i =

¯

I and

¯

¯

I j =I.

¯

V i =(

¯

¯

Z ii Z ij )

¯

I

(4.142)

¯

V j =(

¯

¯

Z jj

¯

Z

ji )(

¯

I)

(4.143)

Next, calculate the voltage diﬀerence V ij between i th and j th buses as:

Hence,

 ∆ ¯ V ij = ¯ ¯ V i − V j =( ¯ Z ii + ¯ Z jj −2 ¯ Z ij ) ¯ I ¯ ∆ Z T hevenin,ij = ∆ ¯ V ¯ ij =( ¯ Z ii + ¯ Z jj −2 ¯ Z ij ) I

(4.144)

(4.145)

Once the Thevenin’s equivalent is established, the analysis of open-conductor faults can proceed

further. The opening of all the three phases is equivalent to the removal of the line i j totally

from the network. If z¯

and

to the corresponding Thevenin’s equivalent network of the three sequence networks of the

original network as seen from i th and j th buses.

Let x represents the fractional length of the broken line i j from i th bus to the break point ‘k’, where 0 x 1.

are the the three sequence impedance of the line i

(0)

ij

(1)

, z¯

ij

(2)

and z¯

ij

j, then the removal of this line from the network can be simulated by adding z¯

ij

(2)

z¯

ij

(0)

(1)

, z¯

ij

211

The positive sequence impedance of the conductor segment between the i th bus and the point of

break k is xz¯

(1)

ij

, and the positive sequence impedance of the remaining conductor from point k to

. These two impedances are then added to represent the broken conductor.

(1)

j th bus is (1 x)z¯

ij

This is illustrated in Fig. 4.78

Figure 4.78: Positive sequence equivalent network with line open between buses k and k’

If

k’, then

points k and k’. These sequence voltages have diﬀerent values depending on the type of open conductor fault.

represent the sequence components of the voltage drops between

represent the phase component of voltage drops between points k and

V (a)

¯

kk

,

V (b)

¯

kk

(0)

¯

V

kk ,

and

V (c)

¯

kk

(1)

¯

V

kk

and

(2)

¯

V

kk

To further simplify the circuit, the voltage

(1)

¯

V

kk

(1)

and the total series impedance [xz¯

ij

+(1

(1)

x)z¯

ij

(1)

]= z¯

ij

is replaced by a current source

(1)

¯

V

kk

(1)

z¯

ij

(1)

and a parallel impedance z¯

ij

as shown in

Fig. 4.79.

(1)

Further, the parallel combination of z¯

ij

(1)

and z¯

ij

is and hence, is replaced by an open circuit.

The ﬁnal simpliﬁed positive sequence impedance equivalent circuit is shown in Fig. 4.80

Similarly, the negative sequence and zero sequence equivalent networks are shown in Fig.4.81 (a) and (b) repectively. These equivalent networks are identical to the positive sequence equivalent network but do not contain any internal voltage sources.

The equivalent currents

(1)

¯

V

kk

(1)

z¯

ij

,

(2)

¯

V

kk

(2)

z¯

ij

and

(0)

¯

V

kk

(0)

z¯

ij

are due to open conductor fault between k and

k’. If no conductor is open then the sequence voltages are all zero and the current sources are not present in the equivalent circuit. Further, the current sources can be regarded as current injections into the buses i and j of the original sequence networks. All through the calculation

212

Figure 4.79: Thevenin’s Equivalent with transformed current source

Figure 4.80: Final positive sequence Thevenin’s Equivalent circuit repesenting the opening of line i j between buses k and k’

process, the bus impedance matrices [

used.

¯

Z

(0)

Bus ], [

¯

Z

(1)

Bus ] and [

¯

Z

(2)

Bus ] of the original network are

The current injections at the buses i and j can be tabulated as:

213

Figure 4.81: Final (a) negative sequence (b) zero sequence Thevenin’s Equivalent circuit repesenting the opening of line i j between k and k’

 Positive Sequence Negative Sequence Zero sequence at i th bus (1) ¯ V kk ′ (1) ij z¯ (2) ¯ V kk ′ (2) ij z¯ (0) ¯ V kk ′ (0) ij z¯ at j th bus − (1) ¯ V kk ′ − (2) ¯ V kk ′ − (0) ¯ V kk ′ (1) z¯ ij z¯ ij (2) (0) z¯ ij ¯ (0) ¯ (1) (2)

The sequence voltage drops

at the buses ‘i’ and ‘j’ can be calculates from equation (4.136) as:

V

n

,V

n

and

¯

V

n

at any bus ‘n’ due to the current injections

¯

V

(0)

n

¯

V

(1)

n

¯

V

(2)

n

=

=

=

 ( ¯ Z (0) ni − ¯ Z (0) nj ) (0) ¯ V kk ′ (0) z¯ ij ¯ (1) ni ¯ (1) nj ¯ ( Z − Z ) (1) V kk ′ (1) z¯ ij ¯ (2) ni ¯ (2) nj ¯ ( Z − Z ) (2) V kk ′

(2)

z¯

ij

(4.146)

Next, the Thevenin’s equivalent impedances for each sequence network, as seen from the busesk

and k’, are calculated as follows:

From Fig.4.78, the positive sequence equivalent impdeance

¯

Z

(1)

kk

is found out as :

¯

Z

(1)

kk

(1)

= xz¯

ij

+

¯

Z

(1)

th,ij (z¯ ij

(1)

)

) +(1x)z¯

ij

(1)

¯

Z

(1)

th,ij +(z¯

ij

(1)

214

Z

th,ij z¯ ij

¯

Z

(1)

kk

(1)

= (z¯ ) 2

ij

¯

(1)

(1)

(4.147)

Similarly from Fig. 4.81 (a) and (b), the negative sequence and zero sequence Thevenin’s equiv- alent impedances can be expressed as:

¯

Z

(2)

kk

¯

Z

(0)

kk

=

=

(2)

(z¯ ) 2

ij

¯

Z

(2)

th,ij z¯ ij

(2)

(0)

(z¯ ) 2

ij

¯

Z

(0)

th,ij z¯ ij

(0)

(4.148)

The open-circuit voltage from point k to k’ can be calculated as:

substituting

Z (1)

kk

¯

(1)

z¯

ij

=

¯

V

th,kk is obtained as:

(1)

th,kk = (z¯

¯

V

(1)

¯

Z

(1)

ij

(1)

)

2

(1)

th,ij z¯ ij

(

¯

V

i

(1)

¯

V

j

(1)

)

(4.149)

(1)

z¯

ij

¯

Z

(1)

th,ij z¯ ij

(1)

from equation (4.147) in equation (4.149), the ﬁnal value of

¯

V

(1)

th,kk =

¯

Z

(1)

kk

(1)

z¯

ij

(

¯

V

i

(1)

¯

V

j

(1)

)

Also prior to the occurance of open-conductor fault on any conductor, the current in phase a is the positive sequence component and is given by the relation:

(1)

¯

I

ij

(4.150)

ﬂowing

¯ (1)

I

ij

= (

¯

V i

(1)

¯

V

j

(1)

)

(1)

z¯

ij

(4.151)

Substituting equation (4.151) in equation (4.150), one gets

¯
(1)
¯
(1) (1)
¯
V
Z
I
th,kk ′ =
kk ′
ij

(4.152)

The Thevenin’s equivalent network as seen from points k and k’ for the three sequence networks are shown in Fig. 4.82

We are now ready to discuss the two possible cases of open-circuit fault i.e. (a) open phase open (b) two phases open. We will be discussing them in the next lecture.

215

Figure 4.82: Thevenin’s Equivalent networks as seen from k and k’

4.13.1 One Phase open:

 ¯ Consider that phase a conductor is open as shown in Fig. 4.75(a), hence phase a current As a result: I a =0.

¯

I

(1)

a

¯

+ I

(2)

a

¯

+ I

(0)

a

= 0

(4.153)

where,

(1)

¯

I

a

,

(2)

¯

I

a

and

(0)

¯

I

a

are the symmetrical components of phase a current. Since phases b and

c are closed , the voltage drops .

¯

V kk ,b =0

¯

V kk ,c = 0

216

(4.154)

The symmetrical components of voltage drops across the fault point can be calculated as :

Hence,

(0)

¯

V

¯

V

¯

V

a

(1)

a

(2)

a

1

1

1

a

= 1

3

1 a 2

1

a 2

a

⎤ ⎥ ⎡ ⎢

⎢ ⎢

⎦ ⎣

¯

V kk ,a

0

0

3

= 1

= 1

3

¯

V

(0)

a

¯

= V

a

(1)

¯

= V

a

(2)

¯

V kk ,a

¯

V kk ,a

V kk ,a

V kk ,a

(4.155)

(4.156)

It implies that open conductor in phase a causes equal voltages to appear across points k and

k’ of each sequence network. Hence, the three equivalent sequence networks can be connected in

parallel across points k and k’ as shown in Fig. 4.83.

Figure 4.83: Connection of Equivalent sequence networks to represent open phase a between k and k’

The current

(1)

¯

I

a

simplifying

is given as :

¯

I

(1)

a

=

¯

¯ Z

I

(1)

kk

ij

¯

Z

(1)

kk

+

¯

Z

(2)

kk

¯

Z

(0)

kk

¯

Z

(2)

kk

¯

+ Z

(0)

kk

¯
(1)
¯
(2)
¯
(0)
[ Z
+ Z
]
¯ (1)
¯ Z
kk ′
kk ′
kk ′
I
=
a
I ij

¯

Z

(0)

kk

¯

Z

(1)

kk

¯

+ Z

(1)

kk

¯

Z

(2)

kk

¯

+ Z

(2)

kk

¯

Z

(0)

kk

(4.157)

The sequence voltage drops

¯

V

(1)

kk ,

(2)

¯

V

kk

and

(0)

¯

V

kk

can be calculated with reference to Fig.4.83 as:

Substituting

¯ (1)

I

a

V (1)

¯

kk

¯

= I

(1)

a

Z (2) Z (0)

kk

¯

¯

kk

¯

Z

(2)

kk

¯

+ Z

(0)

kk

and simplifying we get:

217

¯
(1)
¯
(2)
¯
(0)
Z
Z
¯
(1)
¯
(2)
¯
(0)
¯ Z
kk ′
kk ′
kk ′
V
= V
= V
=
kk ′
kk ′
kk ′
I ij
¯
(0)
¯
(1)
¯
(1)
¯
(2)
¯
(2)
¯
(0)
Z
Z
+ Z
Z
+ Z
Z
kk ′
kk ′
kk ′
kk ′
kk ′
kk ′

(4.158)

(1)

¯

Z

kk ,

¯

Z

(2)

kk

,

¯

and Z

(0)

kk

are obtained from the impedance parameters of the sequence networks

[equation (4.147) and equation (4.148)].

¯

I ij is the pre-fault current or load current in phase a of the line i j

Next, the equivalent injected currents

(1)

¯

V

kk

(1)

z¯

ij

,

(2)

¯

V

kk

(2)

z¯

ij

and

(0)

¯

V

kk

(0)

z¯

ij

are calculated.

Further,

¯

V

i

(0)

¯

,V

i

(1)

and

¯

V

i

(2)

representing the changes in the symmetrical components of

bus voltage are calculated using equation (4.146). Finally, the bus voltages after fault are calculated using superposition principle as :

¯

V

¯

V

¯

i

V

i

i

(1)

(2)

(0)

¯

(F) = V (0)+V

i

i

¯

(1)

¯

(F) = V

i

(1)

¯

(F) = V

i

(2)

(1)

4.13.2 Two Phases open:

When two phases b and c are open then,

(4.159)

¯

V

(1)

kk ,a

¯

I b

¯

I c

=

=

=

¯

V

0

0

(0)

a

¯

+ V

a

(1)

¯

+ V

a

(2)

=0

(4.160)

The sequence components of line current are:

(0)

¯

I

a

(1)

¯

I

a

(2)

¯

I

a

1

1

a

= 1

3

1

1 a 2

1

a 2

a

⎤ ⎥ ⎡ ⎢

⎢ ⎢

⎢ ⎢

⎦ ⎣ ⎢

I a

¯

0

0

Simplifying one gets the condition:

¯ (0)

I

= I

¯ (1)

= I

¯ (2)

= 1

¯

I a

a

a

a

3

(4.161)

equation (4.161) indicates that the three equivalent sequence networks are in series and to ensure

= 0 the circuit should be closed.The interconnection of the sequence networks is

(0)

¯

V

a

+ V

a

¯

(1)

+ V

a

¯

(2)

shown in Fig.4.84. From the equivalent circuit of Fig.4.84, the sequence currents can be calculated as :

218

Figure 4.84: Connection of Equivalent sequence networks to represent open phases b and c between k and k’

 ¯ (1) kk ′ I (1) ¯ ¯ a = I a (2) ¯ = I (0) ¯ I Z a = ij ¯ Z (0) kk ′ ¯ + Z (1) kk ′ ¯ + Z (2) kk ′ ¯ I ij is the pre-fault current in phase a. The sequence voltage can be calculated as: ¯ Z (1) kk ′ ( ¯ Z (0) kk ′ ¯ + Z (2) kk ′ ) ¯ V (1) ¯ = I (1) ( ¯ Z (0) kk ′ ¯ + Z (2) ¯ I kk ′ a kk ′ )= ij ¯ Z (0) kk ′ ¯ ¯ Z (1) ¯ Z ¯ + Z (1) kk ′ (2) ¯ + Z (2) kk ′ ¯ V (2) ¯ − I (2) ¯ Z (2) I kk ′ kk ′ kk ′ = a kk ′ =− ij ¯ Z (0) kk ′ + ¯ Z