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Research Report Leaders are born not made



Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review about Leaders are born not made in globe and pinpoints practical implications from cutting-edge research and case studies. Design/Methodology/Approach: This briefing is prepared by the group of students of North South University who adds their own impartial comments and places the articles, journals in context. Findings: This research project has shown how organizational leaders are born or build up through their life experience within the organization. This project identified links between leader and leadership and how they lead an organization as well as their leadership quality where they learnt it form. Leaders leadership can be read as an adventure story or fairy tale, a myth born out of the narratives and language often used to describe it, reflecting tales of quest and achievement. Practical implications: Provides strategic insights and practical thinking that have influenced some of the leading organizations leader of Bangladesh. Originality/Value: The briefing saves busy executives and researchers hours of reading time by selecting only the very best, most pertinent information and presenting it in a condensed and easy-to-digest format. Keywords: Leader, Leadership, Leadership theory Paper type: Research paper


Through this research paper, the main aim is to give a thorough idea about Leadership and to analyze that leaders are born not made and leadership in organizations and how leaders can promote innovation and competitiveness in an organization. Leaders are born not made and leadership attitude grows from inside a human mind it cannot be made by others and it could be practiced within the organization/institution. Leadership could play a crucial role in achieving innovation and competitiveness in organization. In this paper we aimed to prove and critically analyze the statement above from theoretical and practical organization perspective by defining leadership, innovation and competitiveness, finding effective linkage between leadership, innovation and competitiveness and scrutinizing in which content characteristics of a theoretical leader and practical leader match. In consequence, this paper argues that some theories provided by famous theorists may not support leadership in the context of Bangladesh as these theories are written mostly based on some other countrys context. However, this paper focused on how an organizational leader can be introduced in an organization by born inherent or made by organization behavior. As long as there are leaders, people are going to wonder whether they were born to be leaders or made into leaders. All groups overwhelmingly agree that people become leaders in large part as a result of experiences that help them learn how to be a leader.


In todays competitive world there is hardly any organization that is not surrounded by dynamic business environment influenced by globalization and other factors. So, in todays dynamic world we need leaders to exist in the competition of the corporate world race. Organizations need innovation to survive, compete, grow and lead. Leadership is the process of influencing people and providing an environment for them to achieve team or organizational objectives (Glinow & McShane 2003, p. 416). This may be true that the winning post of the corporate world race is far enough from the starting point. The way we think about leadership affects how we perceive the leaders around us. For instance, if we expect a leader to be a hero, we are likely to see someone who takes charge to save the day as a good leader and someone who asks everyones opinions and lets the group make decisions as weak. Alternatively, if we think a leader should be collaborative and focused on making decisions arise from the group, we would view someone who is directive as aggressive or a tyrant (Gentry et al. 2012). This race might be won successfully if there is a leader who is able to initiate innovation and competitiveness. For example, their active participation in selling the innovative products might decrease resistance from the potential customers (Ettlie, 1983). And through this competitiveness can be promoted. In the same way, our beliefs about how people become leaders affect how we evaluate people. Leadership potential believing people are born leaders is likely to result in a focus more on selection rather than on development. On the other hand, believing that people are made into leaders by their experiences would be more likely to result in a greater focus on making sure people had the right opportunities to develop into leaders (Gentry et al. 2012).


Theoretical Background

Definition of a Leader:
A person who holds a dominant or superior position within its field, and is able to exercise a high degree of control or influence over others. Our culture would like to believe that there is a kernel of leadership in everyone. While there might be a bit of leader deep inside everyone that does not make them a leader. People become leaders when they step forward and when they are accepted as leader by their followers. So lets break this process down. In order to step forward, an individual needs to have the desire and drive to lead. Research suggests that these factors are personality traits, long-lived and durable. In order to be accepted by followers, a prospective leader needs to be perceived as a leader by the followers. Traits such as intelligence, physical attractiveness and extraversion are traits that followers look for in a leader. We need followers as well as leaders. What we all do have, however, is the ability to influence, to use acquired power to achieve organizational goals and objectives (Mainiero &Tromley, 1994, p. 299). Perhaps our desire for small l leaders that is, leaders who dont lead from formal positions of power, but those who lead from influence and ability within a team, is driven by our need for more effective, engaged people, not by our need of leaders (Newstrom & Davis, 2011, p. 171). We need to stop believing that everyone can lead. But, everyone can be effective. As much as we would like to believe that everyone can be a leader, the fact of the matter is that, fair or not, followers want a certain type of leader. And like it or not, not all of us have the intelligence, drive or desire to lead (Wilson, 2012).


The concept of Leadership:

An attempt to use influence to motivate individuals to accomplish some goals is leadership. The authoritative source of leadership theory and research, the Handbook of Leadership defines leadership as an interaction between members of a group. Leaders are agents of change, persons whose acts affect other people more than other peoples acts affect them (Klein & Ritti, 1998, p. 400). Leadership occurs when one group member modifies the motivation or competencies of others in the group.

Figure: Different dimensions of trait and process leadership. The leadership definition implies that it involves the use of influence and that all interpersonal relationships can involve leadership. The effective leader may have to deal with individual, group and organizational goals (Gentry et al. 2012). Organizational leadership is defined, then as social influence that occurs in a complex political context involving lateral and vertical relations (Klein & Ritti, 1998, p. 400). Leadership is determined partially by traits, which provide the potential for leadership, and also by ones role behavior, which leader apply in different degrees at various organizational levels. Although a positive, participative, considerate leader tends to be more effective in many situations, the contingency approaches suggest that a variety of styles can be successful. Leaders must first analyze the situation and discover key factors in the task, employees or organization that suggests which style might be best for that combination. Leaders should also recognize the possibility that they are not always directly needed because


of available substitutes or enhancers. Also it may be desirable to develop employees into selfleaders through the exercise of super leadership behaviors (Newstrom & Davis, 1993, P-239).

Leaders- Born or made:

Leaders have certain inherent gifts of intelligence, communication, winsomeness, etc.there are men and women who became leaders, not because they were born to lead but because they were called to lead. The vitality of organizations and communities rests in large measure on how leaders are identified, nurtured, and even trained for leadership. Relying on genetic selection wont work. The mythology of leaders who are born, not made, is especially common in the life of American churches, says Stephen Lewis, National Director of the Calling Congregations Initiative of the Fund for Theological Education in Atlanta, Georgia. Many people think that religious leaders come from God, maybe with the help of the pastor. Understanding whether people in the organization think leaders are born or made is critical because these attitudes play out in recruiting, promotion and development decisions.Will your organization spend its money on selecting people believed to be born leaders, or on developing people into becoming leaders? Will executives emphasize selection of talent and only invest in those who they believe have leadership potential? Or will they see value in developing talent among a broad group of people? Top leaders set the tone for the development of others within their organization, so understanding their view can inform talent identification and development strategies (Gentry et al. 2012). Many forward-thinking companies recognize that whatever it takes to continue thriving, growing, and achieving is in the hands of its leaders. In this dynamic marketplace, powerful and effective leadership is required not only in the boardroom, but also on the front line and everywhere in between. The critical challenge remains how to generate effective leaders and encourage bold leadership (Anzek, Graf & JMW, 2007). A commonly held view is that people either have what it takes to be a leader or they dont. Although sufficient evidence supports this view, it leaves companies essentially playing the needle-in-a haystack game, searching for the right people with the right personality. While justifying existing assumptions about what is needed for success, this view also undercuts the possibility of developing people to be effective leaders. Given the pervasive need in todays corporate world for effective leadership, can companies afford to continue being shaped or directed by this view?


A different interpretation is that anyoneabsolutely anyone can be an effective leader. When people generate a compelling challenge for themselves and othersone that points toward a future not previously considered possiblea new kind of leadership becomes achievable. Rather than being a product of the right characteristics, leadership becomes a product of being passionately committed to fulfilling that challenge and that future (Graf, 2004, P-28). In the study of Gentry, Deal, Stawiski, and Ruderman (2012) shows that 19.1% believe that leaders are born (Born), 52.4% believe they more made (Made), and 28.5% believe they are about equally born or made.(p.6)

Leaders are Born or Made?

Equal Born Made


Leadership Theory

Leadership Traits:
From the beginning of the history, researchers have attempted to recognize the key characteristics which distinguish leaders from nonreaders. Early studies were based on the assumption that; leaders are born, not made. It was later called the great Man theory. (Lussier & Poulos, 2001, p. 149). More of the researchers emphasized on Trait Perspectivephysical, intellectual, or personality characteristics that differed between leaders or nonreaders and between successful and no successful leaders (Schermerhornet et al. 2012, p. 389). These traits include cognitive, psychological, physical factors, such as ambition, selfconfidence, intelligence, personality, attractiveness etc which shows leadership power. Prime traits emphasize on leaders physical and mental efficiency. It includes high level of personal drive (energy, stress tolerance, determination and willpower), motivation to influence others, ethics and authenticity, self-confidence. These traits crave power not as an end in itself but as a mean to achieve the desired goal of a leader. Cognitive abilities like a leaders analytical ability, task relevant knowledge, charisma, creativity in business purpose, flexibility, personal intimacy (sociability, modesty and humility) are also frequently needed in a successful leadership (Newstrom & Davis, 2011, p. 172,173). Furthermore, emotional intelligence reflects a strong self-monitoring personality), understanding of his own strengths and weaknesses, concern about self-improvement to reach the goal are also, trust worthy which influence his employers to rely on their leader etc. are also important for an successful leader (McShane & Glinow, 2003, p: 419). Leaders do not need to be brilliant, but they are extraordinary by their above-average intelligence. Better understanding of social setting, ability to deal with huge amount of information, highest knowledge concerning their job also pushes them toward goal accomplishment (Gentry et al. 2012). These traits are actually viewed in many people all are not interested to show their demonstrating attitudes. On the other hand many people have these traits but do not get the opportunity to arise them. The final concern is leadership traits are acquired or embellished. Individual have to be engaged with these traits. Practicing leadership and experience can engage a person to influence others (Schermerhornet et al. 2012 p. 389).

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Problems with the Trait Approach:

In many cases, it is difficult to determine whether traits make the leader. For better understanding, an example is considerable; do dominant individuals tend to become leaders, or do employees become more dominant after they successfully occupy leadership roles (Johns, 1946, p. 313). For the sake of effective leaders we need to distinguish between these. If the former one is true then people would like to find out dominant people and assign them to leadership career. But if the second argument is true then assigning criteria would be different. The most crucial problem of the trait approach is its failure to take into account the situation in which leadership occurs. Intuitively, it seems responsible that a leader in different position requires different traits to be successful (Johns, 1946, p: 313). I.e. personal drive is more important in top executive level like managing team of scientists but in directing a logging crew physical prowess might be much more important (Lussier & Poulos, 2001, p. 149).

Behavioral Leadership:
The study of leader behavior represents perfection over the trait approach, science it is concerned particularly with what leaders actually do in their leadership roles (Johns, 1946, p: 318). Research also shown that, successful leadership depends on behavior, skills and actions and less on personal traits. Behavior perspective assumes that leadership is the central to performance and other outcomes. Two typical research programs at University of Michigan and at Ohio State University endow with useful insights into leadership behavior. Michigan research team on high to low performing groups in different organizations and derived two basic forms of leader behavior; employee centered or human relation oriented and production centered or task oriented (Kreitner & Kinicki, 2001, p: 558). Employ centered leaders place strong emphasis on their subordinates welfare. Employee centered behavior such as showing mutual trust and respect for subordinates, demonstrating a genius concern for their needs, and having a desire to look out for their welfare tends to have higher productivity. Whereas the production centered leaders assign employees to specific tasks, clarify their work duties procedures, ensure that they follow the company rules, and push them to reach their performance capacity but implies less productivity though they it has more concern to getting the work done (McShane & Glinow, 2003, p. 420). Ohio State stated a research program by questionnaire which was applied to both industrial and military settings to measure their subordinates perception to their superiors leadership behavior (Schermerhorn et al. 2012, p. 390). The Ohio State researchers concluded two independent dimensions of leadership behavior; consideration and initiating structure. Former one is associated with mutual trust and respect and the later one is emphasizes on maximized output. Initially it was hypothesized that a high structure, high consideration style would be the one best style of leadership. But as research passed through time researched concluded

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that there is not one best style of leadership, relatively it is argued that effectiveness of a given style depends on situational factors (Kreitner & Kinicki, 2001, p. 558).

Problems with Behavioral Approach:

The traditional exploration of leader behavior is not without its weakness. Certain leader behaviors may cause subordinate satisfaction however, reverse is also often. Subordinates associated with different satisfaction may cause the leader to act in certain ways (Johns, 1946, p: 318). I. e. telecommunication companies networking policy can be followed by their subscribers. Another problem of the traditional behavioral approach to leadership has been its neglect of the situation in which leadership occurs. In this regard, trait dominates behavioral approach (Johns, 1946, p: 318).

Contingency Theory:
Some tough-minded leaders-such as former Home Depot CEO Bob Nardelli or former Warnaco CEO Linda Wachner- seem to gain a lot of admires when they take over struggling companies and help them out of the doldrums. However, tuhese tough-minded leaders dont seem to wear well (Robbins, Judge & Sanghi, 2009, P. 425). It was one thing to say that leadership effectiveness was dependent on the situation and another to be able to isolate those situational conditions. Briefly the contingency perspective of leadership is based on the idea that the most appropriate leadership style depends on the situation (McShane & Glinow, 2003, p. 422). Employee oriented leader refers to a leader who emphasizes interpersonal relations, takes a personal interest in the needs of employees, and accepts individual differences among members. Production oriented leader is a leader who emphasizes technical or task aspects of the job. Finally management Grid is a nine-by-nine matrix outlining 81 different leadership styles (Robbins, Judge & Sanghi, 2009, P. 425).

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Leadership Model
Fielder Model:
Fred Fielder, a scholar of OB scholar, built a situational model of leadership. It is the oldest and widely applied models of leadership. The platform of this model stands on assumption. All theories tell us that effective leadership depends on the situation at hand. They require the leader to interact with the employees. They encourage them to listen, to involve, to coach, to develop, to enrich, to motivate, to risk, to credit, to care, and to express concern for those who they manage. Situational theories include the Contingency Model, the Path-Goal theory, and the Situational Leadership theory (McShane & Glinow, 2003, p: 422). The performance of leader depends on two interrelated factors: The degree to which the situation gives the leader control and influence that is, the likelihood that can successfully accomplish the job. The leaders basic motivation, which is whether self-esteem depends primarily on accomplishing the task or on having, closes supportive relations with others. Situational control refers to the amount of control and influence the leader has in her immediate work environment. Situation control ranges from high to low. High control implies that the leaders decisions will produce predictable results. Low control implies that the leaders decisions may not influence works outcomes. There are three dimensions of leadership control: leader-member relations, task structure and position power. The three dimensions of situational control are defined as Leader-member relations, Task Structure and Position Power (kreitner & kincki, 2001, p. 562,563). Assessment of fielders model: Fred E. Fiedlers contingency theory of leadership effectiveness was based on studies of a wide range of group effectiveness, and concentrated on the relationship between leadership and organizational performance. This is one of the earliest situation-contingent leadership theories given by Fiedler. According to him, if an organization attempts to achieve group effectiveness through leadership, then there is a need to assess the leader according to an underlying trait, assess the situation faced by the leader, and construct a proper match between the two (Gentry et al. 2012). In order to assess the attitudes of the leader, Fiedler developed the least preferred co -worker (LPC) scale in which the leaders are asked about the person with whom they least like to work.
Friendly Unfriendly

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Fiedler states that leaders with high LPC scores are relationship-oriented and the ones with low scores are task-oriented. The high LPC score leaders derived most satisfaction from interpersonal relationships and therefore evaluate their least preferred co-workers in fairly favorable terms. These leaders think about the task accomplishment only after the relationship need is well satisfied. On the other hand, the low LPC score leaders derived satisfaction from performance of the task and attainment of objectives and only after tasks have been accomplished, these leaders work on establishing good social and interpersonal relationships.

Path-goal theory:
The theory was developed by Robert House and has its roots in the expectancy theory of motivation. The theory is based on the premise that an employees perception of expectancies between his effort and performance is greatly affected by a leaders behavior. The leaders help group members in attaining rewards by clarifying the paths to goals and removing obstacles to performance (Johns, 1946, p: 320). Researches distinguish between different types of leader: Directive: Here the leader provides guidelines, lets subordinates know what is expected of them, sets performance standards for them, and controls behavior when performance standards are not met. He makes judicious use of rewards and disciplinary action. The style is the same as task-oriented one. Supportive: The leader is friendly towards subordinates and displays personal concern for their needs, welfare, and well-being. This style is the same as people-oriented leadership. Participative: The leader believes in group decision-making and shares information with subordinates. He consults his subordinates on important decisions related to work, task goals, and paths to resolve goals. Achievement-oriented: The leader sets challenging goals and encourages employees to reach their peak performance. The leader believes that employees are responsible enough to accomplish challenging goals. This is the same as goal-setting theory.

Employee Contingency

Leader Behavior

Leader Effectiveness

Environmental Contingency

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Individual needs to have the desire and compel to lead. Research suggests that these factors are personality traits, such as intelligence, physical attractiveness and extraversion are traits that followers look for in a leader and it needs followers as well as leaders, it might sound easy and simple but in terms of becoming effective implication it is a critical thing (Schermerhorn et al. 2012, p. 390). Initially, there are no universal traits that predict leadership in all situations (B.Schneider, 1983). Traditional concepts of academic leadership are closely associated with individual excellence explores the importance of the contingency model of leadership, which suggests that leadership style might change to accommodate changing and differing environments. The way, in which teams function in higher education could be closely matched with the concept of the self-directed team. The concept of the learning organization as an organization which knows how to transform itself to meet changing circumstances defines specific roles for leaders (Rowley, 1997, p. 78 84). Building on the body of work that has been done to understand leadership, the current paper explores the various theories of leadership and how these theories have changed over time. Starting with a review of work done on leadership, the trends and changes over time are discussed. In addition, characteristics of successful leaders are identified. Modified models of leadership are proposed that may be more appropriate in team-based structures (Horner, 1997, p. 270 287). Theoretical issues undermining the robustness of the situational leadership theory and the utility of its prescriptive model are thrashed out.

Leadership Challenges
Despite the intense challenges of leadership today, now is not the time for short-shighted or short-term fixes. Instead, now is the time for leaders to truly demonstrate their leadership and guide their organizations through critical change. Particularly in times of economic stress and uncertainty, people look to their leaders for assurance and confidence and for clarity, vision and purpose. They want their leadership to be a source of trusted valuesand integrity. So many researchers of leadership has been experienced that these characteristics are critical in helping leaders be successful and attain superior organizational results(Johns, 1946, p: 318). Jhon Kotter, author and leadership expert at Harvard, states that the role of the leader is to define what the future looks like, align people with that vision, and inspire them to make it happen despite obstacles. In 1983, the authors began conducting their research to analyze thousands of personal best leadership experiences. An extensive research of James M.Barry Z. Posner revealed five practices of exeplary leadership

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Model the way refers to the fundamental way in which leaders earn and sustain credibility: they do what they say they will do. The second practice is to Inspire a shared vision. Which includes envision the future by imagining and anlisting others in acommon vision. The third practice is to challange the process by searching opportunities and taking risks. Enable others to act is the fourth practice. It emphasizes on making it possible for others to do the work by building collaboration and trust.The last and fifth practice is to encourage the heart. Here, leaders attempts to find out the contributions and motivate workers by rewards (Wilson, 2012).

Credibility is the Foundation of Leadership

What leaderssay they do is one thing; what constituents say they want from leaders and how well leaders meet those expectations is another. Strategies, tactics, skill, and practices are empty without an understanding of the fundamental human aspirations that connect leaders to constituents. A research was followed by a questionnaire to more than 75000 people throughout the world asking what qualities in leader would inspire them to follow willingly. The results are striking for their consistency. Four characteristics rose to the top of the list, receiving more than 60 percent of the votes over time and across many cultures. For people to willingly follow a leader, the leader must be:

1. 2. 3. 4.

Honest Forward-looking Inspiring Competent

These four characteristics are intimately bound up with the five practices of exemplary leadership. For example, one cannot Model the way without being Honest or cant Inspire a Shared Vision without being forward-looking and inspiring. Being competent allows leaders both to Challenge The Process and Enable Others to act. All these attributes add up to making a leader credible. Credibility is the foundation of leadership.

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Company Background
British American Tobacco Co. Ltd.
British American Tobacco is the second largest Tobacco Company in the world. Based in London, UK, it operates in more than 50 countries with the strength of 100,000 employees and sells more than 250 brands in more than 180 markets worldwide. Tracing its heritage back to a joint venture formed by the Imperial Tobacco Company of the United Kingdom and The American Tobacco Company of the United States in 1902, today's British American Tobacco Company was born. Extent of operation of British American Tobacco Company is given below: America-Pacific (USA, Japan, South Korea), Asia-Pacific (China, Indo-China, Taiwan, South-East Asia, Australasia), Europe (50 countries including Russia), Latin America (Central & South America, Mexico, Caribbean), Africa (More than 50 countries), MESCA (Middle East, South & Central Asia)

British American Tobacco Bangladesh

The presence of British American Tobacco in this part of the world can be traced back to 1910. Beginning the journey as Imperial Tobacco 100 years ago, the Company set up its first sales depot at Armanitola in Dhaka. After the partition of India in 1947, the company was established in 1949. It then became Bangladesh Tobacco Company Limited in 1972 immediately after Bangladeshs independence. In 1998, the Company changed its name and identity to British American Tobacco Bangladesh Company Ltd. British American Tobacco Bangladesh is one of the oldest and largest multinational companies operating in Bangladesh. The UK-based British American Tobacco Group holds 65.91% share in the company the rest by the Bangladesh government and other shareholders. British American Tobacco Bangladesh began its operations in the sub-continent in the year 1910 as Imperial Tobacco Company Ltd. After independence, in 1972, Bangladesh Tobacco Company (BTC) was formed with British American Tobacco holding majority of the shares. In March 1998, Bangladesh Tobacco Company changed its corporate name into British American Tobacco Bangladesh proclaiming its common identity with other operating companies in the British American Tobacco Group. At British American Tobacco Bangladesh, the key factor to their sustainable growth is human resource. Therefore, they have always been committed to good recruitment and employment practices. British American Tobacco Bangladesh (BATB) is one of the pioneer cigarette manufacturers in the world. The company was formed at the turn of the 20th century with the objective of establishing a worldwide business. Today British American Tobacco sells the leading brands in over 30 markets covering 102 countries, has more than 200 brands worldwide, employs more than 55,000 people and produces some 2 billion cigarettes every day. British American Tobacco Bangladesh Company Limited is one of the largest private sector enterprises in

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Bangladesh, incorporated under the Companys Act 1913 on 2nd February 1972. BAT has over the decades consistently invested in Bangladesh market through Bangladesh Tobacco Company (BTC). Thus BTC has always been on the business of manufacturing and marketing different brands that meet the standards found everywhere in the world.

A. Information needs:
The information needed for completing this research is listed below: Secondary Data & Primary Data We went go through different kinds of journals individually on Multinational companies in Bangladesh, concepts of leadership, leadership theories and models and their limitations. In the Literature review part we have already mentioned some of the journals. For collecting the primary data we took an interview of two employee of British American Tobacco Bangladesh; a leading multinational company in Bangladesh. This in depth interview is also an important source of primary data collection for this study.

B. Data collection from the secondary sources:

In order to collect secondary data for the study we will used the resources of internet as the ejournals published in the internet and as well as published journals. There we got some important data and information that includes leadership, leadership theories and model and leadership challenges as well as British American Tobacco Bangladesh. We also went through some e-journals and articles regarding concepts about our research topic regarding Leaders are born not made.

C. Data collection from primary sources:

For the primary data collection method we are planning to take in depth interviews of Faisal Zaman and Md. Asifur Rahman, Territory Officer, British American Tobacco Bangladesh. This in depth interview will be working as an important source of primary data collection for this research paper.

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Critical Analysis
As we have mentioned before we pursued a qualitative research based on the primary and secondary data. Our primary source of the data was an in depth interview with two of the employee of British American Tobacco Bangladesh. Fasial Zaman and Md. Asifur Rahman Territory Officer of British American Tobacco Bangladesh provided us with some data which actually helped us a lot conduct this research. Now continuing with the analysis part of we will be first analyzing the interview. Q.1. How long you have been working for BATB? Faisal Zaman has been working for BATB since March 2012. And within this very short span of time has known a lot about BATB and experienced many things about the organization. Md. Asifur Rahman has been working for BATB since 2012. This quite short time as job experience but I learn a lot if thing in this organization. Q.2. What is your job responsibility? As a territory officer Faisal Zaman and Md. Asifur Rahmans job responsibility is to Direct, control and motivate sales team and the business partner (distributor) to ensure efficient achievement of company sales target of a specific territory. Ensure effective execution of different activities designed from head office to develop business of the territory. Monitor and train the sales team to ensure a continuous improvement of performance collect information from the market and make sound business plan for the assigned territory Maintain rapport with the key customers.

Q.3. How is your experience till now and do you have any leadership experience? Their experience is till now very positive. Even if he has to work really hard but still BATB is a great place to work where being a TO they have a team consisting 200 to 270 people under their leadership. Q.4. How you lead your subordinates or employee as in your position? Fasial Zaman said that to lead a group of people a leader must have some leadership quality and leadership approach. The leadership is inherent and as well as set of skill. As a leader of my subordinates I always try to inspire and motivate my employees and follow some other tact to lead them effectively. To inspire and motive them I mainly follow some behavioral leadership approach to lead them. The first thing which is in my mind while leading my team is that my leadership should be inspiring and motivating. Other than these there are lot other things which are in my mind while leading my team. Like Controlling, Setting Example, direct them in developing their career paths and proper talent management said Md. Asifur Rahman.

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Q.5.Does BATBC follow any particular leadership style? Yes the prime thing BATBC focuses on is Decentralized Leadership which means in their hierarchy in every step almost every employee has some leadership role said by Fasial Zaman and Md. Asifur Rahman. Q.6. As a leadership position, what do you think about the term "Leaders are born not made"? A common argument on "Leaders are born not made"- whereas I believe that a leaders are born as well as made. Being a leader it is all about own will force and hard work that can drive a person to be a future leader and it can be practiced in different management level within an organization. To be an organizational leader it depends on personal values, efficiency, willing to work hard and some inherent characteristics-said by Fasial Zaman. From this very popular phrase one thing I understand from my experiences that its your own will and hard works which will take you to a position where you can lead. None can make any other people leaders. Its own belief values and hard works which makes a person leader said by Md. Asifur Rahman.
Q.7. As a leader how you motivated your subordinates?

Depends on some time its financial motivation like special promotion offer, bonuses and sometimes it is non-financial like inter personal relations, focus group discussion etc said by Fasial Zaman and Md. Asifur Rahman.
Q.8. As an employee of BATBC do you follow any organization leader?

Answering this question Fasial Zaman actually mentioned lots of people by which he motivated. He said as an employee of BATBC I definitely do follow an organizational leader who is my line manager and designated as the Area Manager as well as I follow some other manager as organizational leadership. Yes as an employee of BATBC I definitely do follow an organizational leader who is my line manager and designated as the Area Manager of Dhaka North said by Md. Asifur Rahman.
Q.9. What do you think that your leadership attitudes built up by your family or you

learnt all from your academic stages? No some leadership skills may be we learn from our educational institution where we organize some event. Through these organizing events I gain some real experience in leadership skills. I also believe that some leadership quality comes from biologically means inherent said Fasial Zaman. Md. Asifur Rahman said that it comes from both ways. Infract its not only these which built up my leadership attitudes. There are some other facts as well behind my leadership attitudes. Other facts like extracurricular activities, own values & beliefs, personality and interpersonal skills.

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To conduct this research we also went through some secondary data which includes journals and articles. Corporate or organizational leaders play a central role in sitting the ethical tone and moral values for their organization. Some people are natural born leaders, others must learn to lead. The good news is that leadership is a talent that can be developed and leadership skills can be taught. Leaders must recognize that to shift, to adjust, and to make needed organizational changes. Effective leaders are also effective teachers and coaches. These skills engage accepting the difference between being a manager and being an instructor. Some of us may have had the freedom at some point of working for a leader who was truly an advocate and instructor for us. We appreciated how that person was approachable, took time to listen to us, shared information and experiences with us, and allowed us to make mistakes to learn. Unfortunately many of us also have worked for a manager, and we know the difference. The good news is that the skills, tools, and practices needed to be an effective coach and developer of people can be learned. And through acquiring and practicing these skills, one can become an effective leader as well as manager means organizational leader (Cohen and Sproull, 1996. p-398). Leaders play a central part in understanding group behavior, for its the leader who usually directs us toward our goals. Knowing what makes a good leader should thus be valuable in improving group performance. The research for a set of universal leadership traits failed. However, recent efforts using the Big Five personality framework have generated much more encouraging results. Extroversion, conscientiousness and openness to experience show strong and consistent relationship to leadership. The Behavioral approachs major contribution was narrowing leadership into task-oriented (initiating structure) and people-oriented (consideration) styles. By considering the situation in which the leader operates, contingency theories promised to improve on the behavioral approach but with the exception of LPC theory have not fared well in leadership research (Robbins, Judge and Vohra, 2012, P-391). The leaders are made by the commitments they make and contain some inherent quality to lead a group of people. A leader born biologically with some leadership specific behavior and they made and grown up by some organizational behavior practice. In our overall research we conclude that a leader born with inherent and made up by organizational behavior practice.

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Leaders influence to motivate individuals to accomplish organizational goals. An effective leader holds a leading or superior position within the organization or any team work and exercise a high degree of control or influence over others. Through the research paper we have emphasized on the trait and behavioral theories of leadership which construct a leader. As the research for a set of leadership traits failed we tried to find out contingency which suggests variety of styles to be a successful leader. Big Five personality framework also has generated much more encouraging results. Research shows that every leader has some inherited quality to be a leader but they are not always active. Developing and practicing the skills and experience can make a leader brighter. So, they have to acquire the traits and values necessary to lead through their upbringing. But definitely it is important to have the appropriate bearing to be seen as authoritative and, absolutely, intelligence is a necessary prerequisite. Here we linked organizational leadership with its personality. To get the better understanding of the given topic we looked forward to British American Tobacco Bangladesh (BATB). Their decentralized leadership terminated that not only heredity effects leadership but also other facts like interpersonal skills, practice of leadership and experience over years. There are many external and internal challenges which effect leadership in the organization. Leaders with their intelligence and motivation capacity overcome those challenges, which lead to their leadership personality.

Inherent Personality

Effective Leader

Skills Achieved and Experience

So, research proposed leadership model articulate that, leaders are supported with leadership personalities, which may be active or dormant. Active leadership personality may find it easy to lead a team or any organization, but still educational accomplishments can make him/her more effective for his/her position. But for an inactive leadership personality educational accomplishment is mandatory. Here, a question come on our mind that, can be a person be a leader if he by born doesnt have any of the personality of a leader? Critical analysis concluded that, it is tremendously difficult for a person to pull off all the characteristics of a leader by education or practicing skills. Moreover studies dont consider them as an effective leader. So, we research can finally conclude that, leaders refers to both born and made.

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No single theory or model is perfect and there is no theory or model which can solve a problem without any limitations. Organizational Behavior is an interdisciplinary field of study and cannot be structured within a planned model. As our research topic Leaders are born not made we go through different theories of leadership and leadership models and we see leaderships being a part of this field, it also cannot be confined within a single structural theory or model. In this theory if there is a communication gap between a leader and a manager, different conflict may arise. Biasness also may have a drastic impact on this model.

Like culture, behavior, and norms leadership also differs from country to country. And this is the reason, theories which have written in the context of one country hardly matches with some other countries leadership style. However, leaders have some distinct characteristics and these characteristics are more or less the same in all organizational leaders. Though it is found much convenient to theoretically prove that organizational leaders could play crucial role in achieving innovation and competitiveness in organization, it was a big deal to prove it in the context of an organization specially a Bangladeshi one. Leaders get some leadership quality biologically and inherent as well. But we have to consider that within an organization a employee can be a leader by practicing organizational factors. Through organizational hierarchy a subordinate reach upper level of management and can lead a group of people which can introduce him/her as an organizational leader finally. Not in the same way as theory describes but leaders can promote innovation and competitiveness in the organization to some extent. Our findings were so conclusive they are almost impossible to dispute. Leaders who participated in a development program, received 360 feedback, selected important areas for improvement, discussed these with co-workers and followed-up with co-workers on a consistent basis (to check on progress) were rated as becoming dramatically better leaders not in a self-assessment, but in the assessment of co-workers - six to eighteen months after the initial program. Leaders who participated in the same developmental programs -- and received the same type of feedback -- but did no follow-up were seen as improving no more than random chance. (Marshall Goldsmith, 2008)

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