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Annotated Answers to the Multiple Choice Section of the 1993 AP Physics B Exam

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D. I has a = 0, II has a = v2/R, and III has a = g. B. Fnet = ma = mg bv; a = g (b/m)v. Note that the signs between g & (b/m)v must be opposite, as the air resistance fights the acceleration and slows down the object. E. Since the object hangs at rest (or so we infer), it follows that kx = mg; or solving for k gives


k = mg/x = (0.5 kg)(10 m/sec2)/(0.075 m) = 5 nt/(3/4 x 101 m) = 200/3 nt/m = 66.7 nt/m.



E. Use conservation of energy: mgh = mgy + (energy lost to friction); so y h. The final height y will equal h if there is no friction. C. Galileo II: x = x o + v ot + 1/2 at2 = 1/ 2 gt 2 ; 3 = 1/2 g(1)2 or g = 6 m/sec2. C. I is true; II is true; but III is false, since Fnet = ma = GMm/R2 for each, hence a = GM/R2 for each. The same orbit means same R, and M (the mass of the mother body) and G are the same for both. Therefore, any two objects in the same orbit have exactly the same period and acceleration. (You might also recall that an orbit is a perpetual fall, and all objects of whatever mass fall at the same rate.) E. Follows from the conservation of momentum; the original p total = 0, so the final p /total must also be zero. Then p /1 + p /2 = 0 or p /1 = p /2 , which means that the final momenta must have the same magnitude. (Dont forget that momentum is a vector.) E. (This problem is very badly worded.) E. should have said, Gravitational force each exerts on the other. This is true by Newtons Third Law. All the others are different (as consequences of their differing masses, and Newtons 3rd Law.) A. At maximum displacement in simple harmonic motion, we have the velocity is zero and the acceleration is maximum. (Dont forget that the signs of the displacement and the acceleration are always opposite; when x = A, a = K 2A, where A is the amplitude.)

5. 6.




10. D. Conservation of momentum. The original momentum p = m v , and the final momentum p / = (m + M)v /. These two are equal, so v / = (m/m+M) v . Since m + M > m, it follows v / < v . 11. B. Conservation of energy. There is no problem with A., the conservation of momentum, as the initial momentum was zero (same masses, opposite velocities) and so is the final momentum (same masses, opposite velocities). The problem is that the original kinetic energy is less than the final kinetic energy. However, if some potential energy was somehow released to kinetic energy in the collision, then we can have energy conservation as well as momentum conservation, and the report could be true. 12. B. The velocity is always tangent to the path. The road looks like a circle, so lets treat it like a circle. Then the acceleration must be directed inward, towards the center of the circle. 13. C. * (meaning, you couldnt really be expected to know this one.) Superconductivity occurs, in some materials, near absolute zero (though there are some ceramic metallic oxides that are superconducting around 120 K, well above absolute zero; the men who discovered these ceramics, Mller and Bednorz, at IBM Zurich, won the Nobel in 1985 or so). In general, resistance decreases with temperature, for the same reason that it is easier to cross a street when the speed limit is 30 than when it is 70: less chance of a collision. 14. B. Work done in a closed circuit (returning to the starting point) = 0; that is the sum of qVs added up must cancel out. Kirchhoffs Loop Law is thus equivalent to the conservation of energy. Similarly, Kirchhoffs Junction Law is equivalent to the conservation of charge.

Annotated Answers to the MC Section of the 1993 AP Physics B Exam

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15. D. Starting at the extreme right, the 4 F and the 2 F capacitors are in parallel, so we just add them to get a 6 F capacitor. (Recall the rules for capacitor addition are exactly the opposite of those for resistor addition.) The 6 F capacitor is now in series with the 3 F capacitor, so we need to add reciprocals: 1/6 + 1/3 = 1/2, or C net for these three is 2 F. This net 2 F must be added to the 5 F, but it is in parallel with the 5 F. Then, finally, C net net = 7 F. 16. B. The 5 F capacitor is in parallel with the 100 V battery, so its voltage is 100 V. Then q = CV, so q = 500 C. 17. B. The electric field anywhere between the plates of the capacitor is exactly the same (ignoring edge effects near the edges of the capacitor). Then F = qE is likewise exactly the same everywhere. That is, the electric force on a charge in a capacitor is exactly analogous to the gravitational force on a mass near the surface of the earth. Gravity generally decreases, just as the electrical Coulomb force does, inversely as the square of the distance. Even so, near the surface of the earth, g is pretty much constant, just as E between the capacitors is pretty much constant. 18. E. Use the First Right Hand Rule, Luke; its part of The Force. (The magnetic force.) 19. E. This is a hard question. The only place the fields can cancel is where (a) the magnitudes are the same and (b) the directions are opposite. Since B = 2k/I/R, and the Is have the same size, direction of B direction of B the only place the Bs can be the same is where a point is equidistant from left wire from right wire from the two wires. That would be along the line SS/. However, is there any place on this line where the directions of the fields would be opposite? No. At the point P, the field from the left hand wire is directed straight down (along the line SS/) and the same is true from the right hand wire as well: they are in the same direction. At any other point on this line, the fields are directed in different directions as shown, but they arent opposite. That is, there is no point where the field will be zero. Had the wires been carrying the same current in the same direction, then at P (but nowhere else) the net magnetic field would have been zero. 20. D. The net resistance of the circuit is 40 , so V = IR = (40)(0.3) = 12 V. That is, = 12 V. (Reminder: emf = voltage, and the AP people often use where normal people would use V.) 21. C. By the loop law, VXY = IR internal = 12 V (0.3)(4 ) = 12 V 1.2 V = 10.8 V. (You know it is IRint rather than + IR int because the battery loses some energy to the internal resistor. As a general rule, if you follow I in the direction of the current, the voltage drop is IR; against the flow, it is + IR.) 22. A. P = IV = I2R = (0.3 A) 2(4 ) = 0.36 Watt. 23. C. E = Q W = + 275 (125) 50 = 400 50 = 350 J. (The net work is 125 + 50 = 75 J. Recall that when the gas does work, by widespread convention, W is positive ; when the gas has work done on it, by convention, W is negative. To be honest, I hate this convention, but to quote the eminent philosopher Edward Vedder, I stopped trying to make a difference.) 24. C. Qlost by metal = MC T = (1.5 kg)(200 J/kg-K)(80 K) = 24,000 cal. This must be numerically equal to the haeat gained by the liquid; Qlost by metal + Qgained by liquid = 0. That is, Qgained by liquid = 24,000 cal = MC T = (3 kg)(1000 J/kg-K)( T), or T = 8 K. Since the liquids original temperature was 0oC, it means Tfinal = 8 oC. 25. B. 24,000 J were transferred in 5 sec, so the rate is 24,000 J/5 sec = 4800 J/sec. 26. B. There is a simple rule: if the center of the mirror is thinner than the edges, its a diverging lens; if the center of the mirror is thicker than the edges, its a converging lens. Lenses I, III, and V are thicker in the center than at the edges, so they are converging. (This rule should have been in the Optics Great Truths; next year for sure.)

Annotated Answers to the MC Section of the 1993 AP Physics B Exam

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27. D. The wavelength is evidently equal to 2 m, and f = 5 hz, and v = f = 10 m/sec. 28. B. The fundamental frequency is obtained when the following standing wave is between the endpoints: Then we have = 2L, or = 4 m. The velocity is the same, 10 m/sec, so f = v/ = 10/4 = 2.5 Hz. 29. B. The waves are given in order; going from radio waves to gamma rays, the wavelength gets shorter, the energy gets larger, the momentum p = E/c = h/ gets larger, and the frequency gets larger. 30. A Transverse waves are those in which the oscillation takes place at right angles to the velocity of the wave. The premier example of a transverse wave is light. Longitudinal waves are those in which the oscillation takes place parallel to the velocity of the wave. The premier example of a longitudinal wave is sound.

31. E. Any straight line drawn from the object to the mirror must reflect at the same angle it came in. The resulting diagram is shown at right; clearly, E is the appropriate spot. 32. B. Write the equation as follows:

U 235 + n1 Ba 138 + Kr 95 + N n1 92 0 56 36 0
where N is a whole number. The mass number must be conserved; that is, 235 + 1 = 138 + 95 + N*1, which can be solved to give N = 3. 33. A. I. is false because, while Ba and Kr are the most common daughter nuclei of U fission, they are not the only ones. III is false because the number of nucleons (the mass number) must be conserved (its a rule, called the conservation of baryons. No, you dont need to know this rule. But you should know that you cant destroy the grand total of protons and neutrons, even though a neutron can beta decay into a proton, an electron and an antineutrino. II is fine, though. This problem borders on the sadistic. It could have been made much simpler, and it should have been. Once electrons have populated the n = 4 level, the following s i x transitions are possible: n = 4 n = 3: n = 4 n = 2: n = 4 n = 3: energy = 1 eV energy = 3 eV energy = 6 eV n = 3 n = 2: n = 3 n = 1: energy = 2 eV energy = 5 eV n = 2 n = 1: energy = 3 eV

34. D.

Having counted out all 6 (really, this is ridiculous) possibilities, we see that 4 eV does not occur. 35. E. Energy is proportional to frequency, and frequency is inversely proportional to waavelength; so energy is inversely proportional to wavelength. In fact E = hf = hc/ . Then the largest wavelength corresponds to least energy, and that would be between n = 4 and n = 3. 36. D. 1 1/2 15 years.


Each arrow corresponds to a half-life; so we are talking about three half-lives, which is

37. C. In the photoelectric effect, light acts like bullets. 38. C. Only waves produce interference patterns. 39. D. * This is a relativity question. Relativity is no longer on the syllabus. 40. C. * Relativity.

Annotated Answers to the MC Section of the 1993 AP Physics B Exam

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41. A. Recall V = Blv. We are told neither l nor B changes. Then V is a linear function of v. 42. C. * The forces of gravity and electricity are called long-range; these forces only become zero when two objects acteing on each other with either gravity or electricity are infinitely far away. However, the nuclear forces holding together the atom act only at very short distances; the nuclear forces are restricted to extremely short distances. The nuclear force is not, therefore, an inverse-square law. 43. A. In all simple harmonic motion, a = 2 x. That is, | a | takes its largest value when | x | takes on its largest value, though the signs of x and a are opposite. The displacement x is at its most negative when t = 1 sec, and at that time, a must be maximal, and positive. 44. E. Power = Work/time = mgh/t.

45. B. Free-body diagram of the top mass gives T = Ma = 3ma; of the hanging mass gives ma = mg T. Then adding these two together gives ma + 3ma = mg T + T, or a = 1/4 g. 46. E. Imagine the package did not slide. That means that the package would move with the car, in a circle. In that case the package would have to have Fnet = mv 2/R, towards the center. What would provide this force? Presumably, friction. If the friction were not great enough, the package would tend to go more nearly in a straight line. Thats what is going on here: the package is trying its best to obey the law of inertia, and will do so, unless there is sufficient force towards the center to keep it moving in a circle.

47. D. Use energy conservation. Before the collision, E = K + U = K only = 1/2 mv 2. After the collision, and at the time of maximum compression, E = K + U = U only = 1/2 kx 2. Setting these equal, and dividing out the 1/2 , we get kx2 = mv 2 or x = m / k v. 48. D. You wont be likely to see one quite like this from now on, because this is more calculator intensive than youd be able to do easily without a calculator. Use the formula g = GM/R2; g = (6.673 x 1011)(6.4 x 10 24 kg)/(3.4 x 106 m) 2 = 3.69 m/sec2 The formula arises from Newtons Law of Universal Gravitation, F = GMm/R 2 = mg for an object on the surface of the planet. Cancelling the mass m, we get g = GM/R2. On the other hand, the exam could have one just like this: The mass of Mars is about one-tenth of Earths, and its radius is about one-half of Earths. Find the gravitational acceleration on the surface of Mars. And youd do it like this: if the radii were equal, since g is proportional to M, gMars would be one-tenth of gEarth And if the masses were equal, since g is inversely proportional to R 2, g Mars would be four times that of Earth. But both are true, so four times one tenth of gEarth is equal to 4 m/sec2. 49. B 50. B. * Forget it, Jake, its Relativity. I attempted late at night to do a bunch of math on this, but as we dont know the values of R1 and R2, it was difficult to figure out precisely what was going on. So heres the easy way. Two resistors in series are always greater than either one alone; two resistors in parallel are always smaller than either one alone. Then two resistors in series are always greater in series than they can be in parallel. That means, for a fixed battery, the current in the parallel connection must be greater than in the series connection. Since Iparallel > Iseries , and P = IV, and the Vs are the same, it follows Pparallel > P series . 51. C. Power = IV = Volts * Amps = Watts, so Power * time = energy = Joules. 52. E. The key to this problem is that radio waves travel at the speed of light, c; radar is radio waves. Then v = f, or f = v/ = (3 x 10 8 m/sec)/(3 x 10 2 m) = 10 10 /sec = 10 10 Hz.

Annotated Answers to the MC Section of the 1993 AP Physics B Exam

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53. D. The intensity of light, pre-Einstein and prePlanck, was thought to determine the energy of the light. Not so. The intensity determines how many photons a second hit a surface. The relevant photoelectric effect equation is Kmax = hf . The maximum kinetic energy of the electrons depends on the frequency f of the light, f, and the nature of the surface, which determines how much energy is needed to kick out an electron from the surface. 54. A. Isotope is from the Greek isos, same [isosceles ], and topos, place [topography]. An isotope is in the same place on the Periodic Chart as the original element. That means it has the same atomic number, i.e. it has the same number of protons. The difference between two isotopes of an element is a different number of neutrons but the same number of protons. 55. A. Draw yourself a little diagram:

56. A.

Q in = 100 J

We have to have Work = 40 J, or energy is not conserved. Then the efficiency is efficiency = Work/Q in = 40/100 = 40%.


Work = ?

Q out = 60 J

The statement of the question is that mvR = nh/2 . For ten years ths was simply an ad hoc postulate. After de Broglie, the meaning of this equation became obvious: Each Bohr radius must be an integral number of de Broglie waves. (See the last page of the Quantum Theory Precis.)

57. D. The stick is 7 units long. Say the string is at a location x away from the 6 kg mass. In order to keep the stick from rotating, we need to make the clockwise and the counter-clockwise torques equal. The 6 kg mass contributes a counter-clockwise torque; the 8 kg contributes a clockwise torque; set these equal: cc = mgx = 6gx ; c = mg(7 x) = 8g(7 x); or 3x = 4(7 x). Then 7x = 28; x = 4; the string is at D.

58. C. The formulas for the new frequency involve only the old frequency and the ratio of the speeds of the source and the wave, or the observer (usually a listener rather than an observer) and the wave. Intensity has nothing to do with it. 59. A. When P and Q are superimposed, the two waves are completely on top of each other. The left halves are in phase, and interfere constructively; the right halves are out of phase, and interfere destructively. What results is wave A. 60. C. * Err... You folks never heard about diffraction gratings from me. Diffraction gratings are a bazillion slits made in a piece of plastic and act like this. Its Youngs patterns all over again, but as the distance d between successive gratings is incredibly tiny, the separation between adjacent maxima ( y = D/d, youll recall) will be very large. Moreover, in Youngs experiment, we used monochromatic light. What happens when you use a mixture of wavelenghts, as for example you might get from a hot gas? Then since the separation is dependent on , the maxima of different colors occur at different ys. That means that the diffraction grating is a very nifty way of separating out the spectral lines of an excited element. That is, II depends on a wave nature of light, and the separation of the maxima being what they are argues that the waves are tiny. Soap bubbles are of course a manifestation of the thin film phenomenon, which cannot be explained without waves. And the films, though very thin, are often several waves thick. I is part of the answer. We do not need wave properties to explain III, refraction, so its not part of the answer to this question. 61. D. F grav = weight = mg = 20 nt, so m = 2 kg. (Sometimes the AP examiners use W for weight. This is very confusng if work, W, figures in the same problem. Be careful.) The nasty ol examiners were probably hoping that youd think the weight was somehow affected by the inclined plane. Nope, its just mg, ramp or no ramp.

Annotated Answers to the MC Section of the 1993 AP Physics B Exam

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62. C. Dang, I hope you memorize the inclined plane equations! N = mg cos . By observation, cos = 4/5, so N = 20(4/5) = 16 nt. 63. B. The work done by gravity is given by F x cos (angle between F & x). You will observe that I did not use here, because the angle between mg and the ramps surface is not the same as the angle, 37o, between the ramp and the horizontal floor. In fact the angle between mg (perpendicular to the ground) and the ramps surface is 53o. Then Work done by gravity = mg x cos 53 = 20*5* (3/5) = 60 J. Another way: the work done by gravity on the way down must be the same as the work done against gravity to get the @!#$% mass up the ramp in the first place. Thats of course equal to Ugrav = mgh, which is 20*3 = 60 J. Another way: the work done by gravity must equal the change in kinetic energy of the mass. The mass is initially at rest, so Work done by gravity = 1/2 mv2. But by conservation of energy, E bottom = Etop , so 1/2 mv2 = mgh. Now if mgh = 1/2 mv2, and if 1/2 mv2 = Work done by gravity, then as before mgh = Work done by gravity. Energy conservation is, by far, the most powerful tool available to the problem solvin physicist. 64. D. Oh, goody; projectile motion and energy conservation. We know the speed at Q is as small as it gets, and we should know (by energy conservation or by common sense) that the ball has equal speeds at equal heights.If the ball winds up at the same height that it was thrown at, the curve is extremely symmetric: same time to go up as to go down, same speed coming down as going up, etc etc. 65. E. The famous trick question. For projectiles, the acceleration is constant . Thats constant in size and in direction, namely straight down. Its just g ! An awful lot of physics students think that the acceleration at the top is zero. Hell, no! The velocity in the y direction is zero, but the velocity in the x direction may or may not be zero, and for certain ay = g (and ax = 0 if we disregard air resistance). 66. A. See? They want you to be faked out! Look at the answer E! (Mean ol examiners!!) Fnet is of course equal to mg, not merely at point Q, but everywhere.

67. A. Faradays Law makes a belated appearance. We know V = B/ t and forgetting about the minus sign (whose job is merely to tell us the direction of the current) we have, recalling the definition of the flux, V = A B/ t. But 2 because the area of the square is of course a2. V = IR, so IR = A B/ t, or B/ t = IR/A = IR/a 68. B. Coulombs Law: F = kQq/R2 = qE, so E = kQ/R2. Twice as far away means one-fourth of the electric force and field. (This is the Jack Nicholson Memorial Question: its as good as it gets; questions cannot be much easier than this.) 69. D. The image must be real and inverted, and (as you can convince yourself with a drawing) smaller than the object, and closer to the lens than the object, but at a distance greater than f. (The object has to be infinitely far away to cast its image at the focus.) 70. E. Maybe the hardest question on the test. How nice of them to save it for last. When we connect the two spheres, charge flows until the potentials are equal. That is, we need R = r , where R is the radius of the large sphere, and r is the radius of the small sphere. After the wires are connected, we will have R = kQ/R and r = kq/r where Q is the charge on the big guy, and q that of the little guy. But these must be equal; kQ/R = kq/r, or Q/q = R/r. That is, the big guy gets more charge, and the little guy gets less.

These bad boys started off with the same charge, but now the bigger has more charge, so charge must have moved from the smaller guy to the larger one. (Its the Donald Trump Memorial Problem: the rich get richer...)
v.1.0 13 May 1998