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First European Conference on Earthquake Engineering and Seismology (a joint event of the 13th ECEE & 30th General

Assembly of the ESC) Geneva, Switzerland, 3-8 September 2006 Paper Number:1717

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF FIXING THE STEEL PLATE WITH BRACES ON BEHAVIOR OF RETROFITTED RC BEAMS
Guray ARSLAN1, Filiz SEVUK2 and Ibrahim EKIZ3

SUMMARY Almost all researchers studying in this field agree on the significant contribution of using epoxybonded continuous horizontal steel plates on load carrying capacity of reinforced concrete (RC) beams with rectangular cross-section. However, there is not enough data available on the effect of -shape jacket at the end of flexural steel plates (fixing the steel plate with braces) and there is no consensus on the contribution -shape jacket to this type of beams within the limited available data. In this study; the use of end anchorage technique such as -shape jacket is investigated and having the different distance of fixing the steel plate with braces from mid-span are evaluated. Using the analytical model Drucker-Prager, which are proven by the experimental studies and changing the distance of fixing the steel plate with braces from mid-span, analytical solutions are provided; then the load-deflection curves are compared and some comments are made on.

1.

INTRODUCTION

An existing reinforced concrete (RC) members and/or structures may be damaged by chemical processes due to aggressive environment, excessive loading and poor initial design. Nowadays, RC members and/or structures are increasingly being retrofitted by adhesively bonding steel or FRP plates to their tension faces (Arslan et al., 2006a). This technique appears to be a suitable way for increasing the strength capacity and the stiffness of an existing structure (Colotti and Spadea, 2001).However, tests have shown that tension face plates are prone to premature debonding (Oehlers et al., 2003; Mohamed Ali et al., 2005; Pesic and Pilakoutas, 2003; Yang et al., 2003; Pham and Al-Mahaidi, 2004). Pesic and Pilakoutas (2003) studied the problem of early concrete cover delamination and plate-end failure of reinforced concrete beams strengthened with externally bonded FRPreinforcement. The accuracy of analytical models and finite element (FE) methods for predicting this type of failure is assessed against published experimental data. Yang et al. (2003) presents a fracture mechanics based finite element analysis of debonding failures. This study has successfully simulated the concrete cover separation failure mode in FRP plated RC beams. The length of the plate has a significant effect on the failure mode. The numerical example showed that if all other parameters remain unchanged, a beam strengthened with a short plate is more likely to fail due to concrete cover separation and in a more brittle manner. According to Pham and AlMahaidi (2004) that end cover separation starts from FRP ends and fails in the form of shear failure at steel reinforcement level at the root of the concrete teeth between shear cracks. Shear crack debond failure is due to the opening of one of those inclined cracks. In order to prevent the separation of the plate and the concrete cover layer due to a peeling action at the end of the plate, Garden and Hollaway (1998) extended the plate ends under the end supports. It was found that plate separation was prevented but peeling failure of the concrete cover still occurred.

Yldz Technical University, Civil Engineering Department, Structural Engineering Division, 34349 Besiktas - Istanbul, Turkey Email : aguray@yildiz.edu.tr 2 Yldz Technical University, Civil Engineering Department, Structural Engineering Division, 34349 Besiktas - Istanbul, Turkey Email: sevuk@yildiz.edu.tr 3 Yldz Technical University, Civil Engineering Department, Structural Engineering Division, 34349 Besiktas - Istanbul, Turkey Email: ekiz@yildiz.edu.tr

Almost all researchers studying in this field agree on the significant contribution of using epoxy-bonded continuous horizontal steel plates on load carrying capacity of reinforced concrete (RC) beams with rectangular cross-section. However, there is not enough data available on the effect of -shape jacket at the end of flexural steel. This paper focuses on the performance of -shape jacket at the end of flexural steel plates (fixing the steel plate with braces). Using the analytical model Drucker-Prager, which are proven by the experimental studies (Arslan et al., 2006b) and changing the distance of fixing the steel plate with braces from mid-span, analytical solutions are provided; then the load-deflection curves are compared and some comments are made on.

2.

DETAILS OF BEAMS

In this study, the experimental K21 reference (K21REF) and K21S4 retrofitted beam are studied. Beams are simply supported and loaded at mid-span with the distance of 1800 mm between the supports. The properties of the specimen are detailed in Table 1. w is the web reinforcement ratio and a/d is the shear span to depth ratio. Table 1: Properties of specimens Strengthened sample --S4 Bottom reinforcement (mm2) 212 (226) Top reinforcement (mm2) 28 (100) w (%) 3.53

Specimen K21REF K21S4

a/d 6.67

A concrete mix consisting of Portland cement (PC 42.5) and maximum aggregate size of 16 mm in diameter is used. The average of uniaxial compressive strength for all beams tested is 32.16 MPa. Two different sizes of bars are used as longitudinal reinforcement. Epoxy is usually used into cracks in order to glue together cracked concrete. The uniaxial compressive strength of the epoxy was 50.74 MPa. Yield strength and ultimate strength of the steel plate are 286 MPa and 420 MPa, respectively. Figure 1 shows the cross-sectional dimensions and steel plates sizes of the specimen (Sevuk, 2000).

135 25 85 100 1600 mm 100 85 25 50 25

a) Reference beam, K21REF


10 50 100 2.5 5 85 150 5/50-1500 2x=1500 mm 25 50 25 150 85

5/50-750

b) Retrofitted beam, K21S4 Figure 1: Configuration and details of RC beams

Table 2 show the distance of fixing the steel plate with braces from mid-span and ultimate load carrying capacity of beams from NLFEA. Five values of the distance of fixing the steel plate with braces from mid-span are assumed; the actual one is K21S4 beam.

Table 2: Comparison of FEA Results Distance of fixing the steel plate with braces from mid-span (x, mm) 750 640 570 500 480 375 Load (Pu,FEA) (kN) 57.6 52.8 48.0 43.2 38.4 33.6 Deflection (u,FEA) (mm) 4.26 4.70 5.62 6.05 6.68 7.25

Specimen K21S4 K21S4u640 K21S4u570 K21S4u500 K21S4u480 K21S4u375

2x/L 0.83 0.71 0.63 0.56 0.53 0.42

3.

FINITE ELEMENT MODEL

The typical finite element meshes used to represent the retrofitted beams are shown in Figure 2; similar meshes are used for K21S4u series beams. Due to the symmetrical geometry and loading pattern, only half portion of each beam has been analyzed. The nonlinear finite element program (LUSAS, 2006) is used to determine the ultimate load of the beams. The nonlinear finite element program ignores dowel action and a perfect bond assumption between concrete and steel bars is assumed. The steel plate is modeled as an isotropic elasto-plastic material satisfying Tresca yield criterion with material properties described in the experimental part. The concrete, epoxy and steel plate are modeled with 3-D eight-nodded hexahedral elements and the reinforcement is modeled with two-nodded bar elements. The elastic modulus of concrete is taken as 4730 f c (MPa) (ACI 318, 2002).

Y
Y

Figure 2: Typical finite element mesh (K21S4)

4.

COMPARISON OF LOAD-DEFLECTION CURVES

The experimental result of K21S4 beam has been showed 1.07 times the load of the corresponding NLFEA result. A good correlation exists between the experimental and analytical values in terms of the ultimate load, K21S4 beam. But, it has been observed that increasing the compared load level, the deviation between experimental and analytical deflections of beams have been increased (Fig. 3). The results of the NLFEA have been observed to be in good agreement with the experimental K21S4 beam in terms of ultimate load.

60 50 Load (kN) 40 30 20 10 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 De fle ction (mm) K21S4exp K21S4FEA Load (kN)

60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 u375 u500 u640 2 4 6 8 De fle ction (mm) u480 u570 K21S4FEA

Figure 3: Load-deflection curve of K21S4 beam

Figures 4: FEA of K21S4 series beams

The variation of the distance of fixing the steel plate with braces from mid-span, with the mean deflection under the applied load at mid-spans, is plotted in Figure 4 for specimens K21S4u640, K21S4u570, K21S4u500, K21S4u480 and K21S4u375. It can be seen that the deflection capacity of retrofitted beams increase when the distance of fixing the steel plate with braces from mid-span increases. In addition to this, it could be thought that, K21S4u570 beam is less rigid than K21S4u500 beam.

5.

CONCLUSIONS

Based on NLFEA results, the following conclusions can be drawn: The load carrying and deflection capacity of retrofitted beams increase when the distance of fixing the steel plate with braces from mid-span increases and the slope of the load-deflection curve also increases. The NLFEA results clearly show that the distance of fixing the steel plate with braces from mid-span has limited influence on the precracking load-deflection (stiffness) behavior of the beams. The load-deflection curve of K21S4 retrofitted beam obtained from NLFEA results is larger than the test result. For the reason that a perfect bond assumption between concrete and steel bars is adopted.

6.

REFERENCES

ACI Committee 318 (2002), Building Code for Structural Concrete (318R-2002) and Commentary (318R-2002), ACI, Farmington Hills, Mich. Arslan, G., Sevuk F. and Ekiz, I. (2006a), Comparison of Two and Three Dimensional Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Strengthened Reinforced Concrete Beam by Using Steel Plate, Journal of Engineering and Natural Sciences (Sigma-YT Dergisi), 1. Arslan G., Sevuk F. and Ekiz I. (2006b), The Influence of Fixing the Steel Plate with Braces on Behavior of Retrofitted RC Beams, 7th International Conference on Advance Civil Engineering (ACE), October 6-8, stanbul, Turkey. Colotti V. and Spadea G. (2001), Shear Strength of RC Beams Strengthened with Bonded Steel or FRP Plates, Journal of Structural Engineering, 127, No. 4, 367-373. Garden H.N. and Hollaway L.C. (1998), An Experimental Study of the Influence of Plate end Anchorage of Carbon Fibre Composite Plates used to Strengthen Reinforced Concrete Beams, Compos Struct., 42, 17588. LUSAS (2006), Finite Element System, Examples Manual, Version 13.6, FEA Ltd., United Kingdom. Mohamed Ali M.S., Oehlers D.J. and Bradford M.A. (2005), Debonding of Steel Plates Adhesively Bonded to the Compression Faces of RC Beams, Construction and Building Materials, 19, 413422. Oehlers D.J., Park S.M. and Mohamed Ali M.S. (2003), A Structural Engineering Approach to Adhesive Bonding Longitudinal Plates to RC Beams and Slabs, Composites: Part A: applied science and manufacturing, 34, 887897. Oehlers D.J. (1992), Reinforced Concrete Beams with Plates Glued to their Soffits, Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, 118, 2023-2038. Pesic N. and Pilakoutas K. (2003), Concrete Beams with Externally Bonded Flexural FRP-Reinforcement: Analytical Investigation of Debonding Failure, Composites: Part B, 34, 327338. Pham H. and Al-Mahaidi R. (2004), Experimental Investigation into Flexural Retrofitting of Reinforced Concrete Bridge Beams using FRP Composites, Composite Structures, 66, 617625 Sevuk F. (2000), Yap Hasarlar ve Hasarlarn yiletirilmesi zerine Bir nceleme, Ph. D. Thesis, Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul (in Turkish). Swamy R.N., Jones R. and Ang T.H. (1982), Under and Over Reinforced Concrete Beams with Glued Steel Plates, Int. J. Cement Composites Lightweight Concrete, 4, 19-32. Swamy R.N., Jones R. and Charif A. (1989), The Effect of External Plate Reinforcement on the Strengthening of Structurally Damaged RC Beams, Structural Engineer, 67(3), 45-56. Yang Z.J., Chen J.F. and Proverbs D. (2003), Finite Element Modelling of Concrete Cover Separation Failure in FRP Plated RC Beams, Construction and Building Materials, 17, 313