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# GENERAL VIEW

In this paper, we will discuss about magnetism. Magnetism is refers to the properties and interactions of magnets that depend on which ends of the magnets are close together. It is called magnetic force. Then will be explained about magnetic poles, magnetic field and its line. Besides, this paper will show you about magnetic domain based on its theory. In addition, will be also described about atomic structure of magnetic material and non magnetic material, and differentiate atomic structure of magnet and magnetic material that have not magnet properties yet. There are two kinds of magnetic material, namely Ferromagnetic and Paramagnetic. Whereas non magnetic material is called Diamagnetic. Magnetic material can be made as a magnet by 3 possible way, namely by rubbing, inducting, electromagnetic. In the next part, this paper will explain the relation between magnetism and electricity that is known by Electromagnetic. Here, there are Oersted Principle and Faradays Law. After we learn about it, we can understand some application of electromagnetic principle that applied in Generator, Electric motor and Transformer.

Standard Competence : 4. Understand about magnetic concept and its application in daily life. Basic Competence : 4.1 Investigate Indication of magnetism and how to make magnet. 4.2 Describe the utilizing of magnetism in technology products. 4.3 Apply electromagnetic induction concept to explain the working principle some devices that uses electromagnetic induction principle. Indicator : Based on basic competence above, wished students can: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Investigate indication of magnetism. Explain about magnetic force, magnetic field, magnetic poles. Explain the theory of magnetic domain. Differentiate the magnetic material and non magnetic material. Classify materials in surrounding into Ferromagnetic, Paramagnetic and Diamagnetic. Analyze the atomic structure of magnetic material and non magnetic material. Analyze the atomic structure of magnet and magnetic material that have not magnet properties yet. Demonstrate how to make magnet by three possible ways. List some device or technology that use magnet for its performance. Explain the relation between magnetism and electricity based on Oersted principle. Explain the relation between magnetic field, current through conductor and force which is appeared based on Lorentz formulation. Explain the relation between magnetism and electricity based on Faradays Law. Explain the working principle of Generator, Electric Motor and Transformer as application of electromagnetic induction principle.

AURORA
This light display occurs when blasts of charged particles from the sun are captured by Earths magnetic field. Atoms in the upper atmosphere emit aurora light when they collide with charged particles that result from the Suns blast. Auroras are indicators of the connection between The

## the Earth and

the sun.

frequency of auroras correlates to the frequency of solar activity and the sun's 11-year cycle of activity. As the process of fusion occurs inside the sun, it spews high-energy particles (ions, electrons, protons, neutrinos) and radiation in the solar wind. When the sun's activity is high, you'll also see large eruptions called solar flaresand coronal mass ejections. These high-energy particles and radiations get released into space and travel throughout the solar system. When they hit the Earth, they encounter its magnetic field. The poles of the Earth's magnetic field lie near, but not exactly on, its geographic poles (where the planet spins on its axis). Scientists believe that the Earth's liquid iron outer core spins and makes the magnetic field. The field is distorted by the solar wind, getting compressed on the side facing the sun (bow shock) and drawn out on the opposite side (magnetotail). The solar winds create an opening in the magnetic field at the polar cusps. Polar cusps are found on the solar side of the magnetosphere (the area around the Earth that's influenced by the magnetic field). Let's look at how this leads to an aurora. 1. As the charged particles of solar winds and flares hit the Earth's magnetic field, they travel along the field lines. 2. Some particles get deflected around the Earth, while others interact with the magnetic field lines, causing currents of charged particles within the magnetic fields to travel toward both poles -- this is why there are simultaneous auroras in

both hemispheres. (These currents are called Birkeland currentsafter Kristian Birkeland, the Norwegian physicist who discovered them -- see sidebar.) 3. When an electric charge cuts across a magnetic field it generates an electric current. As these currents descend into the atmosphere along the field lines, they pick up more energy. 4. When they hit the ionosphere region of the Earth's upper atmosphere, they collide with ions of oxygen and nitrogen. 5. The particles impact the oxygen and nitrogen ions and transfer their energy to these ions. 6. The absorption of energy by oxygen and nitrogen ions causes electrons within them to become "excited" and move from low-energy to high-energy orbitals (see How Atoms Work). 7. When the excited ions relax, the electrons in the oxygen and nitrogen atoms return to their original orbitals. In the process, they re-radiate the energy in the form of light. This light makes up the aurora, and the different colors come from light radiated from different ions. Note: The particles that interact with the oxygen and nitrogen ions in the atmosphere don't come from the sun, but rather were already trapped by the Earth's magnetic field. The solar winds and flares perturb the magnetic field and set these particles within the magnetosphere in motion.

Concept Map

## MAGNETISM and ITS USES

Magnetic force Magnetic poles

## Based on its magnetic properties

Magnetic field
Magnetic materials Non-Magnetic materials (Diamagnetic)
Interaksi dengan arus listrik

Electromagnet

Ferromagnetic

Oersted Principle

Paramagnetic

Electromagnetic induction

Electric Motor

Transformer

Generator

## MAGNETISM AND ITS USES

A. Magnets
More than 2000 years ago, Greeks discovered deposits of a mineral that was a natural magnet. They noticed that chunks of this mineral could attract pieces of iron. This mineral was found in a region of Turkey that then was known as Magnesia, so the Greeks named the mineral magnetic. The mineral is now called magnetite. Today, the word magnetism refers to the properties and interaction of magnet. Many devices have been developed that rely on magnets to operate.

Magnetic Force
You probably have played with magnets and might
Figure 1. Magnets can be found in many devices you use everyday, such as TVs, video games, telephones.Headphones and CD players also contain magnets.

have noticed that two magnets exert a force on each other.Depending on which ends of the magnets are close together, the magnets either repel or attract each other. You might have noticed that the

interaction between two magnets can be felt even before the magnets touch. The strength of the forcebetween two magnets increases as magnets move closer together and decreases as the magnets move farther apart.

Figure 2 : Two magnets can attract or repel each other, depending on which poles are closest together

Magnetic Field
A magnet is surrounded by a magnetic field. A magnetic field exerts a force on other magnets and objects made of magnetic materials. The magnetic field is strongest close to the magnet and weaker far away. The magnetic field can be represented by lines of force, or magnetic field lines. Figure 2 shows the magnetic field lines surrounding a bar magnet. A magnetic field also has a direction.

Figure 2.

Earths Magnetic Pole. The north pole of a magnet is defined as the end of the magnet that points toward the geographic north. Sometimes the north pole and south pole of magnets are called the north-seeking pole and the south-seeking pole. Because opposite magnetic poles attract, the north pole of a compass is being attracted by a south magnetic pole. So Earth is like a bar magnet with its south magnetic pole near its geographic north pole. No one is sure what produces Earths magnetic field. Earths inner core is made of a solid ball of iron and nickel, surrounded by a liquid layer of molten iron and nickel. According to one theory, circulation of the molten iron and nickel in Earths outer core produces Earths magnetic field.

Figure 3.
A compass needle aligns with the magnetic field lines of Earths magnetic field.

Magnetic Poles
Look again at Figure 2. Do you notice that the magnetic field lines are closest together at the ends of the bar magnet? These regions, called the magnetic poles, are where the magnetic force exerted by the magnet is strongest. All magnets have a north pole and a south pole. For a bar magnet, the north and south poles are at the opposite ends. Figure 3 shows the north and south poles of magnets with more complicated shapes. The two ends of a horseshoe-shaped magnet are the north and south poles. A magnet shaped like a disk has opposite poles on the top and bottom of the disk. Magnetic field lines always connect the North Pole and the south pole of a magnet.

Figure 4 :
The magnetic field lines around horseshoe and disk magnets begin at each magnets North pole and end at the south pole.

Magnetic Materials
Magnet can attracts objects in its surrounding. But, does magnet attract all objects? What kind of objects can be attracted by magnet? You might have noticed that a magnet will not attract all object surround them. Based on the magnetic properties, the objects can be divided by two kinds namely magnetic material and non magnetic material. Non magnetic material is object which is made by material can not attract by magnet. It is known by Diamagnetic. The example for this material are bismuth, silver, gold, copper, aluminum and zinc. Diamagnetic materials are those made of atoms that do not have permanent magnetic moments. Whereas magnetic material is the object which is made by material that can attract by magnet. There are two kind of magnetic material, those are Ferromagnetics and Paramagnetic. Ferromagnetic is object that can be attracted by magnet strongly, such as iron, cobalt or nickel. Paramagnetic is the object that can be attracted by

magnet weakly, such as silicon and germanium, and platinum. Both Ferromagnetic and Diamagnetic are made by atoms that have permanent magnet. Remember . . . Every atom contains electrons. Electrons have magnetic properties. In the atoms of most elements, the magnetic properties of the electrons cancel out. But in the atoms of iron, cobalt, and nickel, these magnetic properties dont cancel out. Each atom in these elements behaves like a small magnet and has its own magnetic field. Even though these atoms have their own magnetic fields, objects made from these metals are not always magnets. For example, if you hold an iron nail close to a refrigerator door and let go, it falls to the floor. However, you can make the nail behave like a magnet temporarily. Figure 5 below is shown the difference of atomic structure between magnet and nail.

How to Make Magnet Magnetic material such as Ferromagnetic and diamagnetic can be made become temporary magnet by 3 possible ways, such as : 1. By rubbing, rubbing the end of permanent magnet to the magnetic material surface. For example, iron is rubbed by magnet with the same direction continually. 2. Induction, bringing closer the magnetic material (nail, etc.) with permanent magnet so that object will has magnetic properties. 3. Electromagnet, flowing electric current to the coil that in its middle is placed iron core or a big nail. Magnet that is produced by this way is temporary magnet. It means, the magnetic properties just present only

when the coil is flowed by current. Magnetic poles which is produced by using Right hand role of Oersted principle (will be explained in the next part).
Magnetic Domains A Model for Magnetism In iron, cobalt, nickel, and some other magnetic materials, the magnetic field created by each atom exerts a force on the other nearby atoms. Because of these forces, large groups of atoms align their magnetic poles so that almost all like poles point in the same direction. The groups of atoms with aligned magnetic poles are called magnetic domains. Each domain contains an enormous number of atoms, yet the domains are too small to be seen with the unaided eye. Because the magnetic poles of the individual atoms in a domain are aligned, the domain itself behaves like a magnet with a north pole and a south pole.

## B. Electricity and Magnetism

Current can Make a Magnet
Magnetic field are produced by moving electric charges. Electrons moving around the nuclei of atoms produce magnetic fields. The motion of these materials, such as iron, to be magnetic. When electric current flows in a wire, electric charges move in the wire. As a result, a wire that contains an electric current also is surrounded by a magnetic field. The common element between electrostatics and magnetism, directed the research of many scientist, among them William Gilbert and Hans Christian Oersted. Oersted made an important discovery. Summarized in Oersteds principle. Oersteds Principle. Charge moving through a conductor produces a circular magnetic field around the counductor.

Figure 6.
a.Iron particles show the magnetic field lines around a current carrying wire. b. Magnetic field produced around a wire that carries an electric current.

Mapping the magnetic field allows you to predict the direction of the electromagnetic force from the current. Scientist have developed several hand signs to help you predict how magnetic force act. They are called right-hand rules.

Right-hand rule#1 for conventional current flow: Grasp the conductor with the thumb of the right hand pointing in the direction of conventional, or positive (+), current flow. The curved fingers point in the direction of the magnetic field around the conductor.

Lorentz Force Conductor carrying current that placed inside magnetic field will produce magnetic force. The magnetic force on the conductor is observed by Lorentz so that the force is called Lorentz Force. Further observation shows that the magnetic force on the conductor is proportional to the magnetic field strength and also proportional to the length of the conductor within the magnetic field. The amount of Lorentz force can be formulated as follows.

F = B. I. l
Note : F = Lorentz force (N) B = Magnetic field (T) I = current strength (A)
L = the length of the conductor (m)

Experiments conducted by Michael Faraday in England in 1831 and independently by Joseph Henry in United State that the same year showed that an emf can be induced in a circuit by changing magnetic field. The result of these experiments led to a very basic and important law of electromagnetism known as Faradays law of induction.

Figure 7. (a) When a magnet is moved toward a loop of wire connected to a sensitive
ammeter, the ammeter deflects as shown, indicating that a current is induced in the loop. (b) When the magnet is held stationary, there is no induced current in the loop, even when the magnet is inside the loop. (c) When the magnet is moved away from the loop, the ammeter deflects in the opposite direction, indicating that the induced current is opposite that shown in the part (a). Changing the direction of the magnets motion changes th e direction of the current induced by that motion.

Some Application of Electromagnetic Induction The mechanical energy associated with the motion of the wire loop or the magnet is converted into electrical energy associated with the current in the wire. The magnet and wire loop must be moving relative to each other for an electric current to be

produced. This causes the magnetic field inside the loop to change with time. In addition, if the current in a wire changes with time, the changing magnetic field around the wire can also induce a current in a nearby coil. The generation of a current by a changing magnetic field is electromagnetic induction. Some device that apply electromagnetic induction as its working principle, such as Electric Motor, Generator and Transformer.

a. Electric Motors On sizzling summer days, do you ever use an electric fan to keep cool? A fan uses an electric motor, which is a device that changes electrical energy into mechanical energy. The motor in a fan turns the fan blades, moving air past your skin to make you feel cooler.

Figure 8.
All the devices shown here contain electric motors

Electric motors are used in all types of industry, agriculture, and transportation, including airplanes and automobiles. If you were to look carefully, you probably could find electric motors in every room of your house. Almost every appliance in which something moves contains an electric motor. A Simple Electric Motor A diagram of the simplest type of electric motor is shown in Figure 9.

The motor principle describes the force produced between a magnet and an electromagnet. The most important application of this principle is the electric motor, a device that directs electric force full circle, without stopping part way. The main parts of a simple electric motor include a wire coil, a permanent magnet, and a source of electric current, such as a battery. The battery produces the current that makes the coil an electromagnet. A simple electric motor also includes components called brushes and a commutator. The brushes are conducting pads connected to the battery. The brushes make contact with the commutator, which is a conducting metal ring that is split. Each half of the commutator is connected to one end of the coil so that the commutator rotates with the coil. The brushes and the commutator form a closed electric circuit between the battery and the coil.

b. Generator Most of the electrical energy you use every day is provided by generators. A generator uses electromagnetic induction to transform mechanical energy into electrical energy. The mechanical energy is provided by turning the handle on the generator. An example of a simple generator is shown in Figure 10. In this type of generator, a current is produced in the coil as the coil rotates between the poles of a permanent magnet.

Figure 10. The current in the coil changes direction each time the ends of the coil move past
the poles of the permanent magnet.

Switching Direction. As the generators wire coil rotates through the magnetic field of the permanent magnet, current flows through the coil. After the wire coil makes onehalf of a revolution, the ends of the coil are moving past the opposite poles of the permanent magnet. This causes the current to change direction. In a generator, as the coil keeps rotating, the current that is produced periodically changes direction. The direction of the current in the coil changes twice with each revolution, as Figure 10 shows. The frequency with which the current changes direction can be controlled by regulating the rotation rate of the generator.

Transformers A transformer is a device that increases or decreases the voltage of an alternating current. A transformer is made of a primary coil and a secondary coil. These wire coils are wrapped around the same iron core, as shown in Figure 11.

Figure 11. Transformer can increase or decrease voltage. (A) A step-up transformer increase voltage.
The secondary coil has more turns than the primary coil does. (B) A step down transformer decrease voltage. The secondary coil has fewer turns the primary coil does.

As an alternating current passes through the primary coil, the coils magnetic field magnetizes the iron core. The magnetic field in the primary coil changes direction as the current in the primary coil changes direction. This produces a magnetic field in the iron core that changes direction at the same frequency. The changing magnetic field in the iron core then induces an alternating current with the same frequency in the secondary coil. The voltage in the primary coil is the input voltage and the voltage in the secondary coil is the output voltage. The output voltage divided by the input voltage equals the number of turns in the secondary coil divided by the number of turns in the primary coil.

## MINI LAB MAGNETS, COIL AND CURRENT

Huge generators in power plants produce electricity by moving magnets past coils of wire.How does that produce an electric current? Real-World Question How can a magnet and a wire coil be used to produce an electric current? Goals Observe how a magnet and a wire coil can produce an electric current in a wire. Compare the currents created by moving the magnet and the wire coil in different ways. Materials cardboard tube scissors bar magnet galvanometer or ammeter insulated wire Safety Precautions WARNING: Do not touch bare wires when current is running through them.

Procedure 1. Wrap the wire around the cardboard tube to make a coil of about 20 turns. Remove the tube from the coil. 2. Use the scissors to cut and remove 2 cm of insulation from each end of the wire. 3. Connect the ends of the wire to a galvanometer or ammeter. Record the reading on your meter. 4. Insert one end of the magnet into the coil and then pull it out. Record the current. Move the magnet at different speeds insidethe coil and record the current. 5. Watch the meter and move the bar magnetin different ways around the outside of thecoil. Record your observations. 6. Repeat steps 3 through 4, keeping the magnet stationary and moving the wire coil. Conclude and Apply 1. How was the largest current generated?

2. Does the current generated always flow in the same direction? How do you know? 3. Predict what would happen if you used a coil made with fewer turns of wire. 4. Infer whether a current would have been generated if the cardboard tube were left in the coil. Why or why not? Try it.

Compare the currents generated by different members of the class. What was the value of the largest current that was generated? How was this current generated?

SUMMARIZE
1. A magnetism field surrounds a magnet and exerts a magnetic force. 2. All magnets have two poles: a south pole and a north pole. 3. Opposite poles of magnets attract; like poles repel. 4. Groups of atoms with aligned magnetic poles are called magnetic domains. 5. Diamagnetic materials are those made of atoms that do not have permanent magnetic moments. Ferromagnetic and Diamagnetic are made by atoms that have permanent magnet.

6. Magnetic material such as Ferromagnetic and diamagnetic can be made become temporary magnet by 3 possible ways, such as : a. by rubbing ; b. induction; c. electromagnet.
7. The groups of atoms with aligned magnetic poles are called magnetic domains. 8. Oersteds Principle. Charge moving through a conductor produces a circular magnetic field around the conductor. 9. Conductor carrying current that placed is inside magnetic field will

produce magnetic force called Lorentz force. The amount of Lorentz force can be formulated as follows

F = B. I. l
10. The magnet and wire loop must be moving relative to each other for an electric current to be produced. 11. Some device that apply electromagnetic induction as its working principle, such as Electric Motor, Generator and Transformer. 12. The most important application of this principle is the electric motor, a device that directs electric force full circle, without stopping part way. 13. A generator uses electromagnetic induction to transform mechanical energy into electrical energy. 14. A transformer is a device that increases or decreases the voltage of an alternating current.

STUDENTS WORKSHEET Choose the word or phase that best answer the question. 1. The characteristic of a magnet is.... a. Have two poles thats north and south pole b. Can attracts all thing around it c. In all condition, always point to the north and south direction d. The same poles will attract each other

## 2. Look at the picture!

The event as shown in picture called... a.Electromagnet b.Magnet induction c.Magnetic field d.electrical current

3. If a bar magnet cut into 3, then the center part will... a. Not magnetic b.Only has north pole c. Only has north pole d.Have north and south pole.

4. In this below here is the reason why magnets north pole always show the north pole of the earth! a. Around the north pole of the earth there is Earths magnetic north pole b. Exact the north pole of the earth there is Earths magnetic south poke c. Exact the north pole of the earth there is magnets north pole d.Around the north pole of the earth there is magnets south pole

## 5.Current induction in coil can be generated by the way...

a. put the coil above a bar magnet b Put a bar magnet in the coil c.insert and take out a bar magnet in the coil d. move a bar magnet 6.

The correct picture of magnetic lines pattern is number a.1 and 2 b. 1 and 3 c. 2 and 4 d.3 and 4

7. What can iron fillings be used to show? a. magnetic field b. electric field c. gravitational field d. none of these

8. What will the north poles of two bar magnets do when brought together? a. attract b. create an electric current c. repel d. not interact

9. How many poles do all magnets have? a. One b. two c. three d. Four

10. From these materials, which is not include to magnetic materials? a. Glass b. Iron

c. Cobalt d. Nickel 11. From these tools, which one use magnet for its performance? a. Fan b. Camera c. Microscope d. Telescope 12. The length of conductor is as long as 2 meters in the form of coil within the motor of toy car magnetic field. If the wire is flowed by current 0,5 amperes, how much is the Lorentz force spinning the motor? The magnetic field strength is 100 Tesla. a.100 N b. 50 N c. 150N d. 200 Essay 1. The definition of magnetic field is... 2. Given these materials Iron Steel Nickel Cobalt Zinc

Classify those materials into paramagnetic, ferromagnetic, and diamagnetic catagory! 3. Two wires with the configuration like this picture below!

Determine the magnitude and direction of magnetic force work on the wire II for the length of wire 0,5 meter! 4. What is the working principle of generator?

5. What is the working principle of transformator? 6. What is the working principle of electric motor? 7. Iron isnt magnet, if it rubbed by strong magnet finally it becomes magnetic. Explain what happened into iron;s magnet elementary along the process! 8. Why explorer that inexperienced in using compass can lost near the geographic pole of the earth? 9. Explain how to make magnet by three possible ways! 10.List some device or technology that use magnet for its performance!

## Magnetic Force on the Conductor flowed by Current

1. Provide the following device and materials : two 1,5 volts batteries, cable, electric switch, alumunium, U magnet, and board 2. Arrange the device as in the below figure

3. Connect the electric switch, and then see what happens to the alumunium foil 4. Repeat the steps number 2 and 3, but change the current or exchange the pole of the magnet. Draw a conclusion. 5. Related between Lorentz force, magnetic field and current direction stated by right hand! 6. Thumb show the direction of Fore finger show the direction of Middle finger show the direction of Conclusion: 1. The force experienced by a current carrying conductor in a magnetic field is called 2. The magnitude of the Lorentz force can be formulated as follows: F = x x .. Note: F = .with unit . B = .with unit . I = ..with unit . l = . With unit .

## Domain of Psychomotor objectives

1. Imitation : Demonstrated an observed action Teacher : Demonstrate how to arrange tools and materials to do Magnetic Force on The Conductor Flowed by Current experiment.

Students : Imitate what teacher have done correctly to arrange tools and materials to do Magnetic Force on the Conductor Flowed by Current Experiment.

2. Manipulation -

: Performance in action

Teacher : Teacher ask the students to change the current and exchange the pole of the magnet.

## Students : Write the variables of the experiment

Independent variables : The direction of current and magnetic field Control Variable Dependent variable 3. Precision Teacher drawing Students : Draw the observation result : The length of wire ( m), the magnitude of magnetic field (T) : The direction of Lorentz force : Performance in action with accuracy : Teacher ask students to write the data of observation by

No 1

## Lorentz force direction

To the up Inside outside To the left To the right To the left To the bottom To the up Inside outside

To the bottom

To the up

inside

outside

## : Ask the students to evaluate the relation of variables,

hypothesist and the result of the experiment. Students : Make evaluation about the relation of variables, hypothesist and the result of the experiment.

Affective assesment
No Name No 1. Aspect Students present 2. Prepare to do experiment 3. Activity participation 4. Discuss Sum of score Rubrics: Students present : 1. 2. 3. 4. Come to the class on time (score 4) Come to the class late 5 minute (score 3) Come to the class late 10 minute (score 2) Come to the class late more than 10 minute (score 1) : .......................... : .......................... 4 3 2 1 class value : ...................... : ......................

Prepare to do experiment: 1. Students sit down with their groups, bring their equipment to do experiment, put their bag in the place. (score 4) 2. Students put their bag in the place, bring their equipment, but do not sit down with their group. (score 3) 3. Students do not bring their equipment to do experiment. (score 2) 4. Student do not prepare their experiment, they just present in the class (score 1) Activity Participation:

1. Students give respond the teacher demonstration, active in working with their group, give a good contribution for their group. (score 4) 2. Students give respond the teacher demonstration, active in working with their group. (score 3) 3. Student active in working with their group. (score 2) 4. Student just give respond the teacher demonstration. (score 1) Discussion : 1. 2. 3. 4. Students in groups are asking and answering actively. (score 4) Students in group just active asking or answering. (score 3) Students in group only one active. (score 2) Students in group never ask or answer. (score 1)