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ASSIGNME NT
SPACECRAFT PROPULSION

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TURBO SHAFT ENGINE


A turboshaft engine is similar in concept to turboprop, but instead of the propeller, the gearbox exits to some other device. The most common use is to power a helicopter rotor. It has the following main components. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Starting Generator Gear box Compressors Combustion Turbine Exhaust

Gear Box There are different gears in this engine. The main function of the gear box is to control the speed of shaft so that stalling and other phenomena does not occur which are harmful for compressor. The gears that are used in this engine are mainly inclined spur gears. The shaft of the main gear is connected to handle which are used to rotate the shaft by hand especially in this engine. Starting Generator A small generator is connected to gear box which are used only for rotation to main shaft at the start. This generator is turn off when engine starts.

Compressors
When the flow enters the engine through the intake of the engine it moves towards the compressor which compress the air so the pressure and density of the air rises. There are two types of compressor used in this engine, one is axial type and other is centrifugal. The air first passes from the axial compressor which works in two stages. First stage is of rotor where the dynamic pressure of air rises while static pressure rises in stator. After passing through axial compressor the air move toward centrifugal compressor where the dynamic pressure rise occur in impeller while total pressure rise occur in diffuser. The main advantage of using centrifugal compressor is for reducing size of engine. Combustion The air directed from diffuser of centrifugal compressor moves towards the combustion chamber where fuel are mixed and are burned by igniter at constant pressure with minimum losses. The temperature of air rises due to which enthalpy rise occur. Turbine Turbine extracts energy from the air and by mean of this energy it run the compressor shaft and also transfers high momentum air toward the exhaust. The turbine works in to three stages in which each stage has the stator and rotor respectively.

Exhaust The high speed air when passes from exhaust give thrust to the engine. A pointed like object is placed in exhaust so that it act as a nozzle.

PISTON ENGINE
This is a type of heat Engine that uses reciprocating piston to convert pressure into rotating motion.

Working
The engine that we have studied in laboratory is four stroke engine. It works in following four strokes. 1. 2. 3. 4. Intake stroke Compression stroke Power/ignition stroke Exhaust stroke Intake stroke In this stroke the piston descends from the top of the cylinder to the bottom of the cylinder, increasing the volume of the cylinder. A mixture of fuel and air, or just air in a diesel engine, is forced by atmospheric (or greater) pressure into the cylinder through the intake port. The intake valve(s) then closes. The volume of air/fuel mixture that is drawn into the cylinder, relative to the maximum volume of the cylinder, is called the volumetric efficiency of the engine. Compression stroke In this stroke the mixture of the air and fuel compressed by piston due to which the temperature of the mixture rises. During this stage both the inlet and exhaust valve are closed. Power stroke During this stroke the compressed mixture is ignited by spark plug due to which the air fuel mixture is burned which increase the pressure. The resulting pressure from the combustion of the compressed fuel-air mixture forces the piston back down toward bottom dead Centre. This is the start of the second revolution of the cycle. Exhaust stroke During the exhaust stroke, the piston once again returns to top dead Centre while the exhaust valve is open. This action expels the spent fuel-air mixture through the exhaust valve.

Components of Reciprocating Engine


Almost all of the reciprocating engine are mainly consist of following parts.

Crankcase
Crankcase is the main structure of engine which contain the bearing for crankshaft. It is designed to house crankshaft, camshaft and lubricating oil. The crankshaft must be able to endure multidirectional forces vibration and extreme operating temperature.

Crankshaft
The crankshaft is the part of an engine that translates reciprocating linear piston motion into rotation. To convert the reciprocating motion into rotation, the crankshaft has "crank throws" or "crankpins", additional bearing surfaces whose axis is offset from that of the crank, to which the "big ends" of the connecting rods from each cylinder attached.

Connecting Rods
Connecting rods connect the piston to crankshaft. It transports the force between the piston and crankshaft.

Piston
Piston move up and down in the cylinder. It draw air/fuel mixture into cylinder and drive the crankshaft on downward stroke. It also compress the air fuel mixture on upward stoke. Piston rings fit into grooves on the side and form the seal between the side and cylinder wall. The ring are designed with a gape which is forced closed when the piston is inserted into cylinder to form a spring loaded seal. The main function of piston ring is to prevent combustion gases from escaping the cylinder