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Cell is the basic unit of life.

These are smallest structure capable of basic life process, such as taking in nutrients, expelling waste, and reproducing. All living things are composed of cells. Some organisms are unicellular such as bacteria and protozoa and the rest are multicellular. Different kinds of cells are organised into specialised groups called tissues such as tendons and bones. Different tissues types are assembled into organs, which are structures specialised to perform particular functions. Examples are heart, stomach and brain. Organs , in turn, are organised into systems such as the circulatory, digestive or nervous systems . All together, these assembled organ systems form Human body.

Robert Hooke was the first to identify cells and gave them their name. Mathias schleiden , theodor Schwann and others formulated a cell theory. Virchow stated that new cells are formed due to the divisions of previously existing cells. Purkinje found that the protoplasm in a cell is instrumental for all the living activities of a plant. Robert Brown discovered nucleus. Strasburger and Weismann stated that the nucleus is concerned with the inheritance of characteristics of a living body

Activities with in cell

Metabolism is the sum total of biochemical reactions involved in the release and utilisation of energy within the organism is called Metabolism. Anabolism consists of chemical reaction that forms complex substances from simpler substances resulting in the formation of more protoplasm and growth. Catabolism consisting of chemical reactions that breaks down complex substances resulting in the release of energy.

Structure of cell

1) Cell wall: It is absent in animals but found in most of the plants. It is a semi rigid, permeable structure consisting of cellulose, lignin and other substances, gives shape to the cell. 2) Cell membrane: It is found both on plants and animals. It is a thin covering surrounding the cytoplasm. It is present just beneath the cell wall in plants. It is a semi permeable membrane which permits the passage of certain substances but prevents the passage of others. 3) Protoplasm: All components internal to cell. Cytoplasm is the portion of protoplasm without nucleus. It contains water (85 to 90 %), proteins (7-10%), fats (1-2%) and sugar and starches (12%) . Protoplasm contains a number of specialised structure called cell organelles and chemical compounds called cell inclusions. 4) Nucleus: The presence of a nucleus distinguishes the more complex eukaryotic cells of cells of plants and animals from simpler prokaryotic cells of bacteria that lack a nucleus. It is typically round and occupies about 10% of cells volume. The nucleus contains the nucleolus, which manufactures protein producing structures called ribosome. Genetic information in the form of

DNA is stored in thread like structures called chromatin within nucleus. The chromatid is composed of nucleoproteins that are combinations of proteins and nucleic acids i.e. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (ribonucleic acid).The DNA in the nucleus also contains the instructions for regulating the amount and types of proteins made by the cell. These instructions are copied, or transcribed, into a type of ribonucleic acid (RNA) called messenger (mRNA). The mRNA is transported from the nucleus to ribosomes, where proteins are assembled. 5) Vacuole: It is found more common in plants than animals and separated from cytoplasm by a membrane tonoplast. 6)Plastids: These are found only in plant cells and three different types are found

leucoplasts found in sex cells, roots and underground cells Chromoplasts It contains pigments that colour parts of plants Chloroplasts That contain chlorophyll, green substance which converts carbon dioxide and water into sugar.

7) Centrosomes: It is a dense area of protoplasm which close to the nucleus. In the middle of the centrosomes are two small dot like, rod shaped or v shaped bodies called centrioles. 8)Endoplasmic reticulum (ER): It is an extensive network of tubes that manufacture, process, and transport materials within nucleated cells. The ER consists of a continuous membrane in the form of branching in the form of braching tubules and flattened sacs that extend throughout the cytoplasm and connect to the double membrane that surrounds the nucleus. There are two types of ER rough and smooth depending on the presence of ribosomes. Ribosomes contain RNA and are the sites of protein synthesis in the cells. 9)Mitochondria : These are the sites of energy release and called power houses of the cells. 10)Golgi apparatus : Also Golgi body or Golgi complex , network of stacked sacs found within nucleated cells that store, package and distribute the proteins and lipids made in ER. The Golgi apparatus in plants is known as dictyosome. 11)Lysosomes. These are vacuole like bodies that secrete enzymes to digest food substances. It is also involved in defence against bacteria and viruses, destroys old and worn out organelles and results in the death of the cell. So they are called suicide bags of the cell.
Cell division

The growth and development of all organisms depend upon the growth and division of cells. All these cell divisions starts from one cell called a fertilized egg cell or zygote. These are two types of cell divisions mitosis and meiosis. The two important events in cell divisions are nuclear division (Karyokinesis) followed by the division of cytoplasm(Cytokinesis). Mitosis: This is the process in which a cells nucleus replicates and divides in preparation for the division of the cell. It results in 2 cells that genetically identical and occurs in 4 successive stages ; prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase. These four stages are preceded by a resting phase called interphase. In this phase, chromosomes undergo self duplication. Mitosis is vital for growth and

replacement of damages or worn out cells and for asexual reproduction. Meiosis: It is a type of cell division in which the cells genetic information, contained in chromosomes, is mixed and divided into sex cells (gametes) with half the normal number of chromosomes. The random sorting of chromosomes during meiosis assures that each new sex cell, and therefore each new offspring, has a unique genetic inheritance. Thus it results in the reduction of chromosomes in the daughter cells by half. So gametes are haploid and when they fuse together the produce a diploid zygote. Hence it is a source of new genetic variation.

Binomial system of nomenclature

Carolus Linnaeus developed Binomial system of nomenclature. It has two parts one generic name with a capital letter and specific name with a small letter e.g. Homo sapiens. In the modern system each living thing belongs to species , genus, family ,order ,class, phylum(or divisions in plants) and kingdom. The five kingdoms are Method of Kingdom Structural organisation Types of organisms Nutrition Monera Protista Fungi Plante Animalia small simple single prokaryotes. Large, single Eucariotic cell Multi cellular filamentous form with specialized Eukaryotic cell Multi cellular; Eukaryotic; do not have own mean of locomotion absorb food Absorb, ingest absorb food Photosynthesize food bacteria, blue green algae, spirochetes Protozoans and algae of various types. funguses, mushrooms, molds, yeast, smuts and mildew. mosses, ferns, woody and non woody flowering plants sponges, reptiles, amphibians, mammals etc

Multicellular; eukaryotic with own ingest food means of locomotion

Eukaryote and Prokaryote

An eukaryote (yoo-KAR-ee-ot) is an organism with a complex cell or cells, in which the genetic material is organized into a membrane-bound nucleus or nuclei. Eukaryotes (also spelled "eucaryotes") comprise animals, plants, and fungiwhich are mostly multicellularas well as various other groups that are collectively classified as protists (many of which are unicellular). Prokaryotes (pro-KAR-ee-oht) are organisms, such as bacteria and archaea, that lack nuclei and other complex cell structures. Eukaryotes share a common origin, and are often treated formally as a superkingdom, empire, or domain. In the domain system, eukaryotes have more in common with archaean prokaryotes than bacterial prokaryotes. The name comes from the Greek , meaning good/true, and , meaning nut, in reference to the cell nucleus.


A complete virus particle, known as a virion , is little more than a gene transporter, consisting of nucleic acid either deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) or ribonucleic acid (RNA) surrounded by a protective coat of protein called a capsid. A capsid is composed of proteins encoded by the viral genome and its shape serves as the basis for morphological distinction. Virally coded protein units called protomers will selfassemble to form the capsid, requiring no input from the virus genome - however, a few viruses code for proteins which assist in the construction of their capsid. Proteins associated with nucleic acid are known as nucleoproteins, and the association of viral capsid proteins with viral nucleic acid is called a nucleocapsid. Viruses are dead outside the cells multiply only inside living cells and moves along blood or Phloem sap in animals and plants respectively. The nucleic acid of the virus enters the cell and control the host cell to produce identical virus nucleic acid and protein coat and thus it multiplies. Continuous multiplication of virus, exhaust the protoplasmic contents and it finally the cell ruptures and realises virus. This process is known as lysis of the host cell. The new viruses repeat the entire multiplication process.

Human diseases caused by virus

Disease Chicken Pox Common Cold Herpes Zoster Influenza/ Flu Measles Mumps Rabies Dengue Fever Poliomyelitis Herpes Simplex

Name of Virus Varicella Virus Rhino Virus Herpes Zoster Orthomixo Virus Paramyxo Virus Mumps Virus Rhabdovirus Arbovirus poliovirus Herpes Simplex

AIDS (Acquired immune deficiency syndrome Human T cell Leukemia Virus (HTLV III)

Although viruses cannot be treated with antibiotics, which are effective only against bacteria, the body's immune system has many natural defences against virus infections. Infected cells produce interferon and other cytokines (soluble components that are largely responsible for regulating the immune response), which can signal adjacent uninfected cells to mount their defences, enabling uninfected cells to impair virus replication. Virus are widely used in genetic engineering. Viruses that are parasites of bacteria are called bacteriophage Viroids and prions

Viroids and prions are smaller than viruses, but they are similarly associated with disease. Viroids are plant pathogens that consist only of a circular, independently replicating RNA molecule. The mutated protein, known as a prion, has been implicated in some neurological diseases such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy. There is some evidence that prions resemble viruses in their ability to cause infection. Prions, however, lack the nucleic acid found in viruses.


Bacteria are microorganisms that lack a nucleus and have a cell wall composed of peptidoglycan, a protein-sugar molecule. Bacteria are the most common organisms on earth and are intimately connected to the lives of all organisms. The common structural forms are

Spherical or ovoid (coccus ) rod shaped or cylindrical (bacillus ) spiral or screw (spirillum) Many forms of bacteria are not capable of independent movement,. Some Bacteria which live in liquid often have thread like projections called flagella (e.g Salmonella bacterium)


Reproduction in bacteria is largely by binary fission i.e. it splits into two. In some case due to some extreme environmental conditions, they form tiny structures is called Spores. It is formed by condensation of protoplasm into a spherical or egg shaped body and they germinate under favourable conditions. Some bacteria exhibit a type of sexual reproduction

Human Diseases caused by bacteria

Disease Septic sore throat Diptheria Pneumonia Tuberculosis Plague or Babonic Plague Tetanus Typhoid Typhoid Cholera Bacillary dysentery Whooping Cough Gonorrhoea Syphilis Leprosy Leprosy Botulism

Name of Bacteria Streptococccus Corynebacterim diptheriae Diplococcus pneumoniae Mycobacterium Yersinia pestis Clostridium tetani Samonella typhi Samonella typhi Vibrio Cholerae Shigella dysenteriae Hemophilus pertussis Treponema Pallidum

Mode of Transmission By direct contact & droplets Infect respiratory tract by carrier, direct contact, droplets and food respiratory tract,lungs by direct contact, droplets and food. Lungs, bones etc by direct contact Rat flea spreads from rat to man Bacteria in soil, enter through wounds Flies, food, faeces, water and carriers Flies, food, faeces, water and carriers Flies, food, faeces, water and carriers Flies, food, faeces, water and carriers Droplets Sexual intercourse

Neisseria gomorrhoeae Sexual intercourse Mycobacterium leprae Sexual intercourse Mycobacterium leprae Long and close contact with infected Clostridium botulinum Organism produces poison in food

Vaccination or Immunization or inoculation is a method of stimulating resistance in the human body to specific diseases using microorganisms -bacteria or viruses-that have been modified or killed. These vaccines do not cause diseases but stimulates the production of antibodies in its blood. It build a defense mechanism that continuously guards against the disease. If a person immunized against a particular disease later comes into contact with the disease-causing agent, the immune system is immediately able to respond defensively. Bacterial vaccines are used chiefly in immunizing human beings and animals against such diseases on diphtheria, cholera and typhoid fever Uses

Aerobic bacteria uses oxygen for respiration and anaerobic bacteria maintain respiration without free oxygen and this process is known as fermentation. So it is used in the production of vinegar and other substances. Some bacteria decompose organic matter and fix nitrogen by converting atmospheric

nitrogen into nitrates. These are mainly found in the roots of legumes such as peas, clover and alfalfa. In human beings, intestinal bacteria produce lactic acid which promotes digestion. Bioremediation: It is the use of microorganisms such as bacteria to remove environmental pollutants from soil, water or gases. Serum

Serum is a preparation from blood of an animal that has been inoculated with bacteria. This contains antibodies that formed as a consequence of the disease. The important antibodies produced with the help of bacteria are streptomycin, Aureomycin, Terramycin. Please note that penicillin is produced by an Fungi

Important scientists who studied bacteria

Antoni van Leeuwenhoek : The first person to systematically study bacteria. Louis Pasteur: Showed that microbes do not arise from nonliving matter (germ theory). He also founded the science of microbiology, invented the process of pasteurization, and developed vaccines for several diseases, including rabies. Robert Koch: showed that bacteria could cause disease

The fungi (singular fungus) are a kingdom of eukaryotic organisms. Fungi lack chlorophyll; consequently they cannot synthesize their own food. In order to feed fungi release digestive enzymes that break down food outside their bodies. The fungus then absorbs the dissolved food through their cell walls. It is a simple plant body that has no roots, stems, flowers and seeds. It includes mushrooms, molds, yeasts, truffles etc. The branch of biology involving the study of fungi is known as mycology

Types of fungi

The major divisions (phyla) of fungi are mainly classified based on their sexual reproductive structures. Currently, five divisions are recognized:

The Chytridiomycota are commonly known as chytrids. These fungi produce zoospores that are capable of moving on their own through liquid menstrua by simple flagella. The Zygomycota are known as zygomycetes and reproduce sexually with meiospores called zygospores and asexually with sporangiospores. Black bread mold (Rhizopus stolonifer) is a common species that belongs to this group; another is Pilobolus, which shoots specialized structures through the air for several meters. Medically relevant genera include Mucor, Rhizomucor, and Rhizopus. Molecular phylogenetic investigation has shown the zygomycota to be a polyphyletic group.

Members of the Glomeromycota are also known as the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Only one species has been observed forming zygospores; all other species only reproduce asexually. This is an ancient association, with evidence dating to 350 million years ago. The Ascomycota, commonly known as sac fungi or ascomycetes, form meiotic spores called ascospores, which are enclosed in a special sac-like structure called an ascus. This division includes morels, some mushrooms and truffles, as well as single-celled yeasts and many species that have only been observed undergoing asexual reproduction. Because the products of meiosis are retained within the sac-like ascus, several ascomyctes have been used for elucidating principles of genetics and heredity (e.g. Neurospora crassa). Members of the Basidiomycota, commonly known as the club fungi or basidiomycetes, produce meiospores called basidiospores on club-like stalks called basidia. Most common mushrooms belong to this group, as well as rust (fungus) and smut fungi, which are major pathogens of grains.

Major uses

The enzyme forming activities are used by man in brewing, baking, cheese making. Some cause diseases in animals and plants. The symbiotic relationship between fungus and roots are called mycorrhizal. Similarly Lichens are living partnership of a fungus and an alga. Litmus, a dye used in chemistry to determine the presence of acid and bases in a solution. Acid turn blue litmus red and bases turn red litmus blue. Fungi and bacteria are the primary decomposers of organic matter in most terrestrial ecosystems Some of these fungi can be used as biopesticides, like the ones that kill insects (entomopathogenic fungi). Specific examples of fungi that have been developed as bioinsecticides are Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, Hirsutella, Paecilomyces fumosoroseus, and Verticillium lecanii

major diseases in human caused by Fungi

Ringworm Athletes foot Madura foot Dhobie itch


These are chiefly plant like organisms found usually in water bodies and moist environments that are

not subjected to direct sunlight. They make their own food by photosynthesis but they lack roots, leaves and other structures typical of true plants. They capture more of suns energy than all plants combined and form the foundation of most aquatic food webs. These are divided into 7 divisions one belonging to monera and the rest to plant kingdom Blue green algae (Cyanobacteria)

This belongs to the moneran division and contain a blue pigment phycocyanin ,which in addition to chlorophyll but the chlorophyll is not located in chloroplasts rather it is found in chromatophores, infoldings of the plasma memrane where photosynthesis is carried out. It fixes atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this group like Gloeocapsa and Nostoc coexist with fungi to form Lichens. They give reddish colour to the Red sea. Euglenophycota is like Euglena found in stagnant water causes greenish colour and unpleasant flavour. Extensive quantities not desirable for drinking Green algae (chlorophyta)

These are found in fresh water and add more oxygen to water. Their excessive growth contaminate water . This unwanted growth can be removed by adding copper sulphate (CuSo4). Chlamydomonas is a green alage found in ditches,pools and even in artic . Spirogyra is green alage with a unique arrangement of its chlorophyll like a spirally twisted ribbon Brown algae

The Brown colour is due to the presence of brown pigment, Flucoxanthin. They are the important sources of food for fish and other marine animals. They are also used as cattle feed, fertilizer. Its well known forms include Kelp (largest algae) and the sargassum weed Diatoms

They have colour ranging from yellowish green to yellowish brown containing silica. When they die, their skeletons are accumulated on the bottom of earth. This diatomaceous earth is used as insulating material for boilers, blast furnaces and refrigerators. It is also used as mild abrasive in polishes and scouring powders.

Red algae

These are characterized by reddish pigment phycobilin pigments . Most species grow near tropical and subtropical shores below the low tide mark and quite few are found on fresh water. Some secrete lime and there fore helped to build numours coral reefs . important edible varieties are Irish moss and laver(porphyra). Iris moss is used in curing leather, shoe polish and as an ingredient for creams and shampoos. Ceylon moss yield a gelatinous material known as agar-agar which is used as a medium for growing bacteria and fungi. Carrageenin obtained from Irish moss used as substitute for gelatine.