Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 118

1 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy

ISSN: 2249-8389

Journal of Positive Philosophy

Centre for Positive Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Studies (CPPIS)
Milestone Education Society (Regd.), Ward No.06, Pehowa (Kurukshetra)-136128
Volume III, No. 01 (March, 2013)
Desh Raj Sirswal

2 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy (ISSN 2249-8389)
Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy is an online bi-annual interdisciplinary journal of the
Center for Positive Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Studies (CPPIS). The name Lokyata can be
traced to Kautilya's Arthashastra, which refers to three nvkiks (logical philosophies), Yoga,
Samkhya and Lokyata. Lokyata here still refers to logical debate (disputatio, "criticism") in
general and not to a materialist doctrine in particular. The objectives of the journal are to
encourage new thinking on concepts and theoretical frameworks in the disciplines of
humanities and social sciences to disseminate such new ideas and research papers (with strong
emphasis on modern implications of philosophy) which have broad relevance in society in
general and mans life in particular. The Centre publishes two issues of the journal every year.
Each regular issue of the journal contains full-length papers, discussions and comments, book
reviews, information on new books and other relevant academic information. Each issue
contains about 100 Pages.
Centre for Positive Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Studies, Pehowa (Kurukshetra)

Dr. Desh Raj Sirswal (P.G. Govt. College for Girls, Sector-11, Chandigarh)
Associate Editors:
Dr. Merina Islam, Dr. Sandhya Gupta
Editorial Advisory Board
Prof. K.K. Sharma (Former-Pro-Vice-Chancellor, NEHU, Shillong)
Prof.Sohan Raj Tater (Former Vice-Chancellor, Singhania University, Rajasthan)
Dr. Anamika Girdhar (Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra)
Dr.Ranjan Kumar Behera (Patkai Christian College (Autonomous), Nagaland)
Fr. V. John Peter (St. Josephs Philosophical College, Nilgiris, T.N.)
Dr. Aayam Gupta (Kurukshetra, Haryana)
Dr. Geetesh Nirban (Kamala Nehru College, University of Delhi)
Dr. Vaishali Dev (Mahamakut Buddhist University, Thailand)
Dr. Narinder Singh (GHSC-10, Chandigarh)
Dr. Vijay Pal Bhatnagar (Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra)
Mr. Praveen Kumar Anshuman ( Kirori Mal College, University of Delhi, Delhi)

Declaration: The opinions expressed in the articles of this journal are those of the
individual authors, and not necessary of those of CPPIS or the Chief-Editor.

3 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy

In this issue..

P.Kesava Kumar: Against Brahminical Tradition: A Dalit Critique of Indian
Modernity (4-17)
Nirmala V.: Influence of Spandasastra on Abhinavaguptas Philosophy (18-20)
Shruti Rai : Philosophy of Language in Siddhanta Saiva Philosophy (21-28)
Bhumika Sharma : Relationship Between Dharma and Justice: An Indian
Perspective (29-41)
Reni Pal: Ahimsa and Satyagraha: Gandhi and the XIV Dalai Lama (42-48)
Bhddhiswar Haldar: The Necessity of Gandhian Ethics for Better Future(49-52)
Sima Baruah: What Makes Gandhi a Mahatma? (53-59)
Jatinder Kumar Jain: Jainism in a Globalised World (60-66)

Rinky Chowdhury: Evolution of Varna-srama System into Caste-System (67-69)
K.J.Sandhu & Khusboo: Conceptual Framework of Acculturative Stress
in relation to Organizational Integration of Employees (70-80)
Dinesh Chahal & Nidhi Mehta: Motivation: An Easy Way to Learn (81-86)
Shalini Sisodia & Ira Das: Construction of a Scale for Measuring Egotism
(Ahamkaar) (87-95)
P.K.Mona & Prachi Sharma: Psychological Determinants of Hypothyroidism(96-103)
Surila Agrawala & Nidhi Gurbaxani: Quality of Life of Employed and Unemployed
Married Women (104-109)
4 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy


P. Kesava Kumar

I dont know when I was born/but I was killed on this very soil thousand years ago/ dying again
and again to be born again/ I dont know the karma theory/I am being born again and again where I
was dead.
(Kalekuri Prasasd)

History!/ all these years how could you hide/ the fire in our mouth./how could you
tolerate/inequality and inhumanity.
(Juluri Gowrishankar)

With a smile on his face/Shambhuka is slaying Rama/ with his axe/Ekalavya is cutting Dronas
thumb away/with his small feet/ Bali is sending Vamana down to pathala/ With needles in his eyes/
and lead in is ears/Manu, having cut his tongue is seen rolling on the graveyard/standing on the
merciless sword of time/and roaring with rage/The Chandala is seen hissing four houndson
Sankaracharya/ Oh..!/ The History that is occurring today/Is the most Chandala history

The burden of reason, dreams of freedom, the desire for power, resistance to power: all of these are
elements of modernity. There is no promised land of modernity outside the net work of power. Hence
one can not be for or against modernity; one can devise strategies for coping with it. These strategies
are sometimes beneficial, often destructive; sometimes they are tolerant, perhaps all too often they
are fierce and violent.

Dalits are oppressed people for many generations due to the caste system of India. Dalits are the
worst victims of the caste system. In the name of caste, they are often degraded, discriminated,
humiliated, insulted and exploited. Caste is an elaborated social system that influences all other
institutions of the society. Caste is an important marker of traditional Indian society. Caste is carried
through the religion. In India, the caste system and the hindu religion, is interlinked and inseparable.
There are various attempts to reform or transform the Indian society to make humane, democratic
and modern. The intellectuals of social reform and Indian nationalist movement forced to negotiate
with colonial modernity on many accounts. The nationalist social aspirations are articulated by the
elite and liberal intellectuals on behalf of the nation, happened to be the people of brahminical class.
They seem to be modern in their appeal and traditional in practice. Through their literary, cultural
and philosophical discourses shaped the Indian modernity. This modernity definitely differs with the
Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy (ISSN: 2249-8389)
Volume III, No. 01 (March, 2013), pp.4-17
5 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
western modernity. To certain extent, they overcome the western imposed tradition-modern
dichotomy. The Indian thinkers like Gandhi and Ambedkar, offers new way to look at Indian self and
essentially differ from western modernity. The contemporary Dalit movement, which is inspired with
the philosophy of Ambedkar is not only critical about the hindu brahminical tradition and also
exposes the Indian modernity for its brahminical bias. The very notion of modernity keeps on
changing with the articulation of the respective social agency. The meaning of modernity undergoes
a significant change with the assertion of dalits in public space, in which the access to these has been
denied for centuries. In this paper I would like to illustrate the complexity and ambiguity of
modernity in relation to dalits through the writings of telugu Dalit literature. In other words, the
paper highlights the distinctive modernity of dalits in contrast with western liberal, colonial and
brahmical modernity. Dalit modernity too attacks the liberal modernity which is based on mere
individualism of western liberalism. Dalit modernity is located in embedded self. In other words, it
argues for reflexive individualism. The source for this kind of individualism is the moral community
based on equality, liberty and fraternity. Dalit modernity even projects different kind of
communitarianism based on the principle of social justice. The communitarian Dalit modernity
attacks the conservative communitarianism of brahminism. However, Dalit modernity mediates both
liberal and communitarian philosophies by showing its limitations and also appraising their strength
in a novel way.

Dalits Entry into Public Sphere
The decade of eighties in Andhra Pradesh is known for a radical assertion of Dalits, women, adivasis
and the Telangana people. These struggles are not only critical about dominant philosophical
thinking, but also put a responsibility to record the past based on these foundations. They made a
conscious attempt to interrogate the dominant traditions in order to liberate them. They have raised
several questions relating to the nature of State and developmental strategy pursued by it. They
created a new universe with alternative value system. Mostly, the knowledge about them could be in
their literary and cultural articulation. Their literature is overshadowed by the philosophical inquiry
into the conditions of the good society, the good person and, the good life. Literature is a primary
means by which a community situates itself in place. The literature in the written form as established
the literature with the advent of print technology. The print culture not only succeeded in
marginalizing the oral forms of larger social groups and also facilitated modern public sphere. For a
long time this sphere is mostly dominated by educated brahminical class, though theoretically this
space is available to everybody. The recent entry of dalits in to this modern space not only created
tension, but also provides alternative philosophical insights through literary and cultural works. This
gives the opportunity to read the politics of modernity in Telugu literature. On one hand, Dalit
literature blatantly opposed the brahminical tradition, and other hand further radicalized the politics
of alternative struggles.

The Karamchedu massacre of 1985 and the Pro-Mandal agitations in 1991 shattered the modern
secular pretensions of various social and political institutions. One of the features of contemporary
Dalit movement is that engaged with the politics of modern public sphere, which is seen as secular
space (in the spheres of literature, cinema, university and political party etc.). It is the Dalit struggles
6 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
and their assertion that showed the casteist brahminical character of these spheres. From the decade
of eighties onwards, a considerable number of Dalit middle class is visible in Indian society. Their
presence was felt in the public sphere for the first time. They are resisting the hegemony of the upper
castes in these spaces by asserting themselves in all possible ways. For the upper caste people, it was
as if the space which was so far reserved for them exclusively, suddenly became uncomfortable and
they are becoming irritated with the entry of Dalits into their spaces. One can see the antagonism
between these two in Universities, literary and cultural fields. The University, the city, cinema and
literature are predominantly urban spaces where the above said encounters are very often witnessed.
The upper castes have suddenly picked up a liberal language to corner the Dalits.

With the entry of Dalits into the various public institutions, one common response is that the
objectives of these public institutions have been subverted. To put it in other words, the universe of
values constituting these public institutions has been thwarted. To make sense of this, one has to find
a relevant conceptual framework. Partha Chatterjee offers one. According to him, there are two
worlds: a world of middle class constituted by modern norms of freedom of speech, voluntary
associations and individual capable of choice; another is a world of subalterns constituted by other
concepts which does not come under this modern bourgeoisie rubric. There is a relationship of
pedagogy between the former and the latter. The entry of Dalits into modern public institutions,
cause a rupture between two universes. The universe of public institutions is underpinned by modern
rationality and concomitant values as created by modern-nation-State. The introduction of the
universe of Dalits into public institutions results in, broadly, two consequences. It questions the
nature of translation and application of modern values of liberty and equality in modern public
institutions. Secondly, the visions of public institutions enter into a phase of crises of understanding
and coherence. This interpretation helps us to understand the nature of hatred and conflict in public
institutions. But, it also sets in other agendas of shedding the potential of modernity to liberate Dalits
from the shackles of tradition. Dalits share an ambiguous relationship with modernity.

When modernity entered India, the Indian traditional intellectual community had seen it as a threat to
the Indian social structure. To protect the age old brahamnical societal structure, the upholders of the
tradition moved to keep the tradition intact. They started the process of monopolization of modernity
by embracing the epistemologies of modernity - such as the basic sciences and technical education.
Initially, when modernity opened up new opportunities, with its inherent economic viability, the
Brahmin intellectuals given up traditional epistemologies and embraced modern epistemology purely
for the material prosperity.

The writings reveal that Dalit relation to modernity is complex. It is also, in some sense critical
about the general understanding of modernity, i.e., modern development, science and reason. Dalit
politics refuses to get incorporated into the binaries of nationalism/colonialism and
secularism/communalism. It also resists Universalism, the unmarked and abstract citizen as a centre
of the emancipatory discourse of modernity. It is equally critical about the abstract 'working class'. In
other words, it constantly speaks with and against both the liberal and the radical conception of man
and society.
7 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
Ambedkars conception of Modernity
Ambedkar is a culmination of all alternative movements of his time. He is the source and inspiration
of contemporary Dalit movement. Like the elites of his time, Ambedkar, too, tried to overcome the
tradition-modernity dichotomy. His critique of tradition is accompanied by his refusal to accept
ready-made alternatives manufactured in the West. He is critical of both modernity and tradition. He
attacked Hinduism and its claims as religion, but at the same time, he keeps away from the western
thought. He believes that legal and political institutions do not have the capacity to reconstruct social
solidarity, and therefore tries to provide a social basis for a liberal and political ethos. In this sense,
he is critical of modernity. But, at the same time, he highlighted that a social reconstruction cannot be
achieved without taking into account the legacy of tradition. He further considers that legal and
political institutions do not have a capacity to reconstruct social solidarity, and therefore tries to
provide a social basis for the liberal and political ethos which does not mean an uncritical acceptance
of western modernity or indigenous traditionalism.
Ambedkar does not believe in mere individualism, whereas the individual is the center for liberal and
modern life. He emphasizes community life but disagrees with other communitarians like the
conservative Hindutva forces and Marxists. His philosophy is essentially ethical and religious. He
upholds the moral basis of life while allowing critical reason to operate. Therefore he visualizes a
moral society that is based on the ideals of modernity. He considers Buddhism as the only religion
which can respond to the demands of modernity and culture. Buddhist teachings, he believes, appeal
to reason and experience.

Dalit Critique of Modernity
When modernity entered India, the Indian traditional intellectual community had seen it as a threat to
the Indian social structure. To protect the age old brahamnical societal structure, the upholders of the
tradition moved to keep the tradition intact. They started the process of monopolization of modernity
by embracing the epistemologies of modernity - such as the basic sciences and technical education.
Initially, when modernity opened up new opportunities, with its inherent economic viability, the
Brahmin intellectuals given up traditional epistemologies and embraced modern epistemology purely
for the material prosperity. At this juncture, the whole process of embracing modernity by the
intellectual community of the times, raises very interesting questions. For instance, it asks why
Brahman community embraced modernity? What were the reasons for the monopolization of
modernity? Did they allow modernity to go into corners to transform the basic structure of the
society? If it was not the case, was it the fault of others, who were not able to absorb modernity?
If we asses the impact of modernity on Indian society, the under-privileged sections of the society
hardly benefited from it. If one thinks of possible reasons for this, one can easily come to the
conclusion that the modernity project, in the nineteenth century, was monitored by the social elites of
the times, and came from the Brahmin community. Apart from monitoring and controlling the whole
process of modernization, there were constant conscious interventions by this community to ensure
their interests are secure by not allowing the fruits of modernity into other sections of the Indian
society. This resulted in the halting or postponing of societal transformations. To reserve the fruits of
8 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
modernity for them, they constantly realized the price of modernity. Apart from providing new
avenues, modernity has implications for social transformation. The elites have to overcome their own
traditions and cultural beliefs. To resolve this kind of a situation they had started defending their
cultural traditions and simultaneously enjoying the material benefits of the modernity at colonial

The relationship of the Dalits to the modern State, both colonial and post colonial, is ambiguous. It is
important to re-look at political /cultural practices of Dalits to understand the Dalit response to State
and modernity. If one emphasises the discursive aspects of modernity, it offers enormous possibilities
to talk about Dalit suffering/ humiliation and oppression. It can also be said that Ambedkars
argument for creating a moral community is possible only if one emphasizes the discursive aspects of
modern experience.

Further, modernity, as imposed on the third world countries has been attacked from many fronts.
Modernity is considered as a necessary extension of colonialism. Modernity in India came as a
package with colonialism. There is an attack on the general philosophical beliefs of modernity such
as notions of Universalism and its truth claims. There is an attack on the very values of post-
Enlightenment thought, on its conception of secularism and rights etc. As observed by Javeed Alam,
people readily reject terms like secularism on the grounds that they are alien to and lack any affinity
with Indian culture or traditions. However, other terms such as democracy or equality are readily
This may give a clue to understand modernity which has taken roots in the Indian
context and its complexity.

Modern is historically embodied form of enlightenment. Whatever is entailed under enlightenment as
values, beliefs, principles, ethics, morality and so on, has been thought of as universal not just in an
abstract sense but as something universalizable in the thinking and practices of all human beings.
Colonialism has a historical connection with capitalism and therefore also what we have referred to
as entrenched modernity. The capitalism in the colonies have demonstrative with all the features of
distorted consciousness, racial superiority, arrogant cultural exclusiveness, and intellectual
condescension over and above political control of those inferiors whom it has subjugated.

The writings reveal that Dalit relation to modernity is complex. It is also, in some sense critical
about the general understanding of modernity, that is modern development, science and reason. Dalit
politics refuses to get incorporated into the binaries of nationalism/colonialism and
secularism/communalism. It also resists Universalism, the unmarked and abstract citizen as a centre
of the emancipatory discourse of modernity. It is equally critical about the abstract 'working class'. In
other words, it constantly speaks with and against both the liberal and the radical conception of man
and society. Ambedkar doesn't believe in mere individualism, whereas the individual is the centre
for liberal and modern life. He believes in community life that is rooted in a moral society and is
based on the ideals of modernity. He makes differences with other communitarians like conservatives
(Hindutva forces) and Marxists.
9 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
The trajectory of modernity in post-colonial India is a very complicated one. The Brahminical Hindu
elite's engagement with the modernist project is quite interesting. The liberation of the self/nation is
imagined in the spiritual and cultural domains. In its initial phase, Hindu nationalism started internal
social reforms. The project of modernity pursued by these social elites of post-colonial India has
ended up as anti-modern . As Partha Chatterjee notes: the search for the post colonial has been
tied, from its very birth, with its struggle against modernity'. The modernization process carried the
tag of the tradition. This ultimately led to the confrontation of secular state and the Nehruvian ideal
of modernity by the Hindutva forces in contemporary times. In Post-independent India, the
Nehruvian project of 'modernity', 'development', and ' progress through big dams, heavy industries
and scientific institutions benefited the upper caste groups more than anybody else. This lead to the
generation of capital in India but it did not develop a capitalist culture and its values. The upper
caste groups didn't come out of their feudal mindset. On the other hand, Dalits are marginalized and
dislocated. This situation often meets with conflicts and tensions in the nation. Any radical assertion
of Dalits is suppressed by the State. The political institutions become oppressive. Secular democracy
may become a farce. Further, the governability for ruling class becomes a serious problem until and
unless it attends the situation in a real democratic spirit.
On the other hand, the Dalits involvement with the colonial-mediated modernity project was too
complex. In a feudal set up, where Dalits are degraded and humiliated in the name of caste and
social norms, colonial modernity, to a certain extent, facilitated to become conscious of their
objective condition. The institutions set by the colonialsts promised political, legal and social
equality at least theoretically, if not practically. In this respect, Ambedkar is in favour of the active
intervention of the State to bring Dalits into the modern sphere. In early days, Brahminical social
elite too felt the need for modernizing Dalits. For this, they prescribed habits of 'purity' and the need
for 'education' for Dalits. When more Dalits are entering the public space so far reserved for upper
castes, through State-sponsored developmental programmes, it creates antagonism and conflict. With
an increased assertion of Dalits and their struggles, and the marked visibility of Dalits in post-
independent India has frustrated the upper castes. They pick up a new liberal language to counter the
Dalits against the spirit of liberalism. For instance, when Dalits are fighting against the hegemony of
caste, the upper castes dismiss this struggle as casteist. Dalits talking about caste is considered as
parochial and anti-modern by them. Further, they argue for an economic basis for any emancipatory
project of the State. In the anti- Mandal agitation this attitude can be witnessed. Upper castes find
various strategies like this to maintain the status quo in society. Casteism of the upper castes took
modern incarnation in the public sphere, and started articulating their interests in modernist discourse
like, purity and pollution, 'hygiene', 'efficiency' and 'merit'.

One more interesting point is that, the upper castes started discrediting the modern political
institutions in the context of the entry of Dalits into it. They go on propagating that these institutions
got 'corrupted' by blaming the lower caste people. They even go on opposing the very foundations of
the secular democratic State of the nation. They argue that this secular democracy based on the
'rationality' of western colonial model, is not based on indigenous cultural and philosophical
traditions. At this point, Dalits came to the rescue of secular democracy. The Upper caste
10 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
intellectuals, by taking the post- modernist position, that 'science is a social construct', started
justifying the philosophies of irrationality and dogmatism as science. It had a negative implication for
Dalits. In this context, Ambedkar and Dalits of post-colonial India, are arguing in favour of the
'scientific reason' of modernity that is rooted in indigenous traditions. This could be seen in the
literary and cultural narratives of dalits of contemporary writings. The modernity manifested in Dalit
literary narratives is different from the reform oriented (brahminical) modern telugu literature.

Telugu Modernity: A Brahminical Intervention
Historically, the social groups, which had acquired political and economic dominance, enjoyed the
privilege over cultural production and others got silenced. Western influenced middle class, those
who later played a major role in molding the nationalist struggles, involved in the production of
literary writings. It is obviously, the upper caste groups ideals and aspirations and their worldview
reflected in literature too. In the post independent India, modern State was unable to uphold the
promised ideals of good life and better society to the vast number of the oppressed of this country. In
the political writings of literature of this time, there emerged an upper caste middle-class man as a
protagonist. He is sympathetic to the lower classes and he articulates their needs and is seen to be
mobilizing the oppressed masses. There are very few writings which talk about dalits and their life.
Those that exist come out as the sympathy of the upper caste writers towards labourers as a part of
the class struggles. The protagonists in the literary writing are always from the upper caste groups.
They are portrayed as shouldering the responsibility to reform/educate dalits. This completely lacks
knowledge about the authentic dalit life and their experiences. These upper caste writers have
constrains to perceive the lives of other communities. These socially sensitive upper caste writers
could not mobilize the support of their communities to their imagined ideals and many of them
moved towards spiritualism. Most of the writers came from Brahmin middle class families. In
latter days, the intensified struggles aspiring the communist ideals too failed to capture the dalit
imagination and the question of caste remained immune to their discourses. Till the 1980s, the entire
literary discourse centered on the concept of the abstract human being, erosive of all cultural markers
like caste, color, religion, region and gender.

However, the modernity in Telugu literature reflected through the reformist agenda of intellectuals of
Telugu society. Modernity is identified with the spoken language than textual language. The
modernity articulated through the genres like drama, novel, short story and free verse than classical
poetry. The issues identified are practice of untouchability, problems of women, importance of
education. For this, either they negotiated within tradition or to reform the tradition in the backdrop
of colonial education. In later days, the progressive agenda of the communist movements are taken
up the project of the modernity in the name of class struggle. They are not explicit in their
articulation about caste or patriarchy. Special reference to this considered as pre modern and
celebrated an identity of the class. The idea of class not only conceals these realistic social identities
but also indirectly helps in maintaining the hegemony of caste and patriarchy. The social agency
mediated the modernity through their writings is mostly brahminical class or broadly upper caste
men. With the emergence of conscious intellectuals from the lower castes and women exposed the
11 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
shallowness of the above said modernity. They problematized the writings of their predecessors on
the issues of authenticity and representation. They evaluated them from the unchanged social life
of contemporary times. In other words, the new intellectuals are assessing the literary modernity
through its social functioning. In this process, not only questioned the canons of literature but also
dismissed the celebrated telugu modernists like Gurujada and Sree Sree. Celebration of Jashua, the
dalit writer could be seen as a Mahakavi as against the progressive writer Sree Sree. Normatively the
modernity manifested through the dalit literature is different from the earlier Telugu literary writings.
In telugu society, in the medieval time witnessed the emergence of non Brahmin intelligentsia, like
Vemana, Potuluri Veerabrahmam and argues in favour of denouncement of caste system, social
inequality and oppression.
Both the nationalists and liberals of later times, fail to understand the
caste system, since most of them are drawn from upper caste. The social reformers such as
Veerasalingam and Gurajada Apparao are considered as the founders of new epoch in modern
telugu literature are confined to the problems of the Brahmins only. While they sought to reform
certain evils of the hindu social system, they failed to grapple with the ideological and institutional
framework of brahminical Hinduism. And these social reformers did not inherit and continue the
medieval bakti tradition, it was discontinued. Given their social background and intellectual and
cultural tradition, they could not profess anti-feudal and anti colonial/caste ideology and
consciousness. Unlike the saint poets they did not revolt against all kinds of social evils. They were
selective in philosophical and ideological standpoint. In that sense they failed to generate and build a
popular cultural and ideological movement against caste system.
In the nationalist and post-
independent times, Dalit scholars took inspiration from this medieval bakthi tradition.

Manifested modernity in Dalit Literature
Dalit intellectuals negotiated their philosophical views to the larger society through the medium of
literature than any other form. They are organic intellectuals in strict sense of Gramsci, having the
elements of thinking and organizing the community as against the traditional brahminical
intellectuals. In this sense Dalit literature has to be seen as the process in creation of counter
hegemony against brahminical hegemony. Dalit literature has significant in many ways-culturally,
historically and ideologically. Dalit literature enriched with content and description of dalit struggles
for human dignity. There has been constant effort from dalit writers in translating the condemned life
styles and practices of marginalised people into symbols of protest and pride. Dalit writers gave rich
meaning to dalit life that brought respect for them. In the process of writing their own history, they
thoroughly interrogated the existing histories of dominant caste/class groups in their literary

An ideal society should be mobile and it should be full of channels for conveying a change taking
place in one part to other parts. In an ideal society there should be many interests consciously
communicated and shared. There should be varied and fee points of contact with other modes of
association. In simple terms, Ambedkar viewed that an ideal society would be based on liberty,
equality and fraternity.
Ambedkar favors for a democratic tradition that stand for reason rather
negating it. He felt for hindu religious tradition need to undergo a radical reform. Caste is a natural
outcome of certain religious beliefs which have the sanction of shastras. To abolish the sanctity and
12 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
sacredness of caste, one has to destroy the authority of the shastras and Vedas. For this, one has to
destroy the religion of both sruti and smriti. Ambedkar not only proposing the indigenous tradition
that stand for reason, but also tries to link up that tradition with the governing principle of politics.
As Ambedkar is the source of inspiration for Dalit movement and so reflected his thought in dalit

In the process of writing their history, are collecting the memoirs of the collective suffering. Dalit
writer through his writings interrogates the brahminical past, which has the character of humiliation,
atrocious for dalits.
The suffering of the dalits for generations is identified with the very nature of
brahminical society. The struggle for the human dignity and self respect could be seen as in all the
writings of dalit literature. Human dignity and self respect are the primary source of modernity. The
Human dignity could be attained only through fulfilment of social and economic equality. In
democracy, citizenship is prerequisite for its functioning. In case of dalits, it is negated due to its
casteist nature. The craving for the citizenship could be seen in the writings of dalit literature.

Against the monopoly of knowledge by the brahminical class, dalits argues that Knowledge is
nobodys property; It is the wealth of all jatis. In fact, Dalits are productive class. The real
knowledge produced out of their collective labour.

Dalit Novel and Modernity
Chilukuri Devaputras Panchamam, Vemula Yellaiahs Kakka and G. Kalyana Raos Antarani
Vasantham are historic dalit novels of contemporary times, written by the dalits in late nineties. The
commonality of these novels is depiction of dalit life, and argues for the liberation of dalit
community. But these novels are not only located in three different regions ( Rayalaseema,
Telangana and Coastal Andhra respectively), and represents three different political positions. The
imagination of community and the construction of the dalit self too varies. However, struggle against
caste hegemony and assertion of dalits of post colonial India is the common theme of these novels.
These novels inform dalit discourse of modernity.

The novel Panchamam is the story of a dalit becoming a Revenue Divisional officer (RDO) and a
victim of hegemonic social system of upper castes. The hero of the novel Sivayya belongs to a
Madiga community of a village in the Rayalaseema, and his father is an illiterate cobbler. He is a
staunch Gandhian and later attracted towards communism, under the influence of Suresh. Suresh,
dalit youth came to the village of Sivayya as a teacher in a school exclusively run by an NGO for
dalit children. He rebelled against the caste system by organizing dalits against the everyday insults
and humiliations by the upper castes in public space. He quit the job in NGO, and decided to lead the
underground life by joining the Naxalite party for the cause of dalits. At one particular moment,
Sivayya too decided to go in the line of Suresh, but dropped that idea on the advice of his well wisher
and civil rights activist Purushottam. He becomes a Deputy Collector and posted as RDO in his own
region. His sincerity towards his duty and commitment to his community often puts him into trouble.
On one hand, the upper caste landlords are intolerant to this dalit bureaucrat and on the other make
all attempts to bring him under their control. But he stands independent, assertive, truthful and
13 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
always committed to justice. He becomes a checkpoint to unlawful exercise of the power of the upper
caste, since he is not obeying for the re- convey of ceiling land in favour of upper caste surpanch,
Seetharamappa. By using his political nexus to his upper caste community in the government,
implicate him in a corruption case. The author argues for the real political power for the
emancipation of the exploited lives of the dalits as in the line of Ambedkar. The novel came to the
conclusion that in a system, dalit even become a big officer like Sivayya or a deputy chief minister
like Krupakararao could not do anything, in a system which favors the upper class. This inability is
effectively used by the upper caste in their favor.
Further, the novel conveys that there is no other
world (maro prapancham, maro prastanam, these phrases are popular with the progressive writer,
Sree Sree) or Ramarajyam (dream of Gandhi). Dalit people has to struggle by standing the edges of
the untouchability, have to think on standing on the edges of the exploitation, the treatment of
inferiority, get the fistful of self respect from poverty ridden life, and has to learn revolt from the
untouched helplessness.

The upper caste writers, reformers, nationalists or progressive, often felt the need of the education as
an ideal to resolve all the problems of the dalits. This novel too carries with this ideal, a dalit boy
believes that he can emancipate his community through education and by reaching the highest job.
Soon he realized that it difficult to do stand with his community even constitutionally, unless until
caste and class ridden system collapses. Dalits have to be conscious of the caste exploitation and has
to assert for the rights. In other words, the novel reflects on the shallowness of the promised
modernity in its practice as in the case of dalits. Caste has constrained the freedom of the dalits. So
Dalits anticipating political power based on the total freedom and liberty. Dalit modernity
internalizes the equality and so the rights through struggle. The central character Sivayya symbolizes
the dalit self, as educated, conscious, commited, quest for the justice and even looks coward and
inferior in particular situation due to the caste system. The dalit self travels from the Gandhian to
communist, but not committed to both. In practical life, feel suffocated, isolated, and helpless, though
successfully reached the highest position from an ordinary poor rural dalit life. The modern secular
democracy becomes farce in a caste ridden society. It is believed that whole social system has to be
changed for real democracy. In case of dalits, it is possible only through the collective struggle
against the dominance and exploitation of the upper caste. The author indicates indirectly that
Sivayya and Suresh are complementary to each other in marking the dalit idenity.

Kalyana Raos novel Antarani Vasantham(2000)
is a landmark in Dalit literary and cultural history
from the Dalit point of view. The novel recorded the collective social experiences and struggles of
Dalit community. The social memory of a community, transmitted over generations, has been put in
a written form. The novel is a written social document of Dalit culture, which is predominantly in
oral tradition. This novel is an attempt to search a collective identity of the Dalit community. It is the
chronicle of life of six generations of Dalits. This records a hundred years struggle of the Dalit
communities. In the context where the elite scholars do not consider lower caste peoples struggles,
culture, philosophy, life styles and history, this novel becomes the source book for culture, history,
politics and philosophy of Dalits. Kalyana Rao explained how the Dalit culture is born from the
lower caste peoples involvement in labor. They spontaneously and naturally composed the songs
14 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
from their life. Apart from the value of entertainment, the Dalits used cultural performance
symbolically as a social protest against the dominance of hegemony of upper caste social groups. It
explains Dalit struggles in various forms in a given social conditions. The novel depicts not only the
sufferings of Dalits but also joyful moments in their life. This novel is an attempt towards writing
history, philosophy, politics and culture of Dalits in a comprehensive form. In Antarani Vasantham,
constraints to freedom of Dalits, comes from an enemy who is an upper caste. The idea of freedom
itself indicates for Kalyana Rao, a perpetual flow of resistance by Dalit community to an upper caste
community. Dalit community has been described as a focal point of creativity, resistance to
oppression and a character of purity. This is effectively indicated through central character Yellanna
who eloquently represents a creative, upright and assertive individual. This is one way of expressing
dalit freedom or a mode of being dalit. One of the characters, in difficult times of community life says,
we have born just not to be killed but to live too.

Antaraani Vasantam is a story of seven generations of dalits. More than that, it is a struggle of dalits
at different points of time. In this novel the lead character named Ruthu is a writer. The novel runs
with the recollection of her memories. The story of dalits narrated for the period of more than hundred
years in the form of women's memories. Her memories go back to four generations before and two
generations after her. The memories are loaded with suffering, pain, agony, anguish and struggle. This is
the case with every dalit life. Precisely because of this, author hints that memories are of not the past but
they have their continuity in present and also projected into future. This novel is a significant piece of
dalit literature to trace back the dalit struggles to generations. The novel focused on a point that dalits
have no freedom without struggle. History reveals for dalits, struggle is not an idea, but a necessity for
the survival of dalits. This has been illustrated by considering different historical contexts, with different
strategies employed by the dalit. The constraint to freedom of the dalits comes from an enemy who is an
upper caste. The novel projects the dalit universe that is filled with both pleasure and pain. Generally, in
the upper caste writings, dalit is a subject of misery and suffering. The writers strategy is to generate
sympathy towards dalit condition. On contrary to this, Kalyana rao depicts the dalit self as assertive and
resists any kind of dominance and exploitation. This Dalit self directly set against the caste hegemony.
The author tried to show that dalit subjectivity is authenticated and had a moral worth since their
involvement in a labour and production process. The dalit culture has lived through the collective social
experiences and continued to the present through oral form. This has been performed through social
The novel proves that life, struggle, culture, literature, philosophy and politics are not
different for dalits. Moreover, this novel constructs the history of dalits, which is not available either in
official history or in achieves.

Kakka is the novel about the Madiga community of Telangana region. In the history of Telugu literature
this novel has multifold significance. This is the first novel on Madiga community as such by a Madiga
writer Vemula Yellaiah. At his 40s Yellaiah started writing dalit poetry in late the 1990s. The author's
quest to capture dalit life as a whole he opted the form of novel as a medium of expression. This piece
has been written in the backdrop of Madiga Dandora movement. This novel projects madigaisation
(dalitisation) as an alternative to the predominant upper-caste ideology. It also opens up the internal
contradictions and violence within the community. The other striking feature is that the whole story runs
15 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
in Telangana dalit dialect. So far the dominant dialect of costal Andhra has been used in writing of
novels. This novel came from the place where revolutionary struggles are prominently took place. The
writer seems to be uncompromising with radical dalit identity and indirectly criticizes the prevailing left
culture and tries to critically read the left tradition. This novel ends up with conscious educated dalits
along with civil-rights groups together fighting for the cause of dalit struggles of village.

On the other hand the idea of being dalit in Kakka is different. It identifies that constraint to freedom to
dalits is not just from an outsider but also from the very community. The central character kakka faces
too many hardships from within community as well as outsiders. For instance, the mother of kakka
was accused of an illicit relation and was subjected to social boycott by the community. Kakka was
denied an opportunity to take up the duty to perform madigarikam (caste profession) that is
considered a honour in the community. Thus the constraint within the community has projects a
different community and a different kind of self- awareness. And of course, he has to fight a valiant
battle against the other communities, which has traditionally been dominant in the village. It is also
shown that in times of struggle against upper castes, dalits came together and fought valiantly.
These three novels are significant because they involve a deep exploration into dalit culture. They
tried to bring out various positive aspects of dalit culture to the fore. Antaraani Vasantam has
celebrated rich and vibrant cultural traditions of dalit community by going to origins. The novel
Kakka could effectively brought out some of the inhuman social practices of dalit communities,
which may be helpful in reforming of them. Thus a deep exploration of dalit life through novel may
result in strengthening of dalit cultural identity. There is a scope to come up with much more serious
dalit novel in future by touching all aspects of dalit life. The novel Panchamam shows the limitation
of liberal modernity adopted by the constitution of the nation, and felt that it failed to protect the
aspirations of educated dalits in practice. The novel goes back to the Dalit tradition of madigarikam.
It is another kind of protest to assert the Dalit identity against the dominance of the upper caste. The
novel Antarani Vasantham constructs the Dalit identity only through rebellion against the caste and
class dominance.

The above mentioned writings reveals that the dalit writers have definite image of moral order
through which they understand dalit life and history. The dalit modernity proposed by the dalit
writers is based on a social imaginary, which is obviously different from the both colonial and
dominant modernity of the Indian nation. The understanding of a person, dalit selfhood and morality
are shaping the modern identity of dalits through their narratives. Morality has to be articulated
through the respect for others, dignity, integrity, well being and common good. The moral world of
dalit writer has not just emerged out of the ideas of sense of respect for human agency but also from
the fuller understanding of life. Dalit self can be described or evaluated only with reference to the
upper caste people who are surrounded him. In assessing dalit identity, one has to look into from
where he is speaking and to whom. In defining identity, ones moral concern of a subject is not
enough, and also demands a reference to the community. Our being selves are essentially linked to
our sense of the good, and that we achieve selfhood among other selves. We understand ourselves
inescapably in narrative. There is a close connection between the different conditions of identity, or
16 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
of ones life making sense. The qualitative distinctions play a crucial role in defining our identity and
making sense of our lives in narrative. The qualitative distinctions give the reasons for our moral and
ethical beliefs. The modern sense of the Dalit self not only linked to and made possible by new
understandings of good but also are accompanied by new forms of narrativity and new
understandings of social bonds and relations.

Modernity has connoted with many meanings such as value, rationality, western, colonialism,
development, capitalism, secularism humanism and so on. Dalit relation to modernity is
complex and even ambiguous. Dalit modernity has to be understood in the context of Dalit liberation
from humiliating, exploitative, oppressive brahminical tradition. Dalit modernity centred on the value
of human dignity and self respect. In persuasion of this, it interrogates the irrational, unjust and
dogmatic practices of hindu social order on the basis of scientific reason. And at the same time tried
to assert its own self, upholds its indigenous tradition by claiming the elements of humane
democratic practices. Dalit modernity overcomes the tradition modernity dichotomy that has been
set in the interests of the Western. In India, the fruits of modernity is enjoyed and monopolized by
the brahminical class in the material level, and at the same time maintained intact with their traditions
in spiritual / religious level. This has been continued from colonial to post colonial times. Dalits are
systematically excluded in this project. Dalits as the victims of the project of development/
progress, of post independent India, are negotiating with larger nation from its fringes. The
modernity appropriated by dalits is rights centred and argued in favor of democratization of
indigenous tradition. They are negotiating with the ideals of modernity to overcome the social
exclusion, exploitation, suffering and humiliation imposed by hindu tradition. The Dalit modernity
has very much mediates the liberal, radical and communitarian philosophies in its own way, both by
associating and differentiating from these political traditions on different points. It is a critique of
Indian modernity essentially carried by liberal Brahmin elite. The dalit modernity proposed by the
dalit writers is based on a social imaginary, which is obviously different from the both colonial and
dominant modernity of the Indian nation. The social imaginary in Dalit intellectuals ignites the sense
of identity to recapture their own history, which is marginalized so far.

Notes & References:
1. Prasad, Kalekuri. (1995). Pidekedu Atmagouravam Kosam Talettinavadni Am Raised for a
Fistful of Self-respect) (Translation Lakshminarasiah) In Kesava Kumar and K.
Satyanarayana (Eds.), Dalit Manifesto. Hyderabad: Vishphotana, 20
2. Gowrisankar, Juluri.(1994). Padamudralu. Tenali: Poetry circle.
3. Sivasagar, a dalit writer marking the assertion of dalits in writing their own history against
the brahminical history centred around advaita of Sankara. See Sivasagar. Nadustunna
Charitra (Tr. Laxminasaiah) G.Laxminarasaiah, The Essence of Dalit poetry; A socio-
philosophic study of telugu Dalit poetry, Hyderabad: Dalit Sana publications, 34. And also
see Sivasagar (2004).Sivasgar Kavitvam, Hyderabad: Bahujana Book syndicate, 263.
4. Chatterjee, Partha.(1999).Talking about our modernity in two languages, A Possible India,
The Partha Chatterjee Omnibus, Delhi: Oxford University Press, 280.
5. Kesava Kumar .P., Jiddu Krishna Murtis Conception of Tradition and Revolution : A
Critical Study. (Doctoral dissertation , University of Hyderabad, 1997), 232.
17 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
6. Alam, Javeed. (1999). India: Living with Modernity, New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 4.
7. Vemana and Veerabrahmam are non Brahmin philosopher saints and yogis of pre modern
times and confronted the brahminical Hinduism.
8. Satyanarayana. A.(2005). Dalit Protest literature in Telugu : A historical Perspective, Dalits
and upper Caste, Esays in Social History , New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers, 81-82.
9. See Sivasagar. (2004).Sivasgar Kavitvam, Hyderabad: Bahujana Book syndicate, 263.
10. Ambedkar, B.R. (1989).(Moon, Vasant. (Comp.)).Dr. Baba Saheb Ambedkar Writings and
Speeches, Vol.1, 57.
11. Yendluri Sudhakar in his poem : I am still a prohibited human being/Mine is an expelled
breath/ Trying a barb tree leaf to my aist/And a tiny spittoon to my mouth/Manu made me a
wretched human animal among others/The moment he left a mark of prohibition on my
face/My race/Was gradually murdered history pinched my thumb/Present history is asking
all the fingers/Now we want a voice of our own/We want a voice that can choose what can do
good to ourselves.
12. In this Country we want a piece of land/These clouds has to be vanished/These walls must be
collapsed/This silence/ must be bursted / this gum/ must be dried up/ O man/ I want real
citizenship /Could you give me! ..what do I want/I want you/ I want a place/ In your heart/ I
must wash my hands/ at your home/you must come to my hut/ and ask our girl for
marriage/we must become /relatives/friend! This country/must become ours/as we walk hand
in hand/this uneven earth/must become smooth/will you come? What we want now is not
bloody cash/ A fearless voice that discerns what we want/ A new constitution, a new state/A
new earth and a new sky. See Nagesh Babu, Madduri.(1998). Yem kavali, Meerevultu
(tr.Laxminarasaiah), Narasaraopet: Sreeja Publications, 74.
13. When hands/ From over the Mala hamlets/ and Madiga huts / Throw themselves on the
fields/Banks of the fields blossomed/Trees flowered/And fields fragrant with crops. See
Gowri Shankar, Juluri. Padamudralu. (Tr. Laxminarasaiah) In Kesava Kumar and
K.Satyanarayana (Eds.) (1995).Dalit Manifesto, Hyderabad: Vishphotana, 35-36.
14. Devaputra, Chilukuri.( 2000).Panchamam, Hyderabad: Lifeline Communication, 262.
15. Ibid., 272.
16. Kalyana Rao, G.( 2000).Antarani Vasantham(Untouchable Spring), Hyderabad: Virasam.
17. Kesava Kumar, P. (2005). Emergence of Dalit Novel : An overview, In I.Thirumali (Ed.)
South India Culture, Sagas, New Delhi:Biblimatrix.
18. Kesava Kumar, P. (2005).Performance of Social Memory, In Contextualization of Vikalp,
Alternatives August. http://www.vakindia.org/archives/Vikalp-Aug2005.pdf

18 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy

Kashmir Saivism in its most recognized sense denotes the monistic philosophy originated and
developed in Kashmir-the northern part of India. The system itself is a later development of the Siva-
centered religious cult which comes under the realm of enormous Tantric tradition. Many branches
and sub- systems were commenced within the wide area of Tantric Saiva Philosophy. Among the
streams of Kashmir Saivism, Spanda- the doctrine which expounds the dynamic nature of reality- has
a significant role. Since it trails an independent nature, most of the scholars considered Spandasastra
as a separate branch
of Saiva philosophy. Spandakarika is the fundamental treatise of this particular
school and is generally attributed to Vasugupta. The four commentaries viz., vrtti by Kallata; vivrti
by Ramakantha; spandapradipika by Bhttotpala; spandasandoha and spandanirnaya by Ksemaraja
made the theory of spanda more popular and established. In the workshop on Trika Philosophy,
2011, Dr Navjivan Rastogis comment on spanda could be viewed as an extended version of his
anxiety expressed in his Introduction to Tantraloka in 1987.
This depiction indicates that the very
topic is discussed hardly yet. Though the mutual relationship between different streams of the same
area is uncommon, the influence of Spandasastra in the later developments of Kashmir Saivism
should be treated seriously and this paper focuses especially in its influences on Abhinavagupta, the
eleventh century synthesizer of the monistic Saiva philosophy.
Abhinavaguptas inevitable contributions were the milestones in the history of Kashmir Saiva
philosophy. His foremost uniqueness is the thorough and deep knowledge in different streams
simultaneously with which he produced such an irreplaceable work- Tantraloka, which actually is a
source book of the new insights in Indian philosophy and the history of Kashmir. Apart from this
magnum opus Abhinavagupta propounded his novel ideas through the commentaries of post-
scriptural saivite sources as well as various independent works. Like other thought systems
, spanda
theory also contributed much to the development of his new amalgamated philosophy. Although
Abhinava never wrote a commentary on spanda and he nevertheless used to develop this concept.
In particular situations, Abhinava used to define the term Spanda based upon its technical nature. For
eg, in Tantraloka the term is defined as: This is a slight movement, sphurana, scintillating, not
dependent on any other. It is a wave in the ocean of consciousness and consciousness cannot be
without waves.
While in Paratrisikavivarana, he frequently uses the notion as well as the idea of
spanda. According to the monistic saivism, whole universe is the manifestation of the supreme realty
and habitually this is used to define as the creative power which situates in the same, omnipotent
reality, Siva. So the universal nature of everything is clear from this. To establish the same,
Abhinavagupta seeks the help of spanda theory: All this universe consisting of 36 categories, though
created by Siva who being of supreme Sakti, is of the nature of universal creative pulsation (
Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy (ISSN: 2249-8389)
Volume III, No. 01(March, 2013), pp.18-20
19 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
samanya spanda) rests in that consciousness itself in its own form which is predominantly sakti, ie.,
characterized by particular creative pulsation (visesa spanda).
The same thing is discussed in the
interpretation of Isvarapratyabhijnakarika 1-14 where spanda is identified with the imperceptible
eternal stir- sphuratta, being the essence of all beyond the limitations of time and space.
Cognition has an important role in the philosophy of saivite monism. In the system the cogniser, the
cognized and the cognition are same as well as supreme reality ie. Siva. As the process of creation,
realization also related with the dynamic force which known through various terms and basically
with the nature of spanda. Abhinava technically call this as Vimarsa and find similarities with
spanda. Bettina Baumer says that: If we deny self-shining nature to subject, there remains no room
for question and answer. In the cognitive experience such as I Know there is consciousness (not
only of self-luminous self but) of association with a stir (spanda) also. It is self because of this stir
that self is admitted to be of sentient nature
The creativity and cognition in case of poetry is also
considered as spanda
Discussing the crux of a text in its very opening part is the uniqueness of Abhinavaguptas style of
interpretation. Almost such discussions also reflect the essence of his philosophical outlook. In
Vimarsini, the commentary of Isvarapratyabhijnakarika, Siva (who is omnipotent as well as
omniscient) is prayed who in the form of I consciousness, changes himself to the consciousness of
this with the help of an external pulsation connoted as spandana:
anantabhavasambhavabhasane spandanam param/

upodghatayate yasya tam stumah sarvada sivam//
The notion of Svasvabhava is another term which is very common in spanda texts and to be
connected with Abhinavas principle of Ahambhava. Apart from the usage of technical terms,
sometimes he compares the idea of Visarga of kula tradition with spanda and makes his Agamic
exegesis easier
In sum, Abhinavaagupta manipulate the theory of Spanda in different manners though he admirably
avoided the question about the independent nature of Spandasastra. Conversely he tries to
incorporate this concept within his highly philosophical school of Kashmir Saivim- Trika. The causes
of this predilection may be viewed as: The lack of establishment of spandasastra, as a cult like krama
or kula. Abhinavagupta was not ready to consider spanda doctrine- explicated very recently- as a
well-organized philosophy, and since the concept basically encompasses some openings, it couldnt
be denied completely.
1. Spanda is considered as an individual system by some scholars while others make an
utterly distinct opinion about its separate existence.
2..There was an acute controversy with regard to the exact status of spanda system i.e.,
whether it was a separate system or a part of Trika system.
20 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
3. Rastogi says, His references to some Naiyayikas (Kesamcana Naiyayikanam T.A. 2.12-44),
Vairinca Brahmavadins (T.A.V., III, p. 25), Nastika philosophers subscribing to the negation
of soul and not to the denial of the authority of the Veda (T.A. 6.19-20) invite us to explore
this unexplored area. Similarly his presentation of the Kaumarila view on Vedyata and its
lengthy masterly refutation (T.A. 10.21-57) adds new dimensions to our understanding of
Kumarila. Abhinava's presentation of Siddhanta Saivism in the 4th Ahnika in contrast to the
sister systemsopens a new vista of information throwing new light on the evolution of the
dualistic Saivism in Kashmir. He is an invaluable source of information on Buddhism. He
practically refers to all sects of Buddhism so much so that he remains the only source of
many exclusive theories of Buddhists.
4. Tantraloka 4.184-186. See Samanya and Visesa spandas in Mark Dyckscowski, The Doctrine
of Vibration, p.107-109.
5. Isvarapratyabhijnakarika, 1-2.
6. Bettina Baumer, Abhinavaguptas hermeneutics of the Absolute, p. 87.
7. ibid, p. 17.
8. Bhaskari vol.1, p.47
9. See Jaideva Singh, Abhinavagupta- The trident of wisdom, p.37.


Dyczkowski, Mark S.G.(1989). The Doctrine of Vibration: An Analysis of the Doctrines and
Practices of Kashmir Saivism. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.
Baumer, Bettina. (2011). Abhinavagupta's Hermeneutics of the Absolute Anuttaraprakriya. New
Delhi: D K Print world.
Dyczkowski, Mark S.G. (1994). The Stanzas on Vibration. Varanasi: Dilip Kumar Publishers.
Padoux, Andre. (1992). Vac: The Concept of Word in Selected Hindu Tantras. Delhi: Sri Sadguru
Pandey, K.C. (2006). Abhinavagupta: An Historical and Philosophical Study. Varanasi:
Chowkhamba Amarabharati.
Raffaele, Torella. (Ed.) (2002). Isvarapratyabhijnakarika. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.
Rastogi, Navjivan.(1987). Introduction to The Tantraloka. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.
Singh, Jaideva (Ed.) (1988). Paratrisikavivarana of Abhinavagupta. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.
Spandakarika of Vasugupta with Nirnaya by Ksemaraja. KSTS XLIX . Srinagar. 1925.
Tantraloka of Abhinavagupta with the commentary Viveka of Rajanaka Jayaratha. KSTS
23,28,30,35,29,41,47,59,52,57,58, Bombay and Srinagar, 1918-1938.

21 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy

Philosophy of Language in Siddhnta aiva Philosophy
Shruti Rai
Philosophy of language is the centripetal in the schools of Tantra. In the realm of tantric schools, the
non-dualistic philosophy- Kashmir aiva and kta philosophical branches examine the concept of
vk and establishes the identical relation between language, thought and reality. At the same time,
Dualistic philosophy of Siddhanta aiva explains the doctrine of language with dualistic approach. In
this context, bindu is one of the key concepts of this school in the context of philosophy of language
also. The ontological aspect of bindu is the main problem of the thesis. This research article is an
attempt to examine the philosophy of language from the Siddhnta aiva philosophy, the dualistic
branch of Tantra tradition.
Key words- Bindu, pati, pau, nda, my and pa.
Philosophy of language is the centripetal in the schools of Tantra, either non-dualistic or dualistic. In
the realm of non-dualistic philosophy of Tantra, Kashmir aiva and kta philosophical branches
examine the concept of vk and establishes the identical relation between language, thought and
reality. Dualistic philosophy explains the doctrine of language in a quite different way. Bindu is one
of the key concepts of this school in general and in the context of philosophy of language also. It is
the source for the descending levels of sound, which are related to the nda, tattvas, padrtha and so
on. Francesco Sferra throws light into some important observations about the development of
principle of language-
The differences we find in gamas and in early aivasiddhnta literature regarding the status of
words/sound and its differentiation in levels, undoubtedly reflect those extant in other Indian
traditions and, to some extent, reveal a desire and an effort to test and develop the aivasiddhnta in
the arena of the dialectical debate with other traditions. With regard to speculation on vc, rikaha
addresses his critique implicitly to Bharthari (c.450-510) and/or his followers and explicitly to
advaita thinkers, while Rmakaha and Aghoraiva, especially in the Ndakrik and its
commentary, also confront their ideas with those of the mmmsakas and the naiyyikas.

The literature of Siddhanta Saiva provides the rich material for the philosophy of language. In the
continuation, the article provides translation of unpublished commentary Ullekhini of
Ratnatrayapark. There are argumentative concepts which are parallel to the philosophy of
language of Bhartrhari.
Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy (ISSN: 2249-8389)
Volume III, No. 01 (March, 2013), pp.21-28
22 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
The concept of bindu is crucial in the context of the most of the theories in this school. Different
connotations of bindu are the attestation of its variation for different conceptions in this philosophy.
It is called 1. sabda tattva, 2. amogha vk, 3. brahma, 4. kundalini, 5. vidy, 6. sakti, 7. para nda, 8.
mahmy, 9. anhatavyoma. In the context of creation, it is the material cause of the world as well
as it is the cause of the impurity. The school stands for three primary categories, pati, pau and pa,
where language is presented in the form of bindu and becomes the chain or thread between the pati
and pau to connect them. Whereas bindu as concept is used under the realm of par vk in the
Kashmir aiva and kta philosophy, contrarily, bindu is an independent category in Siddhnta
aiva. The first primary category iva (Paramasiva)
is addressed as para bindu. The third category
pa binds the soul and is responsible for the distinction of pau from pati. Its fifth and the last
category is bindu. Francesco Sferra indicates towards the references and sources, related to bindu
and levels of sounds in aiva-Siddhnta in this way:
References to different levels of sound (nda) or of word (vc) appear in several early aivasiddhnta
scriptures, commentaries and independent works. The argument is usually treated when dealing with
principles (tattva) or categories (padrtha) in particular bindu, or mahmy, and while explaining
the nature and formation of mantras. Scriptural sources differ to various degrees in their accounts.
Apart from the context and from the coverage that each work devotes to this topic, the main
difference between texts lies in the name and the numbers of the levels of sound and, in general, the
way in which the sonic emanation is described.

The tattvas are significant to the philosophy of language. Numbers of tattvas are thirty-six
, which
emerges at two levels of uddha and auddha adhv. It is the level of indeterminate and determinate.
These are the stages of creation, not forms of language. Bindu is the material cause of the uddha
adhv i.e. pure world. It is also cause of the nda. In relation to nda, bindu is called para nda
The theory of nda, as elaborated by Rmakaha, can be seen as the result of an attempt to
assimilate the sphoa theory according to aivasiddhntin tenets. Anyway, suddhdhv
is the direct
creation of iva. The material cause is bindu. Bindu is the source wherefrom tattvas are emerging.
Here, vidy evolves out of bindu, through the successive stages of modification such as nda etc.
Language stays here but not in emerged form, this is the reason that it is called indeterminate.
Indeterminate word shows the existence of language in essence, not as developed form. The pure
creation is characterized by indeterminacy, because it belongs to a higher level than that at which
language evolves. And because determinacy consists in the affection of citi by the words i.e. so long
as the affection of consciousness is not associated with the words, there is no determinacy. Therefore,
the pure creation belongs to the level of indeterminacy. Here, the affection of consciousness by
language is not possible. Bindu as the first dependent category is called iva. The word iva,
however, is very often used for the first primary category, pati, also. Bindu or iva, the first
dependent category, is the material cause of the pure creation and as such it is also called mahmy.
It is eternal like my. The four categories (tattva) akti, sadiva, vara and vidy
are the effects or
evolutes of it. It pervades the entire creation, it is one. It reveals the powers of knowledge and action
to those who enter into the pure world by subjecting themselves to spiritual discipline. The sphere of
uddha adhv is unlimited. Indeterminacy shows again pati as limitless, extremely subtle as
determinate language always indicates limitedness. Impure world is the realm of material world. Its
23 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
material cause is my and also herein the bound live. It is characterized by determinacy, because it
evolves after the evolution of language
Pa is defined by its fivefold categories and bindu is the fifth of the categories of in this way- 1.
mala, 2. rodhaakti, 3. karma, 4. my, 5. bindu. But a dispute arises regarding the categorization of
pa, ordinarily, it is said fivefold and at times it is said fourfold
by excluding bindu. There is a lack
of definiteness, precision and uniformity in all the statements about pa. But at some places bindu is
not included and the number is stated to be four. And the reason for its non-inclusion is of the two
types of liberation, which is said mukti (liberation), which is para and apara.-
1. Para, higher
2. apara, lower.
The latter is attended, even when there is the bondage of bindu. And the liberated souls with this
bondage are called mantra and the mantrea etc., who belong to the pure creation. Even after a soul
has got freedom from the bondages of karma and my, it is not perfectly free. It has freedom of the
lower type only. The impurity of mala, which is also called pautvamala, is still here. The souls, who
get freedom from the bondages of my and karma, are called vijnkevalas, live in them. Such
souls are of three types
, according to the higher stages of maturity of their pautvamala. They are
called, Mantramahea, Mantrea, Mantra.
Ndakrik throws questions and possible solutions for arising of meaning in the words and
sentences. K.C. Pandey elaborates three possible solutions-
1. The letters of a word, which are the objects of sense of hearing, come in succession one after
another, are lost no sooner than they are uttered and do not affect one another. They therefore
cannot be spoken of as the cause of the rise of the consciousness of meaning.
2. Nor can word or sentence be said to be the cause. For the words and sentences have no being
apart from the letters, such as may be the object of perception.
3. For a word is said to be a collection of letters. But the letters being successive and
momentary, there can never be a collection of them. And because word and sentence are
never perceived, they cannot, therefore be known through inference either
. Nor can the rise
of the consciousness of meaning be said to be due to the last letter of a word
aiva Siddhnta philosophy accepts nda as basic element for the theory of meaning. An external
object, which is grasped by the determinative judgment, is related to the buddhi, but, is not the
product of the buddhi itself. On the contrary it has external existence and as such is perceived
through one of the senses. The internal object, which is the reflection of an external object on buddhi,
is determinately judged by the buddhi. Therefore, it must be something that has already been
indeterminately grasped. The object has two aspects-
1. External
24 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
2. Internal
Word has direct relationship with the internal meaning, which is also determinative. Here, object or
meaning has two aspects-
1. Indeterminate
2. determinate
But word has capacity to grasp only determinative aspect of object. The process of getting meaning
passes from the indeterminate to determinate. Nda
gives the subtle inner word to buddhi, by
means of which it determinately grasps the object, reflected it in. The nda is the cause of inner
speech, which is nothing more than akara bindu. Nda really arouses the consciousness of meaning
because it is the cause of inner speech, in terms of which the determinative judgment is formed. The
external articulated sounds are only external forms of it. Therefore they are not real causes of rising
of the consciousness of meaning in the hearer. Thus, nda is an undifferentiated cause of the subtle
inner speech. It is nothing but an embodiment of all the words and their meanings. All of which
exists in the state of undifferentiated unity, exactly as the different colors exists in the yolk of
peacocks egg. After the affection of a sense by an external object, nda that is in the speaker and
objects that is undifferentiated unity of the word and its meaning, presents for the determinative
judgment of the buddhi in the form of inner speech. The buddhi judges. The judgment is expressed in
articulated audible sounds. They manifest the nda in the hearer. It presents an object which is
undifferentiated unity of subtle word and the indeterminate object to buddhi. Buddhi judges in as far
as, it differentiates between the two, and relates them as signifier and signified. This arouses the
consciousness of meaning. This judgment is expressed in articulated sounds. Similarly at the
stimulation of the sense of hearing by an uttered word, the corresponding word and its meaning as an
undifferentiated unity is given rise by the nda. This forms the object of judgment by buddhi and the
consciousness of definite meaning as distinct from the word arises. Speaker determinately
apprehends objects by means of buddhi
, recollects the word that stands for it and then utters the
gross word. Thus, a form of buddhi which is due to its affection by an object is associated with the
remembered word that stands for it. It is the cause of the utterance of the gross word. It is arouser of
the meaning in the consciousness of that hearer, in whose mind the heard word is associated with the
particular meaning. The dualistic aiva holds the soul to be different from the nda. It is because of
this nda, that is the cause of aksara bindu, that there is no confusion in the meaning. It is separate in
the case of each individual. It is not identical with the self or its powers, because they are
unchanging, but the nda changes. It is a distinct associate of each limited self.
Dualistic aiva asserts that the one who grasps the statement of the gama thoroughly, realizes
abdabrahman. abdabrahman is nothing more than nda, an embodiment of all words and their
meanings in an undifferentiated unity. There are innumerable ndas, as innumerable are the souls.
Nda is the necessary condition of each soul. Theory of nda-brahmanvda develops the philosophy
of music. Siddhntin holds nda to be reality, which is to be grasped through the medium of music. It
is the original motion. It is the unity of all thoughts and expressions. It is the root or the seed, from
which all words and meanings spring or to put it in terms of music, it is the original vibration from
25 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
which all musical vibrations and their meanings arise from. Nda is the original vibration that the art
of music represents and suggests.
Dualistic Siddhnta-aiva philosophy keeps some different notion in the context of the relation
between the individual-self and the empirical knowledge. K.C Pandey explains epistemology of the
same school through the comparing with dualistic Nyya-Vaiesika
. Accordingly, the relation
cannot be admitted to be that of inherence, since knowledge of the same individual grows and
decays. The admission of the relation of inherence between knowledge and soul, as admitted by the
Vaiesika, therefore, would mean that soul changes and therefore is transient. This is against the
fundamental assumption of the eternality of the soul. Siddhnta aiva dualism therefore maintains
that the growing and decaying empirical knowledge of the individual subject belong to him, not
directly or inherently, but to a condition of his and that this condition is constituted by nda
. Nda,
as a condition of the individual, is an evolution of bindu. It is as innumerable as are the souls, a
limiting condition of each of which it forms separately. It is like a seed of knowledge which is
signified by words at the empirical level. The power of knowledge of each individual self is related
to the nda and as it grasps the objects determinately at the level of my. The determinate
knowledge cannot be explained in terms of buddhi, because determinacy is found in those levels,
which are beyond to my also. Ananta for instance, belongs to the level of ivara, but he also has a
kind of determinate knowledge, otherwise the creation of the empirical world would not be possible.
Further, buddhi employs words and presupposes their existence. Bindu, as the cause of the words,
through nda and lower bindu is necessary.
Siddhnta aiva accepts the same hierarchical four levels which are accepted in the Kashmir aiva
philosophy also. rikantha deals with the different stages of separation of meaning and expression
from the stage of their undifferentiated unity in nda, under the nda, aksara-bindu and vara.
Similarly, he deals with the problem of the rise of gross audible word from the most subtle, through
different stages of grossification, under suksm, payant, madhyam and vaikhar.
Francesco comments on the theoretical development of these levels-
Commentarial tradition from rikantha (9
cent.?) to Nryaakaha (first half of the 10

cent.), his son Rmakantha (c. 950-1000) and later, Aghoraiva (12
cent.), attempts to systematize
the doctrine on the emanation of sound in accordance with the aivasiddhnta explanation of
principles, and by fixing four levels of it. The standard series is bindu/kundalini=>
nda=>bindu=>abdari/ara, however, as far as we can say at that moment, this does not
correspond perfectly to any of the lists given in the scriptures.

The levels are significant in the context of manifestation of language. Bindu, nda, bindu, sabdars
are showing the systematic order of the appearance of language. In the terminology of rikantha,
sksm is the highest. He identifies par as suksm, with nda
. Sksm stands for highest aspect of
speech that is distinct from the higher than payant. Francesco notices this theoretical development,
in his words-
Especially rikantha and later masters of the 14
century-adopt another series, the one starting with
26 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
suksm and ending with vaikhar, referred to above. This series was probably already widespread in
advaita circles of time. Since all the aivasiddhnta authors that make use of it, whether they adopt it
or simply mention it, refers to its wrong interpretation in an advaita perspective, equating the higher
level with Consciousness. In point of fact this series is the most frequently used in Pratyabhijkrik
(1.5.13) by Utpaladeva (c.925-975), where we usually find par instead of sksm.

As it has been already said that the schools of Tantra use same nomenclatures in general, the term
sksam is one of them. The term sksam is used in both the schools of Kashmir aiva and
Siddhanta-Saiva, which comes at the level of par in Kashmir aiva philosophy. Bhartrhari identifies
suksm with payant, holding that the word suksm does not stand for an aspect of speech, higher
than payant, but it is simply an adjunct, qualifying payant. Payant is identified with aksara-
. It is exactly what nda is according to the Srikanha. According to Bhartrhari, it is sentiency
itself (samvidrupa) while rikantha says it as insentient, because it is an evolution of mahmy.
Further, rikantha identifies payant with aksara-bindu. His conception of payant is fundamentally
different. It is unity not of all words and meaning but of a particular word and its meaning. And the
word also at this stage is not split up into letters. It is therefore marked by the absence of all duality
and succession. It is what is manifested by nda, in consequence of affection of a sense by an object.
It is responsible for the sound picture of a particular word, detailed into distinct letters, which
controls the movement of vital air to definite places of articulation, the speech-organs. It is the cause
of madhyam. Payant, that is identical with nda, is the first evolution of bindu or mahmy. It is
insentient because the principle of sentiency, pau, is a distinct and separate entity from it. Bhartrhari
holds that the realization of payant is the realization of the ultimate, because payant is the
Brahman. But rikantha holds that the realization of distinction of suksm from purusa frees a man
from subjection to limited experiences. Madhyam is nothing but a clear mental picture of the
successive letters, which constitute the word. It is prior to the activity of the vital air, which is the
cause of the gross audible word. Similarly vaikhar, the gross audible word, is due to vital air, which
being checked at different places of articulation and then let off, produces the word, which is audible.
Siddhnta aiva philosophy presents the concept of language with dual approach. Here, Language is
structured in the form of bindu. It is the cause of the bondage and of the freedom from pa. Thus, at
the one side, it is the central part of the ontology, cosmology and liberation, at the other side it
becomes cause to represent the world and bind with the language and thought.
1. Sferra, Francesco, Material for the study of the levels of sounds in the Sanskrit sources of
the aivasiddhnta in Tantric Studies in Memory of Helene Brunner, p. 447.
2. Tattva Praksik, 26: Evambhtamupdnrpam mahmykhyam ivatattvamcry
jagaduriti. Natviyamry Paramaivaviayatay tacchaktiviayatay v vykhyey.
ivdipthivyantatttvalakaaprastve tattvttayoratrprastuttatvt.
3. Sferra, Francesco, Material for the study of the levels of sounds in the Sanskrit sources of
the aivasiddhnta in Tantric Studies in Memory of Helene Brunner, p. 443.
4. Tattva Praksik, 56: Apralayam yattiha sarvem bhogadyi bhtnm,Tattatvamiti
proktam na arraghatdi tattvamatah.
27 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
5. Ratnatrya, 11: Sa binduh parandkhyah ndavindvarakraam. Vinduca tatkryah
mayrdarasabinduvadavyapadeyah parmarajnarpah akarabinduh tatraiva
skmatvenoktah araca varah.
6. Tattva Praksik, 9: Suddhedvani ivah kart proktonantosite prabhuh.
7. Ibid, 22: Sivatatvam bindvtmakam dyam pradhnamupdnam smaranti prvcryh.
Paramopdnatvenaiva csya myvannityatvam siddhamittyuktam atacnyni catvri tni
tatkryti bhvah.
8. Ibid, 18: Nanu prgarthapacakam p ityuktam atra caturvidhatvoktirviruddheti cenna.
Bindormahmytmanah paramuktyapekay patvepi taddyogasya
vidyevardipadaprptihetutvenparamuktitvdatra patvennupdnamityavirodhah.
9. Ratnatrya, 12: Uttramymbudhayo bhagnakarmamahrgalh, Aprptaivadhmnastriy
10. Ndakrik, 3: Padavkyaikadeabhtnm varnm kaavidhvamsitvena
parasparopakrakatvbhvasyoktatvttadvyatiriktayoca padavkyayorbhedendarannna
tayorapi abhidhyakatvamiti
pratyakanirktatvennumnenpi na tayoh sadbhvah.
11. Ibid, 3: Gauriti nmdipadam rotryagrhyam sadasti cennaivam. Na
gakraukravisarjanyabhyam yadatonyadatrsti. Tem yugapadbhvbhvt
paropalambhe na prvayorbhvah.Prptdvisarnyt khurakambalalaka na cidvyaktih.
12. Ibid, 8, 94.
13. Ibid, 6: Vyaktam hi tvatkhurakambaldilakaamartham buddhydhyavasya tadanuguam
gauritydi padam cintayaivnusamdhya tatah sthlaabdam prayunkte.
14. An Outline of History of aiva Philosophy
15. Ratnatrya, 23: Kica updnam hi parimena v karyamutpdayati yath krasya
dadhibhvah. Vtirpea v yath paasya ghdibhvah. ivdnmem tu vtiparimau
na sambhavatah avikritvt, vikritve jadatvnityatvdidoaprasangt.
16. Sferra, Francesco, Material for the study of the levels of sounds in the Sanskrit sources of
the aivasiddhnta in Tantric Studies in Memory of Helene Brunner, p. 446.
17. Ratnatrya , 32-33: tmasvarpavidastu aivh tm skmkhym bindukryabhtm
abdavttimeva manyante na tu puruasamavyinm.
18. Sferra, Francesco ,Material for the study of the levels of sounds in the Sanskrit sources of
the aivasiddhnta in Tantric Studies in Memory of Helene Brunner, p. 446.
19. Ratnatrya, 31: Avibhgena varm sarvatah samhtikramta
Svayamprak payant mayrdarasopam.
Iyam ca akarabindurpetyuktam.

Abhinavagupta, Sr Sr Partrinsikvivarana,with Vivrti, (Hin. trans.), Nilkantha Gurtu Motilal
Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited, Delhi:1985.
28 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
Bhaskararaya, Varivasyrahasyam, Chaukhamba Surbharati Prakashan, Varanasi: 2005.
------------------, Yoginhrdayam, Chaukhamba Krishnadas Akadami, Varanasi: 2007.
Bhasarvaja, Ratnatik, (ed. by C.D. Dalal), G.O.S., Broda: 1920.
Haradatta, Ganakrik, (ed. by C.D. Dalal), G.O.S., Baroda: 1920.
Rmakaha, Tattva Praksik, G.O.S., Baroda: 1923.
Sarasvati, Madhusudan, Siddhntabindu, G.O.S., No. 64, Baroda: 1933.
Alston, William P., Philosophy of Language, Prentice Hall of India Private Limited: New Delhi:
2003. Chaturvedi, Mithilesh, Bhartrhari: Language, Thought and Reality, Motilal Banarsidass
Publishers Private Limited, Delhi: 2009.
Dunuwila, Rohan A., Saiva Siddhnta Theology: A Context for Hindu-Christian Dialogue, Motilal
Banarsidass Publishers Limited, Delhi: 1985.
Goodall Dominic and Andre Padoux, Tantric Studies in Memory of Helene Brunner, Institute
Francais De Pondichery, Pondicherry: 2007
Mishra Kailashpati, Shaivasiddhanta Darshan, Ardhanarishwar Prakashan, Varanasi: 1982.
Pandey, Kanti Chandra, Shaiva Darshana Binduh, Varanaseya Sanskrit Vishvavidyalaya, Varanasi:
------------------, An Outline of History of aiva Philosophy, Motilal Banarsidaa Publishers Private
Limited, Delhi: 1999.
Paranjoti, V., Saiva Siddhnta in the Meykanda Sstra, Delhi: 1993.
Raja, K. Kunjunni, Indian Theories of Meaning, The Adyar Library and Research Centre, Chennai:
Sinha, Jadunath, Schools of Saivism, Sinha Publishing House, Calcutta: 1970.

29 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy

Bhumika Sharma
Dharma is the sacred law, invested with divine authority, based on the Vedas, sacred scriptures
revealed by the Divine to highly qualified sages. Dharma on the human plane is more than organic
and social as in case of plants and animals. There is a class of sacred law-books, "dharma-scriptures"
known as dharma-sastra, or in the plural, dharma-sastrani. Manu, Atri, Vishnu, Harita, Yajnavalkya,
Usanas, Angiras, Yama, Apastamba, Sanvarta, Kdtydyana, Brihaspati,
The subject being divided
into Ritual and moral conduct (dchdra) ; Law and judicature (vyavahdraj) ; and Expiations
The entire universe is a living body, of which Dharma is the soul.
All these laws
expounded by them embody the sense of the veda are the laws for the four ages, the Krita, the Treta,
Dvapara and Kali In conformity to the character of the age, the rules of law (suitable) for men differ
from age to age. The rules for the Krita differ from the Treta rules; the Dvapara laws are not identical
with the Kali rules.
The Sruti, the Smriti, & the practice of good men, what seems good to ones
self, and a desire maturely considered are declared to be the root of Law.
The Nradasmiti has been
called the juridical text par excellence and represents the only Dharmastra text which deals
solely with juridical matters and ignoring those of righteous conduct and penance.

1. Concept of Dharma
The pan Indian term dharma has acquired a variety of meanings and interpretations in the course of
many centuries. It is derived from dhri meaning to sustain, to hold together. Dharma is an omnibus
concept with multiple shades of meaning. Dharma in ancient Hindu tradition was a system of
injunctions and prohibitions in order to ensure the harmonious functioning of various elements in the
Only Veda, Smriti and Shista-acara are sources of Dharma.
Thus legal procedure with its
manifold ramifications has been represented by the sages. The system of dharma asserts that all
dharmas are universally obligatory being absolute, unconditional and infallible.
The concept of
Dharma as understood in its collective aspect is the foundation of all Hindu ideas of progress and
social order, which have to be construed in the light of higher ends of man.
Dharma or rules of righteous conduct were evolved as a solution to this eternal problem arising out of
the desire for material pleasure. Dharma can be categorised as Rajadharma as highest dharma for
ruler and Ashrama and Varna dharma as highest for the ruled. What was good for the people was to
be regarded good for King irrespective of any disadvantage or inconvenience caused to him as per
Rajadharma. Ashrama Dharma deals with the conduct of an individual during different stages of his
life. In the first stage, as a brahmacarin, he devotes himself to studies in a gurukula. In the second
stage, as a youth, he takes a wife, settles down in life and begets children. In the third, as he ages,
Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy (ISSN: 2249-8389)
Volume III, No. 01 (March, 2013), pp.29-41
30 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
further, he becomes a forest recluse and, without much attachment to worldly life, engages himself in
Vedic Karma. In the fourth stage, he forsakes even Vedic works, renounces the world utterly to
become a sannyasin and turns his mind towards the Paramatman. During each one of these, greater
importance was required to be given to one particular obligation while discharging other obligations
as well. The aim of Varna Ashram Dharma is to promote the development of the universal, eternal
Dharma. It is not a social arrangement or segregation; it is rather a statement of how any society is
arranged. The four castes (varnas) have to feel that the social order has been designed with the
overall aim of maintaining worldly dharma (lok dharma). If each caste adheres to its duties, the
welfare of the world will doubtless be assured; besides, each will be able to win what is even more
important, the bliss of the Atma.

Kautilya: Dharma is eternal truth holding its sway over the world; Vyavahra, evidence, is in
witnesses; Charitra, history, is to be found in the tradition (sangraha), of the people; and the order of
kings is what is called ssana.
The triple Vedas definitely determine the respective duties of the four
castes and of the four orders of religious life, they are the most useful.
Harmlessness, truthfulness,
purity, freedom from spite, abstinence from cruelty, and forgiveness are duties common to all.

2. Justice as Envisaged by Dharma: Traditional and Present Standards
The Latin form of the term justice is Justus or justia having varying meanings such as righteousness,
impartiality etc. The notion of justice varies with time and place. The human idea of justice contains
two elements viz. positive element, implied by each mans recognition of his claims to unimpeded
activities and the benefits they bring and negative element implied by the consciousness of limits
which the presence of other men having like claims necessitates.
Justice as impartiality entails
equality of valuable endowments and the enforcement of that equality over time. Social justice is the
yuga dharma and its sap is spiritual.
Justice is never non-aligned, never value- free.

The encounters between human beings due to prominence of ego often lead to disputes between the
people. Narada has beautifully explained the origin of lawsuits.

Narada: When mortals were bent on doing their duty alone and habitually veracious, there existed
neither lawsuits, nor hatred, nor selfishness.
The practices of duty having died out among mankind,
lawsuits have been introduced; and the king has been appointed to decide lawsuits, because he has
authority to punish.

2.1 Role of King in Administration of Justice
King in the modern times has been replaced by Sovereign the President and the Prime
Minister under the constitutional system. Our Constitution provides for separation of power
between all three organs, so sovereign has hardly any role to play in the administration of the

31 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
Rajdharma regulated the power and duties of the King. The mere creation of kingship was
not enough, that the most excellent Dharma (law), a power superior to that of the king, was
created to enable the king to protect the people.
Manu:The king has been created (to be) the protector of the castes (varna) and orders,
who, all according to their rank, discharge their several duties.
King is declared to be a
just inflicter of punishment, who is truthful, who acts after due consideration, who is wise,
and who knows (the respective value of) virtue, pleasure, and wealth.
A king who
properly inflicts (punishment), prospers with respect to (those) three (means of happiness);
but he who is voluptuous, partial, and deceitful will be destroyed, even though the (unjust)
punishment (which he inflicts).
Knowing what is expedient or inexpedient, what is pure
justice or injustice, let him examine the causes of suitors according to the order of the
castes (varna).
Let him act with justice in his own domain, with rigour chastise his
enemies, behave without duplicity towards his friends, and be lenient towards Brahmanas.
As a hunter traces the lair of a (wounded) deer by the drops of blood, even so the king shall
discover on which side the right lies, by inferences (from the facts).
When engaged in
judicial proceedings he must pay full attention to the truth, to the object (of the dispute),
(and) to himself, next to the witnesses, to the place, to the time, and to the aspect.

Depending on the eternal law, let him decide the suits of men
Having fully considered
the time and the place (of the offence), the strength and the knowledge (of the offender), let
him justly inflict that (punishment) on men who act unjustly.

Vishnu : Let him inflict punishments according to justice (either personally or through his
Let him smile before he speaks to anyone.
Let him not frown even upon
(criminals) doomed to capital punishment.
Let him inflict punishments, corresponding to
the nature of their offences, upon evil-doers.
Let a king in his own domain inflict
punishments according to justice, chastise foreign foes with rigour, behave without
duplicity to his affectionate friends, and with lenity to Brhmanas.
A king) who knows
the sacred law, must inquire into the laws of castes (gati), of districts, of guilds, and of
families, and (thus) settle the peculiar law of each.

Yajnavalkya: When possessed of this, let a monarch cause punishment to fall on the
guilty; for, of old, justice was created by Brahma under the form of punishment.
Let the
monarch, rejecting subtleties, conduct the trial of suits upon the merits: even merits, in the
absence of proof, must fail of success in the suit.
Let the monarch, free from anger or
thought of gain, in conjunction with learned brahmaijs, adjudicate law-suits, according to
the Dharma Sastras.
Every day should the monarch, pondering on his reward (such as
sacrifices gain), himself investigate law-suits in their order with the judges around him.

The monarch having informed himself of the crime, the place where, and the time when
committed, the strength of the criminal, his age, calling, and means, shall cause
punishment to fall upon the guilty.

32 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
Brahspati: King should be equitable towards litigants, and should pass a just sentence,
discarding avarice and other (evil propensities).

Gautama : The king is master of all, with the exception of Brhmanas.
He shall be
impartial towards his subjects.
His administration of justice (shall be regulated by) the
Veda, the Institutes of the Sacred Law, the Agas, and the Purna.
Having learned the
(state of) affairs from those who (in each class) have authority (to speak he shall give) the
legal decision.
A king and a Brhmana, deeply versed in the Vedas, these two, uphold the
moral order in the world.

Vsishtha: When two parties have a dispute, let the king not be partial to one of them.

Let him reason properly regarding an offence.
Let him punish those who stray from (the
path of duty).
Men who have committed offences and have received from kings the
punishment (due to them), go pure to heaven, and (become) as holy as the virtuous and the
he guilt falls on the king who pardons an offender.
If he causes him to be slain, he
destroys sin in accordance with the sacred law.

Narada: Justice is said to depend on them, and the king is the fountain head of justice.
veracious man, who pays obedience to the judges, should be appointed (by the king) as his
own officer, to summon and to keep in custody the witnesses, plaintiff, and defendant.

There a king who acts justly must neglect error when it is brought forward, and seek truth
alone, because prosperity depends on (the practice of) duty.
Attending to (the dictates of)
the law-book and adhering to the opinion of his chief judge, let him try causes in due order,
adhibiting great care.
Avoiding carefully the violation of either the sacred law or the
dictates of prudence, he should conduct the trial attentively and skilfully.
That king,
however, who is intent on doing his duty, must be particularly anxious to discover what is
right and what is wrong.

Kautilya : In virtue of his power to uphold the observance of the respective duties of the
four castes and of the four divisions of religious life, and in virtue of his power to guard
against the violation of the Dharmas, the king is the fountain of justice
As the duty of a king consists in protecting his subjects with justice,
its observance leads him to heaven. He who does not protect his people or upsets the social
order wields his royal sceptre (danda) in vain.
The king who administers justice in
accordance with sacred law (Dharma), evidence (vyavahra), history (samsth) and edicts
of kings (Nyya) which is the fourth will be able to conquer the whole world bounded by
the four quarters (Chaturantm mahm).

In those times, the King acted as per the duties prescribed by dharamshastras and the
adherence of the duties regulated his relationship with his Ministers/ Council as well as his
subjects. Whereas in present times, we lack such detailed elaboration of the duties of the
government. The functions assigned to the government may be on paper but the rules of
moral conduct are absent.
33 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
2.2 Significance of Judicial Assembly
Judicial assembly, (present day benches of the Courts) was considered significant for
rendering of justice under the hands of the King.
Manu: That (man) shall enter that most excellent court, accompanied by three assessors,
and fully consider (all) causes (brought) before the (king), either sitting down or standing.

Where three Brahmanas versed in the Vedas and the learned (judge) appointed by the king
sit down, they call that the court of (four-faced) Brahman.

Yajnavalkya: King shall appoint judges perfect in the Vedas and in science, versed in the
Dharma Sastras, as speak truth and bear themselves alike to friend and foe.
The cases
should be decide according to law, uninfluenced by agreed or anger.

Brahspati :The judges are both arms; the law is both hands; the accountant and the scribe
are the legs; gold, fire, and water are the eyes and the heart; and the king's own officer is
the feet.
When litigants are quarrelling in a court of justice, the judges, after examining
the answer, shall adjudge the burden of proof to either of the two parties.
The judges
having heard both the plaint and the answer, and determined to which party the burden of
proof shall be adjudged, that person shall substantiate the whole of his declaration by
documents or other proofs.
In expounding a rule of law, authorities should be sought, and
consulted anew; sin is in terror from persons who do the same ; for law declared by them is
essentially right.

Table 1: Qualities prescribed for members of Judicial Assembly

Law giver Composition of Court Qualifications (if any)
Manu King, Brahmanas and
experienced councillors.
Three persons who each know one of the three
principal Vedas, a logician, a Mimamsaka, one
who knows the Nirukta, one who recites (the
Institutes of) the sacred law, and three men
belonging to the first three orders shall constitute a
(legal) assembly, consisting of at least ten
Vishnu King, well-instructed
Men of good families, for whom the ceremonies
(of initiation and so forth) have been performed,
and who are eager in keeping religious vows,
impartial towards friend and foe, and not likely to
be corrupted by litigants either by (ministering to
their) lustful desires or by (stimulating them to)
wrath or by (exciting their) avarice or by other
(such practices).
34 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
Vasistha King (or) his ministers -
Yajnavalkya King and Perfect in the Vedas and in science, versed in the
Dharma Sastras, as speak truth and bear
themselves alike to friend and foe.
Brashpati King, his chosen representative
(the chief judge), the judges, the
law (Smriti), the accountant and
scribe, gold, fire, water, and the
king's own officer are ten
members of legal procedure.
Men qualified by the performance of devotional
acts, strictly veracious and virtuous, void of wrath
and covetousness, and familiar with (legal) lore,
should be appointed by the ruler as judges (or
assessors of the court).
Vasistha King (or) his minister
An assembly consisting at least
of ten members
'Four men, who each know one of the four Vedas,
a Mmmsaka, one who knows the Agas, one who
recites (the works on) the sacred law, and three
Brhmanas belonging to (three different) orders,
Nrada King and honourable men Men, of tried integrity, who are able to bear, like
good bulls, the burden of the administration of
Kautilya King and other members

Three members acquainted with Sacred Law ,
Three ministers of the king (amtyas)

Narada: The members of a royal court of justice must be acquainted with the sacred law and
with rules of prudence, noble, veracious, and impartial towards friend and foe.
He is called
a (Prdvivka or) chief judge whofully acquainted with the eighteen titles (of law) and
with the eight thousand subdivisions thereof, skilled in logic and other branches of science,
and thoroughly versed in revealed and traditional loreinvestigates the law relative to the
case in hand by putting questions (prt) and passing a decision (vivekayati) according to what
was heard or understood by him.

Kautilya: In the cities of Sangrahana, Dronamukha, and Sthnya, and at places where
districts meet, three members acquainted with Sacred Law (dharmasthas) and three ministers
of the king (amtyas) shall carry on the administration of Justice.

The modern time qualifications for judges are the educational and experience based, on the
other hand dharma gave more importance to the sound character of the persons to be included
in the judicial assembly.
2.3 Eligibility for Witnesses
Manu: The Soul itself is the witness of the Soul, and the Soul is the refuge of the Soul;
despisen not thy own Soul, the supreme witness of men.
Trustworthy men of all the (four)
35 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
castes (varna) may be made witnesses in lawsuits, (men) who know (their) whole duty, and
are free from covetousness; but let him reject those (of an) opposite (character).
But the
(judge) should consider the evidence of infants, aged and diseased men, who (are apt to)
speak untruly, as untrustworthy, likewise that of men with disordered minds.

Vishnu: Nor can one man alone be made a witness.
(The evidence of) a witness is (of two
kinds): either of what was seen, or of what was heard.
Witnesses are free from blame if
they give true evidence.
Let the judge summon the witnesses, at the time of sunrise, and
examine them after having bound them by an oath.

Yajnavalkya: There should be at least three witnesses, such as observe the rites prescribed
by the Sruti and the Smriti, and are of a class, whether mixed or unmixed , corresponding
with that of the person who produces them: otherwise, any person may be a witness for
any person.
In case of conflicting testimony, what is stated by the majority [of the
witnesses] must be credited ; if the numbers be equal, then those of the witnesses who are
of distinguished qualities must be credited ; if again, these are in contradiction, then the
most distinguished shall be credited.

Apastamba :A person who is possessed of good qualities (may be called as a witness, and)
shall answer the questions put to him according to the truth on an auspicious day, in the
morning, before a kindled fire, standing near (a jar full of) water, in the presence of the
king, and with the consent of all (of both parties and of the assessors), after having been
exhorted (by the judge) to be fair to both sides.

Brahaspati: A subscribing witness, one caused to be written, a secret witness, one who has
been reminded, a member of the family, a messenger, a spontaneous witness, an indirect
witness, a stranger who has accidentally witnessed the deed.
A witness should be exhorted
by judges acquainted with law, by speeches extolling veracity and denouncing falsehood.

After putting off his shoes and his turban, he should stretch out his right hand, and declare
the truth, after taking in his hands gold, cow-dung, or blades of sacred grass.

Gautama: Reasoning is a means for arriving at the truth.
If (the evidence) is conflicting,
he shall learn (the truth) from (Brhmanas) who are well versed in the threefold sacred lore,
and give his decision (accordingly).
Witnesses shall not speak singly or without being
Heaven is their reward, if they speak the truth; in the contrary case hell (will be
their portion).
A witness must be reprimanded and punished for speaking an untruth.

Kautilya: Judges are superior in authority to (meetings of) kindred and the rest; the chief
judge is placed above them; and the king is superior to all, because he passes just

36 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
The Indian Evidence Act, 1872 under Chapter IX deals with Witnesses. A great similarity
is found in the criteria for a person to be a Witness under dharma as well as The Indian
Evidence Act, 1872.
2.4 Truth and Falsehood
Manu: Either the court must not be entered, or the truth must be spoken; a man who either
says nothing or speaks falsely, becomes sinful.
Evidence in accordance with what has
actually been seen or heard, is admissible; a witness who speaks truth in those (cases),
neither loses spiritual merit nor wealth.
A witness who deposes in an assembly of
honourable men (Arya) anything else but what he has seen or heard, falls after death
headlong into hell and loses heaven.

Yajnavalkya: Know that whatever good has been done by thee in a hundred former births,
all shall become his whom thou defeatest by falsehood.

Gautama: No guilt is incurred by giving false evidence, in case the life (of a man) depends
The king, or the judge, or a Brhmana learned in the Sstras (shall examine the
To speak the truth before the judge is more important than all (other) duties.

Vsishtha: Men may speak an untruth at the time of marriage, during dalliance, when their
lives are in danger or the loss of their whole property is imminent, and for the sake of a
Brhmana; they declare that an untruth spoken in these five cases does not make (the
speaker) an outcast.

Section 193, The Indian Penal Code, 1860 provides for punishment for false evidence
imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, and fine.
3. Justice and Dharma : Brief Study
Justice, being violated, destroys; justice, being preserved, preserves: therefore justice must
not be violated, lest violated justice destroy us.
For divine justice (is said to be) a bull
(vrisha); that (man) who violates it the gods consider to be (a man despicable like) a Sudra
(vrishala); let him, therefore, beware of violating justice.
The only friend who follows
men even after death is justice; for everything else is lost at the same time when the body

Brahman is the root of the tree of justice; the sovereign prince is its stem and branches; the
ministers are its leaves and blossoms; just government is its fruit.
The insight of princes
surpasses by far the understandings (of other persons), in the decision of the highest,
lowest, and middling controversies.
Justice is virtuous conduct consistent with dharma
and the Hindu tradition linked it with performance of duties prescribed by dharma or
universal moral order.
Dharma as applicable in Hindu society was comprehensive code
37 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
extending beyond justice and laid principles for efficient living. On account of its
antiquity, utility and universality the very mention of that word rouses the conscience of an
individual in this land.

3.1 Wide Ambit of Dharma: Inclusion of Justice
Dharma is not an outer thing, like the law, or righteousness, or religion, or justice, it is the
law of the unfolding life, which moulds all out- side it to the expression of itself.- Annie

It is dharma that provides the guidelines for proper and productive living for social
organisation and interaction.
As a reaction to the tendency of social crystallization,
Dharma caused a breaking up of most rigid manifestation of social constitution. There was
cyclic rebirth of Dharma from ideal to a system of compromise and from moral norm it
became convention and law.
The strength of dharma lies in the fact that it is preventive
rather than punitive. This is the only reason dharma is still relevant to a modern day
context. The vyavaharic prescriptions sought to impose the external social framework on
civil society by prescribing and regulating the inter-relationship between various races and
groups; sustain a particular power and property structure ; the State is recognised as a
juridical institution; and freedom to religious institutions to develop their rules.
sastric concept of law adumbrated rules behaviour which had to be read with religious

Dharma possesses a secular nature, where all explanations of man are found to be located
in man himself, binding different men together.
Similarly the connotation of social
justice requires secularism.

3.2 Basic Laws based on Dharma

Our laws have not been inherited from English legal system rather our texts. Since natural
law guided the legal procedure and same is continuing without substantial change.

The first five words We, the people of India are descriptive of the consumers and creators
of the values of the paramount law.
This shows that our Constitution is based on Dharma
which recognises the people as end and law as means. The Apex Court was of the view in
Aruna Roy And Others v. Union Of India And Others
that the essential aspect of our
ancient thought concerning law was the clear recognition of the supremacy of dharma and
the clear articulation of the status of 'dharma' which is somewhat akin to the modern
concept of the rule of law, i.e. of all being sustained and regulated by it.

38 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy

Dharmam Kshatrasya Kshatram.
S.Radhakrishnan laid emphasis on Dharma
, Much has been said about the sovereignty
of the people. We have held that the ultimate sovereignty rests with the moral law, with the
conscience of humanity. People as well as kings are subordinate to that. Dharma,
righteousness, is the king of kings. It is the ruler of both the people and the rulers
themselves. It is the sovereignty of the law which we have asserted.

The far vision of ancient law gives has been accepted in modern legal system. The laws
enacted by Britishers i.e. Civil Procedure Code and Indian Evidence Act are largely based
on the laws laid down by Narada, Brashpati and Kautilya. Even after centuries those laws
have not lost their relevance. The Dharamsastras not only prescribed punishments to
offenders but also linked offence with effects on their moral life. Existence of proper
administration of laws can guide people towards Dharma based life where laws are obeyed
not because of fear of punishment rather due to their general acceptability in the society.
Rajdharma laid down duties of King whereas the State today is seen as crossing its ambit
as each organ has failed to fulfill the role assigned to it by the Constitution. With
development in society, norms of justice change, dharma also changes with age (yug).
Certain principles of dharma are for all times such as value of truth, loyalty for the State
(country), duties of husband - wife for each other etc. We dont need to modify our laws to
be in conformity with dharma rather adopting a mode prescribed by it. The practices and
rules of applied dharma might change according to changing causes; but even then, the
practices have to be tested on the basis of the sastras, not on the basis of advantage.
1. Roer , Edward and W.A.Montriouy . (1959). Hindu law and Judicature from the
Dharma-Sastra Of Yajnavalkya. (trans.), Book One Achiara Adhiyaya : I,4.
2. Ibid.
3. Yajurveda, 5,27.
4. Dutt, M.N. (1979). The Dharamshastra . (trans.) , Vol.III, New Delhi, Cosmo
Publications , I, 22.
5. Supra note 1 , Book One Achiara Adhiyaya , I, 7.
6. Kuppuswamy,B. (1977). Dharma and Society: A Study in Social Values. Delhi, The
Macmillan Company of India, 34.
7. Lingat, Robert. (1998). Classical Law of India . New Delhi, Oxford University
8. Pal, Jagat,.(January - April 2000 ) Dilemma of Dharma , Indian Philosophical
Quarterly, XXVII No. 1& 2, 113.
39 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
9. Shamasastry , R. (1915). Kautilya's Arthashastra, (trans.), Book III-Concerning Law,
Chapter 1.
10. Id .Concerning Discipline- Chapter 3 .10.
11. Id .11.
12. Spencer ,Herbert. (1891). Justice. New York, D.Appelton and Company, 36-37.
13. Iyer, V.R.Krishna. (1979) , The Social Dimensions of Law & Justice in Contemporary
India-The Dynamics of a New Jurisprudence. Nagpur, All India Reporter, 95.
14. Id . 139.
15. Jolly, Julius. (1981). Naradiya Dharamsastra or Institutes of Narada. (trans.), Delhi,
Takshila Hardbounds, I,1.
16. Id .I,2.
17. Article 50 ,The Constitution of India, 1950 specifically mandates The State to take
steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State. The
various organs under the constitutional scheme are organized so as to separate
interference in each others working. The check by one organ on the other should in no
case to be considered interference.
18. Buhler, George .(1969). Laws of Manu. (trans.) . Oxford , Clarendon Press , VII,35.
19. Id. VII,26.
20. Id. VII,27.
21. Id. VIII, 24.
22. Id. VII,32.
23. Id. VIII, 44.
24. Id. VIII, 45.
25. Id. VIII ,8.
26. Id. VII ,16.
27. Jolly , Julius. (1969). The Minor Law Books ,Part I - The Institutes of Vishnu.(trans.),
Delhi , M. Banarsidass, III , 92.
28. Id.III , 89.
29. Id.III , 90.
30. Id.III , 91.
31. Id.III , 96.
32. Id.III , 41.
33. Supra note 1, Book One Achiara Adhiyaya :XIII,353.
34. Id. Book Two Nyaya Adhiyaya :I,9.
35. Id. Book Two Nyaya Adhiyaya :I,1.
36. Id. Book One Achiara Adhiyaya :XIII , 359.
37. Id. Book One Achiara Adhiyaya :XIII,367.
38. Jolly ,Julius. (1969). The Minor Law Books, Part I-Brahspati . (trans.) ,Delhi ,M.
Banarsidass, I,36.
39. Bhler ,George. (1969). The Sacred Laws of the ryas, Part I- Guatama. (trans.) .
Oxford , Clarendon Press ,XI,1.
40. Id.XI,5.
40 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
41. Id.XI,19.
42. Id.XI,22.
43. Id.VIII,1.
44. Bhler ,George. (1969). The Sacred Laws of the ryas, Part II-Vsishtha.(trans.).
Oxford , Clarendon Press , XVI,3.
45. Id.XVI,4.
46. Id.XIV,8.
47. Id.XIV,45.
48. Id.XIV,46.
49. Supra note 15,III, 6.
50. Id. I,15 .
51. Id. I,31.
52. Id. I,35.
53. Id. I,37.
54. Id. I, 68.
55. Supra note 9. 213.
56. Id. 217.
57. Id .218.
58. Supra note 18 , VIII, 10.
59. Id. VIII, 11.
60. Supra note 1, Book Two Nyaya Adhiyaya :I,2.
61. Id. Book Two Nyaya Adhiyaya :I,1.
62. Supra note 38 , I,10.
63. Id.V,1.
64. Id .V,2.
65. Id.VIII,8.
66. Compiled by the Researcher.
67. Supra note 15 , III, 5.
68. Id.I,1.
69. Supra note 9.213.
70. Supra note 18, VIII, 84.
71. Id. VIII, 63.
72. Id .VIII, 71.
73. Id. VIII,5.
74. Id. VIII,13
75. Id. VIII,14.
76. Id. VIII,19.
77. Supra note 1.Book Two Nyaya Adhiyaya :I,69.
78. Id. Book Two Nyaya Adhiyaya :I,78.
79. Bhler ,George.(1969). The Sacred Laws of the ryas ,Part I- pastamba . Oxford,
Clarendon Press, (tans.) II, 11, 29 ,7.
80. Supra note 38, VII,1.
41 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
81. Id .VII,19.
82. Id .VII,23.
83. Supra note 39 ,XI,23.
84. Id.XI,25.
85. Id.XIII,5.
86. Id.XIII,7.
87. Id.XIII,23.
88. Supra note 9. I ,31.
89. Supra note 15, VIII, 13.
90. Id. VIII, 74.
91. Id. VIII, 75.
92. Supra note 1, Book Two Nyaya Adhiyaya :I,75.
93. Supra note 39. XIII,24.
94. Id.XIII,26.
95. Id.XIII,31.
96. Supra note 44.XVI,35.
97. Supra note 18, VIII, 15.
98. Id. VIII, 16.
99. Id. VIII, 19.
100. Id. I,34.
101. Id .I ,32.
102. Jain, Nilanjana. (2005). The Problem of Justice in Political Theory & State Practice.
New Delhi, Anamika Publishers and Distributors (P) Ltd, 21.
103. Jois, M. Rama . Dharma -The Global Ethic, Retrieved November 20, 2012, from
104. Olivelle, Patrick .(1999) The Dharmastras: The law codes of pastamba, Gautama,
Baudhyana, and Vasiha . Oxford: Oxford University Press,xxxvii xxxviii.
105. Mess, Gualetherus H. (1986) Dharma and Society. New Delhi, Gyan Publishing
House, 87,124.
106. Dhavan, Rajeev .(1992) . Dharamshastras and Modern Indian Society: A Preliminary
Exploration, Journal of Indian Law Institute 34 (2) , 519-523.
107. Id.
108. Badrinath,Chaturvedi. (1993) Dharma, India and The World Order . Scotland, Saint
Andrews Press, 41.
109. Supra note 13. 9.
110. AIR 2002 SC 3176.
111. Constituent Assembly of India Debates, 20
January, 1947.

42 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy

Reni Pal

Social Philosophy claims to have prominent places for Ahimsa (non-violence) and Satyagraha. The
objective of this paper is to mention the affinities between Mahatma Gandhi and the Fourteenth Dalai
Lama His Holiness Tenzin Gyatso regarding these topics.

If philosophy is wisdom, Mahatma Gandhi (1869 - 1948) was among our foremost philosophers. In
Gandhis philosophy, we cannot compartmentalize the ethical, social, political and economic issues.
He was not a conscious philosopher. Gandhian philosophy is certainly considered as a universal and
timeless philosophy. The ideals of truth and non-violence which underpin his whole philosophy are
relevant to all humankind. Gandhis thought is equally a philosophy of self-transformation. The
individuals task is to make a sincere attempt to live according to the principles of truth and non-

In Gandhian thought truth is the ultimate thing or end while non-violence or ahimsa is the means.
What is truth from one side is non-violence from another side. They are inseparable. Where there is
ahimsa, there is truth and truth is God. Gandhiji was an apostle of non-violence and love because,
while violence and hatred brutalized men, love ennobled them and brought out the best in them.

The usual meaning of ahimsa is non-killing or non-injury. Gandhiji used this word in a special sense.
He does not deny the traditional sense but he emphasized certain aspects of ahimsa which have not
been given that importance by any other believer in ahimsa. So there has emerged a Gandhian sense
of the word which has some distinctive features of its own.

In conceiving ahimsa Gandhiji was influenced by Jainism and Buddhism. He used the word with
both positive and negative imports. The positive aspect of its meaning is more fundamental. In
negative aspect it is conceived as the opposite of himsa or absence of overt violence. Accepting this
sense Gandhiji added some more. He also accepts that himsa means causing pain or killing any life
out of anger, or from a selfish purpose, or with the intention of injuring it. Refraining from doing all
this is Ahimsa.
In its negative form, it means not injuring any living being whether by body or
mind. Again, ahimsa is understood by Gandhi to denote active love. In its positive aspect ahimsa
means the largest Love, the genuine charity. Love is a kind of feeling of oneness. Ahimsa demands a
genuine effort to free our mind from ill-feelings like anger, malice, jealousy, revenge, hatred etc.
because these create obstacles in the path of love. Love, according to Gandhi, is the energy that
cleanses ones inner life and uplifts him, and as such, love comprehends such noble feelings as
benevolence, compassion, tolerance, generosity, kindness, sympathy etc.
The active ahimsa
Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy (ISSN: 2249-8389)
Volume III, No. 01 (March, 2013), pp.42-48
43 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
necessarily includes truth and fearlessness. This is the positive import of the term. He believed that
ahimsa is the most powerful force in existence. He recommends the practice of ahimsa in thought,
speech and action.

He opines that killing or injury to life can be an act of violence under certain conditions like anger,
pride, hatred, bad intention, selfishness etc. Any injury to life done under these motives is himsa.
Thus the negative meaning ahimsa is non-injury or non-killing.

But for Gandhi, the positive aspects of ahimsa are more basic than its negative characters. It is not
merely refraining from causing injuries to life, it stands for certain positive attitudes towards other
living beings that one must cultivate. Ahimsa represents one of the basic and essential qualities of

Gandhi believes that violence is essentially an expression of weakness. One who is inwardly weak
and gets frightened takes the shelter of arms. Violence seems apparently to have strength but it is
born out of fear and therefore it is a sign of weakness. Only one who has conquered fear can truly be

Non-violence involves sacrifice and suffering. According to Gandhi, sacrifice is an indispensable
companion of Love. Love demands going beyond, a self-transcendence. Love never claims. It ever
gives selflessly. The test of love is self-suffering. The non-violent person practices forgiveness in the
maximum degree and he should practice it universally.

Gandhiji adds a point here. He mentioned that the practice of ahimsa requires an inner strength which
can be generated by a living faith in God. A sincere faith in God will make man see that all human
beings are fellow-beings and essentially one. Thus the love of God would turn into a love of
humanity which alone can make possible the practice of ahimsa. If according to the Divine Reality
all life is one, then all violence committed towards another is violence towards oneself.

Like all Buddhist leaders, the Fourteenth Dalai Lama His Holiness Tenzin Gyatso has a strong
commitment to action in society. His ethical teachings have gained recognition the world over. His
views on human rights, religion, and non-violent conflict resolution remind us of Gandhiji. It would
be natural to compare him with Mahatma Gandhi, one of the centurys greatest protagonists of peace,
and the Fourteenth Dalai Lama likes to consider himself one of the Gandhis successors. According
to the Fourteenth Dalai Lama, non-violence and religious harmony are the two treasures of India. He
also opines that the concept of non-violence or ahimsa itself was an ancient Indian philosophy.

Buddhism is generally seen to be deeply associated with non-violence and peace. Both Gandhiji and
the Fourteenth Dalai Lama were influenced by Buddhist conception of Ahimsa. Like Gandhiji, the
Fourteenth Dalai Lama also considers human nature as intrinsically non-violent, with a pre-existing
44 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
sense of peace. He regards any violence as contrary to these intrinsic human qualities. Agreeing with
Gandhijis approach to non-violence, he accepts that his own Buddhist conceptualization of non-
violence is deeply influenced by Gandhijis thought. Although the Fourteenth Dalai Lama
acknowledges the deep influence of Buddhism on his thought, he also recognizes the influence of
Mahatma Gandhi on his views on non-violence. Gandhiji in turn has acknowledged the influence of
Buddha on his thought. The Fourteenth Dalai Lama considered that non-violence as an idea is
original to Gandhi because he gave to it a social status in reality rather than mystical status.

Both Gandhiji and the Fourteenth Dalai Lama give stress on the point that by understanding the
impermanent nature of phenomena one can avoid violence. It can be noted that impermanence, as a
concept, referred to in Buddhism stresses the phenomenon of transitoriness, which entails that
nothing is permanent and therefore could suggest the rectitude in violence. Gandhiji is also of the
opinion that even when violence appears to do some good, the good that results is very temporary.
He says that nothing permanent can be built on violence.

Gandhiji recognized that violence is born because men see themselves as being separate with
exclusive individual concerns and as striving for personal benefits at any cost. For Gandhi, Ahimsa
is important not just as a desirable virtue or merely as the means for the purification and ennobling of
the soul but even more as the fundamental and perhaps the only way in which we can express respect
for the innate worth of any human being. It is an essential and universal obligation without which we
would cease to be human.

Like Gandhiji the Fourteenth Dalai Lama also distinguishes between positive and negative meanings
of ahimsa. According to the Fourteenth Dalai Lama, non-violence is not only just restraint from
harming others but keeping a compassionate attitude towards them. His Holiness clarified that
genuine non-violence is not the mere absence of violence. The demarcation between violence and
non-violence depends less on the kind of action involved and more on the motivation or attitude with
which we act. According to him, violence is destruction while non-violence is construction.
According to the Fourteenth Dalai Lama, the boundaries between violence and non-violence cannot
be determined simply by observing actions on their surface. A harsh action done out of compassion
and the intent to protect others is better than the use of nice words of an individual to cheat or exploit
others. Genuine non-violence will come only after the inner disarmament of our mind and only with
inner disarmament, we can bring outer disarmament.

45 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
Another strong point of affinity claims to have between Gandhiji and the Fourteenth Dalai Lama on
the basic non-violent nature of man. Gandhiji insists that ahimsa is natural to man. Man is both body
and spirit. Body represents physical power and therefore can commit violence sometimes. A simple
evidence of this is the fact that while body or the senses can be injured, the soul can never be injured.
Himsa, therefore, is alien to mans nature.
The same thought seems to be echoing in the Fourteenth
Dalai Lamas view that human nature is actually compassionate and gentle. Like Gandhiji he is of the
opinion that all human beings are essentially alike. We make divisions among them which produce
violence. Says Gandhi, The basic principle on which the practice of non-violence rests is that what
holds good in respect of oneself, equally applies to the whole universe. All mankind in essence are
alike, what is therefore possible for one is possible for everybody.
The Fourteenth Dalai Lama
says, Human beings by nature want happiness and do not want suffering Basically, from the
viewpoint of real human value, we are all the same We fabricate distinctions based on colour,
geographical location, and so forth, and then on the basis of a feeling of separation, we sometimes
quarrel with each other, sometimes criticize, and sometimes fight. From a broader viewpoint,
however, we are all brothers and sisters.

The basic principle of non-violence stands on the feeling by which one views others as being equally
or even more important than oneself. For Gandhi, ahimsa entails the ability to treat all beings, as
ones very self.
The Fourteenth Dalai Lama clearly reiterates the Gandhian idea. When he says: I
began to think less of myself and more of others and became aware of compassion.
The Buddhist
interpretation of compassion is based on a clear acceptance or recognition that others, like oneself,
want happiness and have the right to overcome suffering. Genuine compassion is not pity or a
feeling that others are somehow lower than oneself. Rather, with genuine compassion, one views
others as being more important than oneself.
For the Fourteenth Dalai Lama, Compassion is
The Fourteenth Dalai Lama holds the view that dignity is a common designator to all
human life. Like Gandhiji, he too considers ahimsa not only as a means of purifying the souls, rather,
as the only way to respect the inner worth of any human being.

Both the Fourteenth Dalai Lama and Gandhiji are of the opinion that non-violence is not an attitude
of indifference as or passivity. However non-violence does not mean abdicating moral
responsibility, either for the Dalai Lama or for Gandhi.
According to Gandhiji, the really strong
person is he who wins not by brute force, but by fearless love. Ahimsa, far from meaning mere
peacefulness or the absence of overt violence, is understood by Gandhiji to denote active love. For
Gandhiji, non-violence does not mean weak submission to the will of the evil-doer. It is true that
46 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
non-violence requires extreme patience on the part of one, who is using this method, but this patience
is not a sign of inactivity, it is an expression of a conscious and inner effort to force the so called
opponent to see and realise his own mistake.
Just as it is for Gandhi, ahimsa for the Fourteenth
Dalai Lama does not mean detachment or inactivity. According to the Fourteenth Dalai Lama, non-
violence does not mean we have to passively accept injustice. Rather, we have to fight for our rights.
We have to oppose injustice, because not to do so would be a form of violence.

A very relevant as well as debatable question can be raised here. Is violence, under no situation or
circumstance, permissible? Cant there be exceptional cases? Actually Gandhiji seems to have a
stand for permitting violence in some limited cases where situations demand this. The greatest
apostle of non-violence, it has been argued, also permitted violence, even if limited, for the sake of
ones honour, justice, freedom and dignity.
According to him, an agriculturist cannot allow his
crops to be eaten up by the pests. In order to protect his fields as well as crops he has to use
pesticides to kill the pests. This use of minimum violence cannot be avoided and this is not a sin. Evil
and good, according to him, are relative terms. What is sin or evil in a certain situation can turn into
good under a different sort of condition. Gandhiji again expressed his wish to put one ailing calf to
death instantly to give it relief and to rescue it from having miserable pain. This, according to him, is
an instance of purest ahimsa. Ahimsa implies an inability to witness anothers pain or suffering.

The Fourteenth Dalai Lama also, like Gandhiji, is willing to compromise where non-violence entails
a threat to ones life. He opines that in such a situation non-violence can no longer be regarded as
strength. He is very much practical in his approach to certain things. For example, to the question
what would you do with parasites in our stomach?, the Fourteenth Dalai Lama says: I think we
have to follow doctors advice

From this remark it becomes clear to us that he permits the killing
of parasites in order to save a human being. But it is true that he advocates restraints and caution in
the use of violence depending on its motive.

The remaining central concept in Gandhis philosophy is Satyagraha which is translated in English
as Truth-force, or even, at times, as Soul-force or Love-force. Truth, according to Gandhiji, is God,
and Satyagraha is agraha of satya and then it means holding fast to truth. It therefore, demands a
deep sincerity and a vigorous love for truth. Satyagraha is itself a whole philosophy of non-violence.
Defined most narrowly, it is a technique or tool of non-violent action. A satyagraha campaign is
undertaken only after all other peaceful means have proven ineffective. Gandhiji described
satyagraha as a force against violence, tyranny and injustice. The aim of satyagraha is not to
47 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
embarrass or showing fear to the wrong-doer. It appeals to the heart and to the good sense of the
wrong-doer. Its intention is to bring about, what Gandhiji calls a change of heart. In fact satyagraha is
essentially based on love. That is why satyagraha has been described as a method of conversion
rather than a method of coercion. A satyagrahi must be completely fearless.

The Fourteenth Dalai Lama sometimes refers to peaceful means and no-violent means
interchangeably. Hijrat, which means voluntary migration or temporary withdrawal out of the
boundaries of a state, which is said to have been adopted usefully by the Tibetans, was initiated by
the Fourteenth Dalai Lama. He has thus earned the title of satyagrahi. Gandhiji advocated hijrat, or
voluntary negotiation or temporary withdrawal out of the boundaries of a state, to the Bardoli
peasants in 1928. In case of the Fourteenth Dalai Lama, it would be accurate to say that he has
adopted the method of satyagraha completely.
The Fourteenth Dalai Lama, in consonance with
Gandhijis view, describes the expressions like prayers, hunger-strikes, and demonstrations without
violence as meaningful.

To sum up, Gandhian philosophy is not only simultaneously political, moral and religious; it is also
simple and complex. Perhaps his philosophy is best seen as a harmonious blend of the traditional and
modern. And at the heart of his philosophy is non-violence. It can be seen that the Fourteenth Dalai
Lama, like Gandhiji, recognizes the enormous power of ahimsa or non-violence and continues his
attempts to reduce violence and replace it with non-violence.

This discussion would be incomplete without mentioning the following. Gandhiji did not receive the
Nobel Peace Prize, although he was nominated in 1937, 1938, 1939, 1947 and, finally, a few days
before he was assassinated in January, 1948. The omission has been publicly regretted by later
members of the Nobel Committee. When the Fourteenth Dalai Lama was awarded the Nobel Peace
Prize in 1989, the Chairman of the Committee said that this was in part a tribute to the memory of
Mahatma Gandhi.

1. Lal, B. K. (1991). Contemporary Indian Philosophy. Delhi: Motilal Banarasidass Publishers
Pvt. Ltd., p.108.
2. Ibid, 111
3. Iyer, Raghavan (1983). The Moral and Political Thought of Mahatma Gandhi. London:
Concord Grove Press,p. 184.
48 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
4. Lal, B. K. (1991). Contemporary Indian Philosophy. Delhi: Motilal Banarasidass Publishers
Pvt. Ltd., p.110.
5. Tendulkar, D. G. (1952). Mahatma: Life of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, Vol. 4, 1934-
1938. Bombay: Vithalbhai K. Jhaveri and D. G. Tendulkar, p.353.
6. Gyatso, Tenzin, the Fourteenth Dalai Lama His Holiness (1984). Kindness, Clarity and
Insight. (edited by Jeffrey Hopkins and Elizabeth Napper, trans. Jeffrey Hopkins). New York:
Snow Lion Publications,p. 158.
7. Puri, Bharati (2006). Engaged Buddhism The Dalai Lamas Worldview. New Delhi:
Oxford University Press,p. 23.
8. Lama, the Dalai of Tibet, His Holiness (1997). My Land and My People: Memoirs of His
Holiness the Dalai Lama of Tibet. New Delhi: Srishti Publishers and Distributors, p.48.
9. Puri, Bharati (2006). Engaged Buddhism The Dalai Lamas Worldview. New Delhi: Oxford
University Press, p.22.
10. Lama, the Dalai (1978). The Four Noble Truths. New Delhi: Harper Collins Publishers India,
11. Puri, Bharati (2006). Engaged Buddhism The Dalai Lamas Worldview. New Delhi: Oxford
University Press, p.22.
12. Lal, B. K. (1991). Contemporary Indian Philosophy. Delhi: Motilal Banarasidass Publishers
Pvt. Ltd., p. 112.
13. Puri, Bharati (2006). Engaged Buddhism The Dalai Lamas Worldview. New Delhi: Oxford
University Press, p.25.
14. Lama, His Holiness the XIV Dalai (1997). Path for Spiritual Practice. New Delhi: Tushita
Mahayana Meditation Centre, p.17.
15. Iyer, Raghavan (1983). The Moral and Political Thought of Mahatma Gandhi. London:
Concord Grove Press, p.305.
16. Tonnesson, Oyvind (1999). Mahatma Gandhi, the Missing Laureate. Retrieved January 16,
2012, from http://www.nobelprize.org

49 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy

Buddhiswar Haldar
In this paper, it has been highlighted that the Gandhian philosophy of ethics has special significance
to protect our better future and to save humanity today from intolerance and disintegration and to
save the world which is full of tension and conflicts because of troublesome tendencies. Instead of
technological advancement the spirit of morality can save us from the pawn of intolerance and
distrust. Our conviction is that there is no alternative to the ideal of ethics and non-violence that is the
ideal of love as a means to overcome the social evils like violence and terrorism. In this way, the
importance of ethics has become extremely urgent and imperative now. In this context that the
present paper seeks to discuss the necessity of Gandhian ethical approach is most important for the
betterment of human society.
Keywords: Ahims, Fearlessness, Non-possession, Self-restraint, Self-realization.
Gandhian ethical philosophy is not merely an academic philosophy but a philosophy of action, a
philosophy of transformation of individual as well as social life is only due to the ideal of non-
violence. Portraying man as a spiritual being Gandhi considers non-violence to be the law of the
human being. The ideal of non-violence, for Gandhi, is the only ideal by adopting which permanent
peace in social-political and ethical life can be achieved. Although the application of this ideal in our
practical life needs sacrifice, self-suffering and faith in God in can be practised universally by all
people as a surest means for the solution of any and every problems of our social life.
To Gandhi religion, ethics and spiritualism are all one. He holds that religion and ethics are for life
and them from a sort of means to the spiritual attainment in the form of self-realization that is the end
of life. He expects not only the learned and enlightened to seek perfection; he seeks perfections for
the ordinary men and women. Mans life has as its ultimate aim, self-realization and self-realization
is possible only through a religious and moral life. It explains the all pervasive influence of morality
on mans life. No life in conceivable without religion and morality on which stands mans life as a
human. In Gandhian opinion a good life a life led on the percept of Ahimsa together with a constant
service to the people to the society. Life is worth living when it is a life of service to God.
According to Gandhiji, our main object is to realize Truth and for this the path of non-violence is to
be resorted to. Without ahims it is not possible to seek and find Truth. Ahims and Truth are so
intertwined that is practically impossible to disentangle and separate them.
To him the imperatives
like the truth, non-violence etc. come as the direction of the inner heart and the mental firmness in
practicing the vows like truth; non-violence etc. is the penance for remaining in the path of morality.
Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy (ISSN: 2249-8389)
Volume III, No. 01 (March, 2013), pp.49-52
50 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
To Gandhiji morality is the basis of all things, and that truth is the basis of morality. He remarks-
But one thing took deep root in me- the conviction that morality is the basis of all things and truth is
the substance of all morality.
One who remains firmly in the path of morality without any fear can
realize the grace of the Truth in the long run because he believes Fearlessness is the first requisite of
spirituality. Cowards can never be moral.

Gandhiji ethical approach is related to peace against war and democracy against dictatorship.
Violence destroys both. Hence, non-violence is the key to progress and peace. The practices of the
non-violence save human beings from exploitation, environmental pollution
evil relation actions
against the will of the superiors, etc. All these lead to the social peace and harmony. The non-
violence is the means through which peace or nti is attained. It helps to fulfil the mission of
Gandhiji to establish an Rmarajya, an ideal state, free from all kinds of oppression and unfairness
and full of peace. Even today if non-violence is taken as a means, peace must come into being in the
modern society as shown by Gandhiji. The word nti comes from the root a meaning to
restrain. Restraining our sense organs from external objects follows from the practice of non-
violence. The present word is Hisy unmatta prtth nitya nihura dvandva (i.e. the world is full of
envy- here we find discontent full of envy and full of constant cruelty) and Gandhijis policy of non-
violence can alone bring peace after removing violent activities- mental or non-mental. Ultimately,
non-violence teaches forgiveness and forgiveness is a quality of the brave only. There is no
cowardice in non-violence and non-violence is a means of correction and conversion. It helps to
change the heart of wrong doer. It is an active force, force of the soul or the power of the Godhead
within us, which provides peace through rectification or correction.

To Gandhiji a human beings body is meant for serving others. Following the line of the
Bhagavadgt it is said by him that one who takes something without offering that to others is a thief
(apradyaibhyo yo bhkte stena eva sa).
Every moral action performed by an individual is a kind
of sacrifice or yaja. Gandhiji has taken the meaning of the term in a wider way. To him it means an
action performed for the welfare of others without expecting any return from them. If this habits is
cultivated regularly and deliberately, our desire for rendering selfless service to others will grow
stronger, resulting in our own happiness as well as that of the world at large.
This principle is quite opposite to the utilitarian one, which advocates the greatest good of the
greatest number, Gandhiji as a follower of Ahims principle cannot support this. If he wishes for
some (not all), it will go in favour of hims against a section of people. He always advocates the
greatest good of all and ready to embrace even death for the realization of this ideal. An individual
may embrace even death so that others may live happily. He believes in the principle of Tyaktena
bhujthh (i.e. one should attain enjoyment through renunciation). An individual believing in
utilitarianism, on the other hand, does not want to sacrifice for the sake of others. Gandhiji says- I
do not believe an individual may gain spirituality and those who surround him suffer. I believe in
Advaita. I believe in the essential unity of man. Therefore, I believe that if one man gains spirituality,
the whole world gains with him and, if one man falls, the whole world falls to the extent.
A virtue is virtue in the true sense of the term if it is connected with the welfare of an individual as
well as other social being. There is not a single virtue, which is connected with ones own welfare
51 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
but not with others. In the same way, there is not a single vice, which can affect many offenders apart
from the actual person. Whether a man is good or bad is not an individuals concern, but concern of
the whole community. Just as an infectious virus in an individual being affects not only him but also
all, this type of bad quality cannot affect a man but the community as a whole. Hence, our ideal or
ethical principles are connected with the welfare of all. In fact, the definition of Dharma given in the
Mahabharata tells us that to think welfare of all is Dharma (Mnasa sarvabhtn
dharmamhurmaiina/ yasmt sarveu bhteu manas ivamcaret//).

Mahatma Gandhi, the pioneering votary of humanism, believed that man is Truth and man is God in
divine ascent and excellence. Gandhi loved man not because of his respect towards humanism but
because he believed man as the best creation of the world. For true humanism Gandhiji wanted to
cultivate and disseminate the education of the heart. Ha had profound love towards all the basic
human values. To him, Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam- everyone is my friend-was the spirit which
prompted Gandhi to fight for the establishment of human dignity. Gandhi, with his ideas of Truth and
Love, with Sarvodaya, with Satyagraha, with education for human rights and democracy, practised
his humanistic ideas. In the moment of crisis, to save humanity today from intolerance and
disintegration and to save the world which is full of tension and conflicts because of troublesome
tendencies Gandhian philosophy of ethics and humanism has special significance. Instead of
technological advancement the spirit of humanism can save us from the pawn of intolerance and
distrust. Our conviction is that there is no alternative to the ideal of non-violence that is the ideal of
love as a means to overcome the social evils like violence and terrorism. Here lies the relevance of
Gandhis ideal of non-violence and ethical doctrine. Thus, the spirit of Gandhian ethical approach,
philosophy of Truth and Non-violence is the best alternative for the safety of humanity.
Gandhi did not like to restrict morality to the inner life of man. He did not place to responsibility of
social evils on God or on the individual but on society. The deepest wounds on humanity inflicted by
the present society could be healed by society alone. Social and economic evils are the products of a
determinate organization of society and the eradication of evil from social life coincides with a
radical transformation of mans perspective of his existence and his conception of life. The subject
matter of Gandhian ethics is therefore not only the individual but also human society.
Gandhi holds that in order to lead a good life we must have to fulfil two basic needs: celibacy and
non-possessions, absence of the cultivation of these two needs leads man to a very ordinary, worldly
selfish life full of moral attachment. In order to cultivate the celibacy and non-possession, restraint
and self-control is absolutely necessary and this will become possible only by rigoristic performance
of duty. Man becomes man by restraint and self-control. Man will become divine bathe in favour of
God by this. This is a real purusartha in life. Although morality presupposes on inward development
in Gandhis view and self control in regarded by Gandhi as necessary precondition to social control;
man cannot realize his true nature by retiring into a cave or a forest. Gandhi holds that it is necessary
for man to engage in the task of social transformation in terms of truth or its value components, Non-
violence, Freedom and Equality. Mans life is valuable; his personality is unique and meaningful; but
this meaningfulness can be experienced only by establishing unity and equality with other men. In
52 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
committing himself to the ultimate values man also commits the whole of humanity to these values
and the moral progress of entire humanity logically involves the moral progress of the individual.
1. The Selected Works of Mahatma Gandhi, Vol. 4, Navajivan, 1968, pp. 213-215.
2. Gandhi. M.K: My Experiments with Truth, Navajivan Publishing House, Ahmedabad, 1948,
3. Young India, 13-10-21.
4. Manusahit, 8/285.
5. Ghosh. Raghunath : The Gandhian Concept of Morality: In the Light of Advaita Vedanta,
Gauhati University Journal of Philosophy, Vol. 2, No.1, 1995.
6. rmadbhagavadgt, 2/3.
7. Mahbhrata, 193/31.

53 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy

Sima Baruah
This paper attempts to show why Gandhi is known as Mahatma or a great soul throughout the world.
Gandhi was a great saint, social reformer, leader, an economist and an advocate of Non-violence.
Gandhi was a Practical Idealist. Gandhi gave utmost importance to the concept of Truth. Truth
was the policy of his life. Through his principles of Non-violence and Religion Gandhi wanted to
eradicate hatred in the relation between man and man. Through his principles of Economic ideas,
Bread labour, Basic education and Trusteeship he wanted to make every individual self-
dependent and establish a classless society. By the principle of Swaraj Gandhi wanted to bring a
feeling of patriotism among the people to fight for the freedom of their country. And by the concept
of Sarvodaya Gandhi aimed at the alround development of all sections of people. This paper shows
that one can practically implement all the principles of Gandhi and make oneself better member of
the society. If every people practises the principles of Gandhi and transform oneself to a better
individual then it will equally transform the nation to a better nation as the Eden of heavens full with
love and peace.
Rabindranath Tagore wrote about Mahatma Gandhi, He stopped at the threshold of the huts of the
thousands of dispossessed, dressed like one of their own. He spoke to them in their own language.
Here was a living truth at last and not only quotations from books. For this reason the Mahatma, the
name given to him by the people of India is his real name. Who else has felt like him that all Indians
are his own flesh and blood? At Gandhis call India blossomed forth to new greatness, just as once
before, in earlier time, during the time of Buddha.
Mahatma means a great soul. Gandhi is remembered throughout the world as a great soul and an
apostle of peace. Rabindranath Tagore honoured him Mahatma because Tagore thought Gandhi
was the best leader for India at that time because of his altruistic philosophy, dedication to society
and more for following dharma.
In April, 1921 the Reverend Dr. John Haynes Holmes minister of the community church of New
York, introduced Gandhi to the American people in a sermon, Who is the greatest man in the world
today? Without equivocation, Dr. Holmes named Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. He was a great
saint, social reformer, leader, an economist and an advocate of non-violence. His principles of truth,
faith, simplicity, tolerance, non-violence has no match binding whole India as one against mighty
British Empire. His constant efforts on increasing economic self-reliance, womans right, ending
Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy (ISSN: 2249-8389)
Volume III, No. 01 (March, 2013), pp.53-59
54 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
untouchability, promoting handlooms tell that not only he was fighting against British rule but also
recognised the weaknesses of our society and tried his best to improve them.
In Gandhis philosophy we find an unique combination of politics, ethics and sociology. He called
himself a Practical Idealist. He was an idealist on account of his theoretical views, as he believed in
an ideal that was completely spiritual. But he was also a practical philosopher who always tried to
put his ideas into practise. He tried to show that society and state could very well be shaped in
accordance with his philosophical and religious views.
TRUTH: Adherence to truth in absolute terms irrespective of personal loss or gain is the central
policy of Gandhism. Though his autobiography is alternately titled The Story of my Experiments
with Truth- Gandhi was not a philosopher in the technical sense. He did not analyse truth for the
sake of understanding it. He was connected with it as a policy of life. That is why he was less
concerned with truth as such but with truth of a given thing or situation at a given time. According to
Gandhi This truth is not only truthfulness in word, but truthfulness in thought also, and not only the
relative truth of our conception, but the absolute truth, the eternal principle that is God.
Gandhi held truth in such a high esteem that it was for him the ultimate value in life and experience.
To that extent he did not distinguish between truth, beauty or goodness. They were the same for him.
He saw beauty in truth and truth in beauty, much like Keats (though the ways they came to such a
view might be different). For Keats beauty might be the obsession and hence explanatory of all; for
Gandhi, truth is All truths, not merely true ideas, but truthful faces, truthful pictures or songs are
highly beautiful. The people generally fail to see beauty in truth, the ordinary man runs away from it
and becomes blind to the beauty in it. When man begins to see beauty in truth, then true art will
arise. Truth is only an epistemic value and is irrelevant in the field of aesthetics. It is not an insult to
truth, but its proper evaluation: That it is non-aesthetic. It should remain silent where art is
concerned. It is a totally different domain of discourse.
NON-VI OLENCE: Gandhi gives very much importance to the concept of ahimsa and he declares
like the Jainas that ahimsa or non-violence is the greatest religion, Ahimsa Paramo Dharma.
Gandhi says that non-violence is meant for the strong and not for the weak. It is easy to hate, but it
requires supreme energy and strength to love. Gandhi believes that violence is essentially an
expression of weakness. Violence is a way of thought and action. It disrupts breaks and destroys. In
some circumstances violence may be justified today. But an eye for an eye makes the whole world
blind. If something is done through violence, which only means disruption and destruction of sorts
and if it is proved false after a time, we realise that the original act was a mistake. How can we go
back and correct the past mistakes? If we forgive someone by mistake and get to know in future that,
that was a mistake-we are happy. But if we punish someone by mistake and realise it in future, we
are terribly unhappy. Therefore violence which only destroys, disrupts, kills, spreads conflicts, can
hardly be justified. We cannot take actions based on violence for those cannot be revised. It is
impossible for someone to be violent as well as truthful or non-violent and a liar. Non-violence is
only a corollary of deliberate and consistent truthfulness.
55 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
Gandhi was very much influenced by the Gita. In the Gita there is the example of Kurukshetra which
is violence. But according to Gandhi Gita is not a book which supports violence, but it was a battle
between good and evil and it was necessary to suppress evil. Again the concept of Niskamakarma of
Gita can only be attained through non-violence. Gandhi said Niskamakarma and Ahimsa were so
closely knit together that one cannot separate the two. It implies that a man who has renounced the
fruit of action has not been left with any ground to commit violence.
Ahimsa Gandhi observes, Is always infallible. When, therefore, it appears to have failed, the
failure is due to the inaptitude of the votary. Without violence or bloodshed Gandhi fought the fight
of independence and at last carried it through to victory.
RELI GI ON: Religion for Gandhi, was not a peripheral thing. He says, I am a man of religion but
adds, I believe in the Religion of religions. Religion was the core of his being and it was the
inspiration for all his activities in various field of his life. Gandhi said, I could not live for a single
second without religion. My politics and all other activities of mine are derived from religion. By
religion Gandhi meant an universal religion. To quote Gandhi, Just as a tree has a single trunk and
many branches similarly there is one religion which underlies many particular religions. Religion is
not equitable with particular religions, it transcends Hinduism, Christianity, Islam and other religions
and yet it harmonises them all and gives them reality. By the expression Religion of Religions
Gandhi seems to talk about the essence of religions. For him, all religions are essentially alike.
Gandhis religion was a humanitarian religion. Like Tagore, Vivekananda and Radhakrishnan,
Gandhi proclaimed a humanitarian view of religion. The service of humanity therefore is the greatest
religion according to Gandhi. There are certain points of similarity between Gandhis religion and
Buddhist religion. Gandhi was very much attracted to the simplicity of life preached by Buddha.
Buddha lead a life dedicated to the cause of society. Gandhi also wanted to dedicate his life for the
cause of society.
Gandhi wrote in Harijan that Religion is a very personal matter. Everyone should be free to
choose his own. What was fundamental was a personal realisation of the religious truths. It was
ridiculous to fight in the name of religion. All religions, barring certain differences in emphasis
believed in the same fundamental maxims and postulates of the moral code. Hence Gandhi wanted
the end of all religious struggles. He said in a prayer meeting in Noakhalion January 8, 1947. All
religions are equal,.... Religions were like leaves of the same tree. There was nothing to quarrel
among Hindus, Muslims, Christians and others.
Gandhi gives much importance to the concept of tolerance when he talks about religion. Tolerance is
linked with non-violence. Tolerance as a virtue is necessary, because it encourages harmony and co-
operation for common ends between different religions. Thus tolerance does not mean indifferent to
ones own religion, it is a clear and deeper understanding of ones own religion by having a clear
comprehension and understanding of other religions. People are attracted by the ritualistic or the
formalistic aspect of religions and forget its essence. As for example, Hindu religion is said to be
based on tolerance, Islam on justice, Christianity on love. But, today it is observed that those who
claim to be true Hindu, true Muslim or true Christian lack tolerance, justice and love. Gandhi stood
56 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
not only for tolerance of all faiths (sarva dharma sahisnuta) but also for the equal validity of all faiths
(sarva dharma samata). Gandhi has the famous verse for his inspiration.

Iswara alla tera nama
mandir masjid tera dham
Sabko sanmati de bhagavan
According to Gandhi, true religion and true morality are inseparably bound up with each other. If
religion denies any of the virtues we normally associate with morality it does not deserve to be called
religion. Moral life of man must be fully concerned with ones relation with ones fellows. In
Gandhis view the noblest of all aims is the worship of God. And the highest form of worship
consists in doing the work of God by living in obedience to moral law and by rendering disinterested
service to humanity. For him a man of religion must have a firm belief in Sarvodaya or well-being of
all. So he says, I am endeavouring to see God through the service of humanity.
Gandhi like Swami Vivekananda, understood religion in terms of the relation between man and man.
Both saw God in the eyes of the poor. Both were men of great moral fervour. In an age of rising
expectations Gandhi shifted the discussion from right to duties. The minimum need of all must be
satisfied before the special needs of a few could be catered to. Expectations should be directed to
ourselves, to what we could do to change reality rather than to what the government or those in
authority would do for us.
ECONOMI C I DEAS: According to Indian Philosophy there are four ends of human life. They are;
Dharma, Artha, Kama and Moksa. Artha or wealth is only a means to the ultimate end which is
Moksa. So Indian Philosophy teaches that we must not take wealth as the ultimate goal of our life.
Too much indulgence of wealth is a vice according to Indian Philosophy and this tradition is
supported by Gandhi. One principle which played a significant part in Gandhis life was Simple
living and high thinking.The ancient Indian Upanishads teaches us that human wants are unlimited.
The first sloka of the Isopanishad says,
Isa vasya midam sarvam
Yatkincha jagatyam jagat
Tena tyaktena bhunjitah
Ma gridah kasyacit dhanam.
With that renounced thou mayest enjoy. Cavet not the wealth of anyone at all. (Isopanishad
chakra-1, sloka-1)
The teaching of the Isopanishad that speaks of sacrifice and renouncing of wealth is an important
teaching of Indian Philosophy and this tradition of Indian Philosophy has greatly influenced the
thought of Gandhi. The Brihadaranyaka Upanishad says, the mind is like a restless bird, the more it
gets the more it wants. Gandhi said that satisfaction and happiness are mental conditions and there is
no end to the multiplicity of wants. Gandhi therefore supported the view that we must keep satisfied
with the minimum of our requirements.
57 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
BREAD LABOUR: Gandhi realised the dignity of human labour. He believed that God created man
to eat his bread by the sweat of his brow. According to Gandhi as far as practicable everybody should
earn their own bread. That is everybody should indulge in the minimum of physical activities as far
as practicable to earn his or her own bread. Therefore Gandhi was in favour of the farmers and the
labourer class who work very hard to earn their own bread. According to Gandhi those who eat
without indulging in any physical activity in earning his or her bread is like a thief. Gandhi made use
of the concept of Bread Labour to tell people to utilize their idle hours which in villages are equal
to the working days of six months in the year. Gandhi preached and practised the gospel of manual
BASI C EDUCATI ON: Gandhis concept of bread labour underlies his system of Basic Education.
Basic Education is an activity method. It is really a production oriented system of education. It
emphasises on learning and doing simultaneously. The Basic Education Scheme of Gandhi was the
result of his philosophy of truth and non-violence. Development of good citizenship qualities for a
strong nation was the prime mission of Gandhis Basic Education. He planned Basic Education for
the eradication of illiteracy among the masses so as to help to understand the mission of life. The
primary aim of Basic Education was the alround development of human personality. He did not
neglect bread and butter aims of education. The primary emphasis of Basic Education was on three
aspects, i.e. development of Head, Heart and Hand, so as to help to think better, feel better and do
better for life and society. Basic Education put importance on imparting vocational training to link
education with self-dependence and socio economic development. To Gandhi, real education means
self-sufficiency. His Basic Scheme of Education emphasised on the development of the spirit of co-
operation, discipline, sacrifice, integrity, fearlessness etc. The fundamental goal of Basic Education
in brief, was self-reliant citizen with well-balanced personality.
After completion of formal education most of us automatically think like employees, looking at
which company to join, who to work for...But we never think like employers. Being an entrepreneur
involves risks, but it also makes one self-reliant and able to empower many others. An entrepreneur
creates economic activity, instead of just participating in it. If more youngsters thought about
building their own start-ups, we would have so many fresh ideas flowing into our society!
TRUSTEESHI P: According to the Jaina theory of Aparigraha we should put a limit to our wants and
should not use the extra wealth or income for our enjoyment or pleasure. So Aparigraha or abstinence
is one of the most important principles of Jainas by which Gandhi was very much influenced. It had
been said that Gandhi wanted to transform the capitalist class to the socialist class by trusteeship.
Trusteeship is a method or principle according to which we can change the society not by force or
compulsion but by the change of ones heart. By the theory of trusteeship one voluntarily declares his
extra wealth or income and allows it to be used for the greater interest of the society.
Gandhi wanted all people should be equal more or less from the economic standpoint. Gandhi
wanted to abolish the distinction between the rich class and the poor class in the society. In the aspect
of economic equality Gandhi was influenced by the book Unto the last by John Ruskin. In this
book John Ruskin has mentioned that all should get equal wages as far as practicable.
58 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
SWARAJ : The ultimate aim of every activity, according to Gandhi, is the realisation of spiritual
freedom. Swaraj is a step towards it, because it enables an individual to realise at least political
We have the mention of the word Swaraj in Taittareya Upanishad;
Pranara mana anandam
Santi samriddham swarajyam
Swaraj is that which gives happiness and bliss to the mind.
According to Gandhi also swaraj is the basic necessity of the individual. Without Swaraj or self-rule
there can be no peace and happiness in the society. Gandhi says, The Swaraj of my dream is the
poor mans Swaraj. The necessity of life should be enjoyed by you in common with those enjoyed by
princes and monied men. Gandhi compared Swaraj with Ramraj. Ram according to Gandhi
stands for the qualities of justice, equality, truth, honesty etc. Therefore by Ramraj Gandhi meant
the rule which should be the ideal rule having these qualities.
SARVODAYA: Swaraj leads to Sarvodaya. The etymological meaning of Sarvodaya is the rising of
all. As an universal ideal, Sarvodaya aims at not only fulfilling the material needs but also
developing the ethico-spiritual aspect of all people. The revival of ancient philosophy of Sarvodaya is
his greatest contribution to the world of thought. Gandhi attempted the synthesis of the ideas of
Vedanta, Buddhism, Jainism, Christianity and the teaching of people like Tulasidas, Tolstoy,
Thoreau, Ruskin and national leaders of Indian Renaissance Movement. The philosophy of
Sarvodaya takes up the Gandhian synthesis and tries to work out the implication of their ideas at
more critical and analytical levels.
In order to realise Sarvodaya Gandhi was in favour of the upliftment of the village people. He wanted
to develop the cottage and small scale industries because they are labour intensive in the sense that
they can absorb a large number of labourers. He encouraged the handicraft industries which produces
articles of daily needs like leather sandals, mats, utensils, bags and so on and on. Gandhi was in
favour of production by masses rather than mass production. A centralised economy according to
Gandhi is the root cause of concentration of wealth and power in the hands of a few individuals. So
according to Gandhi the means of production must be decentralised and it should reach every village
in every corner of India.
SATYAGRAHA: Gandhi says, There is only one whom we have to fear, that is God. When we fear
God, we shall fear no man, and if you went to follow the vows of truth, then fearlessness is
absolutely necessary. This doctrine of fearless pursuit is called Satyagraha. Satyagraha means
persistence in truth. It is also called truth force. The philosophy of Satyagraha is thus the natural
outcome of the concept of truth. It is a non-violence method to eradicate injustice, exploitation etc.
Gandhi believes that truth can never be failed and it is not confined to any particular religion. It is the
utmost moral urge of all human beings. Our vedic risis have also worked for it. Gandhi acquired this
technique of Satyagraha with the help of non-violence and non-co-operation where a Satyagrahi
punished himself instead of the opponent and cherished love and non-violence attitude to enjoy legal
and moral rights.
59 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
According to Gandhi, a Satyagrahi must observe five vows of Truthfulness, Non-violence, Non-
thieving, Non-possession and Sex-control. Nowadays we also observe that some of the organisations
of our country has obeyed Gandhian ideal of Satyagraha like fasting, non-co-operation etc. against
the government and most of them got successful result. We also perceive everywhere the enormous
crisis of moral values and love. Gandhian act of Satyaghaha is the easiest instrument to solve various
problems of the present world conflicts.
CONCLUSI ON: Gandhis philosophy teaches us to pay more and more attention to the positive
aspect of things which can be used for the spreading of universal brotherhood and love by breaking
the barriers of space and time. Because as Gita says Vasudeva Kutumbakam, which means all the
people are our brothers and sisters and we must use relation for our peace and prosperity. The very
first piece of advice that a vedic teacher has given to his students returning home after graduation is
this Satyam Vada, Dharman Chara, speak the truth, act according to dharma. Their advice
rendered over five thousand years ago is valid even today.......
In the matter of practising truth, there is no compromise. They will invariably tell that they know to
be true and face the consequence, however severe. They often end up by antagonising people and
inviting dangers for themselves. But they are courageous. Life becomes an endless possession of
activities based on truth. Upholding truth becomes the mission of life. Life itself becomes of minor
importance. Death loses its awesomeness. There are examples of people dying for the security of
their country or dying for other noble causes. These Gandhian type thinkers believe that truth is a
cause noble enough to die for. They do not of course kill others. But they do not bother if they will be
killed. They are really killed too! Socrates got killed. Jesus got killed. Bruno and Bonhoeffer got
killed. Gandhi too got killed. They pay the price for their deep convictions with their lives. They
never regret that. That is why they are Mahatmas.
With the help of Non-violence and Satyagraha a new world order of peace and universal brotherhood
of man can be established in the globe of mankind and that can change the earth of man full with
violence and hatred to the Eden of heavens full with love and peace.
Gandhi, Mohandas Karamchand (1940). An Autobiography Or The Story of My Experiments with
Truth (2 ed.). Ahmedabad: Navajivan Publishing House.
Gandhi, Mohandas Karamchand(1962). The Essential Gandhi. Ballantine Books, Vintage Books.
Parel, Anthony J., ed. (2009). Gandhi, Mohandas Karamchand, Hind Swaraj and Other Writings
Centenary Edition, University Press.
Kuruvila Pandikattu(2001). Gandhi: the meaning of Mahatma for the millennium, CRVP.
Gandhi, M.K :Some Rules of Satyagraha Young India (Navajivan) 23 Feb., 1930.

60 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy

Jatinder Kumar Jain
Globalization in a literal sense is international integration. It is a process of unifying of the people
with different backgrounds into a single society and functioning harmoniously. The advocacy of
globalization is called globalism which embodies cultural diffusion, the desire to consume and enjoy
foreign products and ideas, adopt new technology and practices and participate in a world culture.
Globalists argue that globalization has helped in optimum utilization of resources, price reduction,
more employment, higher output, a higher standard of living and civil liberties.
In the era of globalism, science and technology has made the life of man very comfortable materially.
But unfortunately man has lost faith in spiritual and human values. With the advent of new electronic
means of communication, the world has shrinked into a global village. The physical distance between
nations, cultures, religions, races, civilizations and languages and consequently among people have
gone, but the distance between the hearts is increasing. Atmosphere of hatred and hostility has
developed between divergent viewpoints. The values of co-existence and co-operation are being
ignored, which are essential for the very existence of mankind. It has led to emergence of
hegemonical tendencies among certain nations, races, castes, religions, civilizations which has put a
question mark of the very existence of mankind. The atmosphere of hatred and hostility has led to
production and proliferation of weapons of mass destruction like nuclear weapons. The race for such
weapon is putting a question mark on the very survival of mankind.
According to Huntington, "Clashes of civilization are the greatest threat to world peace, and an
international order based on civilization is the surest safeguard against world war."

World, that is comprised of divergent value-structures, norms and behaviors, ethnically of many
races and their inter-mixing, multi-cultural and multi lingual, of different religious communities,
adhering to different political ideologies of extreme right, extreme left and uneven economic
development of different regions resulting in uneven employment opportunities, in this era of
globalization there is a need of such a comprehensive philosophy which can help in achieving mental
peace and equilibrium and also help mankind in evolving a atmosphere of mutual respect and
harmony between different races, religions, nations, civilizations, castes and classes and promote
world peace, coexistence, equitable distribution of wealth and readdress ecological and
environmental issues.
Principal of ahimsa advocated in Jainism offers a wholesome and integrated solution. The doctrine of
non-violence occupies an important place in Buddhism as well as Yoga system of Patanjali, but the
type of importance it is given in Jainism is unparallel. It is central in Jaina religion. Ahimsa is so
Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy (ISSN: 2249-8389)
Volume III, No. 01 (March, 2013), pp.60-66
61 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
central in the Jaina faith that it may be called the beginning and the end of Jaina religion. According
to Jainism, non-violence is the highest dharma. It is the essence of religion.

In nutshell the Jain philosophy can be summed up as : the contact of living and non-living result in
the formation of Samskaras i.e. energies causing birth, death, pleasure, pain and other such
experiences of life. The process could be stopped called samvara in Jainism. By nirjara the already
formed samkaras can be destroyed liberation could be attained by these types of austerities. There
are seven tattvas, which are:
(1) Living (Jiva)
(2) Non-living (Ajiva)
(3) Contact of the two
(4) Contact leading to the formation of Samkaras
(5) Process of formation could be stopped (Samvara)
(6) Existing samkaras could be exhausted (Nirjara)
(7) Salvation (Moksha)
According to Huntington, the post-cold war world would regroup into regional alliances, which are
based on religious beliefs and historical attachments to various civilization. These religio political
barrier would severely constrains the progress of globalism. In the clash of civilizations, Huntington
says religious differences play a most important part as "religion is a central defining characteristic of

About religious differences in different religions, John H. Hick says, different religions seen to say
different and incompatible things about the nature of Ultimate Reality, about the modes of divine
activity, and about the nature and destiny of human race.

Jains philosophy of Anekantavada and Syadavada which teaches one can be respectful to other view
points while professing his own, as reality is too complex to be comprehended by single view point.
Such a doctrine helps in promoting mutual respects in heterogeneous groups of people with multi-
racial background, living in multi lingual society professing different religions, inhabiting diverse
geographical regions with diverse cultural background. Jainism whose motto is: all life is inter-
related and it is the duty of souls to assist each other, can help in Jain's doctrine of Anekantavada
offers a rich philosophical resource for addressing the question of the conflicting truth claims of
different religion. In the domain of philosophical thought, Jainism has given rise to the attitude of
non-absolutism (Anekantavada) or the doctrine of explanation by division (Vibhajyavada). Obstinate
insistence on one's own attitude and way of thought, considering them as complete and ultimate
truth, is an enemy of the attitude of equality. So the attitude of other person should be given due
respect and attention. As reality has innumerable aspects and no single aspect can comprehend it in
totality, so innumerable aspects are required to comprehend it. Anekantavada is the "theory of
62 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
manifoldness of reality ", according to B.K.Matilal, who again says, the term Anekantavada is also
used for the Jain philosophical method as a method which allows for reconciliation, integration and
synthesis of conflicting philosophical views.

According to this view, reality is extremely indeterminate in its nature. There are innumerable ways
of looking at reality and each view yields different conclusion. The nature of reality is expressed
completely by none of them, for in its concrete richness it admits all predicates. Every proposition is
therefore only conditional.
According to the twin doctrine of Anekantavada and Syadvada each
view-point is only conditional and is characterized by may be.
We cannot absolutely affirm or deny anything of any object. There is nothing certain on account of
the endless complexity of things. It emphasizes the complex nature of reality and its indefiniteness. It
does not deny the possibility of predication; through it disallows absolute or categorical predication.
The dynamic character of reality can consult only with relative or conditional predication. Every
proposition is true, but only under certain conditions, i.e. hypothetical.

Jain thinkers illustrate this position by means of a story of the five blind men, who put their hands on
the different parts of the elephant and each tried to describe the whole animal from the part touched
by him. All philosophical, ideological and religious differences and disputes are mainly due to
mistaking a partial truth for the whole truth. The different judgments represent different aspects of
the many-sided reality and can claim only partial truth. This view makes Jainism catholic, broad
minded and tolerant. It teaches respect for others' point of view. The doctrine indicates extreme
caution and signifies an anxiety to avoid all dogma in defining the nature of reality.

The doctrine of Anekantavada brings the spirit of intellectual and social tolerance, which is the need
of the hour. The spirit of tolerance was maintained in Jainism from the very beginning. In the 6

century B.C., when there were different religious and philosophical ideologies prevalent in India, 24
Tirthankara Lord Mahavira asserts in Sutrakritanga, Those who praise their own faiths and
ideologies and blame those of their opponents and thus distort the truth will remain confined to the
cycle of birth and death". Jain philosophers always maintained that all viewpoints are true in respect
of what they have themselves to say, but they are false in so far as they totally refute other
viewpoints. Jain thinker of 8
century A.D. Haribhadra says , I bear no bias towards Lord Mahavira
and no disregard to Kapila and other saints and thinkers, whatsoever is rational and logical ought to
be accepted. About the epistemological importance of Anekantavada, B.K. Matilal says, The
philosophical position of the Jains in this way found expression in the Anekanta doctrine, a doctrine
that was characterized by toleration, understanding and respect for the views of others. This is a
unique character of Jain philosophy and religion, which I found most (admirable). For very seldom
(has) such a sincere attempt been made to understand the position of the adversary.

Practice of Panchmahvrattas is central for the attainment of liberation in Jainism. These are :
1. Ahimsa (Non-violence)
2.Satya (Truthfulness)
3.Asteya (Non-Stealing)
63 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
4.Brahmacharya (Chastity)
5.Aparigraha (Non-acquisition)
1.Ahimsa (Non-violence) : It is central and fundamental virtue. All the rest are regarded as the mean
for it proper sustenance, just as the field of corn requires adequate fencing for its protection
Nonviolence is regarded as the highest dhrama in Jainism. Its scope is much wider in Jainism. It is
not harming by thought, speech and action any living creature (including not only human beings,
animals but also plants and vegetables and even elements of water, air, earth etc.). According to
Jainism all living beings from one-sensed to the five sensed are basically like our own self.

Consequently it is not justifiable to injure them, to rule our them and to torment them.
About this
vow of non-violence, Maurice winternitz quotes from Acharanga Sutra as : I speak thus. All saints
(Arhats) and Lords (Bhagavats) in the past, in the present and in the future, they all say thus, speak
thus, announce thus and declare thus : one may not kill, nor ill-use, nor insult, nor torment, nor
persecute any kind of living being, any kind of creature, any kind of thing having a soul, any kind of
things. That is the pure, eternal, enduring commandment of religion, which has been proclaimed by
the sages who comprehend the world.
Violence has been categorized into four kinds :
1. Accidental 2. Occupational
3. Protective 4. Intentional
1. Accidental Violence is injury to small living beings, unavoidable in walking, bathing,
preparing food, eating, cleaning and other similar activities of daily life.
2. Occupational Violence is when a soldier has to fight and cause physical harm to enemy or
when a former has to cause physical violence to living being while performing farming operation.
3. Protective Violence is when we kill a living being which otherwise might itself kill us or
become an instrumental in killing or harming us like killing poisonous snake, dacoit, mosquitoes etc.
4. Intentional Violence is when we kill living beings simply for the sake of killing or for fun.
A householder is required to abstain fully from the fourth kind of injury, and he should take as much
care and caution against loss of life in the other forms as it is possible for him. He should cause
violence to the minimum for his sustenance of life and discharge of duties. Piercing, binding, over
loading and starving animals are all forms of violence and should be avoided.
If mankind has to survive, there is a urgent need of a firm belief in the principles of non-violence. In
Acharanga Sutra, it is said , There are weapons superior to each other, but nothing is superior to
non-violence. Peace and prosperity can be secured through the principle of Ahimsa (non-violence).
It is an inevitable principle for the existence of human society in present era.
64 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
The implication of Ahimsanuvrata in solving social, national and international problems is that the
principle of mutual understanding should be adhered to. Life should be elevated altogether from the
plane of force to that of reason, persuasion, accommodation and mutual service.
The maintenance
of universal peace and the promotion of human welfare can only be affected by suffusing worlds
atmosphere with the spirit of Ahimsa.
The doctrine of Ahimsa takes the form of forgiveness in social sphere, which is very vital for the
peaceful co-existence of mutually contradictory viewpoints. A Jain muni forgives each and every
creature every day, including those who intentionally or unintentionally might have harmed him.
This attitude of forgiveness promotes general peace in society along with providing mental peace to
the practioner.
2.Satya (Truthfulness) : One should not utter false and even truths injurious to others. One should
neither speak falsehood himself, nor induce others to do so, nor approve falsehood of others. Other
forms of untruth are-spreading false ideas, divulging the secrets of others, back-bitting, forging
documents, and breach of trust. They are to be avoided.
3.Asteya (Non-Stealing) : Steya (Stealing) means appropriating things not lawfully belonging to us.
This vow is extension of the vow of non-violence as things constitute the external pranas of a man
and he who thieves and plunders them is said to deprive a man of his pranas.
Appropriating to oneself what another man has forgotten or has dropped or accepting what he knows
to be stolen property, instructing another person in the method of stealing, adulteration and use of
false weights and measures are all forms of theft and should be abstained from.
4.Brahmacharya (Chastity) : Sex passion is abhrahma. It is expected of muni that he should be
completely free from sexual inclination. But for a householder keeping himself satisfied with his own
wife is observing the vow of celibacy. He should keep himself away from prostitution, adultery,
unnatural methods of sexual enjoyment and the like.
5.Aparigraha (Non-acquisition) : Acquisition of things is parigraha. It is a form of himsa. A
householder should limit the possession of wealth and other material things. This vow can help in
reducing economic inequalities rampant in the society. It will lead to a situation where everybody
will be able to get things of at least daily necessity. If he earns more than he should spend it away in
charities like distribution of medicines, spreading knowledge, supporting teachers, helping those in
danger, feeding the hungry and the poor.
Globalization has created a situation in economic field where the developed economies were able to
exploit the less developed. The multinational companies are dominating every sphere of life. This has
led to a situation where some have grown very rich and a vast majority has slipped to abject poverty.
According to human development report of United Nation development programme 1992, 20% rich
has 82.7% income while 20% poorest has mere 1.2% income. According to The UN Report on the
World Social Situation 2010 released globally in New Delhi on 30/01/2010 over 40% of people in
India still lives on less than $ 1.25 [around Rs 60] a day.
65 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy

Often recourse to communalism and regionalism is taken whenever vested interests are involved.
These vested interests are mostly economic in nature. Economic disparity and unemployment are two
biggest causes of religious fundamentalism and terrorism. According to Engels,the ideas of each
historical period are most simply to be explained from the economic conditions of life and from the
social and political relation of the period, which are in turn determined by these economic

This unequal distribution of wealth has led to unrest among masses, which need to be addressed
immediately, otherwise the whole system will collapse leading to large scale violence. Here we need
such a view of life which teaches haves to voluntarily share their wealth and riches with have nots.
The rich should limit their greed and possession. Rather, there is a need of philosophy of life which
teaches them (the rich) to work for general welfare instead of their own selfish interests. The vow of
Aparigraha teaches such a philosophy.
Jain's doctrine of Ahimsa (non-violence) and Anekantavada (non-absolutism) preaches a broader
outlook and open-mindedness, which is essential to solve the conflicts caused by differences in
ideologies and faiths. This spirit is very much necessary in contemporary arena when conflicting
ideologies are trying to assert supremacy aggressively. In globalized world the basic problems are
mental tension, violence, unequal distribution of wealth, and the conflicts between different
ideologies, faiths, civilizations etc., which is threatening world peace and harmony. Jainism has tried
to solve these problems of mankind through the basic tenets of Ahimsa (non-violence), Aparigraha
(non-acquisition) and Anekantavada (non-absolutism). If mankind observes these principles, peace
and harmony can certainly be established in the world. Jains philosophy of Anekantavada and
Syadavada which teaches one can be respectful to other view points while professing his own, as
reality is too complex to be comprehended by single view point. Such a doctrine helps in promoting
mutual respects in heterogeneous groups of people with multi-racial background, living in multi
lingual society professing different religions, inhabiting diverse geographical regions with diverse
cultural background. Jainism whose motto is: all life is inter-related and it is the duty of souls to
assist each other, can help in the process of globalization.
1. Huntington, Samuel P. (1997). The Clash of Civilization and Remaking of World Order
Penguine Books, New Delhi, p. 13
2. Sutrakrtanga-sutra,
3. Huntington, Samuel P ; op.cit, p. 47
4. John H. Hick (1990). Philosophy of Religion Englewood Clifs, New Jersy, Prentice Hall,
5. B.K.Matilal (1981). The Central Philosophy of Jainism (Anekantavada)L.D.Institute of
Indology, Ahmedabad, p. 23.
6. Hiriyanna, M. (2000). Outlines of Indian Philosophy, MLBD Publishers, Delhi, p. 163.
66 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
7. Radhakrishnan, Dr. S.(1941). Indian Philosophy, vol. I, George Allen & Unwin Ltd.,
London, p. 302.
8. Hiriyanna, M. : op. cit., p. 163.
9. B.K. Matilal, op. cit., p. 6.
10. Sarvarthasiddhi VII.1.
11. Dasavaikalika Sutra 1.5.5
12. Acharanga Sutra 1.79
13. Maurice Winternitz (1972). History of Indian Literature Oriantal Books reprint corporation,
New Delhi, p.436.
14. Prasad, Beni: World Problems and Jaina Ethics, Jain Cultural Society, Banaras, p.9.
15. Engels,F. (1975). Karl Marx, Selected Works, Progress Publishers, Moscow,p.372.

67 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy

Rinky Chowdhury

In ancient India, the social structure was based on scientific principle. Varnasharma system was
based on the classification of a general distribution of wealth, promoted mental and moral progress,
made tranquility compatible with advancement and also ensured material efficiency.

In the Rigvedic period, mankind was divided into two classes the Aryas or the civilized or the
white and the Dasyus or the savage or the black. Later on, in the light of the Yajurveda Samhita
mankind was divided into four classes

The Brahmanas, who devoted themselves in the acquisition of knowledge and learning and
following the liberal arts and sciences.
The Kshatriyas, who devoted themselves in the theory of war and arts of war. The executive
government of the people was entrusted to them.
The Vaisyas, who devoted themselves to trade, business and other like professions. They are
the producers of wealth, distributors of wealth, keepers of wealth and the sustainers of
The Sudras, who were entrusted to serve the other three classes. Those who could not choose
for himself a respectable place on account of his own weakness or idleness and are treated a
man of low capacities.

In other words, the social stratification or the varna system in the vedic period can be compared to
the four parts of the body. A Brahmana was like the head of the body(society), a Kshtriya was like
arms, a Vaisya like thighs and the Sudra was like the feet. Head leads the entire body by sending
signal to specific parts and safeguards the interest of every parts of body. Similarly, the objective of
acquisition of knowledge of the Vedas to be achieved by Brahmana is not for himself but for the
whole society and its people. Kshtriyas who are the arms of the society, protect the other three varnas
from evil force or deeds and defends the country like soldiers. Vaisya, who was like thighs, act as an
agent to carry the produced goods in the society from the place of their production to the place where
these are needed. Sudra, who was considered as feet of the human body but a useful member of the
society. Just as man cannot stand upon his legs without feet, society cannot continue to exist without
the service and help of the men of low capacities. As the human society needs many things, which no
single person can do efficiently, so it leaves every man to choose his own line of works.

If we retreat back to the pre-vedic period and see the panaromic view of the Varnasrama system in
ancient India, it is found that Varnasrama was not rigid. It may be regarded as an instrument of social
tolerance and adjustment, because it sought to find a place, however lowly, for every social element
and every social functions. To find a place for every manifestation of life was one of the main
Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy (ISSN: 2249-8389)
Volume III, No. 01 (March, 2013), pp.67-69
68 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
endeavors. But with the by-gone times, people in the society made it rigid i.e. one will categories to a
particular class by his birth only and attains the varna nature from hierarchy and leads to caste system
of the present day. It originally started from classes but with the passage with time it has become
very complicated and rigid. In the early days of the human race, there was no class distinctions as all
are born from the supreme. In ancient vedic era, it was acceptable that by the first or physical birth all
are born as sudras, but become regenerate (Dvija) by the second or spiritual birth or by actions. It
was by their actions that mankind was divided into different varnas or classes. No Brahmana was a
Brahmana by blood nor a Sudra was made a Sudra by the society; but he was considered a sudra
because of his own karma (action).Everybody belong to the order to which his merits fitted him to
be. A brahmana becomes a brahmana by gaining a knowledge of the veda and if God. He should
perform sacrifices, worshiping God on behalf of others, should teach others the knowledge of veda
and lead a simple life void of wealth and kept distance from all sorts of material pleasure and
honours as well. He must devote his whole life in the study of Vedas and to teach others. If a
brahmana ceases to be the trustee of the interests of the whole society and omitting the study of
Vedas, soon becomes a sudra along with his family. A brahmana who does not study the Vedas and
does not perform any tapas and yet receive charity is like a stone float in the water who will sink
deeper and deeper in the quagmire of sin.

Some good examples can be put down in the form of writing in relation to these four clases.Jabala,
who is otherwise called Satya-Kama jabala, born of a slave girl, had no gotra or family name. He is
known so after his mother Jabala, was the founder of a school of the Yajur veda. Rhisi Balmiki, surd
by birth, was the author of the Ramayana. Kavasa, son of a low-caste woman, Ilusa, and sudra by
birth, by learning and wisdom, distinguished himself as a Rhisi. He was greatly respected for his
attainments in various literary fields. He was admitted into the class of Rhisis for some of his
contributions of the hymns of the Rigbeda. Some of the kings like Asvapati of Kekayas, Ajata satru
of kasi, Janaka of videha and Prabhu Jabala of Panchala become brahmanas through learning and
even instructed brahmanas in the lore of the Brahma.

Therefore, it is aptly clear that the original classification was based not on mere birth but were
separated by virtue and action. Neither through ancestors nor through color can the spirit worthy of a
Brahmana be generated. There is no difference between one man and other. The people enjoyed the
advantages and disadvantages of his good and bad actions (karma). The son of a Brahmana
sometimes become a kshatriya or a vaisya, or a Sudra depending on his karma. And at the sametime,
a sudra could become a brahmana or a kshtriya. Knowledge and wisdom was looked upon as the
primary qualification of a person. But with changes of time, things have changed. The class system in
its earlier form had proved beneficial to the contemporary society, as it was based on the theory of
karma and on the basis of birth. But now its present form is very harmful for the Indian society. In
fact, it has done more harm than worth more to the Indian community. The serious drawbacks of a
rigid system of caste based on birth took place in the place of flexible Varnasrama system of the
ancient time. Knowledge is still given more importance but the people were irrevocably walled in by
castes were not free to rise to the higher social level nor were sinked to the lower position of their
bad actions.
69 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy

In the education programmes of the Brahmanas, it was highly philosophical and less practical for the
discharge of their duties as leaders of the society. But the education of the kshatriyss was highly
technical and less philosophical as a preparation for the discharge of their duties both as rulers and
defender of their state and government from the foreigh invaders. In the case vaisyas, education was
highly practical and less philosophical as to serve their interest and also the interest of the state.

Historians have divergent opinions on its origin. Some scholars opine that the varna of ancient Indian
and the caste system are two names of one system but there is great difference between the two.
Varna was decided by occupation while the caste was determined by birth. For a long time, men
could change their occupation and enter another caste on the basis of change of occupation, but with
passage of time it becomes improbable to enter another caste. Scholars have contended that the caste
system originated as a result of division of society into four groups on the basis of their duties and
professions. For the convenient transaction of various duties the people adopted different professions
which in course of time developed into separate entities. With the passage of time these professions
grew hereditary and assumed the shape of present day caste system.

70 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy

K.J.Sandhu & Khusboo

The present paper focuses on acculturative stress in relation to organizational integration.
When a person moves from on state to another state, one culture to another culture due to
any specific reason then acculturative stress is evolved. Acculturation has four orientations:
(i) integration (ii) assimilation (iii) separation (iv) marginalization. If employees prefer
integrated and assimilated acculturation orientation, then they experience less acculturative
stress and their organizational integration is better. If employees prefer separated and
marginalized acculturation orientation then they experience more acculturative stress and
their organizational integration is adversely affected. The employees organizational
integration is disrupted and they feel acculturative stress, consecutively, employees mental
health and well-being are also influenced. But some measures of reducing acculturative
stress like: self-monitoring, cognitive restructuring, social-support and information sharing
can be used as these measures help in reducing adverse effects of acculturative stress and
promote the organizational integration of employees as well as in the organization.
Keywords: Organizational integration, Acculturative stress, social support.

Acculturation is the exchange of cultural features that results when groups of individuals
having different cultures come into continuous contact; the original culture patterns of either
or both groups may be altered, but the groups remain distinct. An anthropological definition
was first used to describe acculturation as changes that occur as a result of continuous first
hand contact between groups of individuals of differing cultural origins (Redfield, Linton
and Herskovits 1936). Acculturation is a dual process affecting the members of two or more
culture groups as each adapts to the presence of the other (Berry, 2006). The concept is
distinct from enculturation, which refers to the learning of a cultures values, beliefs and
norms during development, and also from culture change, which are changes in a culture
resulting from innovation, invention and discovery (Castro, 2003).
Many factors affect acculturation or acculturative stress; language, cultural identity,
discrimination, life style, and peer-groups. Acculturation preferences may be influenced by
gender. Studies on gender differences in acculturation and ethnic identification reveal
females tend to be more identified with their native culture than do males. For example,
Japanese females scored higher than males on Japanese ethnic identity scale (Masuda,
Hasegawa and Matsumoto, 1973). Other family related factors that may influence
acculturation preferences include the families socioeconomic status (SES) and length of
residence in the host culture.
Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy (ISSN: 2249-8389)
Volume III, No. 01 (March, 2013), pp.70-80
71 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
Self-esteem is frequently used as a measure or indicator of adolescent well-being and
psychological adjustment. Defined as the level of regard one has for the self as a person
(Harter, 1993), self esteem can be understood in terms of competencies across several
domains, such as academic ability, athletics, social acceptance, and physical appearance.
Research has linked self-esteem with ethnic identity (Phinney, 1990). Overall, results show
that for adolescents of varying ethnic backgrounds, the more positive about, committed to,
and identified they are with their ethnic group, the higher their self-esteem (Crocker,
Luhtanen, Blaine, and Broadnax, 1994; Phinney, 1992; Phinney, Cantu and Kurtz, 1997).
La Fromboise, Coleman and Gerton, (1993) theorize that integration leads to better
psychological health.
The family plays an important role in fostering the psychological well being of its members
by providing a system of social support, transmitting cultural values, and developing a sense
of cohesion (Phinney and Ong, 2002). Kagitcibasi (2007) suggests that this lack of attention
is due to the focus on the individual and use of experimental methodologies that have
created difficulty in allowing the family to be treated as a unit of analysis. Consequently,
migration particularly to a country characterized by large differences in language, values,
beliefs and traditions often requires fundamental changes in the functioning of the family
The degree to which two (or more) groups differ affects the amount of accommodation
required (Tadmor, Tetlock and Peng, 2009). Intergroup attitudes also affect the
acculturative process: tolerance of diversity or attitudes of prejudice and exclusion lead to
very different process and outcomes for the minority community (Green, 2009). The
community forms a constant context across lifespan development (Bronfenbrenner and
Morris, 1998), and a sense of belonging and meaning within society are considered key to
well-being (Withlock, 2007). The absence of a stable ethnic community to join has been
linked to poor mental health and well-being (Salant and Lauderdale, 2003). It is also a level
at which informed social policy and action can effectively lead to better outcomes in
acculturative adaption (Smith, 2008).
In summary, there is a strong link between acculturation and intercultural relations.
Although integration is widely preferred by immigrants and is associated with positive
psychological and socio-cultural outcome (Berry, 2006) in the international arena, it can
only be achieved in multicultural societies that appreciate cultural diversity and ensure
participation for minority ethnic, cultural, religious and linguistic groups. It is critical to
understand the views of both the mainstream and minority groups in a society and the
historical, political, social and economic factors that shape them.
In another study Guinn, Vincent, Wang and Villas (2011) suggested to identify variables
distinguishing more acculturated versus less acculturated Latinos residing near the United States
Mexico border. Descriptive discriminate analysis was used to determine which variables made the
greatest contribution in discerning between more acculturated and less acculturated border Latinos.
Results indicated educational attainment, higher self-esteem, and marriage differentiated between
high- and low-acculturated participants with gender, health status, and physical activity showing no
group differentiation.
Previous qualitative research has suggested that Hispanic gang membership is linked to the process
of acculturation. Specifically, studies have indicated that those who are less assimilated into
mainstream American or Anglo society are at greater risk for joining gangs. Building on these
observations, Miller, Barnes and Hartley (2011) examines the relationship between acculturation and
72 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
gang membership. Findings from logistic regression analyses indicated that respondents grade in
school, neighborhood drug availability, level of ethnic marginalization, and level of acculturation
were all significantly associated with self-reported gang membership. Results also suggested that
marginalization may partially mediate the effects of acculturation.
Telzer (2010) stated acculturation gap-distress model examined that immigrant children acculturate
to their new culture at a quicker pace than their parents, leading to family conflict and youth
maladjustment. In contrast to the original model, which only discusses 1 type of acculturation gap,
there are at least 4 types of acculturation gaps: (1) the child is more acculturated than the parent in
the host culture, (2) the child is less acculturated than the parent in the host culture, (3) the child is
more acculturated than the parent in the native culture, and (4) the child is less acculturated than the
parent in the native culture. A review of research indicates that each of these types of gaps function
in unique ways.
Vang (2009) examined the relationships among acculturation, cultural adjustment problems, and
psychological distress among Hmong Americans living in the Midwestern portion of the United
States. Finally, in terms of the post hoc analysis of the variables, the results of Pearson correlation
coefficient show that acculturation was significantly related to place of birth, education, and religion.
Cultural adjustment difficulty was significantly related to psychological distress, education, and
income. In another study Yoon, Lee and Goh (2008) suggested that sense of connectedness
to both ethnic and mainstream community has been observed to mediate between
acculturation and well-being, with individuals who interact with both ethnic and dominant
community manifesting lower levels of stress.

According to Berrys 4 Types of Acculturation Orientations:
According to Berrys model of acculturation (Berry, 1980; Berry, Kim, and Boski, 1988;
Berry et al., 1989), there are four ways ethnic group members can associate with their host
culture, individuals can assimilate (identify solely with the dominant culture and sever ties
with their own culture); marginalize (reject both their own and the host culture), separate
(identify solely with their own group and reject the host culture); and integrate (become
bicultural by maintaining characteristics of their own ethnic group while selectively
acquiring those of the host culture). Research on acculturation attitudes and psychological
functioning suggests that integration is the most adaptive form of acculturation. In several
studies assessing the acculturation strategies of various immigrant groups in North America,
Berry and others (Berry, 1980; Berry, Kim, Minde, and Mok, 1987; Sayegh and Lasry,
1993) found integration was the preferred mode of acculturation, followed by either
assimilation or separation, with marginalization as the least preferred mode. Integrated
individuals experienced less acculturative stress (Berry et al. 1988; Sam and Berry, 1995)
and anxiety, and manifested fewer psychological problems, than those who were
marginalized, separated, or assimilated. Overall, marginalized individuals suffered the most
psychological distress, including problems with self-identification and cultural alienation
which adversely affected their self-esteem.

73 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
Acculturative Stress moving to a new culture, individuals meet many challenges: new language,
different customs and laws, distinct norms of social behavior, etc. Facing such challenges often
brings a certain amount of stress, known as acculturative stress.

Acculturative stress is an outcome due to the acculturation process between two cultures.
Psychocultural stress occurs due to cultural differences found between a host culture and an
incoming culture marked by reduction in the physical and mental health status of individuals or
groups undergoing acculturation.Acculturative stress has numerous effects upon an individual, such
as substance abuse, eating disorders, depression, low self-esteem, and family dysfunction. It is
important to recognize the effects of acculturation and ethnic identity when treating an individual
from a minority group as symptoms can be attributed to these factors. Research has shown that
acculturative stress is an important factor in the mental health of immigrants, as it increases the risk
for various psychological problems. Several variables are associated with the degree of acculturative
stress. The greater the differences between two cultures, the higher the stress.
International migration research has focused on the immigrants mental and physical health issues
with little attention paid to factors that facilitate adjustment. Jibeen (2011) examined the moderating
impact of coping resources (sense of coherence and perceived social support) and coping strategies
(problem-focused and emotion-focused) on the relationship between acculturative stress and
psychological well-being (positive functioning and negative health outcomes) in stress-coping model.
Results indicated that sense of coherence and perceived social support moderated between
acculturative stress and positive functioning (self-acceptance, positive relations with others,
autonomy, environmental mastery, purpose in life, personal growth), and acculturative stress and
negative health outcomes (depression, psychosomatic symptoms, anxiety and insomnia, social
dysfunction).The current findings have implications for clinicians, and researchers.
Belizaire and Fuertes (2011) investigated the relationship between attachment, coping, acculturative
stress, and quality of life (QOL) in a sample of Haitian immigrants in the United States. Results
indicated that an increase in years living in the United States and greater anxiety attachment were
negatively associated with QOL and that higher levels of adaptive coping were associated with
higher QOL and lower levels of acculturative stress.
The purpose of this study was to determine the factors influencing acculturative stress among
international students from the international student perspective. This study explored how
acculturative stressors, social support and stress are related. Eustace and William (2007) examined
the significant socio-cultural and demographic predictors of acculturative stress. The Berry's
acculturation stress research framework and Bronfenbrenner's ecological perspective were used to
guide this study. The findings indicated that students who were experiencing increased levels of
difficulty with the acculturative stressors were more likely to experience higher levels of stress. In
addition international students who reported high levels of collective social support were more likely
to display less impact of acculturative stressors on acculturative stress. However, the unique
moderating influences of various types of social support (family, friends and important others) on the
relationship between acculturative stressor and stress was not supported.
Further it is assumed that successful organizational integration is depending upon the individuals
work environment. Acculturative stress and organizational integration are associated with each other.
If employees have acculturative distress and dissatisfied with his working environment then he does
not easily integrate with the new culture. Moreover, high level of acculturative stress in an employee
74 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
may not allow easy adjustment with the new culture and they might feel; separated and marginalized
with the new culture. On the other hand, it may also be assumed that lower level of acculturative
stress in an employee would lead to integration with ones own or with the other culture.
The organizational integration phase requires managers to integrate the companies in order to realize
anticipated synergy effects, such as reduced cost per unit or increased income. Organizational
integration can be defined as the degree of interaction and coordination between the two joining
companies (Larason and Finkelstein, 1999). Successful integration enables organizational learning
between the companies that might result in superior performance (Bresman, Birkinshaw and Nobel,
1999; Pothukuchi et al., 2002). Organizational integration is defined as the degree of cooperation
and communication between internal and external new product development (NPD) support groups
and NPD teams.
Integration plan involves:
Building structure around the integration process and knowing what challenges the new employee
will face and what will be needed to overcome them.
Clarify the mandate and timeframes.
Provide a coach or mentor to help the employee gain insight into the organization.
Assimilate the new employee into the organizational team.
Help the new person find an early success.
The task of integration has five different but related challenges, each new worker must:
1. Learn about his/her new organization: workers need to have a written description of their
new organization. It should explain what are its purpose, vision, and core values; what
outputs or outcomes it must provide to its parent organization; what the key performance
indicators is that measure its success and the target for achievement set for each. They should
understand how the organization is structured, how it is arranged physically, where key
people are located, and to whom they report. These are simple information elements that are
needed to properly manage the organization so they do not constitute any additional demand.
2. Align with its purpose, vision, and core values: Alignment means each performer is
pointed in the right direction. Each worker manages his/her performance in a manner that
advances the organizations success and complies with its core values. The support provided
workers for challenge and enables them to succeed in aligning their performance to the
organizations direction. Also helpful, however is a setting where alignment by the current
workforce- especially managers and supervisors- exits. To the extent that the organizations
current personnel are aligned, they will demonstrate that behaviour and reinforce its
emergence in new workers.
3. Understand his/her roles: every worker needs a written job description that clearly states
the function of his/her role, assigned tasks, expected outputs or outcomes, what authority and
resources will be provided to the employee, to whom the worker reports, and with whom
75 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
he/she must coordinate work. A job description is essentially a personal work standard. It is
every employees basic guide for contributing in the workplace.
In addition to a personal job description, new workers need access to the work process
standards for those processes they implement. They are essential to a well managed
organization. Without work standards, new employees must discover by observation and
conversation how a process is implemented.
4. Perform that role effectively: besides a description of the content of their work, employees
need to know how their performance will be measured, what level of achievement on each
measure define success, and how they can detect where they stand on each measure. Even
where supervisors provide regular, accurate, and concrete verbal feedback, employees remain
dependent on that feedback and cannot detect and correct performance problems on their
own. The organization wastes their capabilities to think and manage their own performance.
Workers also require that the organization define their roles rationally.
5. Work cooperatively with others: working cooperatively is only possible when the people
with who to cooperate have the same purpose as the supervisor and can make decision
rationally in pursuing that purpose. This means that existing worker must be aligned to the
organizations purposes and make satisfying that purpose the highest priority value in their
decision making. The absence of these skills hampers communication and results in
misunderstanding and poor coordination. The essential information-based decision-making
skills are specifying the decisions goal, generating alternatives, defining decision criteria,
evaluating alternatives against criteria, and concluding which alternative to choose.
Preissing and Loennies (2011) examined the effects of an aging population on German businesses.
The intention is to provide a guide on a new approach where the skills and experience of older
employees are given consideration in the organisational culture. The key finding from this study is
that there is a practical approach that can be implemented to achieve a change in the organisational
culture for the utilisation of older employees skills and knowledge. However, the issues of
organisational change management need to be adequately addressed and a formal commitment by
management is essential for the success of the broad program required to reintegrate the older
employees into the work force.
The concept of full engagement, means that employee engagement is more likely to be sustainable
when employee well-being is also high. Most current perspectives on employee engagement include
little of direct relevance to well-being and reflect a narrow, commitment-based view of engagement
as Robertson and Cooper (2010) focused too heavily on benefits to organizations. A broader
conception of engagement (referred to as full engagement), which includes employee well-being,
is a better basis for building sustainable benefits for individuals and organizations. Research
exploring the links between employee engagement and well-being is needed to validate and develop
the propositions put forward in this article. The integration of well-being and commitment-based
engagement into the single construct of full engagement provides a novel perspective.
In recent years, Japan has seen a sharp increase in foreign cross-border merger and acquisition (M
and A) transactions. Froese and Goeritz (2007) focused on post-acquisition integration and separated
it into human integration and organizational integration. These findings highlight the importance of
the human factor in the success of acquisitions. Active communication, participation, assertive
76 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
leadership, commitment and the creation of a sense of urgency have been found to facilitate human
The notion of integration is central to the understanding of organizations in general as well as of
contemporary phenomena such as e-commerce, virtual organizations, virtual teams, and enterprise
resource planning (ERP) implementation. The present study addressed by Barki and Pinsonneault
(2005) the concept of organizational integration (OI), which is defined as the extent to which distinct
and interdependent organizational components constitute a unified whole. Six types of OI are
identified: two intraorganizational OI (internal-operational, internal-functional) and four
interorganizational OI (external-operational-forward, external-operational-backward, external-
operational-lateral, and external-functional). This paper then presents a model and develops 14
propositions to predict (1) the effort needed to implement different types of OI, (2) the impact
different types of OI will have on organizational performance, and (3) how six factors
(interdependence, barriers to OI, mechanisms for achieving OI, environmental turbulence,
complexity reduction mechanisms, and organizational configurations) influence the relationship
between OI types, implementation effort, and organizational performance. The OI framework and
model are then used to develop 14 propositions for ERP implementation research and to explain the
findings of recent research on integration.
Cognitive Restructuring is a process of learning to reduce cognitive distortions or faulty thinking
and replacing it with more accurate factual and beneficial beliefs.

Meditation: stress can be effectively managed by using relaxation techniques, such as meditation.
Meditation refers to a family of self-regulation practices that focus on training attention and
awareness in order to bring mental processes under greater voluntary control and thereby foster
general mental well-being and development and/ or specific capacities such as calm, clarity, and
concentration (Walsh and Shapiro, 2006).

Self-Monitoring require individuals to become aware of their behavior and make a tangible mark to
keep track of it. Self-monitoring, as a behavior change procedure, lacks any specially arranged
reinforcement or punishment, but it forces attention to natural reinforcements and punishment.

Social Support and Networking is based on the assumption of social support. Social support
strategy to reduce stress, entail forming close associations with trusted empathic co-workers and
colleagues who are good listeners and confidence builders.

I nformation sharing referred to one-to-one exchanges of data between a sender and receiver. Its
give helpful guideline and feedback for resolving stressful behavior.
This study examined the relations between acculturative stress and psychological functioning, as well
as the protective role of social support and coping style. Tests of interaction effects indicated that
parental support and active coping buffered the effects of high acculturative stress on anxiety
symptoms and depressive symptoms. In addition, peer support moderated the relation between
acculturative stress and anxiety symptoms. Implications for reducing the effects of acculturative
stress among Mexican American college students are discussed (Crockett, Iturbide, McGinley, and
Carlo, 2007).
77 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
Another study by Kosic, Mannetti and Sam (2006) examined the relationship between immigrants
adaptation, acculturation strategies and self-monitoring. Using adaptation indices as criteria in
moderated multiple regression analyses; the researchers found main effects of self-monitoring and of
assimilation and integration strategies, and interactive effects of self-monitoring and assimilation or
integration strategy. Self-monitoring was positively related both to sociocultural and psychological
adaptation in all the regressions. Assimilation and integration strategies in most of cases were also
positively related to both types of adaptation. Such main effects, however, were qualified by the
interactive effects. As far as sociocultural adaptation is concerned, simple slope analysis showed that:
(a) the positive effect of choosing assimilation is much stronger for high self-monitor immigrants
than for low self-monitor ones; (b) the effect of choosing integration is positive for low self-monitor
immigrants, but negative for high self-monitor ones.
As far as psychological adaptation is concerned, simple slope analysis shows that: (a) the effect of
choosing assimilation is negative for high self-monitor immigrants and positive for low self-monitor
ones; (b) the positive effect of choosing integration is stronger for high self-monitor immigrants than
for low self-monitor ones.
On the basis of available review literature and material in relation to research topic we found that
acculturative stress and organizational integration is directly linked or associated. Some basic
implications are:
If employees followed integration acculturation orientation then they easily adjust or integrate with
the new environment of the organization and those employees are most optimistic and their
organizational integration is better.
When employees easily integrated with the new organizational culture then they experience less
pessimistic and their performance, mental health and well-being are very healthy and fit.
On the basis supportive researches acculturation attitudes suggest that integration is the most
adaptive form of acculturation. Integrated individuals experienced less acculturative stress and
anxiety, and manifested fewer psychological problems.
Strategies for overcoming acculturative stress like: self-monitoring, social-support, cognitive
restructuring and meditation can be used as these measures help in reducing adverse effects of
acculturative stress and promote the organizational integration of employees as well as in the
Everything has some advantages and disadvantages so it can be said that in todays scenario
acculturation is a complex problem,
If newly entered employees experience more acculturative stress then they feel more separated and
marginalized with the new organization environment. That employees who feel separated with the
organization they did not easily survive within the organization.
Separation and marginalization acculturation orientation are least preferred mode of acculturation.
Overall, separated and marginalized individuals suffered the most psychological distress, including
78 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
problems with self-identification and cultural alienation which adversely affected their self-esteem,
mental health and well-being etc.
When an employee does not easily integrated with the new organizational culture then they
experience more pessimistic, depressive and worried about their survival, performance and mental
But, all these limitations are not for all because an individual difference is there. Every employee
does not feel acculturated with the new organizational culture and some employees very easily
integrate or adapt new organization and working environment.
Barki, H. & Pinsonneault , A. (2005). A model of organizational integration, implementation effort,
and performance. Organization Science, 16(2), 165-179.
Belizaire, L.S. & Fuertes, J.N. (2011). Attachment, coping, acculturative stress, and quality of life
among Haitian immigrants. Journal of Counseling & Development, 89(1), 89 97.
Berry, J.W. (1980). Acculturation varieties of adaptation. In A.M. Padilla (Ed.), Acculturation:
theory, model, and some new findings. (pp.9-25). Boulder, CO: Westview.
Berry, J.W. (2006). Acculturation: A conceptual overview. Acculturation and parent- child
relationships: Measurement and development. 13-32. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Berry, J.W., Kim, U., & Boski, M. (1988). Acculturation and mental health: A review. In P. Dasen,
J.W. Berry, & Satorius (Eds.), Cross-cultural psychology and health. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Berry, J.W., Kim, U., & Boski, M. (1988). Acculturation and mental health: A review. In P. Dasen,
J.W. Berry, & Satorius (Eds.), Cross-cultural psychology and health. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Berry, J.W., Kim, U., Minde, T., & Mok, D. (1987). Acculturative stress in Canada. International
Migration Review, Special Issue on Migration and Health, 21, 491-511.
Berry, J.W., Kim, U., Power, S., Young, M., & Bujaki, M. (1989). Acculturation attitudes in plural
societies. Applied Psychology, 38, 185-206.
Bresman, H., Birkinshaw, J. and Nobel, R. (1999). 'Knowledge transfer in international acquisitions',
Journal of International Business Studies, 30(3), 439462.
Bronfenbrenner, U. & Morris, P.A. (1998).The ecology of developmental processes. Theoretical
models of human development, (5
ed., 1: Handbook of child psychology). 1. New York: Wiley.
Castro, V.S. (2003).Acculturation and psychological adaptation .Westport CT: Greenwood Press.

Crocker, J., Luhtanen, R., Blaine, B., & Broadnax, S. (1994). Collective self-esteem and
psychological well-being among white, Black, and Asian college students. Personality and Social
Psychology Bulletin, 20, 503-513.
79 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
Crockett, L. J, Iturbide, M. I. , McGinley, M. & Carlo, G. (2007). Acculturative stress, social
support, and coping: Relations to psychological adjustment among Mexican American college
students. Culture Divers Ethnic Minor Psychology, 13(4), 347-355.
Davis, K. (1975). Human Behavior at Work. New Delhi: TMH, 6.
Eustace & William, R. (2007). Factors influencing acculturative stress among international students
in the United States. USA: K-State Research Exchange.
Froese, F.J. & Goeritz, L.E. (2007). Integration management of western acquisitions in Japan. Asian
Business & Management, 6(2), 95-114.
Green, E.G.T. (2009). A multilevel analysis on public support for immigration criteria across 20
European countries. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 12(1), 41-60.

Guinn, R., Vincent, V., Wang,L. & Villas, P. (2011). Acculturation tendencies in a border Latino
population. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 33(2), 170-183.
Harter, S. (1993). Perceived Self-competence Scale for Adolescents. University of Denver.
Jibeen, T. (2011). Moderators of acculturative stress in Pakistani immigrants: The role of personal
and social resources. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 35(6), 523-533.
Kagitcibasi, C. (2007). Family, Self and Human Development across Cultures; Theory and
Applications, (2
ed.). New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum and Associates.

Kosic, A., Mannetti, L. & Sam, D.L. (2006). Self-monitoring: A moderating role between
acculturation strategies and adaptation of immigrants. International Journal of
InterculturalRelations, 30(2),141-157.
La Fromboise, T., Coleman, H., & Gerton, J. (1993). Psychological impact of biculturalism:
Evidence and theory. Psychological Bulletin, 114, 395-412.
Larsson, R. & Finkelstein, S. (1999). Integrating strategic, organizational, and human resource
perspectives on mergers and acquisitions: A case survey of synergy realization. Organization
Science, 10(1), 1-26.
Masuda, M., Hasegawa, R., and Matsumoto, G. (1973). The ethnic identity questionnaire: A
comparison of three Japanese age groups in Tachikawa, Japan, Honolulu, and Seattle. Journal of
Cross-cultural Psychology, 4, 229-244.
Miller, H.V., Barnes, J.C. & Hartley, R.D. (2011). Reconsidering Hispanic gang membership and
acculturation in a multivariate context. Crime and Delinquency, 57(3), 331-355.
Phinney, J. & Ong, A. (2002). Adolescent parent disagreements and life satisfaction in families
from Vietnamese and European American backgrounds. International Journal of Behavioral
Development, 26(6), 556 -561.

Phinney, J. (1990). Ethnic identity in adolescents and adults: A review of research. Psychological
Bulletin, 108, 499-514.
80 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
Phinney, J. (1992). The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure: A new scale for use with adolescents
and youth adults from diverse groups. Journal of Adolescent Research, 7, 156-176.
Phinney, J.S., Cantu, C.L., and Kurtz, D.A. (1997). Ethnic and American Identity as predictors of
self-esteem among African American, Latino, and White adolescents. Journal of Youth and
Adolescence, 26, 165-185.
Pothukuchi, V., Damanpour, F., Choi, J., Chen, C.C. and Park, S.H. (2002). 'National and
organizational culture differences and international joint venture performance', Journal of
International Business Studies 33(2), 243265.
Preissing, D. & Loennies, F. (2011). Organizational culture and integration of older employees: The
German experience. Journal of New Business Ideas & Trends, 9(1), 28-42.
Redfield, R., Linton, R. & Herskovits, M.J. (1936). Memorandom for the Study of Acculturation
.American Anthropologist, New Series, 38 (1), 149-152.

Robertson, I.T. & Cooper, C.L. (2010). "Full engagement: the integration of employee engagement
and psychological well-being", Leadership & Organization Development, 31(4), 324 336.
Salant, T. & Lauderdale, D.S. (2003).Measuring culture: a critical review of acculturation and health
in Asian immigrant populations. Social Science and Medicine, 57, 71-90.

Sam, D.L. and Berry, J.W. (1995). Acculturative stress among young immigrants in Norway.
Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 36, 10-24.
Sayegh, L. and Lasry, J. (1993). Immigrants adaption in Canada: Assimilation, acculturation and
orthogonal cultural identification. Canadian Psychology, 34, 98-109.
Smith, R.S. (2008). The case of city where 1 in 6 residents is a refuse: Ecological factor and host
community adaptation in successful resettlement. American Journal of Community Psychology;
42(3-4), 328-342.

Tadmor, C.T., Tetlock, P.E. & Peng, K. (2009). Acculturation Strategies and integrative complexity:
The cognitive implication of biculturalism .Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 40 (1), 105-139.

Telzer, E.H. (2010). Expanding the acculturation gap-distress model: An integrative review of
research. Human Development, 53, 313-340.
Vang, Cher. (2009). The relationship among acculturation, cultural adjustment difficulties, and
psychological symptoms among Hmong Americans. Dissertation Abstracts International; 70 (8),
137, DA3373887.
Walsh, R. & Shapiro, S.L. (2006). "The meeting of meditative disciplines and Western psychology: a
mutually enriching dialogue". The American Psychologist 61(3): 22739.
Whitlock, J. (2007). The role of adults, public space, and power in adolescent community
connectedness. Journal of Community Psychology, 35 (4), 499-518.

81 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy

Dinesh Chahal & Nidhi Mehta

Motivation is literally the desire to do things. Motivation is a terms that refers to a process that
elicits, controls and sustains certain behaviors. Each of us has a unique set of needs, desires and
rewards that spur as to action. Motivation is the driving force by which humans achieve their goals.
In every sphere of life motivation plays a vital role. Learning is a continuous process of life and
motivation is primary and central factor for every level of learning. Without motivation whether
intrinsic or extrinsic learning can not occurs. It is like mineral and water requirement for a seed
(learning factor) which gives proper growth and development and proper fixation of learning;
motivation is necessary. So motivation and learning go hand in hand. It is pulse rate of learning. For
proper functioning of a heart pulse rate remains constantly working with a appropriate rate like this
for proper learning the appropriate rate or ratio of motivation is important. Here we give the answer
of how learning and motivation affects each other and to what extent the rate of learning improves
with the help of six. Cs of motivation as choice, challenge, control, collaboration, constructing
meaning and consequences. These strategies help in fostering motivation among children which leads
towards the behavior changes or goal. The teacher plays a central role in the learning process of the
pupils. Hence the need to have a high work motivation arises to facilitate learning.


Motivation is the core factor which influences the learning process. The term motivation is the
driving force (desire) behind all actions of an organism motivation is an inner state of mind that
energizes, activates or moves and that which directs or channels behavior towards goals. It is the
general condition of relatively high rates of responding produced by reinforcement. So far as motives
are concerned, it is just impossible to see them, they can only be inferred. Motivation is the process
which leads the individual to attempt to satisfy some need. The relationship between motivation and
learning assumes that when need exists it will lead to a drive which will energies behavior. This will
result in the individual engaging in some appropriate behavior in his attempt to satisfy his need. If the
activity does lead to a reduction in the drive, the activity will be reinforced or strengthened, so that it
will be more likely to occur on future occasions. The reinforcement that results from the drive
reduction causes learning to take place. The term motivation has originally been derived from the
Latin word movere which means to move. By the process of learning the desirable changes in the
behavior occurs which move the individual in the upward direction.

Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy (ISSN: 2249-8389)
Volume III, No. 01 (March, 2013), pp.81-86
82 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
Concept of Motivation and Learning
Motivation is the central factor in the effective management of process of learning.-W.A.Kelley
In the field of psychology this word implies that the individual has some internal stimuli which force
him to action and determine his behavior. We can say that motivation is that force which impels or
incites individuals actions determine their rate and direction.

According to Maslow
Motivation is the universal characteristics of every organismic of state of affair. It is constant, never
ending, fluctuating and complex phenomenon,

Profile of a Motivated Teacher: Mainly intrinsic motivation helps the teacher to become a
qualitative teacher
1. A motivated teacher never took his students for granted rather he feel they are granted to him.
2. He never go to class unprepared.
3. He is conscious of his responsibility of mounding and shaping the students.
4. His/her earnings are moderate. But he earns the goodwill of his pupils in an abundant
5. He develops a bond with his students and his students are motivated to learn.

Learning :
Each and every aspect of human life is related with learning. Learning is a process of change, growth
and development of behavior.
According to Moriss L. Bigge
Learning is a change in a living individual which is not heralded by his genetic inheritance. It
may be a change in insight, behavior, perception or motivation or a combination of these.

Process of Learning
Motive Goal Exploration Response Reinforcement - Integration
Profile of a Motivated Learner
For a learner motivation is the primary factor to learn. Without needs and drive learning can not
occurs. So for a learner extrinsic and intrinsic motivation is very important.
1. First of all learners own intrinsic motivation helps in learning.
2. Goal directed behavior.
3. Attention or concentration towards goal.
4. Always ready to learn.
5. Show interest towards teachers idea.
6. They have strong will to learn.
How to motivate the students for learning

Need of Motivation for learning
Infants and young children appear to be propelled by curiosity by an intense need to explore, interact
with, and make sense of their environment. It is rarely seen that pre schooler is unmotivated.
Unfortunately, as children grow, their passion for learning frequently seems to shrink. Many more
83 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
are physically present in the classroom but largely mentally absent; they fail to invest themselves
fully in the experience of learning.

Student Motivation
Student motivation naturally has to do with student desire to participate in the learning process.
Although students may be equally motivated to perform a task, the sources of their motivation may
Motivation to learn is characterized by long-term, quality involvement in learning and
commitment to the process of learning.
Intrinsically motivated student undertakes an activity for its own sake, for the enjoyment it
provides, the learning it permits or the feeling of accomplishment it evokes.
Extrinsically motivated student performs in order to obtain some reward or avoid some punishment
external to the activity itself.
Factors Influence The Development of Student Motivation
1. Childrens home environment
2. Classroom Climate
3. Developmental changes.

General Principles of Fostering Motivation
1. The warm and accepting environment can be used to focus the students attention on what
needs to be learned.
2. Incentives motivate learning.
3. Internal motivation is longer lasting and more self directive than is external motivation,
which must be repeatedly reinforced by praise or concrete rewards.
4. Learning is most effective when an individual is ready to learn, that is, when one wants to
know something.
5. Motivation is enhanced by the way in which the instructional material is organized.
6. Set goal and to provide informative feedback regarding progress towards goal.
7. Both affiliation and approval are strong motivators.


When learner enters and starts learning
ATTITUDES: Toward the environment, teacher, subject matter, and self
NEEDS: The basic need within the learner at the time of learning

84 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy

-- Make the conditions that surround the subject positive.
-- Positively confront the possibly erroneous beliefs, expectations, and assumptions that may
underlie a negative learner attitude.
-- Reduce or remove components of the learning environment that lead to failure or fear.
-- Plan activities to allow learners to meet esteem needs.
When learner is involved in the body or main content of the learning process.

STIMULATION: The stimulation processes affecting learner during the learning experience.
AFFECT: The emotional experience of the learner while learning.
-- Change style and content of the learning activity.
-- Make learner reaction and involvement essential parts of the learning process, that is, problem
solving, role playing, stimulation.
-- Use learner concerns to organize content and to develop themes and teaching procedures.
-- Use a group cooperation goal to maximize learner involvement and sharing.
When learner is completing the learning process.
COMPETENCE: The competence value for the learner that is a result of the learning
REINFORCEMENT: The reinforcement value attached to the learning experience, for the
85 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
-- Provide consistent feedback regarding mastery of learning.
-- Acknowledge and affirm the learners' responsibility in completing the learning task.
-- When learning has natural consequences, allow them to be congruently evident.
-- Provide artificial reinforcement when it contributes to successful learning, and provide
closure with a positive ending.
The Six Cs Motivation Strategies:
Choice:- Malone and Lepper suggest(1983) suggest that providing explicit choices among
alternatives can enhance intrinsic motivation. Feeling related valences are feeling attached to
a topic. Value related valences related to the importance of the topic to an important when
students are even choices to select assignments that are close their personal interests, their
motivation to do the work should increase.
Challenge:- Providing or operating tasks just beyond the skill level of the student is a good
approach to challenge learners. Students may experience flow if the challenge of assignments
matches their skills. In order to ensure that goal remain challenging, teacher should continue
giving students the opportunity to provide feedback.
Control:- If students are involved in the process of classroom control, they will be more
responsible, independent and self regulated learner. Control means involving students in the
process of decision making and choosing team members.
Collaboration:- Vygotsky (1978) theorized that communication and collaborative group
work can enhance individuals thinking and learning. Collaboration seems to work best when
students depend on each other to reach a desired goal and can share learning strategies and
perspectives with each other through social interaction.
Constructing Meaning:- Value related valences are associated with the construction of
meaning. If students perceive the value of knowledge, their motivation to learn increases.
Setting a meaningful goal for students is an important factor to promote motivation.
Consequences:- People enjoy having their work and learning achievement appreciated and
recognized by others. When students are provided channel to display their work, motivation
increases. There are various strategies for displaying students work such as hanging their
posters on the wall, presenting their work at a fair and providing links to other students. This
strategy creates a positive feeling about effort, ownership, achievement and responsibility.


In schools, motivation among teachers is essential for their better performance in the classrooms and
of course the overall development of student. Thus, to achieve the learning objectives and reach a
reasonable standard, educational institutions should keep a close tab on the motivation level of the
teacher. A proper use of motivation will lead attention which will lead to interest and interest will
lead to maximum learning. Properly motivated children show varied interests and develop their
personality in right manner. The teacher can solve the problem of discipline if he is able to motivate
the children of his class. Various incentives and motives help in the learning process. The problem of
86 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
individual differences can also be solved if the children are properly motivated. Every child will
learn according to his intensity of motivation.

Aaron, P. G.(1966) Motivation A possible correlate of Teaching Effectiveness, Journal of
the College of Education, Karnataka University Drawer.
Adval, S. B. (1979) Quality of Teacher Education, Amitabh Prakashan, Allahabad.
Ames, C. (1992). Classrooms: Goals, structures and student motivation. Journal of
Educational Psychology, 84, 261-271.
Ames, Carole A. (1990) Motivation: What Teachers Need to Know. Teachers College
Record 91, 3(Spring): 409-21.
Brophy, Jere (1986) On Motivating Students. Occasional Paper No.101. East Lansing,
Michigan: Institute for Research On Taching, Michigan State University, October. 73 Pages.
ED 276 724.
Csikszentmihalyi, M.(1985). Emergent motivation and the evolution of the self. In D. A.
Kleiber and M. Maehr (Eds.), Advances in motivation and achievement,(Vol. 4, pp 93-119).
Greenwich, CT: Jai Press.
Driscoll, M. P.(1994). Psychology of learning for instauration. MA: Division of Paramount
Lepper. Mark R.(1988). Motivational Considerations in the Study of Instruction. Cognition
and Instruction 5,4 :289-309.
Machr, Martin L., and Carol Midgley (1991). Enhancing Student Motivation: A Schoolwide
Approach. Educational Psychologist 26, 3&4 : 399-427.
Malone, M. R. & Lepper, M. R.(1983). Making learning fun. R.E. Snow & J. F.Marshall
(Eds.). Aptiude, learning, and instruction: Cognitive and affective Process analyses (Vol. 3.
Pp. 223-253).
Marshall, Hermine H. (1987). Motivational Strategies of Three Fifth-Grade Teachers . The
Elementary Schools Journal 88, 2(November): 135-50. EJ 362 747.
Raffini, James (1993). Winners without Losers: Structures an Strategies for Increasing
Student Motivation to Learn. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 286 Pages.
Schiefele. U. (1991). Interest, learning, and Motivation. Educational Psychologist, 26(3/4),
Stipek, Deborah (1988). Motivation to Learn: From Theory to Practice. Englewood Cliffs,
New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 178 pages.
Turner, J., & Paris, S. G. (1995). How literacy tasks influence childrens motivation for
literacy. The Reading Teacher, 48(8), 662-673.

87 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy

Shalini Sisodia & Ira Das


Egotism is an exaggerated opinion of ones own importance, an inflated sense of importance or
greatness. So an egotist feels superior to everyone else due to the influence of Maya that veils
the true consciousness of the self. The investigator has therefore made a humble effort to
construct a scale for measuring egotism .The investigator first of all collected a large number of
statements showing egotism in different fields of life e.g. (1) Egotism of physical and mental
energy (2) egotism of wealth, property and luxury items, (3) egotism of social status, connection
with influential and Powerful people, (4) egotism of community services, charity and religiosity,
(5) egotism of beauty, smartness and physical attraction, (6) egotism of superior genes, caste or
race etc. After editing, 30 items were included in the scale, which was administered on a small
group of 20 people for pilot study. The minimum and maximum score ranged from 0-30. After
pilot study some improvements in the ambiguous statements were made and a few items were
totally replaced by new items. After correction, first draft of the test was prepared. It was
administered on a sample of 100 people including university professors, doctors, administrative
officers and clerical employees of Banks, Govt. Offices and teaching institutes. High negative
coefficient of correlation of egotism scores with life-satisfaction indicated that higher the egotism
lower is the life-satisfaction. This proved high construct validity of this test. After final draft was
prepared, it was administered on a sample of 200 people and Z score norms were prepared.

Key words: Egotism

The term "egotism" is derived from the Latin ego, meaning "self" or "I", and -ism, used to denote a
system of belief. Baumeister, Smart, and Boden (2003) suggested that threatened egotism is an
important cause of violent behavior. The results show that egotism is positively associated with
violent and nonviolent delinquency and that this relationship holds when a number of important
predictors of delinquency are controlled, including social control and self-control. Egotism is the
motive to pursue some sort of personal gain or benefit through targeted behavior. Egotism has
Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy (ISSN: 2249-8389)
Volume III, No. 01 (March, 2013), pp.87-95
88 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
been heralded as one of the most influential of all human variety of human actions, including
Egotism may coexist with delusions of one's own importance, even at the denial of others.
Egotism is an inflated sense of importance or greatness, i.e.: someone who goes around
declaring how great he is. An egotist is someone who is stuck on him or herself, and feels superior
to everyone else in all aspects of the personality. Egotism is when we care about ourself and our
own welfare and have an exaggerated opinion of our own importance. Gollwitzer, et al. (1982)
investigated the influence of outcome-related affect on subsequent causal attributions and shows
that Ss preferred internal factors to explain success, whereas external factors were blamed for
Egotism, then, is a mask we wear to hide the faults or weaknesses we believe we have. The
foundation of egotism is the delusion that we're different, the delusion that some of us are better
than others. But our mask will fall aside of its own accord once we realize that we are all the same.
We share the same fears, hopes, and dreams. Once we understand that, there is nothing to fear,
nothing to get upset about. Carlyle (1795 - 1881) wrote, "Egotism is the source and summary of
all faults and miseries." Therefore one must take care not to become trapped in the imaginary
world of superiority and inferiority. There is much more than peace of mind at stake. Much of the
harm that is done in the world is done by people who want to feel superior Those who fall prey to
egotism are quick to take offense and resort to violence. Road rage shootings are an extreme
example of the possible harmful effects of unbridled egotism. We know and like ourselves more
than anyone else, so talking about ourselves comes easily and is pleasurable. But to do so
excessively is to ignore others. We deny ourselves of the opportunity to foster powerful
friendships and learn from them. Jones, et al. (2002) showed that people preferred their own name
letters even when these letters were relatively rare. Furthermore, the name-letter and birthday-
number preferences of high and low self-esteem participants diverged in response to an
experimentally manipulated self-concept threat. We conclude that implicit egotism, specifically
name-letter and birthday-number preferences, represent a form of unconscious self-regulation.
Shiell, A. & Seymour, J. (2002) suggested strong altruistic support for publicly funded health care
even among those whose self-interest is better served by tax-financed incentives to take out
private insurance. This result undermines the assumption in the public choice literature that people
will vote for a tax policy only if it is in their self-interest.
Egotism is the tendency to speak or write of oneself excessively and boastfully. It is an
exaggerated belief and inflated sense of ones own importance. Egotism is characterized by an
exaggerated estimate of ones intellect, ability, importance, appearance, wit, or other valued
personal characteristics- It is the drive to maintain and enhance favourable views of oneself
(Kowalski,1997). In egotism we find the person filled with an overweening sense of the
importance and qualities of his personality....the things of the Me (Atkinson, 2010).
89 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
Egotism means placing oneself at the centre of ones world with no concern for others, including
those loved considered as close, in any other terms except those set by the egotist. Stephan, et
al. (1976) suggested that females playing against males were not egotistical because they did not
believe they were as competent at a masculine task as were their male opponents. Salmivalli, et al.
(1999) explored that Self-and peer-evaluated SEs were significantly correlated, whereas defensive
egotism was not connected to either self-or peer-evaluated SE. Adolescents SE profiles were
associated with their behaviour in bullying situations; these connections were stronger among
boys than among girls. Pelham, et al. (2011) argued that Simonsohn provides no compelling
theoretical reason to believe that implicit egotism should be valid only in the laboratory. In
addition, we argue that a careful analysis of most of Simonsohn's studies of implicit egotism
shows that they provide little or no power to reveal real effects of implicit egotism.
Egotism is an inflated, perhaps untenable or unstable, view of self. Egotism is typically
operationalzed as narcissism (Bushman and Baumeister, 1998, 2002) or as one of its more
destructive variants, including narcissistic entitlement (Campbell et al., 2004), narcissism in
conjunction with low self-concept clarity (Stucke and Sporer, 2002), or narcissism with self-
esteem partialed out (Paulhus, Robins, Trzesniewski, and Tracy, 2004).
Characteristics of egotism
1. Egotism is closely related to "loving one's self" or narcissism - indeed 'by egotism we may
envisage a kind of socialized narcissism' (Schmalhausen, 2004).
2. Egotism is often accomplished by exploiting the sympathy, irrationality or ignorance of others,
as well as utilizing coercive force and/or fraud.
3. Egotism may include 'a grandiose sense of self-importance...arrogant, boastful, conceited
(Kowalski, 1997), and self-promoting even at the expense of others - 'refusing to recognize
others for their accomplishments (Leary, 2007).

According to the Bhagavadgita, the ego is the feeling of separateness, the sense of duality, or the
idea of being distinct and different from others. It is the false perception of the self that exists in all
of us as individual consciousness. In the Bhgavadgita, Arjuna stands symbolically for the ego
consciousness. His suffering is because of his limited knowledge, his sense of separateness, his
identification of himself with his body, his belief that he is the doer of his actions and his anxiety
about the results of his actions. Newman, et al. (2009) Conducted a study on implicit egotism
indicates that people tend to react positively to anything that reminds them of themselves,
including their own names and the letters in their names. Names can have effects (presumably
unconscious ones) even on people's choices of mates and careers.

It is expected therefore that those whose egotism is high believe that they are the owner of all their
physical and materialistic possession and therefore they are at a higher position than others. They
also believe that it is due their own efforts alone that they have achieved all that they have this
90 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
feeling of restlessness, stress and dissatisfaction. Therefore, it is expected that such people have
lower life-satisfaction. Snyder, et al. (2007) concluded after people work on unsolvable problems,
they often perform poorly on a subsequent task. Egotism explains this decrement as the result of a
strategy of low effort designed to blunt an attribution of poor ability should failure occur on the
new task.

Need for the scale
In order to measure & compare the egotism among administrative and clerical staff, a need for
constructing a scale to measure the egotism was felt. After reviewing the relevant literature and
discussing with experts, it was noticed that there was no such scale available which could fulfill
the purpose of the present study. Therefore the present research investigator tried to construct and
standardize egotism scale.

Objective of the study

To construct a scale for measuring egotism.

Steps in the construction of the scale

The planning of the test

Before collecting the items a rough layout was made regarding the dimensions of egotism of
educated adult individual. These are
(1) Egotism of physical and mental energy
(2) Egotism of beauty, smartness and physical attraction
(3) Egotism of wealth, property and luxury items
(4) Egotism of social status, & connections with influential and powerful people
(5) Egotism of superior genes, caste or race
(6) Egotism of community services, charity and religiosity.

Item selection

The items were skillfully written in order to cover all aspects of egotism of different teaching
administrative and clerical employees. Books, Journal, magazines and subject experts were
consulted in preparation of items. Some items were written by the investigator through intuition.
Initially 30 fixed alternative type items (yes or no type items) were prepared in Hindi.

91 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
Pilot study

A pilot study was done by administrating the scale to a small group of 20 administrative and 20
clerical employees. Certain defects were found in the scale so the investigator planned to rewrite
the statement. Some of the statements were shortened and pin pointed to avoid any ambiguity.

First draft

This was the crucial phase of test drafting as most of the editing work was done in this stage.
Major changes were concerned with the modification of the language of the statements. Few
statements which did not convey the clear idea were written with the help of experts. Instructions
were written for the testee. Give your answers to the following question on the basis of how you
feel and think about it. For each question two alternative answers are given. Tick mark () the
answers that is correct in your case.

The major work done was the formation of scoring key. The option or item that indicated higher
egotism was given higher score. The scores given were 1 or 0. It was decided the higher the
scores higher the egotism. Every item responded as tick () was given a score of 1 and the item
left out or not responded was given a score of 0expect item no 3,4 & 16 which have reverse
scoring: 0 for () and 1 for not tickly. Thus the scale was written properly and finally the first
draft was administered on 100 administrative and clerical employees (1
tryout). The minimum
score of the egotism scale is 0 and the maximum score is 30score by dividing it by 30 and
multiplying by 100. The total score is converted into percentage.

Final draft

After administration of the first draft, following changes were made in the items. Item no.1 was
modified, its language was improved. In item no.2 spelling mistakes were corrected. In item
no.16 and 18 the language was changed as the previous sentence were ambiguous. Item no. 21
was deleted as it was a repetition of item no 30. In its place another item was added. In item no
22 and 27, spelling mistakes were corrected.

Internal consistency
In order to see whether the test is internally consistent or not, item analysis was done.

92 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
Table: 1
Coefficient of correlation indicating internal consistency of egotism scale

Reliability Item analysis was done to establish internal consistency of the Egotism Scale.

(a) Items with low coefficient of correlation (r = .10 or less) were discarded and finally 30
items with r = .11 to .75 were retained.
(b) Test Retest Reliability of the Scale (with a time gap of 4 months) came out to be .55.


Coefficient of correlation



93 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
(a) For a test to be good it must be valid. Criterion related validity coefficient of egotism scale
was calculated against the criterion of students ratings about their teachers. Egotism score
of teachers were correlated with students ratings of their teacher egotism. The coefficient of
correlation was found to be r = .65 which is highly significant. This shows high criterion
related validity of egotism scale.
(b) High negative coefficient of correlation of egotism scores with life-satisfaction indicated
that higher the egotism lower is the life-satisfaction. The coefficient of correlation was found
to be r = -.24 which is highly negatively significant. This proved high construct validity of
this scale.
Standard score norms (Z score) were calculated on a sample of 200 cases. The following tables
indicate the conversion of raw score into Z score norms for egotism variable.

Table: 2 Norms of egotism scale

Shortcoming of egotism scale
The accuracy of responses on this scale depends upon the willingness and ability of the
respondents to introspect accurately. The responses on this scale are therefore subject to faking
and malingering as is common with other personality inventories. This is indicated by the
skewed distribution of scores obtained. So in future the scale would be supplemented some
projective technique also.

Raw scores Z scores Description
20.5 and above +2 to +3 Very high
16.0 to 20.5 +1 to +2 High
11.5 to 16.0 Mean to +1 Above average
7.0 to 11.5 Mean to -1 Below average
2.5 to 7.0 -1 to -2 Low
0 to 2.5 Mean to -3 Very low
94 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
Atkinson, W.W (2010). The New Psychology, 30.
Baumeister, R. F., Smart, L. & Boden, J. (2003). Relation of Threatened egotism to violence and
aggression: The dark side of self-esteem. Psychological Review, 103, 5-37.
Bushman, B.J., & Baumeister, R.F. (1998). Threatened egotism, narcissism, self-esteem, and direct
and displaced aggression: Does self-love or self-hate lead to violence? Journal of Personality and
Social Psychology, 75, 219229.
Bushman, B.J., & Baumeister, R.F. (2002). Does self-love or self-hate lead to violence? Journal of
Research in Personality, 36, 543545.
Campbell, W.K., Bonacci, A.M., Shelton, J., Exline, J.J., & Bushman, B.J. (2004). Psychological
entitlement: Interpersonal consequences and validation of a new self-report measure. Journal of
Personality Assessment, 83, 2945.
Carlyle, (1795-1881). A Quote on Egotism is the source and summary of all faults and miseries.
M., Earle, W.B. & Stephan, W.G. (1982). Affect as a determinant of egotism: Residual excitation and
performance attributions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 43 (4), 702-709.
Jones, J.T., Pelham, B.W., Mirenberg, M.C., & Hetts, J.J. (2002). Name letter preferences are not
merely mere exposure: Implicit egotism as self-regulation. Journal of Experimental Social
Psychology, 38,170177.
Kowalski Ed, R.M. (1997). Aversive Interpersonal Behaviors, 112
Leary, M.R. (2007). The Curse of the Self, 91.
Newman, L., Hernandez, W., Bakina, D., & Rutchick, A. (2009). Implicit Egotism on the Baseball
Diamond: Why Peter Piper Prefers to Pitch for the Pittsburgh Pirates. A Journal of Onomastics, 57,
(3), 175-179.
Paulhus, D.L., Robins, R.W., Trzesniewski, K.H., & Tracy, J.L. (2004). Two replicable suppressor
situations in personality research. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 39, 303328.
Pelham, Brett, Carvallo & Mauricio (2011). The surprising potency of implicit egotism: A reply to
simonson. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 101(1) 25-30.
Salmivalli, c., Kaukiainen, A., Kaistaniemi, L., Lagerspetz, K.M.J. (1999). Self-evaluated, Self
esteem, Peer-evaluated Self-Esteem. And Defensive Egotism as predictors of adolescents
Participation in Bulling situations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 25 (10), 1268-1278.
Schmalhausen, S.D. (2004). Why We Misbehave, 55.
Shiell, A. & Seymour, J. (2002). Preference for public health insurance: Egotism or altriuism?
International Journal of Social Economics, 29 (5), 356-369.
Snyder, M.L., Smoller, B., Strenta, A. & Frankel, A. (2007). A comparison of egotism, negativity,
and learned helplessness as explanations for poor performance after unsolvable problems. Journal of
Applied Psychology, 15 (4) 445-449.
Stephan, W.G., Rosenfield, D. & Stephan, C., Texas, U. & Austin (1976). Egotism in males and
females. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 34 (6), 1161-1167.

95 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
Name.................................................................. Age...................... ................ Sex...................................
Organization.................. Designation ........................ Education .............................
l i i i - i in i -r n r r| () i nn ( X ) i lii ni |
S.No. Statement Response
- lin i - r| ni r ri,r|
- n ii i l l| | ini r| ri,r|
i; i| i l| ri r| r| ni ri,r|
- i-il ii| r n ii i ii l- - r| -ni| r| ri,r|
- ;ni l,-i r l r i i ini | ii ii s| nr ni r| ri,r|
- ini | iiln ~| |-i r| ni il - -i- i i ini r| ri,r|
- lni | ni - -| ii|l iln r| li r| ri,r|
- i ;ni li i r l ll-i i - i i-ii ii| ni r| ri,r|
- i i i i-i i-i ini | ni - li -n i r| ri,r|
- | | i lii | -n ii r| l| i ri | ri,r|
- n ir - i| in in r i ;n n r| ri,r|
- i i lin in -i i - ni r| ri,r|
- i ni i ii ii r n i| in -n ir n r| ri,r|
- i iri l-lni i i i - r| ri,r|
- i iil-- -n li -n i r| ri,r|
- iii | n|n ni r iil- ii - iin r| ini| ri,r|
- -li in r| ri,r|
- i ;n i i i| r l - n i; i - | ini r| r| ri,r|
- , -inilni -li i - li r| ri,r|
- - - r i| | ln ii i i| i lii i i| r| ri,r|
- il in - n ss i- n r i l - rn i| r| ri,r|
- -li --i -n lii; ni r| ri,r|
- in|n n| i| iiln ri in r| ri,r|
- i s i| in li r i i ii r| in li r| ri,r|
- i |-n| -i nri i iir ii r| ri,r|
- iiii| ln- ii ii, il-i - iii i i ri r| ri,r|
- ;ni rilii r l i; i| i| i i- - l - l r| rini r| ri,r|
- | i ri i i-n| i| ini r| ri,r|
- rn + - i ri r n - n- rn il- ni r| ri,r|
- i-n i| - n ir r| i; i- n r| ri,r|
96 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy

P.K.Mona & Prachi Sharma
The main aim of the present study was to examine the Psychological Determinants of
Hypothyroidism. A sample consisted of 50 hypothyroid and 50 nonhypothyroid women from age
group of 30 to 50 years, selected from S.N. Medical College and Saran Ashram, Agra city. Only
married and graduate women were included in the sample. NEO PI Five Factor Personality Inventory
and PGI Battery of Brain Dysfunction were used for measuring the personality traits and brain
dysfunction of the hypothyroid and nonhypothyroid women. Result indicated that hypothyroid and
nonhypothyroid were significantly differ in their Personality traits and Brain Dysfunction.
Keywords: Hypothyroid, Personality traits, Brain Dysfunction.

Body metabolism, organ functions, fertility, body energy (the bodys use of other hormones and
vitamins), and body temperature; these all are vital body functions. The regulation of these vital
tasks is due to one tiny endocrine gland-the thyroid. Thyroid located in the front part of the
lower neck below the thyroid cartilage or Adams apple and larynx (voice box). It is wrapped
around the trachea (windpipe) and has a similar shape to that of a bowtie or butterfly. Thyroid
gland is responsible for producing its two most important thyroid hormone and carefully
regulating them. The hormones produced are Triiodothyronine(T3) and L-Thyroxine(T4), from
iodine which thyroid gland gets from a diet of seafood and salt. Four hormones are critical in the
regulation of thyroid function:
Thyroxine (T4) and Triiodothyronine (T3). Thyroxine (T4) is the key hormone produced in the
thyroid gland. Low levels of T4 produce hypothyroidism, and high levels produce
hyperthyroidism. Thyroxine converts to triiodothyronine (T3), which is a more biologically
active hormone. Only about 20% of triiodothyronine is actually formed in the thyroid gland. The
rest is manufactured from circulating thyroxine in tissues outside the thyroid, such as those in the
liver and kidney. Once T4 and T3 are in circulation, they typically bind to substances called
thyroid hormone transport proteins, after which they become inactive.
Thyrotropin. Thyrotropin (also called thyroid-stimulating hormone or TSH) is another very
important hormone in the process. Secreted by the pituitary gland, this hormone directly
influences the process of iodine trapping and thyroid hormone production. When thyroxine
levels drop even slightly, the pituitary gland goes into action to pump up secretion of thyrotropin
so that it can stimulate thyroxine production. So, when T4 levels fall, TSH levels increase.
Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy (ISSN: 2249-8389)
Volume III, No. 01 (March, 2013), pp.96-103
97 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), the final critical thyroid hormone, is produced in a
region in the brain called the hypothalamus, which monitors thyrotropin levels. Abalovich,
These hormones are extremely important, as energy cell in the body depends upon thyroid
hormones for regular metabolism. These hormones determine how fast or how slow our organs
work and when our body system use energy, so they are understandably very important. Less
than optimal natural thyroid function can be also many times be the underlying cause of the
number of serious conditions. The thyroid gland works with in conjunction with the pituitary
gland at the base of the brain. When the level of thyroid hormone drops too low, the pituitary
gland produces Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH), which tells the thyroid gland to produce
more hormones. Once aware of the TSH, the thyroid secrets more T3 and T4 there by rising
blood levels. The pituitary gland then slows down its TSH production.
Hypothyroidism is a condition in which the body lacks sufficient thyroid hormone. Since the
main purpose of thyroid hormone is to run the bodys metabolism, it is understandable that
people with this condition will have symptoms associated with a slow metabolism. The estimate
varies, but approximately10 million American have this common medical condition. In fact, 10%
of women may have some degree of thyroid hormone deficiency, (Norman, 2010).
It is estimated that roughly 3% of the population worldwide has some type of hypothyroid
condition. There is a wide range of severities within hypothyroidism, and the severity of
symptoms does not always correlated with the severity of the disorder (Endocrine Web.com,
2005). Some common physical symptoms are fatigue, weakness, muscles hypotonia, depression,
joint pain, dry skin, abnormal menstrual cycles, impaired cognitive function, acute psychosis
(myxedema madness). Each individual patient may have any number of these symptoms, and
they will vary with the severity of the thyroid hormone deficiency and length of the time body
has deprived of the proper amount of hormone.
According to statistics by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE, 2007)
and other medical organizations, approximately 27 million Americans are experiencing a thyroid
disorder. When compared to the AACE statistics for American who experiences diabetes, which
is approximately 16 millions, the number of people with thyroid disease exceeds that by more
than 40%. This makes thyroid disease, the most common endocrine disorder (problem affecting
hormone glands) in the USA. Approximately 80% of the thyroid disease is experienced by
female and women are five times more likely to develop hypothyroidism (an under active
thyroid) than are men. (Vanderpump et al. 1995), The National Health and Nutrition
Examination Survey (NHANES III, 1988-1994), found hypothyroidism in 4.6% of the US
population (0.3% overt and 4.3% subclinical) and hypothyroidism in 1.3% (0.5% overt), with
increasing prevalence with age in both females and males. The thyroxin hormone plays an
important role in emotion and behavioural symptoms and disturbances. Since hypothyroidism
usually develops slowly, and the early complaints are frequently minor, vague and diffuse in
nature, it is not surprising that the diagnosis is often overlooked, females than males (Roti,
It is found that people with an underactive thyroid can lead to progressive loss of interest and
initiative, slowing of mental process, poor memory for recent events, general intellectual
98 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
deterioration, depression and eventually, if not checked, to dementia and permanent harmful
effects on the brain, (Albert, 1988). Cognitive impairment is one of the most feared symptoms
of thyroidism. Although there are changes in cognitive functioning in thyroidism, these rarely
affect daily functioning at an early stage (Nazliel, 2008)
Thyroid imbalance has serious effects on the patients emotions and behavior (Arem, 2007).
Thyroid disease can affect a persons mood-primarily causing either anxiety or depression.
Generally, the more severe the thyroid disease, the more severe the mood changes. Delusions,
hallucinations, paranoia, and extreme restlessness mixed with lethargy are all common in
individuals, with myxedema. Hall (2002) reported that the rapid changing hormone level in
hypothyroidism is a key factor in the development of anxiety symptoms. Anxiety disorders occur
in approximately 30-40% of patients with emerging acute hypothyroidism (Hall, 2002). Severe
anxiety attacks, panic attacks, and free floating anxiety, or a continuous feeling of being on
edge, are all common anxiety reactions when hypothyroidism is developing.
Depression is more likely occur in hypothyroidism. Depression presents a person with depressed
mood, loss of interest or pleasure; feeling of guilt or low self-esteem, disturbance sleep or
appetite, low energy, and poor concentration (Moore, 2007). These problems can become
chronic or recurrent and lead to substantial impairment in an individuals ability to take care of
his/her everyday responsibilities.
It is a fact that thyroid hormone not only plays an important part in the health of metabolic
endocrine, nervous and immune system, they in turn have an important role in the health and
optimal functioning of brain. On the basis of various findings it was found that the central
features of all thyroid conditions are affected by emotional, motivational, cognitive and somatic
manifestation. Emotional manifestation includes depressed mood, loss of interest or pleasure,
inability to experience pleasure. In the motivational manifestation psychomotor agitation or
retardation, failure or loss of energy, concentration problems etc. are included. Cognitive
manifestation consists of negative thinking, low self-esteem, hopelessness and pessimism
inability in making decisions, suicidal thoughts etc. Somatic manifestation has weight changes,
sleep and appetite changes etc. Studies on thyroidism subjects have indicated that these serious
psycho-somatic symptoms affecting the patients quality of life. There is a need to study the
psychological determinants of hypothyroidism.

A comparative study of Personality Traits of hypothyroidism patients with their normal
A comparative study of Brain dysfunction of hypothyroidism patients with their normal

SAMPLE: The sample for the study comprised two groups. Group-I consisted of 50 hypothyroid
patients, in the age-group of 30 to 50 years taken from the clinics of physicians, Agra. Group II
99 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
was a matched group of 50 non-hypothyroid patients with group-I in terms of age, education,
marital status and socio-economic status. Subjects having any often somatic or psychological
problem were excluded from the sample. The following inclusion and exclusion criteria were
followed for selection of hypothyroid patients.
Age range of patient between 30 to 50 years
Gender (only females).
Education at least graduate passed.
Marital status: married.

DESIGN: Ex-post facto research design was used.
1- Hypothyroidism should be diagnosed on the basis of pathologist report obtained during last
2-For measuring PERSONALITY, NEO Five Factor Personality Inventory (NEO PI) by
McCrae & Costa (1985) was used. Detailed interpretation: Facets of N, E, O, A and C-
A list of the personality dimensions measured by the NEO PI, including facets is as follow:
Neuroticism: - (1) Anxiety, (2) Hostility, (3) Depression, (4) Self-consciousness, (5)
Impulsiveness, (6) Vulnerability to stress.
Extraversion: - (1) Warmth, (2) Gregariousness, (3) Assertiveness, (4) Activity, (5) Excitement
seeking, (6) Positive emotion.
Openness: - (1) Fantasy, (2) Aesthetics, (3) feelings, (4) Actions, (5) Ideas, (6) Values.
Agreeableness: - (1) Trust, (2) Altruism, (3) Straight forwardness, (4) Compliance, (5) Modesty,
(6) Tender-mindedness.
Conscientiousness: - (1) Competence, (2) Order, (3) Dutifulness, (4) Achievement Striving, (5)
Self- Discipline.
2- For measuring Brain Dysfunction, the PGI Battery of Brain Dysfunction development by
Pershad and Verma(1989) was used.
Description of the test: - This test consists of five subtests. (i) Memory Scale (ii) Battery of
Performance Test of Intelligence (iii) Verbal Adult Intelligence Scale (iv) Nahar-Benson Test (v)
Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test.
NEO Five Factor Personality Inventory (NEO PI), and PGI Battery of Brain Dysfunction will be
administered one by one on all fifty patients of hypothyroidism of (group-I) and on fifty normal
subjects (group-II). Administration of each test was done according to the instructions given in
their respective manuals.
100 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
Table- I
Showing The Result of Mann Whitney U Test of NEO PI

Dimensions Groups N ZU Level
NEO PI Hypothyroid


Neuroticism Hypothyroid














101 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
Table II
Showing The Result of Mann Whitney U Test of Brain Dysfunction.
Groups N ZU Level



Table I indicated that the differences between Personality Trait of hypothyroid and
nonhypothyroid women is significant. The ZU value is 4.310 which is significant at 0.01 levels,
indicating that hypothyroid and non hypothyroid women significantly differ in their personality
traits. In Neuroticism Dimension of NEO PI, hypothyroid and nonhypothyroid women are
statistically differed with each. The ZU value is 2.34 which is significant at 0.05 level and 1.96 is
a critical value at 0.05 level. Results indicate that hypothyroid womens scored high in
Neuroticism, it indicates that emotional instability, embarrassment, low self-esteem and
psychological distress disagreeableness, feeling of guilt, sadness, and hopelessness were high in
this group. In Extraversion Dimension of NEO PI, the difference between hypothyroid and non
hypothyroid women is not significant. . The ZU value is 0.68 which is not significant at 0.05
level and 1.96 is a critical value at 0.05 level. Openness Dimension of NEO PI, the difference
between hypothyroid and non hypothyroid women is not significant. The ZU value is 1.15 which
is not significant at 0.05 level and 1.96 is a critical value at 0.05 level. In Agreeableness
Dimension of NEO PI, hypothyroid and non hypothyroid women are statistically differed with
each other. The ZU value is 3.01 which is significant at 0.01 level and 2.58 is a critical value at
0.01 level. These results indicate that hypothyroid womens scored low in Agreeableness, it
indicates that tendency to dishonest or dangerous and aggressive prefers to complete rather than
cooperate, and has no reluctant to get involved in the problems of others were high in this group.
In Conscientiousness Dimension of NEO PI, hypothyroid and non hypothyroid women are that
statistically differed with each other at 0.01 level. The ZU value is 3.69 which is significant at
0.01 level and 2.58 is a critical value at 0.01 level. The result indicates that hypothyroid womens
score low in Conscientiousness, It indicates that hypothyroid women have lower opinion in their
abilities and admit that they are often unprepared and inept, and unable to get organized and
describe themselves as unmethodical and are not driven to succeed etc.
Table II indicates that hypothyroid and nonhypothyroid women were statistically differed with
each other in Brain Dysfunction of PGI Battery. The ZU value is 2.01 which is significant at 0.05
level and 1.96 is a critical value at 0.05 level. The result indicates that there is significant
difference between hypothyroid and nonhypothyroid women.
102 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
It is a fact that thyroid hormone not only plays an important part in the health of metabolic
endocrine, nervous and immune system, they in turn have an important role in the health and
optimal functioning of brain. On the basis of various findings it was found that the central
features of all thyroid conditions are affected by emotional, motivational, cognitive and somatic
manifestation. Emotional manifestation includes depressed mood, loss of interest or pleasure,
inability to experience pleasure. In the motivational manifestation psychomotor agitation or
retardation, failure or loss of energy, concentration problems etc. are included. Cognitive
manifestation consists of negative thinking, low self-esteem, hopelessness and pessimism
inability in making decisions, suicidal thoughts etc. Somatic manifestation has weight changes,
sleep and appetite changes etc. Studies on thyroid subjects have indicated that these serious
psycho-somatic symptoms affecting the patients quality of life.

There is no significant difference in the Brain Dysfunction of the hypothyroid and
nonhypothyroid married women.
There is significant difference in the Personality Traits of hypothyroid and
nonhypothyroid married women.


Abalovich, M. (2007).Management of thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy : an Endocrine
Society Clinical Practice Guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 92(8), 47-56
American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE), (2007). Subclinical thyroid
disease: Guidelines & position statements. Available from: http://www.aace.com/pub/
Arem, R. (2007). The Thyroid Solution: A Mind Body Program For Beating Depression and
Regaining Your Emotional and Physical Health. 2 ed. Available from:-
EndocrineWeb.com.(2005).Hypothyroidism. Retrieved from http://www.endocrineweb.com/
Hall, R. (2002). Anxiety and Endocrine Disease. Retrieved from:-
McCrae, R.R., Costa, P.T.(1985). NEO Five Factor Personality Inventory (NEO PI) Form
S. National , M.A, Frank, M.C, Tedford, W.L.Psychological Corporation.Agra.
Moore, E. (2006). Thyroid Disease Triggers: Environmental and Lifestyle Factir in Thyroid
Disease. Retrieved from:- http://autoimmunedisease.suite101.com
103 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
National health and nutrition examination survey (NHANES III) (1988-1994). Journal of
Clinical Endocrinology Metbolism,87(4), 489-99.
Nazliel, G., Yilmaz, M., Kocer, B. (2008). Event related potential in hypothyroidism.
Electromyogr Clin Neurophysiol, 48(5), 203-208.
Norman, J. (2010). Psychological change and psychogenesis in thyroid hormone disorders.
Journals of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 25(3), 327-338.
Pershad, D., Mahajan, A., Verma, S.K. (1989). Handbook for P.G.I. Battery of Brain
Dysfunction. National Psychological Corporation . Agra.
Roti, E. (2002). Post-partum thyroiditis- a clinical update. European Journal of
Endocrinology, 146(7), 275-9
Vanderpump, M. (1995). The incidence of thyroid disorders in the community: a twenty-year
follow-up of the Whickham Survey. Clinical Endocrinology, 43(6), 55-68.

104 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy

Surila Agrawala & Nidhi Gurbaxani
There is any difference in the main aim is to study the quality of life of employed and unemployed
married women. The sample in the study comprised two groups of women, group I consisted of
50employed married women & group II consisted of 50 unemployed married women. The two
groups were matched in terms of age, economic status and qualification. Matched group design was
used. World Health Organization Questionnaire was used tool. The result revealed that there is no
significant difference quality of life of employed and unemployed married women.

The word Quality is of Latin origin from the root word Qualis meaning of what kind
(Webster, 1986). The same dictionary defines Quality as the degree of excellence, a special
distinguishing attribute or high social status. Definition of life includes the course of
existence or the manner of their living. Quality of Life (QOL) thus, represents a broad spectrum
of human experiences. Quality of Life (QOL) is a frequently used term that has implicit meaning
to almost everyone. Less frequently, it is defined in a way that allows for clear understanding and
measurement. According to MC Call (1975), quality of life consist of obtaining the necessary
conditions for happiness in a given society or region. Nevertheless, they discussed quality of life
as being comprised of broad concepts that can affect global life satisfaction, including housing,
employment opportunities, personal safety, family educational system, leisure pursuits, and good
health. Quality of Life may encompass a persons ability to carry out mundane social functions
(for example, self care, house work, recreation, and paid employment). Opportunity for and
competence in social interaction, psychological well-being, somatic sensation (such as the
experience of personal gains from mundane activity).
Lyndon Johnson is credited with being the first person to use the phrase Quality of Life to
express the view that having a good life was more than being financially secure. Since his speech
at Madison squre Garden in 1964, this phrase has been globally used in a variety of contexts
ranging from environment to health (Blan, 1977) Compbell and Converse (1979), Andrews and
Withney (1976), Najman and Levin (1981) considered quality of life as a composite measure of
physical, mental, and social well being as perceived by each individual and happiness,
satisfaction, gratification involving life concerns like health, marriage, family, education,
opportunities, financial situation, creativity and so on. So it refers to the overall satisfaction in
the component areas.
Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy (ISSN: 2249-8389)
Volume III, No. 01 (March, 2013), pp.104-109
105 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
WHO (1995) defined quality of life as An individuals perception of his/her position in life
in the context of culture and value system in which they live and in relation to their goals,
expectations, standards and concerns. It is a broad ranging concept incorporating a complex way
in which the persons physical health, psychological state, level of independence, social
relationships, personal beliefs and their relationships are adapted to the salient features of the
environment. The comprehensive notion of QOL there for, seems to be a blend between
objective and subjective components. The objective components are related by the term
standard of living with things such as level of education, employment, status, financial
resources, housing conditions and comfort of moderns living. The parallel term used in United
Nations (1916) documents is level of living consisting of nine components, housing, social
security, clothing recreation and leisure, and human rights. These objective characteristics are
believed to influence human well being. It is also believed that an individuals satisfaction or
happiness with his objective reality depends not only on his access to goods and services that are
available to the community but also on his expectations and perceived reality. It is this subjective
component which links the IQ to subjective well being, viz as experienced by each individual.
The subjective well-being is believed to be a function of degree of wishes and needs on one hand
and environmental demands and opportunities on the other. Thus, QOL means overall life
satisfaction of an individual in which standard of living (pleasant affect i.e. joy) and unpleasant
affect (ie depression and life dissatisfaction) both are important. Quality of life can be affected
by a number of significant positive and negative life events. The factors contributing to the
quality of life of an individual may be broadly classified under two groups: (i) satisfactory
conditions. These include factors like group cohesiveness, sharing of each others experience,
helping attitudes, understanding and sharing physical illness etc. (ii) satisfying conditions : These
includes factors like sense of belongingness, subjective feelings of physical, psychological,
mental, social & spiritual well-being, absence of unhappy experiences within the family, etc.
Quality of life has combined the multiple meaning, consisting of objective and subjective factors
and considers the evaluation of the individuals on the basis of his comfort. There are two views
for meaning and measuring the quality of life, one is life satisfaction methods and second is
adjustment methods.
According to Quality of life research unit (2004), the quality of life is related to communities,
families, and individuals from a variety of population groups. The study of quality of life is an
examination of factors that contribute to the goodness and well-being of life, as well as peoples
happiness. It also explores the inter-relationships among these factors. The ideological trust of
quality of life study is to promote means for the people, within their environment, to live in the
way that is best for them. Long term unemployment is still the most detrimental factor for quality
of life. Social integration and life satisfaction is improved when a high level of employment
coincides with high quality jobs. Overall results support an integrated employment policy.
Higher employment rates, better quality jobs combined with family friendly activities. Although
employed are more satisfied than unemployed, the quality of job is important because difficult
working condition have a detrimental effect on several areas of satisfaction. Those who work
overtime, in high intensity jobs, or in jobs that are physically or psychologically demanding,
report lower satisfaction levels than those who work under favorable conditions. In the present
study, quality of life was taken as consisting of a number of aspects of a persons life
satisfaction, marital adjustment, physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and
good income. Although the concept of quality of life (QOL), is not new, quality of life as an area
of research and scholarship dates back only to the 1960 s. noted that president Dwight
106 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
Eisenhowers (1960) commission on National Goals and Bauers book on social indicators
(1966), are often credited as providing the impetus for the development of QOL as an area of
research. Campbell (1981) suggested that the 1960 s were favorable times for the development of
QOL research because of the emergence then of a belief that people must examine the quality of
their lives and must do so in an environment that goes beyond providing material goods to foster
individual happiness.

Problem: To compare the quality of life of employed and unemployed married women.
Hypothesis: Quality of life of employed married women is better than the quality of life of
unemployed married women.

Independent Variable: Employment of women.
Dependent Variable: Quality of life.
Relevant variables: Age, economic status qualification.

Sample: The sample in the present study comprised two groups of women; group 1 consisted of
50 employed married women and group II consisted of 50 unemployed married women. The two
groups were matched in terms of age, economic status and qualification.

Design: Matched group design was used.

Tools: World Health Organization- Quality of life Questionnaire. (WHO QOL)- BREF: (1996)
The questionnaire has been developed by World Health Organization group in order to provide a
short form quality of life assessment that looks domain level profiles.

Means of scores of (QOL) of both the groups were calculated. Total of ranks were calculated
(Table No. 1).
To test the significance of difference between quality of life of employed and unemployed
married women.
107 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy

Table No-1
Showing the Quality of Life of Employed and Unemployed married Women.

50 4231 84.62 2616
50 4170 83.4 2434


Table No- 2
Showing results of Mann Whitney U Test



Not significant at
0.05 level


Result Table No-1 shows that total of raw scores of employed married women is 4231, and total
of raw scores of unemployed married women is 4170. Mean QOL, score of group 1 employed
married women was 84.62 and mean QOL score of group II unemployed married women was
108 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
83.4. Then, total of ranks were calculated. 2616 was total of ranks of employed women (Group
1) and 2434 was total of ranks of unemployed women (Group II).
Result Table No- 2. Indicates that the difference between the Quality of Life of employed and
unemployed married women is not significant. The Zu value is 0.63 which is not significant even
at 0.05 level. Thus the result of the study leads us to reject the hypothesis taken The employed
married woman is better than the unemployed married women.

The present study was conducted to find out the differences between the quality of life of
employed and unemployed married women. Mann Whitney U Test was applied between the
quality of life of employed and unemployed married women and its dimension (Physical health,
social relationship, and environment). Zu values were computed for the variables which yielded
not significant at 0.01 level. Zu score were computed to see the significance of difference
between the quality of life of employed and unemployed married women, and its four
dimensions separately (physical health, psychological health, and social relationship and
environment). Zu value were computed to see the not significance of difference between means
for employed and unemployed married women on quality of life and its four dimensions
separately (Physical health, psychological heath, social relationship and environment). The table
of comparison of means (Table No-1) shows that employed married women and unemployed
married women has no difference of quality of life. Results of the present study not support the
hypothesis. Zu values were significant at 0.01 level and 2.58 is the critical value at 0.01 level.
Chaudhary (2007) found that employed and unemployed married women did not differ
significantly on marital adjustment, life stress and general well being. Wright (2008) concluded
that there no consistent differences in pattern of the life satisfaction between employed outside
the home and full time housewives.
There is no significant difference in the quality of life of employed and unemployed married
Andrews F.M. & Whitney, S.B (1976). Social indicators of well being. American
perception of life quality. New York: Plenum.
Blan, T.H. (1977). Quality of life, social indicators and criteria of change. Journal of
Professional Psychology. 8,464-473.
Campbell, A. (1981). The Sense of Well-Being in American: Recent patterns and Trends.
New York: Mc Grew- Hill.
Campbell, A. & Converse, P. (1970). Monitoring the quality of American life: A proposal
to the Russel Sage Foundation. Survey Research Center, University of Michigan.
109 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
Chaudhry, M. (2007). A study of marital adjustment, role conflict, fear of success,
general well-being of life stress amongst working and non- working married women.
Unpublished PhD thesis. Punjab University, Chandigarh, India.
Mc Call, S. (1975). Quality of life. Social indicators research, 2, 229-248.
Najman, J.M. & Levin, S. (1981). Evaluating the impact of medical care and technologies
on the quality of life. Social science and Medicine, 15, 107-115.
Webster, M. (1986). New International Dictionary of the English language,
Massachusetts: Spring- field.
Wright, J.D. (2008). Are working women really more satisfied? Evidence from several
national surveys. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 40, 301-313.

110 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy


Human Rights for All
Editor: Manoj Kumar
ISBN: 978-81-922377-3-2
First Edition, April, 2012

About the Book
Human Rights for All is an important work in this regard as it is a fine collection of papers
written by academicians including research scholars, practitioners and teachers etc., and provide
us a comprehensive study of various issues related to human rights. This study is an attempt to
exploration into dimensions, and perceptions of, human rights community, groups and ground-
root workers. We are thankful to Dr. Manoj Kumar taking this initiative to edit this volume. We
are sure that this volume will be beneficial for students and teachers of social science and
humanities. It is the general intention of the Centre to produce some collaborative, informative
as well as positive literature to inspire and motivate the students and the general reader.

Centre for Positive Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Studies (CPPIS), Milestone Education
Society (Regd.), Pehowa (Kurukshetra)-136128 (HARYANA)
Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy (ISSN: 2249-8389)
Volume III, No. 01 (March, 2013), pp.110-111
111 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy

Contemporary Indian Philosophy
Editor: Desh Raj Sirswal
ISBN: 978-81-922377-4-9
First Edition: February, 2013
About the Book
Contemporary Indian Philosophy is related to contemporary Indian thinkers and contains the
proceedings of First Session of Society for Positive Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Studies
(SPPIS) Haryana. It is neither easy nor impossible to translate into action all noble goals set forth
by the eminent thinkers and scholars, but we might try to discuss and propagate their ideas. In
this session all papers submitted electronically and selected abstracts have been published on a
website especially develop for this session. In this volume we included some papers from this
session and also from open sources and contributors include teachers, research scholars and
students etc. This volume is divided into two parts. First part contains papers on Swami
Vivekananda and second part contains papers of B. G. Tilak, Sri Aurobindo, Mahatma Gandhi,
Jawaharlal Nehru, Saheed Bhagat Singh and Dr. B.R. Ambedkar etc. It is the general intention of
the Centre to produce informative as well as positive literature to inspire and motivate the
students and the general readers.
Centre for Positive Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Studies (CPPIS), Milestone Education
Society (Regd.), Pehowa (Kurukshetra)-136128 (HARYANA)

112 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
PRAJ NANAM : I nternational Conference on Liberating Learning
7th to 9th June 2013
Ahmedabad, Gujarat , India
Contact person: Dr. Ajitsinh Rana, convener
SUB THEMES: 1.Alternatives to Systemic Rituals 2.Defying the Dictating Forces 3.Teacher
Education for Liberating Learning 4.Indian Concept of Learning: 5.Education from Womb to
Deadline for abstracts/proposals: 30th April 2013
Website: http://www.prajnanam.org

Workshop on I ndian Materialism
From 29th April to 9th May, 2013
Indian Council of Philosophical Research will organize a Workshop on Indian Materialism with
the help of the eminent scholar Prof. V.N. Jha. The Course will be held at Academic Centre,
Lucknow, of ICPR.

Beyond the Human: Monsters, Mutants and Lonely Machines (or What?)
20th to 23rd February 2014
New Delhi, India
Website: http://beyondthehuman.com
Contact person: Makarand Paranjape
The conference will address, critique and further trajectories and aspects of the border-crossing
between the human and its alter-entities in its various dimensions, transhuman, posthuman,
superhuman, postmodern and postcolonial.
Organized by: Jawaharlal Nehru University
Deadline for abstracts/proposals: 15th August 2013

International Conference Bounds of Ethics in a Globalized World
Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy (ISSN: 2249-8389)
Volume III, No. 01 (March, 2013), pp.112-114
113 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy

January 06-09, 2014
Christ University, Bangalore, India
Contact :
Dr. Kurian Kachappilly, CMI
Convener, BoE2014
E-mail: frkurian@christuniversity.in

Call for Papers

Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy (ISSN 2249-8389)
Respected Faculty/Scholar,
I would like to invite all academicians from all disciplines to contribute research papers and
articles for our journal. Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy (ISSN 2249-8389) is a bi-
annual an online interdisciplinary journal of the Center for Positive Philosophy and
Interdisciplinary Studies (CPPIS). The name Lokyata can be traced to Kautilya's Arthashastra,
which refers to three nvkiks (logical philosophies), Yoga, Samkhya and Lokyata. Lokyata
here still refers to logical debate (disputatio, "criticism") in general and not to a materialist
doctrine in particular. The objectives of the journal are to encourage new thinking on concepts
and theoretical frameworks in the disciplines of humanities and social sciences to disseminate
such new ideas and research papers (with strong emphasis on modern implications of
philosophy) which have broad relevance in society in general and mans life in particular. The
Centre will publish two issues of the journal every year. Each regular issue of the journal will
contain full-length papers, discussions and comments, book reviews, information on new books
and other relevant academic information. Each issue contains about 100 pages.
Proposed Contents:
Nature of Philosophy
Problems of Philosophy
Methods of Philosophy
Reading Philosophy
Writing Philosophy
Argument Formation
Research Tools
114 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
Reference Style
Doing Philosophy
Suggested Readings
Last date for paper submission: 31
August, 2013
Format of Submission: The paper should be typewritten preferably in Times New Roman with
12 font size (English) and Kruti Dev (10) with 14 font size (Hindi) in MS-Word 2003 and
between 3000 to 5000 words. They should be typed on one side of the paper, double spaced
with ample margins. The authors should submit the hard copy along with a CD and a certificate
of originality of the paper to be sent to the editorial address.
For detailed reference-style sheet follow our CPPI S Manual for Contributors & Reviewers
available at http://lokayatajournal.webs.com
All contributions to the Journal, other editorial enquiries and books for review are to be sent to:
Dr. Desh Raj Sirswal, Near Guaga Maidi, Balmiki Basti, H.No.255/6, Pehowa, Distt.
Kurukshetra (HARYANA)-136128 (India) Mobile No.09896848775, 08288883993, E-mail:
cppiskkr@gmail.com, mses.02@gmail.com, Website: http://lokayatajournal.webs.com
For more events/publication information visit at http://newsphilosophy.wordpress.com

115 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy (ISSN: 2249-8389)
Volume III, No. 01 (March, 2013), pp.115-116

Dr. P. Kesava Kumar, Assistant Professor, Department of Philosophy, Pondicherry
University, Pondicherry.
Ms. Nirmala V., Research Scholar, Department of Sanskrit Sahitya, Sree
Sankaracharya University of Sanskrit, Kalady, Kerala.

Dr. Shruti Rai C/o. Dr. Rajnish Kumar Mishra (Assistant Professor), Special Centre
for Sanskrit Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi.
Ms. Bhumika Sharma, Research Scholar, Himachal Pradesh University,Shimla.
Ms.Reni Pal, Assistant Professor in Philosophy, Surendranath College, Kolkata.
Mr. Buddhiswar Haldar, Senior Research Fellow (UGC), Department of
Philosophy, University of North Bengal .
Ms.Sima Baruah, Ph.D. Scholar, Department of Philosophy, Gauhati University,
Dr. Jatinder Kumar Jain, Associate Professor, Department of Philosophy,Govt.
Ripudaman College, Nabha (Patiala).
Mrs. Rinky Chowdhury, Assistant Professor, Department of Education,
Pranabnanda Womens College, Dimapur, Nagaland.
Dr. K.J.Sandhu, Associate Professor, Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social
Science, Dayalbagh Educational Institute (D.E.I), Agra, U.P.
Ms. Khusboo, Research Scholar, Dayalbagh Educational Institute (D.E.I), Agra, U.P.
Dr. Dinesh Chahal, Assistant Professor, C.R. College of Education, Hisar (Haryana)
Ms. Nidhi Mehta, Assistant Professor, Gaur College of Education, Behbalpur, Hisar
Ms. Shalini Sisodia, Research Scholar, Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social
Sciences, Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Agra.
116 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
Prof. Ira Das, Head, Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences,
Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Agra.
Dr. P.K. Mona, Associate Professor, Department of Psychology,, Faculty of Social
Sciences,, Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Agra, U.P.
Ms. Prachi Sharma, Research Scholar, Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social
Sciences, Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Agra, U.P.
Prof. Surila Agrawala, Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences,
Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Agra, U.P.
Ms. Nidhi Gurubaxani, Research Scholar, Department of Psychology, Faculty of
Social Sciences, Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Agra, U.P.

117 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
Instructions to the Contributors
Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy (ISSN 2249-8389) welcomes contributions in all areas of
research proposed by the Centre. All articles are sent to experts who evaluate each paper on
several dimensions such as originality of the work, scientific argument, and English style,
format of the paper, references, citations and finally they comment on suitability of the article
for the particular Journal. In case of review articles the importance of the subject and the extent
the review is comprehensive are assessed. Prospective authors are expected that before
submitting any article for publication they should see that it fulfills these criteria. The
improvement of article may be achieved in two ways (i) more attention to language (ii) more
attention to the sections of the article.
Format of Submission: The paper should be typewritten preferably in Times New Roman with
12 font size (English) and Kruti Dev (10) with 14 font size (Hindi) in MS-Word 2003-07 and
between 3000 to 5000 words. They should be typed on one side of the paper, double spaced with
ample margins. The authors should submit the hard copy along with a CD and a certificate of
originality of the paper to be sent to the editorial address.
Time Line: The last dates of submission of the manuscript are as follows:
For April to September Issue: 31
August every year.
For October to March Issue: 31
January every year.
Reference Style:
Notes and references should appear at the end of the articles as Notes. Citations in the text and
References must correspond to each other; do not over reference by giving the obvious/old
classic studies or the irrelevant. Give all journal titles in full and not in an abbreviated form,
LJPP follows APA format for references. The following style of reference may be strictly

In case of Journal: Venkona Rao,A.(1980) Gita and mental sciences. Indian Journal of Psyhiatry, 22,
In case of a Book: McKibben, B. (1992). The age of missing information. New York: Random House,
Chapter in an Edited Book: Hartley, J. T., Harker J. O.,& Walsh, D. A. (1980). Contemporary issues and
new directions in adult development of learning and memory. In L. W. Poon (Ed.), Aging in the
1980s:Psychological issues . Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association,250-253.

For unpublished work: Gould, J. B. (1999). Symbolic Speech: Legal mobilization and the rise of
collegiate hate speech codes (Doctoral dissertation, University of Chicago, 1999),54-55.

In case of institution/Govt. Report: Administration on Aging. (1984). Alzheimer's disease handbook
(DHHS Publication No. OHDS 84-20813). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 65.

For detailed reference-style sheet follow our CPPIS Manual for Contributors & Reviewers
available at http://lokayatajournal.webs.com
118 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
CPPIS, Pehowa (Kurukshetra)
Centre for Positive Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Studies(CPPIS) Pehowa is a joint
academic venture of Milestone Education Society (Regd.) Pehowa and Society for
Positive Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Studies (SPPIS), Haryana (online) to do
fundamental research in the field of Humanities and Social Sciences.
SPPIS Newsletter
The Centre also circulates a Newsletter which includes new information related to
events, new articles and programme details. One can register himself on the below
given address and will get regular updates from us.
Link for registration: http://drsirswal.webs.com/apps/auth/signup
All contributions to the Journal, other editorial enquiries and books for review are to
be sent to:
Dr. Desh Raj Sirswal,
Chief-Editor, Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy,
Centre for Positive Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Studies (CPPIS),
Milestone Education Society (Regd), Valmiki Dharamshala, Pehowa,
Distt. Kurukshetra (HARYANA)-136128 (India)
Mobile No.09896848775, 08288883993
E-mail: cppiskkr@gmail.com, mses.02@gmail.com
Website: http://lokayatajournal.webs.com

My objective is to achieve an intellectual detachment from all philosophical systems,
and not to solve specific philosophical problems, but to become sensitively aware of
what it is when we philosophise.- Dr Desh Raj Sirswal