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Andhra Pradesh State Highways Project

Appendices

Appendices

Appendices - 1

Andhra Pradesh State Highways Project Appendix 1 LIST OF IRC PUBLICATIONS REFERRED TO IN THE SPECIFICATIONS, CODES & STANDARDS Number Designati on IRC : 2-1968 IRC : 5-1985 IRC : 6-1966 IRC : 8-1980 IRC : 10-1961 IRC : 14-1977 IRC : 16-1989 IRC : 17-1965 IRC : 18-1985 IRC : 19-1977 IRC : 20-1966 IRC : 21-1987 IRC : 22-1986 IRC : 23-1966 IRC : 24-1967 IRC : 25-1967 IRC : 26-1967 IRC : 27-1967 IRC : 29-1968 IRC : 30-1968 IRC : 35-1970 IRC : 36-1970 IRC : 37-1984 IRC : 40-1970 IRC : 45-1972 IRC : 47-1972 IRC : 48-1972 IRC : 49-1973 IRC : 50-1970 IRC : 51-1973 IRC : 56-1974 IRC : 63-1976 IRC : 67-1977 IRC : 72-1978 IRC : 75-1979 Title Route Maker Signs for National Highways (First Revision) Standard Specifications & Code of Practice for Road Bridges, Section I-General Features of Design (Sixth Revision) Standard Specifications & Code of Practice for Road Bridges, Section II-Loads and Stresses (Third Revision) Type Designs for Highway Kilometre Stones (Second Revision) Recommended Practice for Borrowpits for Road Embankments Constructed by Manual Operation Recommended Practice for 2 cm Thick Bitumen and Tar Carpets (Third Revision) Tentative Specification for Priming of Base Course with Bituminous Primers Tentative Specification for Single Coat Bituminous Surface Dressing Design Criteria for Prestressed Concrete Road Bridges (Post-Tensioned Concrete) (Second Revision) Standard Specifications and Code of Practice for Water Bound Macadam (Second Revision) Recommended Practice for Bituminous Penetration Macadam (Full Grout) Standard Specifications and Code of Practice for Road Bridges, Section III-Cement Concrete (Plain and Reinforced) (First Revision) Standard Specifications and Code of Practice for Road Bridges, Section VI-Composite Construction for Road Bridges (First Revision) Tentative Specification for Two Coat Bituminous Surface Dressing Standard Specifications and Code of Practice for Road Bridges, Section V-Steel Road Bridges Type Designs for Boundary Stones Type Designs for 200-metre Stones Tentative Specification for Bituminous Macadam (Base & Binder Course) Tentative Specification for 4 cm Asphaltic Concrete Surface Course Standard Letters and Numerals of Different Heights for Use on Highway Signs Code of Practice for Road Markings (with Paints) Recommended Practice for the Construction of Earth Embankments for Road Works Guidelines for the Design of Flexible Pavements (First Revision) Standard Specifications and Code of Practice for Road Bridges, Section IV-(Brick, Stone and Block Masonry) Recommendations for Estimating the Resistance of Soil below the Maximum Scour Level in the Design of Well Foundations of Bridges. Tentative Specification for Built-up Spray Grout Tentative Specification for Bituminous Surface Dressing using Pre-coated Aggregates Recommended Practice for the Pulverization of Black Cotton Soils for Lime Stabilisation Recommended Design Criteria for the Use of Cement Modified Soil in Road Construction Recommended Design Criteria for the Use of Soil Lime Mixes in Road Construction Recommended Practice for Treatment of Embankment Slopes for Erosion Control Tentative Guidelines for the Use of Low Grade Aggregates and Soil Aggregate Mixtures in Road Pavement Construction Code of Practice for Road Signs Recommended Practice for Use and Upkeep of Equipment, Tools and Appliances for Bituminous Pavement Construction Guidelines for the Design of High Embankments

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Andhra Pradesh State Highways Project

Number Designati on IRC : 78-1983 IRC : 79-1981 IRC : 82-1982 IRC : 83-1982 IRC : 83-1987 IRC : 87-1981 IRC : 89-1985 IRC : 90-1985 IRC : 93-1985 IRC : 94-1986 IRC : SP : 111977 IRC : SP : 311986 IRC : Special Report 11, 1992

Title Standard Specifications and Code of Practice for Road Bridges, Section VII-Foundation of Substructure (First Revision) Recommended Practice for Road Delineators Code of Practice for Maintenance of Bituminous Surface of Highways Standard Specifications and Code of Practice for Road Bridges, Section IX-Bearings, Part I: Metallic Bearings Standard Specification and Code of Practice for Road Bridges, Section IX, Bearings, Part II : Elastomeric Bearings Guidelines for the Design & Erection of False Work for Road Bridges Guidelines for Design and Construction of River Training and Control Works for Road Bridges Guidelines for Selection, Operation and Maintenance of Bituminous Hot Mix Plant Guidelines on Design and Installation of Road Traffic Signals Specifications for Dense Bituminous Macadam Handbook of Quality Control for Construction of Roads and Runways (First Revision) New Traffic Signs Ministry of Shipping & Transport (Roads Wing) Handbook on Road Construction Machinery (1985) IRC Highway Research Board, State of the Art: Granular and Bound Bases and SubBases

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Andhra Pradesh State Highways Project Appendix 2 LIST OF INDIAN AND FOREIGN STANDARDS REFERRED TO IN THE SPECIFICATIONS (A) INDIAN STANDARDS Number Designati on IS : 5-1978 IS : 73-1992 IS : 164-1981 IS : 210-1978 IS : 215-1961 IS : 217-1988 IS : 226-1975 IS : 269-1989 IS : 278-1978 IS : 280-1978 IS : 334-1982 IS : 383-1970 IS : 432-1982 (Part I) (Part II) IS : 443-1975 IS : 454-1961 IS : 455-1989 IS : 456-1978 IS : 458-1988 IS : 460-1985 IS : 508-1973 IS : 516-1959 IS : 702-1988 IS : 736-1986 IS : 814-1974 IS : 823-1964 IS : 961-1975 IS : 1002-1956 IS : 1030-1974 IS : 1077-1976 IS : 1124-1974 IS : 1129-1972 IS : 1139-1966 IS : 1148-1973 IS : 1149-1973 IS : 1195-1968 IS : 1199-1959 IS : 1201 to 1220-1978 IS : 1239-1979 (Part I) IS : 1239-1979 (Part II) IS : 1364-1967 Title Colour for ready mixed paints and enamels Paving Bitumen Ready mixed paints, brushing, for road marking, to Indian Standard Colour No. 356 Golden yellow, white and black Grey iron castings Road tar Cutback bitumen Structural steel (standard quality) 33 grade ordinary portland cement (fourth revision) Galvanized steel barbed wire for fencing Mild steel wire for general engineering purposes Glossary of terms relating to bitumen and tar Coarse and fine aggregates from natural sources for concrete Mild steel and medium tensile steel bars and hard-drawn steel wire for concrete reinforcement Mild steel and medium tensile steel bars Hard-drawn steel wire Methods of sampling and test for rubber hoses Digboi type cutback bitumen Portland slag cement (fourth revision) Code of practice for plain and reinforced concrete (third revision) Concrete pipes (with and without reinforcement) Test sieves Specification grease graphited (second revision) Methods of test for strength of concrete Industrial bitumen (second revision) Wrought aluminium and aluminium alloys, plates for general engineering purposes Covered electrodes for metal arc welding of mild steel Code of procedure for manual metal arc welding of mild steel Structural steel (High tensile) Multipurpose grease No. 1, No. 2 and No. 3 Steel castings for general engineering purposes Common burnt clay building bricks Method of test for water absorption of natural building stones Dressing of natural building stones Hot rolled mild steel and medium tensile steel deformed bars for concrete reinforcement Rivet bars for structural purposes High tensile rivet bars for structural purposes Procedure for testing for hardness number of bitumen mastic Method of sampling and analysis of concrete Indian standard methods for testing tar and bituminous materials Mild steel tubes (fourth revision) Mild steel tubular and other wrought steel pipe fittings (second revision) Precision and semi-precision hexagon bolts, screws, nuts and lock nuts (diameter range 6 to 39 mm) (first revision)

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Andhra Pradesh State Highways Project

Number Designati on IS : 1367-1984 IS : 1387-1967 IS : 1398-1960 IS : 1442-1964 IS : 1448 IS : 1477 (Part I)-1971 IS : 1489-1991 IS : 1498-1970 IS : 1514-1959 IS : 1732-1971 IS : 1785 (Part I)-1966 IS : 1786-1985 IS : 1838 (Part I)-1983 IS : 1888-1982 IS : 2004-1978 IS : 2062-1980 IS : 2116-1980 IS : 2131-1981 IS : 2250-1965 IS : 2386-1963 (Part 1) (Part 2) (Part 3) (Part 4) (Part 5) (Part 6) (Part 7) (Part 8) IS : 2720 (Part 2)-1973 (Part 3)-1980 Section I Section II (Part 4)-1985 (Part 5)-1985 (Part 7)-1980 (Part 8)-1983 (Part 10)-1973 (Part 13)-1985 (Part 14)-1983 (Part 16)-1987 (Part 27)-1977 Number Designati on (Part 28)-1974 (Part 29)-1975

Title Technical supply conditions for threaded steel fastners General requirements for the supply of metallurgical materials Packing paper, waterproof, bitumen-laminated Covered electrodes for metal arc welding of high tensile structural steel Method of tests for petroleum and its products Code of practice for finishing of iron and steel/ferrous metal in buildings : painting and allied finishes Operations and workmanship Portland-pozzolana cement Classification and identification of soils for general engineering purposes Methods of sampling and test for quick lime and hydrated lime Dimensions for round and square steel bars for structural and general engineering purposes Plain hard-drawn steel wire for prestressed concrete Cold-twisted steel bars for concrete reinforcement High strength deformed steel bars and wires for concrete reinforcement Preformed filler for expansion joint in concrete pavement and structures (non extruding and resilient type) Bitumen impregnated fibre (first revision) Method of load tests on soils Carbon steel forging for general engineering purposes Structural steel (fusion welding quality) Sand for masonry mortars Methods for standard penetration test for soils Code of practice for preparation and use of masonry mortars Methods of test for aggregates for concrete Particle size and shape Estimation of deleterious materials and organic impurities Specific gravity, density, voids, absorption and bulking Mechanical properties Soundness Measuring mortar making properties of fine aggregates Alkali Aggregate reactivity Petrographic examination Methods of test for soils Determination of water content Determination of specific gravity Fine grained soils Medium and coarse grained soils Grain size analysis Determination of liquid and plastic limits Determination of moisture content/dry density relation using light compaction Determination of water content-dry density relation using heavy compaction Determination of unconfined compressive strength Direct shear test Determination of density index (relative density) of cohesionless soils Laboratory determination of CBR Determination of total soluble sulphates Title Determination of dry density of soils in-place by the sand replacement method Determination of dry density of soils in-place by core cutter method Appendices - 5

Andhra Pradesh State Highways Project

(Part 37)-1976 (Part 40)-1977 IS : 3117-1965 IS : 3466-1967 IS : 3764-1992 IS : 4138-1977 IS : 4332 (Part 1)-1967 (Part 3)-1967 (Part 4)-1968 (Part 5)-1970 (Part 7)-1973 (Part 8)-1969 IS : 4434-1978 IS : 4826 IS : 5317-1969 IS : 5435 (Revised) IS : 5640-1970 IS : 6006-1970 IS : 6241-1971 IS : 6909-1991 IS : 6925-1973 IS : 7537-1974 IS : 8041-1978 IS : 8112-1989 IS : 8887-1978 IS : 9103-1979 IS : 102621982 IS : 122691987 IS : 123301988 IS : 13321 (Part 1)-1992 IS : 133251992 IS : 13326 (Part 1)-1992 IS : SP 231982

Determination of sand equivalent values of soils and fine aggregates Determination of free swell index of soils Specification for bitumen emulsion for roads (cationic type) Masonry cement Code of safety for excavation work Safety code for working in compressed air Method of test for stabilized soils Method of sampling and preparation of stabilized soils for testing Test for determination of moisture content-dry density relation for stabilized soil mixtures Wetting and drying and, freezing and thawing tests for compacted soil-cement mixtures Determination of unconfined compressive strength of stabilized soil Determination of cement content of cement stabilized soils Determination of lime content of lime stabilized soils Code of practice for in-situ vane shear test for soils Hot dipped galvanised coating on sound scaled wires Specification for bitumen mastic for bridge decking and roads General requirements for old asphalt macadam mixing plant Method for determining the aggregate impact value of soft coarse aggregate Uncoated stress relieved strands for prestressed concrete Method of test for determination of stripping value of road aggregates Supersulphated cement Methods of test for determination of water soluble chlorides in concrete admixtures Road traffic signals Rapid hardening portland cement 43 grade ordinary portland cement Specification for bitumen emulsion for roads (cationic type) Admixtures for concrete Guidelines for concrete mix design Specification for 53 grade ordinary portland cement Specification for sulphate resisting portland cement Glossary of terms for geosynthetics part 1:terms used in materials and properties Determination of tensile properties of extruded polymer geogrids using the wide strip-test method Evaluation of interface friction between geo-synthetics and soil-method of test part 1:Modified direct shear technique Handbook on concrete mixes (based on indian standards)

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Andhra Pradesh State Highways Project (B) FOREIGN STANDARDS Title Thermoplastic material Compression set of vulcanized rubber Tension testing of vulcanized rubber Adhesion of vulcanized rubber to metal Accelerated aging of vulcanized rubber by the oven method Tear resistance of vulcanized rubber Test method for neutralisation number for potentiometric titration Youngs modulus in flexure of elastomer at normal and subnormal temperature Effect of water on cohesion of compacted bituminous mixtures Accelerated ozone cracking of vulcanized rubber Test for resistance to plastic flow of bituminous mixtures using Marshall apparatus Extraction, quantitative of bitumen from bituminous paving mixtures Indentation hardness of rubber and plastic by means of a Durometer Test method for effect of water on bitumen coated aggregate using boiling water. Test method for trapezoid tearing strength of geotextiles. Specification for wire cloth sieves for testing purposes Test method for coefficient of retro-reflection or retro-reflection sheeting. Coarse aggregate for highway and airport construction Fine aggregate for bituminous paving mixtures Geotextiles used for subsurface drainage purposes Mineral filler for bituminous paving mixtures Selection and use of emulsified asphalts Cut-back asphalt (rapid-curing type) Cut-back asphalt (medium-curing type) Emulsified asphalt Materials for embankments and subgrades Materials for aggregate and soil-aggregate sub-base, base and surface courses Lime for soil stabilisation White and yellow reflect thermoplastic striping materials (solid form) Weatherometer Joint sealants, hot poured, elastomeric type, (or ASTM : D 3406) for portland cement concrete pavements Test sieves Hot dip galvanized coatings on iron and steel articles Testing aggregates Methods for determination of physical properties Methods for determination of mechanical properties Method for determination of ten per cent fines value (TFV) Method for determination of the polished-stone value Air-cooled blastfurnace slag coarse aggregate for concrete Vulcanized natural rubber compounds Methods of test for soils for civil engineering purposes Mastic asphalt (limestone fine aggregates) for roads and footways Steel plate, sheet and strip Carbon steel plate, sheet and strip Stainless and heat resisting plate, sheet and strip Wrought aluminium and aluminium alloys for general engineering purposesplate, sheet and strip Title Preformed joint filler Rolled copper and copper alloys : sheet, strip and foil Appendices - 7

Number Designation ASTM : D-36 ASTM : D-395 ASTM : D-412 ASTM : D-429 ASTM : D-573 ASTM : D-624 ASTM : D-664 ASTM : D-797 ASTM : D-1075 ASTM : D-1149 ASTM : D-1559 ASTM : D-2172 ASTM : D-2240 ASTM : D-3625 ASTM : D-4533 ASTM : E-11 ASTM : E-810 AASHTO : DM 283 AASHTO : DM 294-70 AASHTO : DM 288-82 AASHTO : DM 17-77 AASHTO : DR 5-80 AASHTO : DM 81-75 AASHTO : DM 82-75 AASHTO : DM 140-80 AASHTO : DM 57-80 AASHTO : DM 147-65 (1980) AASHTO : DM 216-68 AASHTO : DM 249-79 AASHTO : DM 268-77 AASHTO : DM 282-80 BS : 410-1969 BS : 729-1971 BS : 812-1975 Part 2 Part 3 Part 111 Part 114 BS : 1047-1952 BS : 1154-1970 BS : 1377-1975 BS : 1447-1973 BS : 1449-1956 Part 1-1972 Part 2-1967 BS : 1470-1972

Number Designation IS : 2630 BS : 2870

Andhra Pradesh State Highways Project

BS : 3262 Part-1 Part-2 Part-3 BS : 5212 Part 2-1975 BS : 6044 BS : 6088 BS : 6906 Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 7 BS : 7542 CRRI and IOC, New Delhi Asphalt Institute GRI-GG1 GRI-GG2 GRI-GG3

Hot-applied thermoplastic road marking materials Specification for constituent materials and mixtures Specification for road performance Specification for application of material to road surface Cold poured joint sealants for concrete pavements Specification for pavement marking paints Specification for solid glass beads for use with road marking compounds and for other industrial uses Methods of test for geotextiles Determination of the tensile properties using a wide width strip Determination of the apparent pore size distribution by dry sieving Determination of water flow normal to the plane of the geotextile under a constant head Determination of the puncture resistance (CBR puncture test) Determination of in-plane waterflow Method of test for curing compound for concrete Bituminous Road Construction Hand Book The asphalt handbook, manual series No. 4 (MS-4) 1989 edition Geogrid rib tensile strength Geogrid junction strength Tensile creep testing of Geogrids

(GRI denotes standards for test prepared by Geosynthetic Research Institute at Drexel University Philadelphia, USA)

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Andhra Pradesh State Highways Project

Appendix 3 (Clause 402.3.2. and 403.3.2.) METHOD OF SIEVING FOR WET SOILS TO DETERMINE THE DEGREE OF PULVERISATION 1. 2. A sample of pulverised soil approximately 1 kg in weight should be taken and weighed (W1). It should be spread on the sieve and shaken gently, care being taken to break the lumps of soils as little as possible. Weight of soil retained on the sieve should be recorded (W2). Lumps of finer soils in the retained material should be broken until all the individual particulars finer than the aperture size of the sieve are separated. The soil should again be placed on the sieve and shaken until sieving is complete. The retained material should be weighed (W3). Weight of soil by per cent passing the sieve can than be calculated from the expression: (W1 W2) x 100 (W1 W3)

3. 4.

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Andhra Pradesh State Highways Project

Appendix 4 GUIDELINES ON SELECTION OF THE GRADE OF BITUMEN (Source: Bituminous Road Construction Handbook, Indian Oil Corporation and Central Road Research Institute) A For bituminous premix carpet, choice is governed by climatic conditions and intensity of traffic. (i) Grade 30/40 for areas where difference between maximum and minimum atmospheric temperatures is less than 25oC and traffic intensity is greater than 1500 commercial vehicles per day. For traffic intensity less than 1500 commercial vehicles per day, Grade 50/60 is preferred. Where the difference between maximum and minimum atmospheric temperature is more than 25oC and traffic intensity is greater than 1500 commercial vehicles per day, Grade 50/60 may be used. For traffic intensity of less than 1500 commercial vehicles per day, Grade 80/100 may be used. For roads with very heavy traffic greater than 4500 commercial vehicles per day, such as metropolitan city roads, Grade 30/40 is preferred. Grade 80/100 may be used in high altitude and snow-bound regions, irrespective of traffic intensity consideration.

(ii)

(iii) B C

For bituminous macadam and penetration macadam as also built-up spray grout, Grade 30/40 (for hot climates) and 60/70 or 80/100 for other climates are suggested. For a dense-graded bituminous concrete, a more viscous grade like 60/70 can withstand stresses of heavier wheel loads better than a less viscous grade of 80/100. Similarly paving bitumen grade 60/70 is more advantageous for roads with large number of repititions of wheel loads like expressways, urban roads, factory roads etc. High stability requirement cannot be met effectively by less viscous bitumen. A more viscous grade of bitumen is advantageous in reducing stripping of bitumen film from aggregates in the presence of water. With rounded river shingles, a more viscous grade of bitumen compensates to some extent for poor mechanical interlock. A comparison of penetration grades and viscosity grades (AC-2.5 to AC-40) of asphalt cement and AR grades (based on Rolling Thin Film Oven Test residue) is shown below.

D E

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Andhra Pradesh State Highways Project

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Andhra Pradesh State Highways Project

Appendix 5 ANTI-STRIPPING AGENTS USED FOR BITUMINOUS MATERIALS AND MIXES 1. Scope

1.1. Anti-stripping agents are used for bituminous materials and mixes to ensure adhesion between aggregates (hydrophilic in nature) and bitumen, even under submergence in water. Prior approval of the Engineer shall be taken in respect of both qualitative and quantitative use of a particular product. 2. 2.1. Materials The anti-stripping agents shall be fatty acid amines having a long hydrocarbon chain.

2.2. Physical and Chemical Requirements: The anti-stripping agents shall conform to the physical and chemical requirements as detailed in Table A5-1. 2.3. Storage and Handling: Anti-stripping agents shall be properly stored in closed containers made of steel or aluminium. Containers made of zinc, copper, polythene PVC and most types of rubber are not suitable for use. As most of the anti-stripping agents cause irritation when in contact with human skin and are also irritating to the eyes, protective gloves for hands and goggles for the eyes shall be used while handling them, specially in case of liquid anti-stripping agents. 3. 3 3.1. Additive Dosage: The dosage shall be determined depending on the nature (stripping value) of the aggregate and the size of aggregate. While the recommended minimum dose of anti-stripping agent for sprayed work is given in Table A5-2, the actual dosage shall be determined in the laboratory as directed by the Engineer. 3.2. Mixing Procedure During Construction: The anti-stripping agent supplied in liquid, solid or concentrate form shall be thoroughly mixed with liquid bituminous material or with straight run bitumen. When used with straight run bitumen, the correct dose of antistripping agent shall be mixed in a hot bitumen tank boiler. The two constituents shall be agitated till the anti-stripping agent is thoroughly mixed. The dose of anti-stripping agent shall suitably be increased if the binder is to remain in bitumen boiler for a longer period. 4. Use in Premix Work Use in Sprayed Work

4.1. Additive Dosage: The dosage shall be determined depending on the nature (stripping value) of the aggregate and the per cent voids in the mix. While the recommended minimum doses for different types of bituminous premix materials in terms of voids content are given in Table A5-3, the actual dosage shall be determined in the laboratory as directed by the Engineer.
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Andhra Pradesh State Highways Project

TABLE A5-1. SPECIFICATION FOR ANTISTRIPPING COMPOUND S. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Test Appearance Odour Specific gravity 27oC Pour point oC Maximum Flash point o (COC) Minimum Water Content per cent Vol. Maximum Solubility in diesel oil (HDO or LDO) in the ratio of 2:98 at 50 oC Total base value mg KOH/g minimum Nitrogen content per cent Wt. minimum Stripping value with bitumen containing 1 per cent Wt. antistripping compound at 40oC 24 hours Under water coating test Thermal stability at 163 oC 5 hours Boiling water test per cent minimum coating Retained Marshall Stability per cent minimum Method Visual Smelling IS : 1202-1978 IS : 1448 IS : 1448 IS : 1448 As given at the end of Appendix ASTM D 664 Elemental Analyser IS : 6241 As given at the end of Appendix - do - do ASTM D 3625 As given at the end of appendix Limit Liquid/Solid Agreeable 0.860-1.03 42 150 1.0 Complete 200 7.0 No stripping Complete Coating Should not lose its efficacy 95 75

TABLE A5-2. Aggregate stripping value

TENTATIVE RECOMMENDED MINIMUM DOSE OF ANTISTRIPPING AGENT FOR SPRAYED WORK Dose of antistripping agent in per cent by weight of bitumen Surface dressing with precoated aggregate 0.5 0.6 0.75 Penetration Macadam/Built up spray grout 0.6 0.7 1.0 Surface Dressing with uncoated aggregate 0.7 0.8 1.0 Liquid seal coat 0.8 1.0 1.0

0-25 25-50 50-100

4.2 Mixing Procedure During Construction: The required dose of the antistripping agent shall be poured into the hot bitumen tank and allowed 15 to 30 minutes of circulation or stirred to ensure a homogeneous mix. It is necessary to use a stable antistripping agent or increase the dose according to expected degradation. Alternatively, the correct dose shall be injected into the bitumen line by means of a pump. The agent is fed into the bitumen first before it is sprayed on the aggregate in the mix; thus, no separate mixing time for mixing the agent with bitumen is required. In rolled asphalt and bitumen mastic surfacing works, precoated chippings are pressed into the hard surface while the mix is still hot to make the newly laid surface skid resistant. These chippings shall be precoated with bitumen treated with antistripping compound.

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Andhra Pradesh State Highways Project

TABLE A5.3. Stripping value of aggregat e 0-25 25-50 50-100

TENTATIVE RECOMMENDED MINIMUM DOSE OF ANTISTRIPPING COMPOUND IN BITUMEN PREMIX WORKS Dose of antistripping agent in per cent by weight of bitumen Voids content 3-5 per cent 0.3 0.4 0.6 Voids content 5-10 per cent 0.4 0.5 0.8 Voids content 10-15 per cent 0.5 0.6 1.0

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Andhra Pradesh State Highways Project

Annexure to the Appendix 5 TESTING PROCEDURE FOR SOLUBILITY OF ANTISTRIPPING AGENT IN DIESEL OIL Procedure: 98 ml of diesel oil (HDO or LDO) and 2 ml of antistripping agent shall be taken in a measuring cylinder with stopper. The cylinder along with its contents shall be kept in water bath, maintained at 50 o + 1 oC for half an hour. It shall then be taken out from water bath and shaken vigorously for 10 minutes. The stopper shall be removed and the cylinder kept in water bath for half an hour and examined for separation or settlement. Reporting of results: An antistripping agent is reported to be completely soluble in diesel oil if no separation or settlement is observed for half an hour. TESTING STRIPPING VALUE OF AGGREGATES USING BITUMEN WITH VARYING PERCENTAGES OF ANTISTRIPPING AGENT. Procedure: Coarse aggregate passing 19 mm sieve and retained on 13.2 mm sieve shall be washed and dried in an oven for 24 hours at 110 oC. Such dried 200 gms of coarse aggregates shall be heated at 149 oC and then mixed with 80/100 penetration grade bitumen 5 per cent by weight of coarse aggregate heated upto 163 oC. The mixture shall be mixed thoroughly for uniform coating of aggregates by bitumen. The mix shall then be transferred to a 500 ml beaker and allowed to cool to room temperature. Distilled water shall be added in the beaker, which shall be placed in a water bath maintained at 40 o + 1 oC for 24 hours. The percentage degree of stripping shall be assessed visually. The test shall also be conducted with water containing 1 per cent Sodium Chloride, as a precautionary measure to eliminate water contamination. The test is repeated using bitumen containing upto one per cent of antistripping agent in stages of 0.25 per cent. TESTING EFFICACY OF ANTISTRIPPING AGENT TO COAT AGGREGATES WITH BITUMEN IN PRESENCE OF WATER Procedure: The antistripping agent shall be added in per cent contents of 0.0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00 and 1.25 to cutback bitumen MC3 (4 parts of bitumen 80/100 and 1 part of kerosene oil). The blends shall be used for testing their ability to coat the road aggregates under water. (a) 100 gm of clean and dry stone dust conforming to following gradation shall be taken:

Sieve Size per cent passing 2.36 mm 100 1.18 mm 80 600 mic. 75 300 mic. 45 The bottle shall be filled to of its volume with distilled water at 40 oC. The bitumen-antistripping agent blend shall be added in the bottle at the rate of 7.5 per cent by weight of stone dust. The stopper shall be replaced and the bottle shall be vigorously shaken for two minutes. The water shall be then drained off and the stone dust shall be transferred to a piece of paper and examined visually for satisfying complete coating. The minimum per
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Andhra Pradesh State Highways Project

cent content of antistripping agent at which the stone dust sample is thoroughly coated shall be recorded. The test shall be repeated at 60 oC in water as well as 1 per cent solution of Sodium Chloride in water for both the testing temperatures. (b) The under water coating test shall further be conducted with coarse aggregate, passing 19 mm sieve and retained on 13.2 mm sieve. In this case the per cent content of the cutback-antistripping agent blend shall be kept at 5 per cent by weight of coarse aggregate. In order to take care of contamination in water, the test shall also be carried out in the 1 per cent Sodium Chloride in water.

The minimum per cent content of antistripping agent at which stone dust/coarse aggregate is thoroughly coated as per (a) and (b) shall be taken as the dose of antistripping agent. TESTING FOR THERMAL STABILITY OF ANTISTRIPPING AGENT Procedure: Blends of antistripping agent and bitumen of 80/100 grade shall be prepared with 0.00, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00 per cent contents of antistripping agent and kept in oven at 163 oC for five hours. After the heat exposure, the blend samples are fluxed with kerosene oil to obtain the consistency of MC 3 and tested for under water coating test. Reporting of test results: An antistripping agent shall be deemed to be heat resistant if the dose requirement before and after heat exposure remains unchanged. QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF RETAINED MARSHALL STABILITY VALUES AFTER IMMERSION IN WATER Procedure: For quantitative evaluation, the tests shall be carried out as stipulated in ASTM D1075 (Effect of Water on Cohesion of Compacted Bituminous Mixtures). The gradation of aggregates shall be such as to give sufficient voids in the compacted bituminous mix to bring out the effects of stripping. The gradation of aggregates shall be as under:

Sieve Size 19.00 mm 13.20 mm 9.50 mm 4.75 mm 2.36 mm 600 mic 300 mic 150 mic 75 mic

per cent passing 100 75-100 60-80 35-55 20-35 10-22 6-16 4-12 2-8

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Andhra Pradesh State Highways Project

The Marshall test specimens shall be prepared using 5 per cent bitumen of 80/100 grade by weight of aggregates blended with varying percentages of antistripping agents from 0 to 1 per cent in steps of 0.25 per cent. The test samples shall give a void content of about 6 per cent. At least 8 standard Marshall specimens for each of the varying antistripping agent percentages shall be prepared. Each set of 8 test specimens shall be sorted out in two groups of 4 each so that the average specific gravity of the specimen in group I shall be essentially the same as in group II. Group-I shall be tested for Marshall Stability in the usual procedure ASTM D1559. Group-II specimens shall be immersed in water for 24 hours at 60 oC + 1 oC and then shall be tested immediately for Marshall stability as per ASTM D 1559. Calculation: The numerical index of resistance of bituminous mixtures to the detrimental effect of water shall be expressed as the index of retained stability: Average Marshall Stability of Group-II X 100 per cent Average Marshall Stability of Group-I Requirement for acceptance: A minimum of 75 per cent of retained Marshall strength shall be required for acceptance.

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Andhra Pradesh State Highways Project

Appendix 1000-1 DRAFT DOCUMENT ON IS : 9077-1979 CODE OF PRACTICE FOR CORROSION PROTECTION OF STEEL REINFORCEMENT IN RB AND RCC CONSTRUCTION (REVISED) FOREWORD This Indian Standard has been revised taking into consideration the experience gained over the years, developments those have taken place subsequently and also considering the need for evolving suitable acceptance tests for quality control. In this regard, the electrochemical tests developed at the Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi, and also the tests specified in ASTMA775/A775 M-90 for powder epoxy coating have been considered. This revised standard supersedes earlier standard namely IS : 9077-1979. While revising this standard, it was decided to cover the various test procedures required to ensure the quality of individual product as well as the finished products. It was also decided that this standard should include very stringent test procedures particularly for finished products so that these procedures can be used to evaluate not only the corrosion resistance of a particular finished product covered by this standard but also any other finished product such as galvanising, powder epoxy etc. 1. SCOPE

1.1 This standard (revised) specifies the recommended practice for surface preparation, surface pretreatment and anti-corrosive treatment based on inhibited and sealed cement slurry as an in-situ process for corrosion protection of mild steel reinforcement/HYSD bars in conventional reinforced concrete structures and conventional reinforced brickwork constructions. This practice is also applicable for non-prestressing steels (mild steel reinforcement/HYSD bars) used in prestressed Concrete structure. 1.2 This standard applies only for in-situ corrosion protection of mild steel reinforcement/HYSD bars after all bending and shaping operations are completed. However, this does not preclude the possibility of using this practice as a factory process. 2. ANTICORROSIVE TREATMENT PROCESS SEQUENCES

The anticorrosive treatment should necessarily include the following sequential steps: (a) Surface preparation (de-rusting)

Since presence of oil, grease, dirt, heavy scale and rust will adversely affect the performance of any anticorrosive treatment, it is essential to adopt suitable surface preparation technique. Surface preparation can be either by acid pickling or by sand blasting. (b) Surface pretreatment

Surface preparation should be immediately followed by a surface treatment step to ensure temporary protection during the time lag between the de-rusting and finish coating.
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This pretreatment should not adversely affect either the adhesion of the finish coat or corrosion performance. (c) Inhibited Cement Slurry coating

A minimum of 2 coats should be applied to ensure full coverage. (d) Sealing treatment

Sealing treatment should make the coating harder and less permeable. A typical flow diagram is shown in Fig. 1000/1. 3. 3.1 PROCEDURE FOR SURFACE PREPARATION Sand Blasting

Sand blasting of the steel surface to SAE 2 standards can be done. 3.2 De-rusting by Pickling

The pickling weld should be preferably based on hydrochloric acid and should include an efficient inhibitor to prevent base metal attack. A typical de-rusting solution should have the following characteristics: (a) (b) (c) 4. inhibitor efficiency should not be less than 97 per cent. weight loss of a polished standard mild steel reinforcement/HYSD bars specimen when dipped in the solution for 10 minutes should not be more than 2 g per sq. metre. Specific gravity when tested using a standard specific gravity bottle should be around 1.12. PROCEDURE FOR SURFACE PRE-TREATMENT

De-rusted surface should be immediately converted by using phosphating treatment. It should be ensured by a suitable rinsing process that no residual acid is remaining on the surface at the time of phosphating. A typical phosphating composition of brushable consistency should have the following characteristics: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Coating weight when tested as per test procedure A given hereunder should be around 4.5 gms./sq.m. Density of the product should be in the range of 1.22 to 1.4 kg/litre. Presence of fungicide shall be tested by dissolving the jelly in deionized water, the resulting solution shall be yellow in colour. Presence of phosphating chemical in jelly shall be ensured with ammonia molybdate test. pH of the composition when tested in a standard specific gravity bottle should be around 2.5 + 0.1.

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(f) 5. 5.1 (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) 5.2

Nail scratch test should clearly leave a mark on the specimen. This indicates the existence of the coating. PROCEDURE FOR INHIBITED CEMENT SLURRY COATING A typical inhibitor admixture used should have the following characteristics:It should in liquid form ready for mixing with the ordinary portland cement. Specific gravity when tested using a standard specific gravity bottle should be 1.04 + 0.02 pH when tested using a pH meter should be 12.75 + 0.25 Tolerable limit for chloride in inhibitor admixture when tested using anodic polarisation technique (as per test procedure B) should be 300 + 25 ppm Ordinary Portland Cement

This should conform to IS : 269 and should be sieved to pass through 75 microns IS sieve.

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5.3 Cement and inhibitor admixture should be mixed in specified proportion to have suitable consistency. Coating should be applied preferably by brushing. However, under specific circumstances spraying or dipping is also allowable. 5.4 Sufficient time lag should be allowed in between successive coatings to ensure final setting of the undercoat. A minimum of 6 to 12 hours may be necessary. 5.5 6. A minimum of two coats with sufficient time lag in between should be applied. SEALING TREATMENT

The sealing treatment should be performed over the coated surface immediately after final setting of the top coat. Sealing treatment can be applied by brushing, spraying or dipping. 6.1 (a) (b) (c) 7. A typical sealing solution should have the following characteristics:Specific gravity when tested using a standard specific gravity bottle should be 1.09 + 0.02 pH when measured using a pH meter should be 12.25 + 0.25 Tolerable limit for chloride in sealing solution using anodic polarisation technique should be 450 + 25 ppm (as per test procedure B). SPECIFICATIONS FOR FINISHED END PRODUCT

7.1. Finished coating when visually examined should be fairly uniform in thickness and should be devoid of any defects such as cracks, pinholes, peeling, bulging etc. No surface area should be left uncoated. No rust spot should be visible to the naked eye. 7.2. Thickness of the Coating

The minimum thickness of the coating shall be 200 microns. Preferable range is 200 to 400 microns. 7.3. Bond Strength of the Coated Rebar

The bond strength of the coated rebar and concrete shall not be less than that specified in IS : 456 as per clause No. 0, 2, 5, 11 and 44.1.2 and tested as per IS : 2770 (Part 1). 7.4. Hardness of the coating when measured using a pencil hardness tester shall be around 5 H to 7 H. 7.5. Tolerable limit for chloride in 0.04 Normal NaOH medium using anodic polarisation technique (as per test procedure B) shall be around 4500 to 5000 ppm. 7.6. No film failure as evidenced by evolution of hydrogen gas at the cathode or appearance of corrosion products at the anode shall take place during one hour of testing (as per test procedure C).

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8.

GENERAL REMARKS:

It is advisable that severely rusted and heavily pitted reinforcements are not accepted for treatment. TEST PROCEDURE A Determination of phosphate coating weight 7.5 cm x 2.5 cm or 7.5 cm x 5 cm mild steel polished and degreased specimens are to be used for this test. First the blank loss of unphosphated specimen is to be found out. For this, the initial weight (W1) is accurately weighed. The specimen is kept immersed in the Clarks solution or patented inhibited de-rusting solution for 1 minute. The specimen is removed, rinsed in distilled water and dried using hot air blower. The specimen is immediately weighed (W2). The difference between W1 and W2 is termed as blank loss. Another specimen (polished and degreased) is brushed with phosphating jelly and kept for 45 minutes. Then the specimen is washed free of jelly, rinsed in clean water and dried using hot air blower. The phosphated specimen (W3) is accurately weighed. After weighing, the specimen is kept immersed in Clarks solution or patented inhibited de-rusting solution for one minute. Then the specimen is removed, rinsed in distilled water and dried using hot air blower. The specimen is immediately weighed (W 4). Coating weight = W3 W4 blank loss. TEST PROCEDURE B Anodic Polarisation Technique Mild steel reinforcement/HYSD Bar test specimens of size 10 mm in dia and 100 mm in length with stems of size 5 mm in dia and 50 mm in length is polished, degreased and sealed at bottom edge and at the stem with suitable sealers like wax, lacquer. Then test specimen is kept immersed in test solution and potential is monitored using high impedance multimeter against suitable reference electrode such as saturated calomel electrode/coppercopper sulphate electrode. After getting stabilised potential using appropriate current regulator (0-100 mA), the test specimen is anodically polarised at a constant current density of 290 A cm using a platinum/stainless steel/TSIA/polished mild steel reinforcement/HYSD Bar as cathode. Potential with time is followed for 5 minutes after current is applied. The maximum chloride concentration upto which the potential remains constant for 5 minutes is taken as a measure of tolerable limit. TEST PROCEDURE C Resistance to Applied Voltage Test Two mild steel reinforcement/HYSD bars of size not less than 10 mm in dia and 800 mm in length shall be given anti-corrosive treatment as per specified procedure. The end of the rebars shall be soldered with insulated copper electrical connecting wire (14 gauge) to serve as electrical contact point. Coated rebars at the two ends shall be sealed with an insulating material to a length of 25 mm at each end. Test area shall be the area between the

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edge of the bottom sealed end and immersion line which shall not be less than 250 mm in this case. The coated rebars shall be suspended vertically in a non-corrosive plastic container of size not less than 150 mm x 150 mm square and 850 mm high. The rebars shall be so suspended as to have a clearance of 25 mm at bottom, 45 mm at the sides and 40 mm in between the rods. The container shall then be filled to a height of 800 mm with an aqueous solution of 7 per cent NaCl. A potential of 2 V in between the coated rods shall be impressed for a period of 60 minutes using a high resistance volt meter for direct current having an internal resistance of not less than 10 mega Ohms and having a range upto 5 V (minimum). Storage batteries may be used for impressing the voltage. During this 60 minutes of testing, there shall not be any coating failure as evidenced by evolution of hydrogen gas at the cathode or by appearance of corrosion products of iron at the anode.

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Appendix 1500/I INFORMATION TO BE SUPPLIED BY THE MANUFACTURERS OF PROPRIETARY SYSTEMS 1. GENERAL

1.1. The information which the manufacturer is required to supply shall be in such detail as to obviate unsafe use of the equipment due to the intention of the manufacturer not having been made clear or due to wrong assumptions on the part of the user. 1.2. The user shall refer unusual problem or problems of erection/assembly not in keeping with the intended use of the equipment, to the manufacturer of the equipment. 2. 2.1. (a) (b) (c) (d) INFORMATION REQUIRED The manufacturers of proprietary systems shall supply the following information: Description of basic functions of equipment List of items of equipment available, giving range of sizes, spans and such like, with the manufacturers identification numbers or other references. The basis on which the safe working loads have been determined and whether the factor of safety given applies to collapse or yield. Whether the suppliers data is based on calculations or tests. This shall be clearly stated as there may be wide variations between results obtained by either method. Instructions for use and maintenance, including any points which require special attention during erection, especially where safety is concerned. Detailed dimensional information, as follows: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) Overall dimensions and depth and widths of members. Line drawings including perspectives and photographs showing normal uses. Self weight. Full dimensions of connections and any special positioning arrangements. Sizes of members, including tube diameters and thicknesses of materials. Any permanent camber built into the equipment.
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(vii) (g)

Sizes of holes and dimensions giving their positions.

Data relating to strength of equipment as follows: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) Average failure loads as determined by tests. Recommended maximum working loads for various conditions of use. Working resistance moments derived from tests. Working shear capacities derived from tests. Recommended factors of safety used in assessing recommended loads and deflections based on test results. Deflections under load together with recommended pre-camber and limiting deflections. If working loads depend on calculations, working stresses should be stated. If deflections depend on theoretical moments of inertia or equivalent moments of inertia rather than tests, this should be noted. Information on the design of sway bracing against wind and other horizontal loadings. Allowable loading relating to maximum extension of bases and/or heads.

(viii) (ix)

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Appendix 1700/I SPECIFICATION FOR CONSTRUCTION JOINTS Location The location of construction joints shall be as shown on the drawing or as approved by the Engineer. If additional/new joints are approved by the Engineer, the following considerations for their location shall be taken into account: (i) (ii) Joints shall be provided in non-aggressive zones or in non-splash zones. If not feasible, the joints shall be sealed. Joints should be positioned where they are readily accessible for preparation and concreting, such as location where the cross section is relatively small, and where reinforcement is not congested. In beams and slabs, joints should not be near the supports. Construction joints between slabs and ribs in composite beams should be avoided. For box girders, it is preferable to cast the soffit and the webs without any joint. Location of joints shall minimise the effects of the discontinuity on the durability, structural integrity and the appearance of the structure.

(iii) (iv) (v)

Preparation of Surface of the Joint Laitance shall be removed before fresh concrete is cast. The surface shall be roughened. Care shall be taken that they should not dislodge the coarse aggregates. Concrete may be brushed with a stiff brush soon after casting while the concrete is still fresh. If the concrete has partially hardened, it shall be treated by wire brushing or with a stiff water jet followed by drying with air jet immediately. Fully hardened concrete shall be treated with mechanical hand tools or grit blasting, taking care not to split or crack aggregate particles. Before further concrete is cast, the surface should be thoroughly cleaned to remove debris and accumulated rubbish, one effective method being by air jet. Where there is likely to be a delay before placing the next concrete lift, protruding reinforcement shall be protected. Before the next lift is placed, rust, loose mortar or other contamination shall be removed from the reinforcements. In aggressive environment, the concrete shall be cut back to expose the reinforcements for a length of about 50 mm to ensure that contaminated concrete is removed. The joint surface shall not be contaminated with release agents, dust or curing membrane.

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Concreting of Joints The old surface shall be thoroughly cleaned and soaked with water. Standing water shall be removed shortly before the new concrete is placed and the new concrete shall be thoroughly compacted. Concreting shall be carried out continuously upto the construction joints. Surface retarders may be used to improve the quality of construction joints. For a vertical construction joint, a stopping board shall be fixed previously at the predetermined position and shall be properly stayed to prevent its displacement or bulging when concrete is compacted against it. Concreting shall be continued right upto the board.

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Appendix 1800/I TESTS ON SHEATHING DUCTS All tests specified below shall be carried out on the same sample in the order given below. At least 3 samples for one lot of supply (not exceeding 7000 metre length) shall be tested. The tests are applicable for sheathing transported to site in straight lengths where the prestressing cable is threaded inside the sheathing prior to concreting. These tests are not applicable for sheathing nor for coiled cable and transported to site as an assembled unit, nor for sheathing ducts placed in position without threading of prestressing cable prior to concreting. (A) WORKABILITY TEST

A test sample 1100 mm long is soldered to a fixed base plate with a soft solder (Fig. 1800/I-1). The sample is then bent to a radius of 1800 mm alternately on either side to complete 3 cycles. Thereafter, the sealing joints will be visually inspected to verify that no failure/opening has taken place. (B) TRANSVERSE LOAD RATING TEST

The test ensures that stiffness of the sheathing is sufficient to prevent permanent distortion during site handling. The sample is placed on a horizontal support 500 mm long so that the sample is supported at all points of outward corrugations. A load as specified in Table 1 is applied gradually at the centre of the supported portion through a contact surface 12 mm long. It shall be ensured that the load is applied approximately at the centre of two corrugations, Fig. 1800/I-2. The load as specified is applied in increments.
TABLE 1

dia (mm) load (N)

25-35 250

35-45 400

45-55 500

55-65 600

65-75 700

75-85 800

85-90 1000

The sample is considered acceptable if the permanent deformation is less than 5 per cent of the diameter of the sheathing. (C) TENSION LOAD TEST

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A test specimen is subjected to a tensile load. The hollow core is filled with a wooden circular piece having a diameter of 95 per cent of the inner dia of the sample to ensure circular profile during test loading, Fig. 1800/I-3. A coupler is screwed on and the sample loaded in increments, till reaching the load specified in Table 2. If no deformation of the joints nor slippage of couplers is noticed, the test shall be considered satisfactory.
TABLE 2

dia (mm) load (N)

25-35 300

35-45 500

45-55 800

55-65 1100

65-75 1400

75-85 1600

85-90 1800

(D)

WATER LOSS TEST

The sample is sealed at one end. The sample is filled with water and after sealing, the end is connected to a system capable of applying a pressure of 0.05 MPa, Fig. 1800/I-4, and kept constant for 5 minutes using a hand pump with pressure gauge or stand pipe system can be used. The sample is acceptable if the water loss does not exceed 1.5% of the volume.

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Appendix 1800/III SPECIFICATIONS FOR GROUTING OF POST-TENSIONED CABLES IN PRESTRESSED CONCRETE 1. GENERAL 1.1. The recommendations cover the cement grouting of post-tensioned tendons of prestressed concrete members of bridges. This also covers some of the essential protective measures to be adopted for minimising corrosion in PSC bridges. 1.2. The purpose of grouting is to provide permanent protection to the posttensioned steel against corrosion and to develop bond between the prestressing steel and the surrounding structural concrete. The grout ensures encasement of steel in an alkaline environment for corrosion protection and by filling the duct space, it prevents water collection and freezing. 2. MATERIALS 2.1. Water

Only clean potable water free from impurities conforming to section 1000 shall be permitted. No sea or creek water is to be used at all. 2.2. Cement

Ordinary Portland cement should be used for preparation of the grout. It should be as fresh as possible and free of any lumps. Pozzolana cement shall not be used. 2.3. Sand

It is not recommended to use sand for grouting of prestressing tendons. In case the internal diameter of the ducts exceeds 150 mm, use of sand may be considered. Sand, used, shall conform to IS : 383 and shall pass through IS Sieve No. 150. The weight of sand in the grout shall not be more than 10 per cent of the weight of cement, unless proper workability can be ensured by addition of suitable plasticizers. 2.4. Admixtures

Acceptable admixtures conforming to IS : 9102 may be used if tests have shown that their use improves the properties of grout, i.e. increasing fluidity, reducing bleeding, entraining air or expanding the grout. Admixtures must not contain chlorides, nitrates, sulphides, sulphites or any other products which are likely to damage the steel or grout. When an expanding agent is used, the total unrestrained expansion should not exceed 10 per cent. Aluminum powder as an expanding agent is not recommended for grouting because its long term effects are not free from doubt. 2.5. Sheathing

2.5.1. For specifications of sheathing, section 1800 may be referred


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2.5.2. Grout openings or vents (a) All ducts should have grout openings at both ends. For this purpose special openings should be provided where such openings are not available at end anchorages. For draped (curved) cables vents shall be provided at all crown and valley points. It is a good practice to provide additional air vents at suitable intervals not exceeding 20 m. All grout openings or vents should include provisions for preventing grout leakage. Standard details of fixing couplers, inlets, outlets and air vents to the duct/anchorage shall be followed as recommended by the supplier of the prestressing system.

(b)

2.5.3. Ducts should be securely fastened at close intervals. All unintended holes or openings in the duct must be repaired prior to concrete placing. The joints of the couplers and the sheathing should be made water proof by use of adhesive tape or similar suitable system capable of giving leak proof joints. Grout openings and vents must be securely anchored to the duct and to either the forms or to reinforcing steel to prevent displacement during concreting operations due to weight, buoyancy and vibrations. 2.5.4. Ducts require very careful handling as, being of thin metal, they are susceptible to leakage due to corrosion in transit or storage, by tearing/ripping in handling particularly when placed adjoining to reinforcing steel, by pulling apart at joints while inserting tendons prior to concreting, or by accidental puncturing while drilling for form ties/inserts. Ducts are also liable to damage by rough use of internal vibrator and sparks from welding being done close by. 3. 3.1. Grout Mixer and Agitator EQUIPMENT

It is essential that the grout is maintained in a homogeneous state and of uniform consistency so that there is no separation of cement. Use of grout mixers to obtain a colloidal grout is essential. The mixer should have an additional storage device with an agitator to keep the grout moving continuously before it is pumped in the duct. Positive reciprocating type grout pumps should be used. 3.2. Grout Pump

The pump should be a positive displacement type and should be capable of ejecting the grout in a continuous operation and not by way of pulses. The grout pump must be fitted with a pressure gauge to enable pressure of injection to be controlled. The minimum pressure at which grout should be pumped shall be 0.3 MPa and the grout pump must have a relief arrangement for bypass of the grout in case of build up of pressure beyond 1 MPa. The capacity of the grout pump should be such as to achieve forward speed of grout of around 5 to 10 metres per minute. The slower rates are referable as they reduce the possibility of occurrence of voids. If the capacity of the pump is large, it is usual to grout two or more cables simultaneously through a common manifold.

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Use of hand pumps for grouting, is not recommended. Use of compressed air operated equipment for injection is prohibited, as it is likely that there will be some air trapped in grout. 3.3. Water Pump

Before commencement of grouting, a stand by direct feed high pressure water pump should be available at site for an emergency. In case of any problem in grouting the ducts, such pump shall immediately be connected to the duct and all grout flushed by use of high pressure water flushing. It is, therefore necessary to have adequate storage of clean potable water for operation of the water pump for such emergencies. 3.4. Grout Screen

The grouting equipment should contain a screen having a mesh size of 106 micron size of 150 microns if sand is used). Prior to introduction into the grout pump, the grout should be passed through such screen. This screen should be easily accessible for inspection and cleaning. 3.5. Connections and Air Vents

Standard details of fixing inlets, outlets and air vents to the sheathing and/or anchorage should be followed as recommended by specialist supplier of the system of prestressing. In general, all connections are to be of the Quick couple type and at change of diameters suitable reducers are to be provided. 4. PROPERTIES OF THE GROUT

4.1. Water/cement ratio should be as low as possible, consistent with workability. This ratio should not normally exceed 0.45. 4.2. Before grouting, the properties of the grout mix should be tested in a laboratory depending on the facilities available. Tests should be conducted for each job periodically. The recommended test is described below. 4.3. Compressive Strength: The compressive strength of 100 mm cubes of the grout shall not be less than 17 MPa at 7 days. Cubes shall be cured in a moist atmosphere for the first 24 hours and subsequently in water. These tests shall be conducted in advance to ascertain the suitability of the grout mix. 5. MIXING OF GROUT

5.1. Proportions of materials should be based on field trials made on the grout before commencement of grouting, but subject to the limits specified above. The materials should be measured by weight. 5.2. Water should be added to the mixer, first, followed by Portland cement and sand, if used. Admixture if any, may be added as recommended by the manufacturer.

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5.3. Mixing time depends upon the type of the mixer, but will normally be between 2 and 3 minutes. However, mixing should be for such a duration as to obtain uniform and thoroughly blended grout, without excessive temperature increase or loss of expansive properties of the admixtures. The grout should be continuously agitated until it is injected. 5.4. 5.5. Once mixed, no water shall be added to the grout to increase its fluidity. Hand mixing is not permitted. 6. 6.1. a) General Grouting shall be carried out as early as possible but not later than 2 weeks of stressing a tendon. Whenever this stipulation cannot be complied with for unavoidable reasons, adequate temporary protection of the steel against corrosion by methods or products which will not impair the ultimate adherence of the injected grout should be ensured till grouting. The sealing of the anchorage ends after concreting is considered to be a good practice to prevent ingress of water. For structures in aggressive environment, sealing of the anchorage ends is mandatory. GROUTING OPERATIONS

Notes: i) Application of some patented water soluble oils for coating of steel/VPI powder injection/sending in of hot, dry, oil-free compressed air through the vents at frequent intervals have shown some good results. Some of the methods recommended for sealing anchorages are to seal the openings with bitumen impregnated gunny bag or water proof paper or by building a brick pedestal plastered on all faces enclosing the exposed wires outside the anchorages. Any traces of oil if applied to steel for preventing corrosion should be removed before grouting operation. Ducts shall be flushed with water for cleaning as well as for wetting the surfaces of the duct walls. Water used for flushing should be of same quality as used for grouting. It may, however, contain about 1 per cent of slaked lime or quick lime. All water should be drained thorough the lowest vent pipe or by blowing compressed air through the duct. The water in the duct should be blown out with oil free compressed air. Blowing out water from duct for cables longer than 50 m draped up at both ends by compressed air is not effective, outlet/vent provided at or near the lowest point shall be used to drain out water from duct. The connection between the nozzle of the injection pipe and duct should be such that air cannot be sucked in.

ii)

iii) iv)

v)

vi)

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vii) viii)

All outlet points including vent openings should be kept open prior to commencement of injection grout. Before grouting, all air in the pump and hose should be expelled. The suction circuit of the pump should be air-tight. 6.2. a) b) c) d) Injection of Grout After mixing the grout should be kept in continuous movement. Injection of grout must be continuous and should not be interrupted. For vertical cable or cables inclined more than 60 degrees to the horizontal, injection should be effected from the lowest anchorage or vent of the duct. The method of injection should ensure complete filling of the ducts. To verify this, it is advisable to compare the volume of the space to be filled by the injected grout with the quantity of grout actually injected. Grouting should be commenced initially with a low pressure of injection of upto 0.3 MPa increasing it until the grout comes out at the other end. The grout should be allowed to flow freely from the other end until the consistency of the grout at this end is the same as that of the grout at the injection end. When the grout flows at the other end, it should be closed off and building up of pressure commenced. Full injection pressure at about 0.5 MPa shall be maintained for at least one minute before closing the injection pipe. It is recommended practice to provide a stand pipe at the highest point of the tendon profile to hold all water displaced by sedimentation or bleeding. If there is a built up of pressure much in excess of 1 MPa without flow of grout coming at the other end, the grouting operation should be discontinued and the entire duct flushed with high pressure water. Also, the bypass system indicated in para 3.2 above is essential for further safety. In the case of cables draped downwards e.g. in cantilever construction simultaneous injection from both ends may be adopted Fig. 1800/III-1. Grout not used within 30 minutes of mixing should be rejected.

e)

f) g)

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Andhra Pradesh State Highways Project Appendix 1800/IV GROUTING RECORD Job Name:_____________________________________________________________________________ Span No. ____________________________________ Cable No: ________________________________ Date of Cable Installation: ______________________ Date of Grouting: __________________________ Type of Cement : OPC/HSOPC Week and Year of Manufacture of OPC/HSOPC W/C Ratio: Name and amount of admixture used, if any __________________________________________________ Temperature: Mixing water _____________________ ; Time: Equipment: Cable duct: Start _____________________ ; Grout ______________________________ Finish ______________________________ Grout pump _________________________ Length _____________________________ Regrouting __________________________

Grout mixer ______________________ ; Diameter ______________________ ; ______________________ ;

Volume of grout in litres

Grouting pressure _____________________________ : Cement consumption: Theoretical ________________ ; Pre-grouting checks: Free of blockage Inlet: Yes/No ; ; ; Actual ______________________________ Outlet Cable duct Sealed : : : Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No

Vents: Yes/No Leakage observed: Yes/No

If cable duct blocked: Remedial Measures ____________________________________________________ Grouting observations: Passage of grout through vents Passage of grout through outlet Any equipment failure Post grouting checks Probbing by stiffwire Remarks Signatures of officers present during grouting: Client Contractor System Supplier : : : : : : ____________________________________ ____________________________________ Yes/No Yes/No ____________________________________

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h)

Disconnection is facilitated if a short length of flexible tube connects the duct and injection pipe. This can be squeezed and cut off after the grout has hardened. PRECAUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR EFFECTIVE GROUTING In cold and frosty weather, injection should be postponed, unless special precautions are taken. If frost is likely to occur within 48 hours after injection, heat must be applied to the member and maintained for at least 48 hours after injection so that the temperature of the grout does not fall below 5 degrees Celsius. Prior to commencement of grouting, care must be taken to ensure that the duct is completely free of frost/ice by flushing with warm water, but not with steam. The temperature of the grout shall not exceed 25 degrees Celsius. For increasing the workability of grout, its temperature may be lowered by use of chilled water or by putting ice outside the grout storage container. When the cables are threaded after concreting, the duct must be temporarily stiffened during concreting by inserting bunch of strands, wires or reinforcement or a rigid PVC pipe or any other suitable method. During concreting, care shall be taken to ensure that the sheathing is not damaged. Needle vibrators shall be used with extreme care by well experienced staff only, to ensure against such damage. It is a good practice to move the cables in both directions during the concreting operations. This can easily be done by light hammering the ends of the wires/strands during concreting. It is also advisable that 3 to 4 hours after concreting the cable should be moved both ways through a distance of about 20 cms. With such movement, any leakage of mortar which ahs taken place in spite of all precautions, loses bond with the cables, thus reducing the chance of blockages. This operation can also be done by fixing prestressing jacks, at one end pulling the entire cable and then repeating the operation by fixing the jack at the other end. The cables to be grouted should be separated by as much distance as possible. In case of stage prestressing, cables tensioned in the first stage should not remain ungrouted till all cables are stressed. It is good practice, while grouting any duct in stage prestressing, to keep all the remaining ducts filled up with water containing 1 per cent lime or by running water through such ducts till the grout has set. After grouting the particular cable, the water in the other cables should be drained and removed with compressed air to prevent corrosion. Care should be taken to avoid leaks from one duct to another at joints of precast members in particular.

7. a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

f) g)

h)

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i)

End faces where anchorages are located are vulnerable points of entry of water. They have to be necessarily protected with an effective barrier. Recesses should be packed with mortar concrete and should preferably be painted with water proof paint After grouting is completed, the projecting portion of the vents should be cut off and the face protected to prevent corrosion.

j)

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APPENDIX A

PLAN OF SITE OFFICE FOR THE ENGINEER PLAN OF FIELD LABORATORY FOR THE ENGINEER PLAN OF SITE CABINS FOR THE ENGINEER

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