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VLAN Fault Isolation

Users Guide
SPECTRUM Enterprise Manager
Network Management
Titlepage
VLAN Fault Isolation Page 2
Notice
Aprisma Management Technologies, Inc. (Aprisma) reserves the right to make changes in
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VLAN Fault Isolation Page 3
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Cont ent s Cont ent s
VLAN Fault Isolation Page 4
Contents
Preface 6
Introduction 9
VLAN Overview ............................................................................................................9
Types of VLANs ......................................................................................................10
Benefits of VLANs ..................................................................................................11
SPECTRUM and VLANs ............................................................................................12
Beyond the Bounds of Standards ...........................................................................13
Device Discovery ....................................................................................................13
Configuration ..........................................................................................................13
SecureFast VLAN Management Module ................................................................13
Dynamic Adaptive Modeling ...................................................................................14
VLAN Fault Isolation ...............................................................................................14
Alarms in VLAN Domains .......................................................................................15
VLAN Fault Isolation Views ........................................................................................15
Using VLAN Fault Isolation 19
Preparing to Use VLAN Fault Isolation ......................................................................19
Set Up VLAN Domains ...........................................................................................19
Create VLANs .........................................................................................................20
Model VLAN Domain(s) ..........................................................................................20
AutoDiscovery .....................................................................................................20
Manual Modeling .................................................................................................20
Manually Editing Topology Views ...........................................................................21
Isolating VLAN Faults .................................................................................................21
Using the VLAN List View ..........................................................................................22
User View ...............................................................................................................22
Port View ................................................................................................................23
Options ...................................................................................................................25
Specifying the SPECTRUM VLAN Modeling Configuration Interval ...................26
Reading Switch Tables Immediately ...................................................................27
Specifying the VLAN Configuration Tool Path ....................................................27
Launching the VLAN Configuration Tool .............................................................27
Cont ent s Cont ent s
VLAN Fault Isolation Page 5
Using the VLAN Find Feature .................................................................................27
Theory of Operations 29
VLAN Fault Isolation Operations ................................................................................29
VLAN Terminology 31
Index 41
VLAN Fault Isolation Page 6
Preface
This preface provides an introduction to the SPECTRUM VLAN Fault Isolation
documentation, discusses who should read this guide, describes how the guide is
organized, and provides information about viewing and printing this document.
Welcome to the SPECTRUM VLAN Faul t Isol ati on Users Gui de. This
book is a guide to using SPECTRUM VLAN Fault Isolation. It provides an
overview of VLAN Fault Isolation, provides instructions on how to use
VLAN Fault isolation, describes how VLAN Fault Isolation works, and
includes a glossary of VLAN related terms.
Who Should Read This Guide
This guide is intended for use by network administrators and technicians
responsible for day-to-day administration of a network.
This guide presumes you are familiar with the terms and principles
associated with traditional network devices such as hubs, routers, and
bridges, the terms and principles associated with VLAN networks, as well
as with the terms and principles associated with SPECTRUM. It also
presumes that you are familiar with traditional networking models and
standards,(i.e., the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model, and the
802.1d, 802.3, and 802.5 standards).
This manual is written from a Motif windowing environment perspective.
If you are using another interface (i.e. OpenLook), screens and mouse
functionality will vary according to the interface being used.
Tip:
Tip:
II you have MotiI and Open Windows installed on your system, you can switch
. etween windowin. systems usin. the OIT_LOOK <environment variable>.
Windowin. environment varia. les are. MO. I. or O.. . WI. . . he command used Ior
the csh is setenv OIT_LOOK <environment variable>. . he command Ior
the . sh is export OIT_LOOK=<environment variable>.
Pr ef ace
VLAN Fault Isolation Page 7
Using This Manual
This manual is divided into four sections:
Introduction - This section provides an overview of VLANs and their
benefits, describes how SPECTRUM supports VLANs, and discusses
VLAN Fault Isolation concepts and views.
Using VLAN Fault Isolation - This section provides task oriented
information which is required to successfully use VLAN Fault Isolation.
Theory of Operations - This section provides information about how
VLAN Fault isolation works and how it is integrated into existing
SPECTRUM functionality.
VLAN Terminology - This section defines the VLAN terms used in this
guide as well as other common VLAN terms.
Viewing and Printing this Document
To view and print the SPECTRUM VLAN Faul t Isol ati on Users Gui de,
you need Adobe Acrobat Reader 3.0. For your convenience, a copy of
Adobe Acrobat Reader 3.0 is included on the SPECTRUM CD. The startup
file for Adobe Acrobat Reader 3.0, acroread, is located in the Acrobat/bin
subdirectory of your installation area.
With Adobe Acrobat Reader 3.0 on your system, you can access this
guide:
From the docs directory on the CD-ROM by starting up Adobe Acrobat
Reader 3.0 and selecting File ? Open from the menu. (If you are a
SPECTRUM user, Adobe Acrobat Reader 3.0 is installed during the
SPECTRUM installation process.)
From the SPECTRUM Help menu, since this guide is installed as an
integral part of SPECTRUM. This document is also available in PDF
format on Aprismas Virtual Networking web site at
http://www.aprisma.com/support/manuals.
Pr ef ace
VLAN Fault Isolation Page 8
Related Documentation
802.1Q VLAN Manager Users Gui de
SecureFast VLAN Manager Users Gui de
Ci sco VLAN Di rector Users Gui de
SPECTRUM Integrated VLAN Manager Management Modul e Users
Gui de
Getti ng Started wi th SPECTRUM for Admi ni strators
SPECTRUM Model i ng wi th the GnSNMPDev Tool ki t
SPECTRUM AutoDi scovery Users Gui de
Questions about SPECTRUM Documentation
Send your questions, comments or suggestions regarding SPECTRUM
documentation to the Technical Communications Department directly via
the following internet address:
spectrum-techdocs@ctron.com
Note:
Note:
You can access all related documentation listed in this
section with the exception of the Cisco VLAN Director Users
Guide at http://www.cabletron.com/support/manuals.
VLAN Fault Isolation Page 9
Introduction
This section provides an overview of VLANs and their benefits, describes how
SPECTRUM supports VLANs, and discusses VLAN Fault Isolation concepts and
views.
VLAN Overview
Normally, bridges and switches do not filter LAN broadcast traffic; in
general, they replicate it on all ports. Virtual LAN (VLAN) enabled switches
segment the network into logically defined work groups. Broadcast traffic
from servers and end-stations in a particular VLAN is replicated only on
those ports connected to end-stations belonging to that VLAN. Broadcast
traffic is blocked from ports with no end-points belonging to that VLAN,
creating the same type of broadcast containment that routers provide.
A Virtual LAN is a logical Layer 2 broadcast domain. It is a logical
segmentation of the network, whereas bridges and switches provide a
physical segmentation of the network.
Figure 1 shows two VLAN domains connected by a router. Two VLANs are
also shown. The Red VLAN consists of workstations B and C. The Blue
VLAN contains workstations A and D as well as the SpectroSERVER.
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VLAN Fault Isolation Page 10
Figure 1: VLAN Domains
It may not be obvious from the Figure 1, but the router is not only
required in order for traffic to pass from one domain to the other, but is
also necessary to pass traffic from one VLAN to the other, even if the
VLANs are in the same domain. This is because VLANs do not normally
share user information, so communication between users in different
VLANs is not possible, unless a router, which has been configured as a
member of all VLANs, is used.
Types of VLANs
Most VLAN implementations are vendor specific. Within these proprietary
schemes, there are several methods used to determine VLAN
membership; by port, by MAC address, by protocol, by IP multicast
address, by policy, or a combination of these methods. None of the
proprietary methods has been adopted as the industry standard which
prevents interoperability between devices of different origin.
IEEE 802.1Q defines an industry standard implementation for
specification for port-based VLANs. Currently, many manufacturers are
implementing some support for this standard, so customers can migrate
to and take advantage of the benefits of interoperability. However, not to
disregard current customer deployment of VLANs, SPECTRUM support of
A
SFS Network
B
SW1
SW2
SW3
1
1
3
3
Domain
C
SFS Network
D
SW1
SW2
SW3
1
1
3
3
Domain
I nt r oduct i on
VLAN Fault Isolation Page 11
VLANs includes standard IEEE 802.1Q, Cabletron pre-standard 802.1Q,
Cisco ISL, and Cabletron SecureFast.
Benefits of VLANs
VLANs simplify the process of adds, moves, and changes that result when
caused by end users moving from one place on the network to another
place on the network. These types of changes require reconfiguring a
users workstation and often involve a trip to the wiring closet. Tools have
been developed to assist administrators in configuring and deplaying
VLANs across the entire switching fabric reducing the cost of handling
user moves, and allowing for a more dynamic workgroup-based
organizational environment by removing most of the physical contraints
associated with network user moves.
VLANs allow an administrator to strategically control the amount of
broadcast and multicast traffic on the switched fabric. This enables a
higher level of performance and scaleability over traditional bridged and
routed networks. VLAN membership is extremely dynamic and flexible
further enhancing an administrators control over the network. An end-
station can belong to multiple VLANs.
VLANs can be created that provide virtual private networks. For example,
if the owner of a building who has completely wired the building for
networking subleases parts of the building to different tenants, the traffic
from one tenant should not interfere with the traffic from another tenant.
To accomplish this, each tenant is placed in its own VLAN, thereby
completely separating network traffic. VLANs offer a significantly less
expensive solution to private networks of this type by using a single
physical network which can be partitioned into logically separate
segments rather than having each tenant wire and support their own
network.
I nt r oduct i on
SPECTRUM and VLANs
VLAN Fault Isolation Page 12
SPECTRUM and VLANs
SPECTRUM support for 802.1Q, Cisco ISL, and Cabletron SecureFast
VLANs consists of the following:
Identify, model, and display Layer 2 connectivity among switches and
routers, as inferred from analysis of forwarding and spanning tree
tables.
Identify, model, and display key logical topology entities such as
Domains, VLANs, VLAN trunks, and users (end-stations).
Represent and display the relationship of the logical entities to one
another, including their relationship to connected routers.
Visualize the relationship between physical and logical topologies.
Diagnose faults within (and between) the physical and logical
topologies of VLAN networks and provide alarms and probable causes
for detected faults.
Building 1
Finance
Building 2
SmartSwitch 6000 SmartSwitch 6000
Finance Finance
R & D R & D R & D
Finance Finance Finance
R & D R & D R & D
SmartSwitch A
SmartSwitch B
High Speed Link
I nt r oduct i on
SPECTRUM and VLANs
VLAN Fault Isolation Page 13
Minimize the number of false alarms generated.
Beyond the Bounds of Standards
SPECTRUM modeling mainly relies on the content of switch forwarding
tables to determine VLAN membership. SPECTRUM does not rely on any
rules governing the entry method into the forwarding tables, the creation
and definition of VLANs may be vendor specific.
Device Discovery
AutoDiscovery fully resolves connectivity between switches by examining
the MIBs associated with the Cisco Discovery Protocol, the Cabletron
Discovery Protocol, Cabletrons SecureFast Protocol. During this process,
AutoDiscovery identifies all switches in the network and then creates a
model for each one. Additionally, AutoDiscovery resolves connectivity
down to the port level. Each device is related to all of its ports, and in
turn, all ports are related to the entities to which they are connected.
Once the environment has been fully scanned, a complete physical
topology will be modeled and mapped.
Configuration
One of SPECTRUM Enterprise Managers goals is to continue to become
more modular without giving up seamless integration. As a result,
SPECTRUM relies on vendor supplied configuration tools to manage
VLANs. Cabletrons 802.1Q VLAN Manager is recommended to manage
802.1Q VLANs. Ciscos VLAN Director is recommended for managing
Cisco ISL VLANs. Cabletrons SecureFast VLAN manager is recommended
to manage SecureFast VLANs.
SecureFast VLAN Management Module
In addition to SecureFast VLAN Manager, an Integrated VLAN
Management Module for SPECTRUM is available. Its purpose is to provide
a mechanism for starting, stopping, and accessing the SecureFast
I nt r oduct i on
SPECTRUM and VLANs
VLAN Fault Isolation Page 14
VLANServer and the SecureFast VLAN Client Application (VLAN
Manager). VLAN Management is achieved using VLAN Manager.
Dynamic Adaptive Modeling
SPECTRUM has the ability to query devices to understand the type of
services they support. Since this technology is a core SPECTRUM feature,
it does not rely on the presence of a specific management module. Even if
a device is modeled using the default SNMP Device Model, the
functionality required to understand the services supported by the device
still applies.
During the modeling process, device models are created for switches and
routers that support 802.1Q, Cisco ISL, or Cabletron SecureFast VLANs.
DAM then creates application models for each device depending on the
protocol the device is running. Other SPECTRUM inference handlers will
identify, model (or associate), and display the:
Entities that represent Domains and VLANs
Ports that belong to each VLAN.
Blocked switch ports that result from the Spanning Tree algorithm.
Routers, switches, and links that connect the VLANs and Domains
together.
End-stations that are members of each VLAN.
Trunk links that exist between switches.
Alarm condition on Domains, VLANs, links, switches, and routers.
The SpectroSERVER and the VLAN in which it resides.
VLAN Fault Isolation
SPECTRUM VLAN Fault Isolation extends SPECTRUMs fault isolation
capability into VLAN environments. Without SPECTRUM VLAN Fault
Isolation, SPECTRUMs fault isolation intelligence relies strictly on
physical connectivity to determine the data path from the
SpectroSERVER to each managed device. When the SpectroSERVER fails
to contact any device, that devices physical neighbors are checked. If the
neighbors can be contacted, SPECTRUM assumes the device to be at
I nt r oduct i on
VLAN Faul t I sol at i on Vi ews
VLAN Fault Isolation Page 15
fault. If the neighbors cannot be contacted, SPECTRUM looks for a fault
elsewhere.
In a VLAN environment, the management path cannot always be
determined by physical connectivity between switches. In some cases,
communication between two users on the same switch must traverse
several switches and a router. In these cases, a router configuration
problem or a router hardware malfunction could prevent communication
between the users, even though the users may be connected to different
ports on the same switch. When a router failure is detected, SPECTRUM
generates a Red (lost contact) alarm on the router model, and writes Gray
(suppressed) to the condition value of affected user (end-station) models.
You can display status, symptom, probable cause, and recommended
action information associated with the alarm by clicking the Probable
Cause tab while running Alarm Manager.
SPECTRUM VLAN Fault Isolation enhances SPECTRUM modeling to
represent a logical VLAN topology, and adds intelligence that uses this
modeling to pinpoint VLAN domain faults such as router failures.
Alarms in VLAN Domains
In the VLAN views, the condition of the Domain, VLANs, switches, and
routers follow the standard SPECTRUM roll-up idiom. For example,
Domain and VLANs will be GREEN if all switches are green (i.e., all
switches and end-stations are reachable from the SpectroSERVER). If the
SpectroSERVER narrows the fault down to a router, VLANs and Domains
that are not reachable, will be GRAY and no alarms will be generated for
any of their switches or end-stations. On the other hand, if the routers are
determined to be operating normally, further analysis will pinpoint the
failing device(s). Core inference handlers provide the roll-up condition for
VLAN and Domain containers.
VLAN Fault Isolation Views
VLAN Fault Isolation views provide useful troubleshooting information so
that you can quickly identify and resolve VLAN related problems.
I nt r oduct i on
VLAN Faul t I sol at i on Vi ews
VLAN Fault Isolation Page 16
The VLAN Fault Isolation Topology View (Figure 2) provides accurate
logical topology representations of VLAN domains within a network and
identifies faulty domain devices. It contains standard SPECTRUM
topology view components as well as Spanning Tree overlays. Spanning
Tree overlays show trunk connections between switches. Spanning Tree
prevents looping on the network so if redundant paths exist between
switches, Spanning Tree designates one path as the primary path and the
other path as the backup path. The primary path between two switches is
shown with solid bolded pipes. The backup path between two switches is
shown with hashes through the pipe.
Figure 2: VLAN Fault Isolation Topology View
SpectroGRAPH: Topology: 192.168.92.0
192.168.92.0 of type LAN of landscape sugar: Primary
192.168.92.1
SSR-8600
Host_NT
192.168.92.46
192.168.170.77
192.168.92
192.168.170.77
192.168.170.21
192.168.170.77
192.168.170.21
192.168.170.77
192.168.170.21
192.168.170.77
192.168.170.21
192.168.170.77
192.168.170.21
File View Tools Bookmarks Help
192.168.170.21
192.168.170.21
192.168.170.21
192.168.170.21
192.168.92.36
6H262-18
I nt r oduct i on
VLAN Faul t I sol at i on Vi ews
VLAN Fault Isolation Page 17
The VLAN List view (Figure 3) displays a list of all VLANs in a domain and
provides access to additional views and functions as described below.
User View - Provides information about the users with
membership in the selected VLAN. Refer to User Vi ew.
Port View - Provides information about ports with membership in
the selected VLAN. Traffic can only be forwarded out ports with
membership in a VLAN. Refer to Port Vi ew.
Options - Lets you specify how frequently SPECTRUM will read the
switch tables in order to determine port VLAN membership and to
specify the path to your VLAN configuration tool. Refer to Opti ons.
ID/Find - Lets you search for a particular VLAN by VLAN ID or
VLAN name. Refer to Usi ng the VLAN Fi nd Feature.
Apply - Applies the selected VLAN topology overlay (some VLAN
technologies offer multiple spanning trees).
Close - Dismisses the VLAN List View and removes Spanning Tree
overlays from the VLAN Topology View.
I nt r oduct i on
VLAN Faul t I sol at i on Vi ews
VLAN Fault Isolation Page 18
Figure 3: VLAN List

VLAN List - 192.168.92.0
ID Name
User View Port View
ID
Apply Close Options
Find
44
1
22
33
blue
default
red
green
VLAN Fault Isolation Page 19
Using VLAN Fault Isolation
This section provides task oriented information which is required to successfully use
VLAN Fault Isolation.
Preparing to Use VLAN Fault Isolation
You must set up your VLAN domain and model the devices contained in
the domain before you can use VLAN Fault Isolation.
Set Up VLAN Domains
Specific VLAN domain set up instructions are not provided in this guide
since each network has its own set of unique requirements, however, each
VLAN domain should consist of a set of VLAN-aware switches bounded by
a routing device such as a router. Once you have made the physical
connections for the VLAN domains on your network, download the
appropriate firmware to the switches, and then use local management to
set the switches to run in VLAN mode.
In addition, the following suggestions are made to help you realize the full
benefits of a VLAN network.
Set every end-stations mask to the natural mask.
Set every end-stations default gateway to point to itself.
Enable proxy-arp on all VLAN-aware routers.
Note: Note:
All switches in a VLAN domain must of the same type. For
example, mixing Cabletron 802.1Q pre-standard, Cabletron
802.1Q IETF, Cabletron SecureFast, and Cisco ISL switches in
the same domain is not permitted; however, mixing multi-vendor
802.1Q IETF compliant switches in the same domain is
permitted.
Usi ng VLAN Faul t I sol at i on
Pr epar i ng t o Use VLAN Faul t I sol at i on
VLAN Fault Isolation Page 20
Create VLANs
Use your VLAN configuration tool to create VLANs for each VLAN domain
on your network. If a domain consists of Cabletron 802.1Q switches, use
Cabletrons VLAN Manager. If the domain consists of Cabletron
SecureFast switches, use Aprismas SPECTRUM VLAN Manager. If a
domain consists of Cisco ISL switches, use Ciscos Cisco Director. In all
cases, a switchs local management can be used to create VLANs,
however, this can be very time intensive.
Model VLAN Domain(s)
There are two methods you can use to create models for devices in a VLAN
domain, using AutoDiscovery to model the devices and manually
modeling the devices.
AutoDiscovery
You can use SPECTRUMs AutoDiscovery feature to create models for the
devices in a VLAN domain.
Manual Modeling
If you prefer, you can manually create models for the devices in a VLAN
domain manually by selecting Edit > New Model or Edit > New Model by
IP while in edit mode.
Refer to Getti ng Started Wi th SPECTRUM for Admi ni strators for
modeling instructions.
Note: Note:
Each routing device that bounds a VLAN domain must be
configured to be a member of all VLANs in the domain.
Note:
Note:
All switches in a VLAN domain must use the same protocol,
either 802.1Q, SecureFast, or ISL. You cannot mix and match
the three technologies.
Usi ng VLAN Faul t I sol at i on
I sol at i ng VLAN Faul t s
VLAN Fault Isolation Page 21
Manually Editing Topology Views
If the information SPECTRUM uses during the modeling process is either
lacking or misleading, the logical and physical representation of the
network may be inaccurate. If this occurs, it may be necessary for you to
make manual adjustments to topology views. To do this:
Collect all switches, that are part of the same Domain, into the same
topology view. This is done by copying and pasting the switch models
from the various subviews into a Network or other topological container.
Make sure that each switch is directly connected to all of its physical
neighbors. This is done by entering the DevTop view of each switch to see
if its ports are connected to the correct devices. If there is a problem with
a port, cut the incorrect device from the port and then paste the correct
device onto the port.
Isolating VLAN Faults
SPECTRUM automatically isolates VLAN faults. When a VLAN fault is
detected, an alarm is generated on the failing device. You can display
status, symptom, probable cause, and recommended action infomation
associated with the alarm by clicking the Probable Cause tab while
running Alarm Manager. Refer to xx for infomation
Note:
Note:
VLAN Fault Isolation will work as long as the switches are
connected properly, even if they are not all in the same
container; however, to take advantage of the Spanning Tree
overlays and other views, we recommend placing all switches in a
domain into the same container.
Note:
Note:
To correctly establish physical connectivity between two devices,
the ports of each device must reference each other. For example,
id device A (port 1) is connected to device B (port 4), you would
have to enter device As DevTop to paste B into its port 1, and
then enter device Bs DevTop to paste A into its port 4.
Usi ng VLAN Faul t I sol at i on
Usi ng t he VLAN Li st Vi ew
VLAN Fault Isolation Page 22
Using the VLAN List View
You use the VLAN List View (Figure 3) to select a VLAN, to display the
User and Port Views, and to set VLAN configuration options.
User View
The User View provides read-only Name, IP, Condition, Switch IP, and
Switch Port information about the users in the selected VLAN. Users are
endpoint devices modeled in SPECTRUM that are connected to a VLAN
switch port.
To display the User View for a particular VLAN, select a VLAN from the
VLAN list and then click User View. You can use the VLAN filter to
quickly find a particular VLAN. Refer to Usi ng the VLAN Fi nd Feature.
Close dismisses the User View.
Figure 4: User View
UserView - blue
IP Name
Name
Close
Find
192.168.92.36
192.168.92.46
192.168.92.47
192.168.92.55
192.168.92.56
Condition
Suppressed
Suppressed
Suppressed
Suppressed
Suppressed
Switch IP
192.168.92.35
192.168.92.35
192.168.92.35
192.168.92.34
192.168.92.34
Switch Port
1
1
1
10
13
192.168.92.36
192.168.92.46
192.168.92.47
192.168.92.55
192.168.92.56
Usi ng VLAN Faul t I sol at i on
Usi ng t he VLAN Li st Vi ew
VLAN Fault Isolation Page 23
Name - Users name
IP - Users IP address
Condition - Contact Lost, Major, Minor, Initial, Maintenance,
Suppressed
Contact Lost - Contact with the device has been lost.
Major - A loss of service has occurred and immediate action is
required.
Minor - A situation has occurred but no immediate action is
required. This condition is also used for alarms created only to
convey information such as Duplicate IP.
Initial - Contact with the device has not yet been established.
Maintenance - Device has been taken off-line for maintenance
purposes.
Suppressed - Device cannot be reached due to a known error
condition that exists on another device.
Switch IP - Switch to which user is connected.
Switch Port - Physical port to which the user is connected.
Port View
The Port View provides read-only Name, IP, Interface, Trunking, and State
information about the ports in the selected VLAN. To display the Port
View for a particular VLAN, select a VLAN from the VLAN list and then
click Port View. You can use the VLAN filter to quickly find a particular
VLAN. Refer to Using the VLAN Find Feature on Page 27. Close dismisses
the User View.
Usi ng VLAN Faul t I sol at i on
Usi ng t he VLAN Li st Vi ew
VLAN Fault Isolation Page 24
Figure 5: Port View
Name - Name of the switch port.
IP - IP address of the switch.
Interface - Port number.
Trunking - on or off. Trunking refer to a connection between 802.1Q
switches that passes only traffic with a VLAN ID inserted in the frame.
By default, a port designated as a 1Q trunk has all VLANs in its egress
(forwarding) list and is configured to transmit all frames as tagged. A
1Q Trunk port drops all incoming frames that are not tagged.
State - Disabled, Listening, Learning, Forwaring, Blocking.
Disabled - Management disabled this interface. No traffic is
received or forwarded while the interface is disabled.
Listening - The switch is not adding information associated
with this interface into its database. The switch is monitoring
traffic while preparing to move from the learning to the
forwarding state.
PortView - blue
IP Name
Name
Close
Find
192.168.92.34_1
192.168.92.34_10
192.168.92.34_11
192.168.92.34_12
192.168.92.34_13
192.168.92.34_14
192.168.92.34_15
192.168.92.34_2
192.168.92.34_9
192.168.92.35_1
192.168.92.35_13
192.168.92.35_14
Interface
1
10
11
12
13
14
15
2
9
1
13
14
Trunking
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
yes
no
no
State
Forwarding
Forwarding
Forwarding
Forwarding
Forwarding
Forwarding
Forwarding
Forwarding
Forwarding
Forwarding
Forwarding
Forwarding
192.168.92.34
192.168.92.34
192.168.92.34
192.168.92.34
192.168.92.34
192.168.92.34
192.168.92.34
192.168.92.34
192.168.92.34
192.168.92.35
192.168.92.35
192.168.92.35
Usi ng VLAN Faul t I sol at i on
Usi ng t he VLAN Li st Vi ew
VLAN Fault Isolation Page 25
Learning - The switch is learning addresses on this interface.
The switch enters the learning state when the switchs database
is created (during start-up or after being deleted), or when the
Spanning Tree Algorithm detects a network topology change.
Forwarding - The switch is operating and this interface is
frowarding traffic.
Blocking - This interface will not forward any traffic through
the switch because a loop condition has been detected by the
Spanning Tree Algorithm.
Options
You use the Options View (Figure 6) to:
Specify how often SPECTRUM reads switch tables to determine port
VLAN membership
Read the switch tables immediately.
Specify the path to your VLAN configuration tool
Launch a VLAN configuration tool.
To close the view, select Close from the File menu.
Usi ng VLAN Faul t I sol at i on
Usi ng t he VLAN Li st Vi ew
VLAN Fault Isolation Page 26
Figure 6: Options View
Specifying the SPECTRUM VLAN Modeling
Configuration Interval
To specify the time interval (in minutes) that SPECTRUM will read the
VLAN information from the switches to determine port VLAN
membership, enter a value in the SPECTRUM VLAN Modeling
Configuration Interval text field. The following values are recommeded:
10 - 15 minutes for highly dynamic environments in which servers
and/or workstations are modeled.
60 minutes for more static environments.
Note: Note:
A value of zero (0) means that no reading of the switch tables will
take place.
SpectroGRAPH: 192.168.92.0
192.168.92.0 of type LAN of landscape sugar: Primary
File View Tools Bookmarks Help
VLAN Domain Options
SPECTRUM VLAN Modeling Configuration Interval (in minutes)
External VLAN Configuration Application
60
Reconfigure Now
Launch VLAN Config Tool
Usi ng VLAN Faul t I sol at i on
Usi ng t he VLAN Li st Vi ew
VLAN Fault Isolation Page 27
Reading Switch Tables Immediately
Click Reconfigure Now to immediately read the switch tables to determine
current VLAN membership.
Specifying the VLAN Configuration Tool Path
Enter the name of the script/executable of your VLAN configuration tool
into the External VLAN Configuration Tool text field. If the script/executable is
in the system PATH, SPECTRUM will find it. If the script/executable is not in the
PATH, enter the full path.
Launching the VLAN Configuration Tool
To launch your VLAN configuration tool click Launch VLAN Config Tool.
Using the VLAN Find Feature
Use the find feature to search for and find a particular VLAN. You can
search by VLAN Name or VLAN IP Address.
To use the find feature:
1 Select Name Name Name Name or IP IP IP IP from the search criteria pop-up list.
2 Click anywhere in the text box to the right of the search criteria pop-
up list, and then, depending on the criteria you selected, enter a VLAN
Name or a VLAN IP address.
Note:
Note:
Configure 802.1Q pre-standard and IETF VLAN domains
using Cabletrons VLAN Manager.
Configure SecureFast domains using Cabletrons
SecureFast VLAN Manager.
Configure ISL domains using Ciscos VLAN Director.
Note: Note:
A VLAN configuration tool cannot be launched until a valid path
to the tool is entered into the External VLAN Configuration Tool
text field.
Usi ng VLAN Faul t I sol at i on
Usi ng t he VLAN Li st Vi ew
VLAN Fault Isolation Page 28
3 Click Find Find Find Find to find the VLAN that matches your search criteria.
VLAN Fault Isolation Page 29
Theory of Operations
This section provides information about how VLAN Fault isolation works and how it is
integrated into existing SPECTRUM functionality.
VLAN Fault Isolation Operations
The flowchart shown in Figure 7 shows the process used by SPECTRUM
to isolate VLAN faults. The following description may help to understand
the process.
Once the VLAN membership of users (a user being a device model in
SPECTRUM), has been fully modeled, SPECTRUM has the information
necessary to fault isolate the VLAN environment. When the
SpectroSERVER looses contact with a device, the first question that needs
to be answered is Is the device in the same VLAN as the
SpectroSERVER?
This can easily be answered by reading the vContains relation to see if the
VNM model is associated with the same VLAN model as the device. This is
done by querying the vLanContains relation twice, one with the VNM
model (on the right side of the association), and then again with the device
(on the right side of the association. If the VNM and the device are in the
same VLAN, traditional SPECTRUM fault isolation is used. Otherwise,
the logical neighbors of the lost device are queried.
The logical neighbors are found by reading the vlsBoundBy relation with
the VLAN model of the device on the left. All router models that bound the
VLAN are considered logical neighbors of all the VLANs members. These
neighbors are queried by sending the model the ARE_YOU_DOWN action.
If any of the neighbors respond yes, then the device icon is turned Gray.
If all logical neighbors are up, traditional SPECTRUM fault isolation is
used.
Theor y of Oper at i ons
VLAN Fault Isolation Page 30
Figure 7: VLAN Fault Isolation
Can the
SS contact
all the logical
neighbors (routers) in
the path to the faulty
device?
Device is
unreachable
Is the faulty
device in a different
VLAN than the SS?
Can the SS contact
any physical neighbor
to the faulty device?
Turn device GRAY
Turn device RED
Standard Physical Fault Isolation
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
VLAN Fault Isolation Page 31
VLAN Terminology
This section contains definitions for commonly used VLAN Fault Isolation and VLAN
(802.1Q, SecureFast, ISL) terms as well as definitions for other common network
related terms.
1Q trunk 1Q trunk 1Q trunk 1Q trunk
A connection between 802.1Q switches that passes only traffic with a
VLAN Tag Header inserted in the frame.
1d trunk 1d trunk 1d trunk 1d trunk
A connection from a switch that passes only untagged traffic.
802.1Q
The IEEE standard that defines port based VLANs.
access port access port access port access port
A port on a VLAN switch that has been designated for user (end-system)
connections.
alias alias alias alias
A way of identifying a user by something other than its MAC address, for
example, by IP or IPX address.
Automatic Membership Registration (AMR) Automatic Membership Registration (AMR) Automatic Membership Registration (AMR) Automatic Membership Registration (AMR)
A SecureFast VLAN Manager feature that dynamically creates VLANs,
joins endpoints to those VLANs, and floods packets to those VLANs
according to the set of criteria rules.
Base VLAN Base VLAN Base VLAN Base VLAN
VLAN that all endpoints in a domain have membership in until
administratively moved to another VLAN.
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VLAN Fault Isolation Page 32
bindery bindery bindery bindery
A database that contains a complete collection of related information.
broadcast broadcast broadcast broadcast
Data sent from one endpoint to all other network endpoints (point-to-
multipoint communications).
community name community name community name community name - Defines security communities to which an SNMP
agent is permitted access to a device and establishes Read/ReadWrite
privileges.
Current Table (dot1qVlanCurrentTable) Current Table (dot1qVlanCurrentTable) Current Table (dot1qVlanCurrentTable) Current Table (dot1qVlanCurrentTable)
A map of VLAN IDs to a port egress list and a filtering database so that
non-unicast and unicast packets can be forwarded appropriately.
default gateway default gateway default gateway default gateway - The switch port configured to service connection
requests to subnets not serviced by the switches in a domain.
default VLAN default VLAN default VLAN default VLAN
The VLAN assigned to be the default VLAN for a port. All endpoints
connecting to a port will assume membership in the default VLAN for that
port. For 802.1Q VLANs, the default VLAN has a VLAN ID of 1.
directory directory directory directory
A set of data about all users in a domain. Typically, the directory contains
such entries as the users physical address, the switch and port to which
the user is connected, and the network type, and the users name.
discover discover discover discover
Process used to find switches and users contained in a VLAN domain.
daemon daemon daemon daemon
A software program that generally performs a single task and is executed
only when it is needed.
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VLAN Fault Isolation Page 33
domain domain domain domain
A set of VLAN switches that are physically connected together and
bounded by a router. A domain identifies the potential physical reach of a
VLAN. It also provides scope for the VLAN IDs.
Domain Name Server (DNS) Domain Name Server (DNS) Domain Name Server (DNS) Domain Name Server (DNS)
A protocol used to provide mappings between host names and IP
addresses.
dynamic filtering entries dynamic filtering entries dynamic filtering entries dynamic filtering entries
Entries that have been learned through correspondence with other switch
devices via GVRP. After an agent restart, these entries will have to be
relearned.
egress list (dot1qVlanCurrentEgressPorts) egress list (dot1qVlanCurrentEgressPorts) egress list (dot1qVlanCurrentEgressPorts) egress list (dot1qVlanCurrentEgressPorts)
A per port list of all eligible 802.1Q VLANs that can be forwarded out one
specific port and the frame format of transmissions for that port. The
egress list specifies what 802.1Q VLANs are associated with a single port
for transmission purposes.
endpoint endpoint endpoint endpoint
A device attached directly to a switchs network user port (e.g.,
workstation, PC, or router).
filtering database (Filtering Identifier - FID) filtering database (Filtering Identifier - FID) filtering database (Filtering Identifier - FID) filtering database (Filtering Identifier - FID)
A table inside a switch that determines which ports unicast packets are
forwarded to. The FID is similar to the Source Address table of a
traditional bridge.
flooding flooding flooding flooding
A method used by SecureFast switches so that, if the switch fails to
resolve the destination address for a packet to a host or a VLAN, the
packet is transmitted out all the switchs ports except the port the packet
was received on.
forwarding list forwarding list forwarding list forwarding list
VLAN Ter mi nol ogy
VLAN Fault Isolation Page 34
A list of ports on a particular device that are eligible to transmit frames for
a selected 802.1Q VLAN. The forwarding list identifies what ports are
associated with a single 802.1Q VLAN for transmission purposes.
folder folder folder folder
A virtual container used to group users. There are two levels of folders.
The first level groups different VLAN types (e.g., VLAN, AMR). The second
level groups users of the same type (e.g., inherited, static).
Graphical User Interface (GUI) Graphical User Interface (GUI) Graphical User Interface (GUI) Graphical User Interface (GUI)
An interface that allows a user to select a menu item by using a mouse to
point to a graphic icon or piece of text. This is an alternative to the more
traditional command line interface, where an alphanumeric string is used
to convey instructions. GUIs make computer applications easier to use for
humans (i.e., user friendly).
hub hub hub hub
The center of a star topology network or cabling system in which a multi-
node network topology has a central multiplexor with many nodes feeding
into and through the multiplexor or hub. The other nodes do not usually
directly interconnect.
Independent VLAN Learning (IVL) Independent VLAN Learning (IVL) Independent VLAN Learning (IVL) Independent VLAN Learning (IVL)
The configuration and operation of the learning process and the filtering
database such that, for a given set of VLANs, if a given individual MAC
address is learnt in one VLAN, that learnt information is not used in
forwarding decisions taken for that address relative to any other VLAN in
the given set.
Internet Protocol (IP) Internet Protocol (IP) Internet Protocol (IP) Internet Protocol (IP)
One of a collection of communication protocols which has become the de
facto solution for open networking.
IP address IP address IP address IP address
VLAN Ter mi nol ogy
VLAN Fault Isolation Page 35
A 32-bit address divided into two fields: a network-identifier and a host-
identifier. The network-identifier refers to a particular physical network in
an Internet, and the host-identifier refers to a particular device attached
to that physical network.
IP Multicast IP Multicast IP Multicast IP Multicast
A SecureFast VLAN Manager feature that automatically creates IP
Multicast groups for each IP Multicast address heard by the switches in a
SFS domain. This feature lets you perform many IP Multicast
administrative tasks including adding or removing receivers from an IP
Multicast group and setting security for switches and ports associated
with IP Multicast groups.
LEC failover LEC failover LEC failover LEC failover - A mechanism that lets you create multiple instances of an
ELAN. Backup ELANs or failovers protect against communication loss if
a primary ELAN fails. LEC failover is a proprietary feature of FORE
Systems. Failover ELANs are created and configured using your FORE
LANE Services tool.
legacy network legacy network legacy network legacy network
Traditional router and bridge LANs, using Ethernet, Token Ring, or FDDI.
Logical Fault Isolation (LFI) Logical Fault Isolation (LFI) Logical Fault Isolation (LFI) Logical Fault Isolation (LFI)
A process used to determine faults by examining logically connected
neighbors of a device along the path from the SpectroSERVER to the
faulty device. The path usually has a least one router.
MAC MAC MAC MAC
Media access connection of the data link layer.
multicast multicast multicast multicast
Data sent from one endpoint to a group of other network endpoints
(point-to-multipoint communications).
VLAN Ter mi nol ogy
VLAN Fault Isolation Page 36
OSI model OSI model OSI model OSI model
A seven layer model that defines the rules for transferring information
from one endpoint to another. The seven layers are defined below.
(1) Physical Layer - (1) Physical Layer - (1) Physical Layer - (1) Physical Layer - Responsible for the transmission of bit streams
across a particular physical transmission medium. It involves a
connection between two endpoints allowing electrical signals to be
exchanged between them.
(2) Data Link Layer - (2) Data Link Layer - (2) Data Link Layer - (2) Data Link Layer - Responsible for moving information across a
particular link. Across that link, it ensures good transmission and
correct delivery by checking errors, retransmitting as necessary, and
attaching appropriate addresses to the data sent. The contention
access methods (e.g., CSMA/CD, and Token Passing) are regarded as
Layer 2 activities.
(3) Network Layer - (3) Network Layer - (3) Network Layer - (3) Network Layer - Concerned with routing data from one network to
another. It is responsible for establishing, maintaining, and
terminating the network connection between two users and for
transferring data along that connection. Although there can be only
one network connection between two given users, there can be many
possible routes from which to choose when the particular connection
is established.
(4) Transport Layer - (4) Transport Layer - (4) Transport Layer - (4) Transport Layer - Responsible for providing data transfer between
two users at an agreed level of quality. When a connection is
established, this layer is responsible for selecting a particular class of
service to be used, for monitoring transmissions to ensure the
appropriate service quality is maintained, and for notifying the users if
it is not.
(5) Session Layer - (5) Session Layer - (5) Session Layer - (5) Session Layer - Focuses on providing services used to organize and
synchronize the dialog that takes place between users and to manage
the data exchange. A primary concern of the session layer is
controlling when users can send and receive concurrently or
alternately.
VLAN Ter mi nol ogy
VLAN Fault Isolation Page 37
(6) Presentation Layer - (6) Presentation Layer - (6) Presentation Layer - (6) Presentation Layer - Responsible for the presentation of
information in a way that is meaningful to the network users. This
may include character code transmission, data conversion, or data
compression and expansion.
(7) Application Layer - (7) Application Layer - (7) Application Layer - (7) Application Layer - Provides a means for application processes to
access the system interconnection facilities in order to exchange
information. This includes services used to establish and terminate
the connections between users and to monitor and manage the
systems being interconnected, as well as the various resources they
employ.
Local Area Network (LAN) Local Area Network (LAN) Local Area Network (LAN) Local Area Network (LAN)
A data communications network that can cover a limited area of up to
about six miles in radius with moderate to high data speeds. The devices
linked by a LAN may all be in the same building or in a group of buildings
in relatively close proximity. It is user-owned and does not run over
leased lines, although it might have gateways to public and/or private
networks.
MAC address MAC address MAC address MAC address
Physical address for a given device.
multicast multicast multicast multicast
Data sent from one endpoint to multiple network endpoints (point-to-
multipoint communications).
network port network port network port network port
A port on a VLAN switch that has been designated for network
connections.
packet packet packet packet
A unit of data consisting of several fields. Packets may be of fixed lengths
or varying lengths.
VLAN Ter mi nol ogy
VLAN Fault Isolation Page 38
Physical Fault Isolation (PFI )
A process used to determine faults by examining the physically connected
neighbors of a device.
poll poll poll poll
Periodic collection of specific information from a network device which is
being managed by VLAN Manager.
port restriction port restriction port restriction port restriction
Restriction placed on a port which allows only specified MAC addresses to
be connected to the port.
port table port table port table port table
Each Cisco chassis maintains a vlanPortTable. whose entries specify
VLAN membership for each port on the module. Additionally, each entry
in the table indicates whether the port is trunking or not.
port violation port violation port violation port violation
Heard when a MAC address not specified for a restricted port is
discovered on that port.
Port VLAN ID (PVID) Port VLAN ID (PVID) Port VLAN ID (PVID) Port VLAN ID (PVID)
An identification that encompasses a particular switch ports
identification and that ports VLAN membership.
preference preference preference preference
A client/UI setting about what data to display and how to display to. For
example, display ToolTips or display the Topology view at 50% zoom.
processd processd processd processd
A process launching and tracking daemon that provides the VLANServer
with the ability to control various processes that are run on various
servers and clients in a distributed VLANServer environment.
property property property property
VLAN Ter mi nol ogy
VLAN Fault Isolation Page 39
An attribute of an object which is being managed. For example, setting a
multicast ports query interval.
provision provision provision provision
To configure a connection manually.
redundant access port redundant access port redundant access port redundant access port
Let you configure endpoints within a VLAN domain to be connected to
more than one switch access port (one active, the others in standby).
repeater repeater repeater repeater
In a LAN, this is a device that repeats a signal from one cable to the next,
thereby, increasing the reach of a LAN signal. In FDDI, a repeater is an
opto-electrical module that receives an optical signal and converts it into
an electrical equivalent of the optical signal.
router router router router
Unlike bridges, routers operate at the Network level (Layer 3) of the OSI
model. Also unlike bridges, routers are protocol specific, acting on routing
information carried by the communications protocol in the Network layer.
Bridges pass Layer 2 (Data Link) packets directly on to the next segment
of a LAN, whereas routers can use the information they have about the
network topology to choose the best route for a packet. Because routers
are Layer 3 devices, they are independent of the Physical (Layer 1) level.
seed switch seed switch seed switch seed switch
The switch identified to VLAN Manager as the starting point for the
domain discovery process.
shared link shared link shared link shared link
Connections between switches where each switch can hear more than one
neighbor switch.
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VLAN Fault Isolation Page 40
Shared VLAN Learning (SVL) Shared VLAN Learning (SVL) Shared VLAN Learning (SVL) Shared VLAN Learning (SVL)
The configuration and operation of the learning process and the filtering
database such that, for a given set of VLANs, if a given individual MAC
address is learnt in one VLAN, that learnt information is used in
forwarding decisions taken for that address relative to any other VLAN in
the given set.
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
A application protocol providing network management within the Internet
suite of Protocols.
static filtering entries static filtering entries static filtering entries static filtering entries
Entries created by an administrator. Static filtering entries persist after
the agent has restarted.
stack-MIB
Contains main VLAN group (vlanGrp) for all Cisco devices supporting
VLANs.
VLAN VLAN VLAN VLAN
A set of ports in a domain with the same VLAN ID, including the users
attached to those ports. It represents a broadcast domain.
VLAN Fault Isolation (VFI) VLAN Fault Isolation (VFI) VLAN Fault Isolation (VFI) VLAN Fault Isolation (VFI)
A process which uses PFI and LFI to determine faults in networks
partitioned into 802.1Q VLANs, Cisco ISL VLANs, and SecureFast VLANs.
VLAN ID (VID)
A unique numerical identifier for a VLAN within a VLAN domain. The VID
is used to identify what VLAN a packet is assigned to so that switches and
routers can forward the packet out correct ports.
VLAN Table
Specifies the existence of VLANs (vlanIndex), including specific
information about the interface/port (vlanIfIndex) membership.
I ndex I ndex
VLAN Fault Isolation Page 41
Index
A
Adobe Acrobat Reader 7
autodiscovery 13
B
broadcast 32
C
creating VLANs 20
D
daemon 38
device discovery 13
Dynamic Adaptive Modeling 14
E
editing topology views 21
endpoint 33
F
flooding 33
G
Graphical User Interface 34
I
Internet Packet Exchange 35
Internet Protocol 34
IP address 34
isolating VLAN faults 21
L
launching the configuration tool 27
Legacy Network 35
Local Area Network 37
M
MAC 35
MAC address 37
modeling a VLAN domain 20
multicast 35
N
Network Port 37
I ndex I ndex
VLAN Fault Isolation Page 42
O
OSI model 35
P
packet 37
printing this document 7
Q
questions about this document 8
R
reading switch tables 27
related documentation 8
repeater 39
Restricted Rights Notice 3
router 39
S
seed switch 39
setting up VLAN domains 19
Simple Network Management
Protocol 40
smart hub 34
specify modeling configuration
interval 26
specifying configuration tool path 27
T
trademarks 2
U
User Port 31
using the list view 22
using this document 7
using VLAN find 27
V
viewing this document 7
VLAN
domain alarms 15
fault isolation 14
overview 9
SecureFast 13
types 10
VLAN Fault Isolation
isolating faults 21
list view 22
options view 25
port view 23
user view 22
operation 29
preparation 19
views 15