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Jaclyn Easter 10-Day Earth Science Lesson Plan Unit Logic Flow: If lithospheric plates on the scales of continents

and oceans constantly move at rates of centimeters per year in response to movements in the mantle, then major geological events, such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and mountain building, result from these plate motions (National Research Council [NRC], 2003). Premises A. Explore the structure of the earth system: layered with lithosphere; hot, convecting mantle; and dense, metallic core (NRC, 2003). Understand the interior of the earth is hot (NSDL, n.d.). B. Discuss the earths history. The earth processes we see today, including movement of lithospheric plates, are similar to those that occurred in the past (NRC, 2003). Examine continental drift and the theory of plate tectonics. C. Understand that heat flow and movement of material within the earth cause earthquakes and volcanic eruptions and create mountains and ocean basins (NSDL, n.d.). D. Recognize that some changes in the earths surface are abrupt (e.g. earthquakes and volcanic eruptions), while other changes happen very slowly (e.g. uplift and wearing down of mountains) (NSDL, n.d.). For this logic flow, I used a combination of National Science Education Standards for grades 5-8 (which were approved by the Governing Board of the National Research council) and NSDL Science Literacy Map standards for grades 6-8 (which are based on the Atlas of Scientific Literacy and National Science Education Standards). I know that I must choose concepts and activities based on students biological maturation and reasoning abilities (Kruse, 2009). Thus, I have used these specific resources, because I am able to select content that is developmentally appropriate for students at the middle level. This is a major theme of Developmental Learning Theory (DLT). Under DLT, in addition to developmentally appropriate content, I must also choose activities that provide both concrete and abstract representations. Within each premise, there will be concrete and abstract activities. As I progress through the premises and the detailed portions of my 10-day lesson plan, I will more thoroughly explain my reasoning of specific activities based on learning theory and my goals for students while also taking teaching models/strategies (including verbal and nonverbal teacher behaviors), classroom management, assessment, and nature of science into consideration.

Subject Area - Earth Science Grade Level - 7th Day 1 (Detailed) Topic: How geologists have learned about the earths inner structure. Content: Beginning with a concrete activity introducing students to the idea that geologists (as much as they would like) are unable to dig a hole to the center of the earth. They must interpret evidence from rock samples (and seismic waves, but were not yet ready for that) to learn about the earths interior. Nature of science ideas that science is limited, science is collaborative, and there is no such thing as the scientific method. Goal: Explore the structure of the earth system: layered with lithosphere; hot, convecting mantle; and dense, metallic core (NRC, 2003). Understand the interior of the earth is hot (NSDL, n.d.). Objectives: To begin to concretely explore how geologists explore the earths inner structures. To recognize how the student activity is similar to what scientists do, and understand aspects of the nature of science. Materials: Three closed canisters with different materials (inside) for each group. Introduction: Class will begin immediately. This following activity is planned using the learning cycle. This lesson begins with the concept of exploring the earths interior, relates it to the NOS, and eventually discusses skills used by geologists. Students begin with individual and group exploration (explore phase). Ideas are then shared (concept development phase), and used to evaluate new ideas (apply phase). The three closed film canisters (which cannot be opened) will be quickly passed out amongst the groups as soon as class begins one with water, one with salt, one with small pebbles. Students will be unaware of the substances inside. I have chosen this hands-on activity because it is more concrete (DLT) and engaging than, for instance, reading or hearing about how geologists study the earth. I will begin concrete and then move to more abstract thinking activities (DLT). The students are placed in mixed-ability groups and challenged to determine what is inside each canister even though they cannot directly observe what each contains (SLT). Students will be grouped based on the open-ended question (formative assessment) asked at the end of the last class period (write or draw how you believe scientists study the interior of the earth, and write or draw and describe the interior of the earth.) Higher-ability students are grouped with lower-ability students to help the lowerability students work within their ZPD (SLT). However, I will circulate the classroom to monitor conversations - to detect misconceptions and ensure the higher-ability student isnt dominating the conversation and/or telling the other students answers. Students working together on this activity reinforces my goals for students to communicate

effectively and connect/collaborate with others. (Explore phase) Students will be asked to gather evidence by tapping, shaking, rolling, weighing, etc. The students will be asked, what are the differences you notice between the canisters, and other than the outside appearance, what similarities do you notice? (Questioning with an explanation for active mental engagement - Constructivist LT). Students will then share within their small groups, and again whole group. Once again, during investigation, I will circulate amongst the groups and monitor conversations and interactions. Through this investigation, students are meeting the goal to demonstrate critical thinking, creativity, and curiosity. When discussing the thought-provoking short answer question (about the similarities and differences between the canisters), I will acknowledge student comments, but refrain from confirming or repeating the comment. I will also provide adequate wait time after student comments. (Concept development) Students may share the canisters sound different, one is heavier than another, etc. If students make assumptions (its a liquid or solid), I will ask students to clarify or elaborate on this idea. How do you know? What characteristics lead you to believe the substance might be a liquid? Development: From your observations, what can you infer about the contents of the canisters? (I may need to ask, what does it mean to infer? How is this different from observing?) This question will be asked to the entire class, because (from my circulating and monitoring, I know) students have already made assumptions about the contents in their small groups. How did you come to these conclusions? I will also wait at least three seconds before amending or restating the question (wait time 1) to allow students time to formulate their answers and/or to allow ELLs processing and translation time. I will also wait after student responses (wait time 2) before using a student idea or moving on to the next question. Increasing wait time (to at least three second for wait time 1) after asking a question and after students respond leads to positive outcomes such as, increased length of student responses, decreased failure to respond, more use of support and logical evidence, etc. (Clough, 2007). (Apply phase) How are these canisters like the interior of the earth? (Wait time 1 and 2, acknowledge student comments) Students may respond that we cant see to the earths core, there are many substances that make up the earth, etc. How is this activity similar to what real scientists or geologists do? (Wait time 1 and 2, acknowledge student comments) Student responses: geologists use samples to learn about the earth, geologists work together (use student idea - how is this related to the NOS?), geologists explore things in a variety of ways (use student ideas - how is this related to the NOS? Talking about the NOS relates to my student goal to demonstrate a robust understanding of the NOS). I will write down the list where everyone can see - so when and if I use a student question or idea, I will remember to go back to the original question to reinforce for students that science is accessible (one of my goals for

students). As discussed by Clough (2007, in The Pantaneto Forum), when referring to the nature of science (NOS), I mean that my students and I will be addressing issues such as what science is, how science works, foundations of science, and social aspects of science. The NOS is important to help students overcome deeply held misconceptions about science (Kruse, 2008). In the above activities, I have explicitly drawn students attention to the NOS and asked questions for elaboration and reflection. Practice: (Further application) Who has ever visited a cave? Think, Ink, Pair, Share activity why would geologists study the interior of a cave, and how does this relate to our previous activity? This question helps students connect science content to everyday life (one of my goals for students). Check for Understanding: Share out whole group e.g. sharing whip. Closure: Write or draw exit slip in science journal (leave journals with me!) What is a limitation of studying a cave to learn about the interior of the earth? Explain other ways to study the earths interior. What questions do you have about todays lesson? How do you know whether or not you learned today? What activities or strategies worked for you? Which activities or strategies did not? The science journal (which will be utilized almost daily) meets my goals for students that they will accurately self-assess and understand how to learn. Evaluation: Effectiveness of the lesson will be evaluated based on student responses to the NOS and cave application questions. The second question is to get students thinking about other possible ways geologists might study the earths interior (introduction to the lesson on Day 2). Teacher Reflections: For the next class period, based on student responses, I will make adjustments and plan to re-teach if necessary. I will take into account activities and strategies that worked for students, and whether or not students are being honest about their learning. If I disagree with a student who says, Yes, I learned. Heres how..., I may reply to the student in the journal or just have a brief conversation with the student to further determine understanding. Day 2 (Detailed might actually be Days 2 and 3) Topic: How geologists have learned about the earths inner structure and introduction to the earths interior. Content: In addition to collecting and interpreting rock samples, geologists interpret evidence from seismic waves to learn about the earths interior. They record seismic waves produced by earthquakes and study how they travel through the earth. The three main layers of the earth are the crust, the mantle, and the core. These layers vary greatly in size, composition, temperature, and pressure.

Goals: Explore the structure of the earth system: layered with lithosphere; hot, convecting mantle; and dense, metallic core (NRC, 2003). Understand the interior of the earth is hot (NSDL, n.d.). Objectives: To recognize how geologists interpret evidence to learn about the earths inner structures (rock samples and seismic waves), and to be able to compare/contrast the characteristics of the layers of the earth. Materials: Large bowl, water, small jar or bottle, and pencil for each group video of seismic waves/layers of earth (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0AAITe0MImY&feature=relmfu), graphic organizer for video, model of cross section of earth/peach?, data tables and pictures of earth cross section with depths labeled Introduction: I will have student materials already set up in the lab tables. I will review lab safety with students before entering the laboratory area. Students will remain in their same mixed-ability groups, and are encouraged to use an object (e.g. pencil) to create waves in a bowl of water and observe the movement of the waves. Students are asked to write or draw their observations, then discuss amongst the group. I will be circulating and listening during this explore phase (learning cycle). Then, students will place a small jar/bottle in the middle of the bowl. Before producing waves, students will predict (active mental engagement - CLT) how that jar/bottle will affect the waves in the bowl. I have chosen this activity as a more concrete way to begin to explore seismic waves (DLT). With no step-by-step process to follow, it also encourages critical thinking, creativity, and curiosity. We will then progress to more abstract discussion. Also, students are working in groups (SLT) - which encourages them to connect/collaborate with others and communicate effectively (my goals for students). Students sketch or write about what they observed. How did your predictions compare to what you observed? (Wait time 1 and 2, acknowledge student questions). What might the changes in waves mean? (Concept development until we get to the point: they show the location of the jar/bottle.) I will touch briefly on the nature of science - what different methods did we use to come to our conclusions? (Possible answers - we worked together, I used a pencil to make the waves/he used his finger, I wrote about my observations/she sketched, etc.) How does this relate to the nature of science? Collaboration, no scientific method, science uses models, etc.) Student goals: demonstrate a robust understanding of the nature of science, science is accessible. Development: (Apply phase) Students will then view a photograph (slightly more abstract activity - DLT) of seismic waves traveling through the interior of the earth. How is this photograph similar to the activity with the water waves and the jar? (Wait time 1 and 2) I will not confirm student comments or clarify/interpret what students say. If necessary, I will have the student clarify what he/she means. I will, however, create a list acknowledging student comments and use student questions and/or ideas to get to the

point: the speed of seismic waves and the paths they take reveal the structure of the earth. Using data from seismic waves, geologists have learned that the earths interior is made up of several layers. To get students thinking about the characteristics of the layers of the earth, I will ask, If you could travel through these layers to the center of the earth, predict what your trip would be like as you go deeper and deeper what might happen to the earth around you. (How might this be similar to a swimmer going deeper and deeper in a pool or lake? Goal for students to apply science knowledge to everyday life. Im also activating prior knowledge - CLT) We will briefly discuss pressure and temperature factors. Watch the NASA video about the layers of the earth and seismic waves (back toward concrete - DLT): I will promote active mental engagement by providing students with a concept-definition map (the crust map is below) to look for these ideas, scaffold and help/model for students in filling out the first map (social cognitive theory): (Directing attention - CLT/AME) Definition, location, and characteristics of the crust differences between continental and oceanic crust. (Extension question - why isnt it possible to drill deeper than the earths crust?) Definition, location, and characteristics of the mantle After the video, contrast hard candy and taffy (rock can behave in either of those two ways). Ask students to compare/contrast the characteristics of the lithosphere, asthenosphere, and lower mantle. Definition, location, and characteristics of the outer core and inner core how does the inner core differ from the outer core (inner is solid, outer is liquid)? Why do geologists consider the inner core and outer core as part of the same layer instead of two separate layers?

Practice: I will provide students with a picture of the cross-section of earth including depths (km). (Picture is in textbook, Pearson Education, Inc., 2005) They will also be given a data table with depths (20km, 150km, 2,000km, 4,000km, and 6,000km). They will be asked to name the layer at each depth, and the characteristics of each layer. Scaffold for students how to complete the first row at 20 km (social cognitive theory). Depth 20 km 150 km 2,000 km 4,000 km 6,000 km Name of Layer What layer is made of Other notable characteristics

Check for Understanding: This in class activity will be shared and discussed whole group. Closure: Write or draw how this peach is like and not like the earth. Offer an actual peach (cut in half with pit in tact) as a model. Explain the characteristics of each layer. At-home activity for the following day - pay attention to the heat (or cold) flow in your home. Are there areas of the house that are warmer? Cooler? What do you think has an affect on these differences? Science journal: What questions do you have about todays lesson? How do you know whether or not you learned today? What activities or strategies worked for you? Which activities or strategies did not? The science journal (which will be utilized almost daily) meets my goals for students that they will accurately self-assess and understand how to learn. Evaluation: Effectiveness of the lesson will be evaluated based on student responses to the peach question, and student perception of learning. Teacher Reflections: For the next class period, based on student responses, I will make adjustments and re-teach if necessary. I am already planning to briefly revisit the characteristics of each layer and the differences between continental and oceanic crust. Students will remain in mixed ability groups. I will answer student questions and address activities that didnt make sense to students. (Extension activity, if necessary exploration of the core and the earths magnetic field) Day 3 (Detailed - could be Days 3 and 4) Topic: Review of the earths layers - crust, mantle, and inner/outer core and their characteristics. Introduce the idea of heat transfer, and convection currents in the mantle (more information about the mantle).

Content: There are three types of heat transfer: radiation, conduction, and convection. A convection current is the flow that transfers heat within a fluid. Heating and cooling of the fluid, changes in the fluids density, and the force of gravity combine to set convection currents in motion. In the earths mantle, large amounts of heat are transferred by convection currents. Heat from the core and the mantle itself causes convection currents in the mantle. Goals: Explore the structure of the earth system: layered with lithosphere; hot, convecting mantle; and dense, metallic core (NRC, 2003). Understand the interior of the earth is hot (NSDL, n.d.). Understand that heat flow and movement of material within the earth cause earthquakes and volcanic eruptions and create mountains and ocean basins (NSDL, n.d.). Objectives: To compare and contrast the three types of heat transfer. To explain convection currents in the earths mantle. Materials: Shallow pan, clear plastic cup, hot water, cold water, plastic dropper, food coloring (red usually shows up best), pictures and examples of radiation/conduction/convection, individual whiteboards and markers, concept-definition maps, hot plate/soup/pot, picture of cross section of earth to label and space for explanation Introduction: We will begin with a discussion of the previous days question addressing the movement of cold and hot air in a house. Trace the heat flow in your home (student goal to apply science knowledge to everyday life). Are there areas of the house that are warmer? Cooler? What do you think causes these differences? I will provide adequate wait time (1 and 2) and acknowledge student questions by writing a list on the board. Possible student answers include: hot upstairs, cold basement/hot ceiling, cold floor, etc. Students may assert, cold air sinks, while hot air rises. I will ask students to elaborate on this idea until we come close to the idea that the air circulates as drafts of cold air move over the floor and/or warmer air from the furnace rises. This thinking activity is fairly abstract and students may have a tough time fully understanding. When and if the students are stuck or I fear they may be developing misconceptions, I will progress to my demonstration. Development: 5Es - Engage: Have materials set up in the laboratory area to concretely (DLT) demonstrate heat creating motion in liquid. Hot water in the pan, the clear plastic cup is filled half full with cold water and placed in the middle of the pan. The water will stand until motion stops. The plastic dropper is filled with food coloring and held under the surface of the cold water (slightly away from the edge of the cup). A small amount of food coloring is squeezed gently into the cold water. Students will observe the motion of the colored water for approximately one minute. Another droplet will then be added to the cold water in the middle of the cup this time (instead of the edge), and observed again. 5Es - Explore: Write or draw to describe the motion of the droplets of food coloring. 5Es - Explain: How do you explain what happened to the droplets? 5Es Elaborate: How was the movement of the first set of droplets different from the second

set of droplets - discuss with the peers in your group (SLT - goals for students to communicate effectively and collaborate with others). (I will circulate and monitor.) Why do you think they moved in different ways - discuss whole group. The point: Heat is transferred from the hot water in the pan to the cold water in the cup. As the water in the bottom of the cup warms, it becomes less dense and rises. The colder water at the top of the cup sinks, setting currents in the water in motion. The two droplets moved differently because they entered the currents at different places. Apply - what do you think is meant by the term heat transfer? Give me some examples. (Student goal - creativity, curiosity, critical thinking. Wait time and create a list). The air circulating in your house, and the water circulating in this cup are examples of heat transfer. There are three types of heat transfer (pictures of examples - more abstract - DLT)(Picture of sun, heat lamp) Radiation - and then verbal definition on concept-definition map. I will explain my thinking as I fill out this first map, and scaffold for students how to use this tool (social cognitive theory). (Grimacing person who put bare feet on hot sand) Conduction - define on map (Cold air fog from freezer sinking to the floor) Convection - define on map

Practice assigning the three types of heat transfer to various situations/examples. Start with pictures, move on to written situations/examples. Trick question - how are you experiencing heat transfer right now, sitting at your desk (body heat is being conducted into any cooler objects students are touching). Provide wait time time. Students may write answers on individual white boards, rather than shouting out answers. CFU - share out whole group. If time today - move on to convection currents. (Concrete - DLT - example of) boiling water or soup in a pot on a hot plate. Show picture of convection current in the pot. The point: the warm soup (less dense for gifted learners who are ready for this term) moves

upwards from the bottom. At the surface, the soup cools. Gravity pulls the cooler (more dense) soup back down to the bottom of the pot where it is heated again. Given what you know about the different layers in the earth AND what you know about convection (from the above example), predict how you think the mantle might move. Convection currents in the earth. Convection in the earths mantle is very slow. Heat from the core and the mantle itself causes convection currents in the mantle. Practice: Contrast what causes some rock to rise through the earths mantle, and what causes rock to sink into the earths mantle. Allow students to work together to arrive at an answer - circulate around the classroom and listen in to conversation (SLT collaborate/communicate). Rise - its hotter and less dense than surround rock. Sink its cooler and more dense. Individual question (TIPS) How can soild rock flow? Think about it, write your response, and THEN share with your partner. Check for Understanding: Share out whole group. Closure: Give students a picture of the cross section of the earth with convection currents. This picture is available in the textbook (Pearson Education, Inc., 2005). Which part of the earths interior is like the soup in the pot? Which part is like the burner on the stove? Have students label all layers of the earths interior (review of previous lesson) and label/explain where the hottest rock in each current is located (why?), and where the coolest rock in each current is located (why?). For more advanced students, have them create a picture of the cross section of the earth. Of course - Science journal: What questions do you have about todays lesson? How do you know whether or not you learned today? What activities or strategies worked for you? Which activities or strategies did not? The science journal (which will be utilized almost daily) meets my goals for students that they will accurately self-assess and understand how to learn. Evaluation: Effectiveness of the lesson will be evaluated based on student responses to the convection questions. Teacher Reflections: For the next class period, based on student responses, I will make adjustments and re-teach if necessary. I am already planning to briefly revisit the types of heat transfer and convection in the mantle. I will plan to answer student questions and/or adjust strategies based on student responses. Day 4 (Detailed) Topic: Review of the three types of heat transfer and convection in the mantle. Introduction to continental drift. Content: Alfred Wegener developed a hypothesis that all the continents were once joined together in a single landmass and have since drifted apart. This idea became known as

continental drift. Wegener gathered evidence from different scientific fields to support his ideas about continental drift. He studied land features, fossils, and evidence of climate change. At the time, Wegeners hypothesis was rejected. NOS ideas - science is limited, consensus building, culturally embedded, based on evidence - but that evidence must be interpreted, assumes AN answer, tentative Goals: Discuss the earths history. The earth processes we see today, including movement of lithospheric plates, are similar to those that occurred in the past (NRC, 2003). Examine continental drift and the theory of plate tectonics. Objectives: Explain Alfred Wegeners hypothesis and list the evidence used by Wegener. Explain why other scientists (at the time) rejected Wegeners hypothesis relate to the NOS. Materials: Foam/movable cutouts of the contintents, laminated world maps, dry-erase markers, amazing video (http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=T1-cES1Ekto), map of Pangea and present location of continents with marked location of folded mountains, coal beds, glacial deposits, and various fossils, T-chart to record similarities/differences, Wegeners story with NOS questions Introduction: (Starting concrete - DLT, and Explore phase - learning cycle) Provide each group (SLT - collaboration/communication goals for students) with foam cutouts of the continents placed at their current locations on a laminated world map. Have the students name the continents (activating prior knowledge - CLT). Then, challenge students to assemble the continents into one large landmass. Have them mark length and direction with arrows on the map. Have two groups get together to discuss how their reconstructions are similar and different (Concept development - learning cycle). I will circulate amongst the groups to monitor. If we have particularly good conversations happening, I may ask one or two students to share their thoughts with the whole group (use student ideas). Why do all the continents seem to fit together? If the continents used to be together, what might have caused them to move apart? Development: Play Alfred Wegener music video. I will inform students that I will be pausing in various places throughout the video and asking questions. They will be responsible for sharing main points and interesting pieces of information. I will pause and ask, what was Wegeners hypothesis. What was the name, and what did he believe? Students will write and share in groups (SLT). Wegeners hypothesis was that all the continents were once joined together in a single landmass (later known as Pangea) and have since drifted apart. This idea became known as continental drift. I will project a map of Pangea and a present day map of the world with marked location of folded mountains, coal beds, glacial deposits, and various fossils. This photo is located in the textbook (Pearson Education, Inc., 2005). I will have

students describe the similarities and differences between the two maps - and record on T-chart. Students will share in their groups, and then share out whole group. I will make a list of the characteristics students noticed. How do you think Wegener interpreted the evidence you just shared? (wait time 1 and 2, make a list of student responses - use student ideas, if possible, to get to the point). Wegener gathered evidence from different scientific fields to support his ideas about continental drift. He studied land features, fossils, and evidence of climate change. Unfortunately, Wegener could not provide a satisfactory explanation for the force that pushes or pulls the continents. Scientists at the time also would have had to change their ideas about mountain formation. Practice: In class-debate! Side one - explain the various evidence that Wegener used to support his hypothesis. Side two - explain the various reasons why Wegeners hypothesis was rejected. Check for Understanding: Pay attention to student arguments during the debate. Challenge statements that are inconsistent with the NOS or information given about Wegener and/or Wegeners opposition. Closure: Have students read Wegeners story with a brief introduction to J. Tuzo Wilsons discovery in 1965 (the lithosphere is broken into separate sections called plates, to be further discussed next class period). Split the story up into smaller sections, with guiding questions after each section. Wegener collected evidence from several areas of science, but his ideas were still not accepted - what does this say about the nature of science and evidence? How does culture affect science? Why didnt the researchers of the time accept both hypotheses? Why do ideas change in science? Even though ideas can change in science, why is the change often difficult and slow? The interrupted story format encourages active mental engagement, and the behaviorist stimulus-response style. (United States Geological Survey, story retrieved from http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/dynamic/historical.html, 2011) Wegener's theory was based in part on what appeared to him to be the remarkable fit of the South American and African continents, first noted by Abraham Ortelius three centuries earlier. Wegener was also intrigued by the occurrences of unusual geologic structures and of plant and animal fossils found on the matching coastlines of South America and Africa, which are now widely separated by the Atlantic Ocean. He reasoned that it was physically impossible for most of these organisms to have swum or have been transported across the vast oceans. To him, the presence of identical fossil species along the coastal parts of Africa and South America was the most compelling evidence that the two continents were once joined. **Why do ideas change in science? In Wegener's mind, the drifting of continents after the break-up of Pangaea explained not only the matching fossil occurrences but also the

evidence of dramatic climate changes on some continents. For example, the discovery of fossils of tropical plants (in the form of coal deposits) in Antarctica led to the conclusion that this frozen land previously must have been situated closer to the equator, in a more temperate climate where lush, swampy vegetation could grow. Other mismatches of geology and climate included distinctive fossil ferns (Glossopteris) discovered in now-polar regions, and the occurrence of glacial deposits in present-day arid Africa, such as the Vaal River valley of South Africa. **Wegener collected evidence from several areas of science, but his ideas were still not accepted - what does this say about the nature of science and evidence? The theory of continental drift would become the spark that ignited a new way of viewing the Earth. But at the time Wegener introduced his theory, the scientific community firmly believed the continents and oceans to be permanent features on the Earth's surface. Not surprisingly, his proposal was not well received, even though it seemed to agree with the scientific information available at the time. A fatal weakness in Wegener's theory was that it could not satisfactorily answer the most fundamental question raised by his critics: What kind of forces could be strong enough to move such large masses of solid rock over such great distances? Wegener suggested that the continents simply plowed through the ocean floor, but Harold Jeffreys, a noted English geophysicist, argued correctly that it was physically impossible for a large mass of solid rock to plow through the ocean floor without breaking up. **How does culture affect science? Why didnt the researchers of the time accept both hypotheses? Undaunted by rejection, Wegener devoted the rest of his life to doggedly pursuing additional evidence to defend his theory. He froze to death in 1930 during an expedition crossing the Greenland ice cap, but the controversy he spawned raged on. However, after his death, new evidence from ocean floor exploration and other studies rekindled interest in Wegener's theory, ultimately leading to the development of the theory of plate tectonics in the 1960s **Even though ideas can change in science, why is the change often difficult and slow? Evaluation: Note how students respond about evidence (evidence must be interpreted), popular belief at the time (culture) conflicted with Wegeners ideas, science assumes AN answer (and we choose the simpler one - Occams Razor), science is tentative, science requires consensus building and it can take time to develop enough supporting evidence (which is all based on interpretation!) to reach consensus - OR time for the popular ideas to change. Teacher Reflections: The nature of science reading/writing activity will be discussed next class period. The discussion will be more in depth with possible reteaching of NOS

ideas (decontextualized activity) if students struggled on the activity. Day 5 (Not Detailed) Topic: Review Wegeners hypothesis of continental drift, review definitions of lithosphere and asthenosphere, and introduce the theory of plate tectonics. Content: Even after Wegeners passing, the controversy of continental drift raged on. New evidence from ocean floor exploration and other studies rekindled interest in Wegener's theory, ultimately leading to the development of the theory of plate tectonics. Plate tectonics - pieces of the Earths lithosphere in slow, constant motion, driven by convection currents in the mantle. The theory of plate tectonics explains the formation, movements, and subductions of the earths plates. There are three types of plate boundaries - divergent, convergent, and transform. A different type of movement occurs along each type of boundary. Goals: Explore the structure of the earth system: layered with lithosphere; hot, convecting mantle; and dense, metallic core (NRC, 2003). Understand the interior of the earth is hot (NSDL, n.d.). Discuss the earths history. The earth processes we see today, including movement of lithospheric plates, are similar to those that occurred in the past (NRC, 2003). Examine continental drift and the theory of plate tectonics. NOS - science is tentative Objectives: Explain the theory of plate tectonics, and describe the three types of plate boundaries. Day 6 (Not Detailed) Topic: Review continental drift/plate tectonics and introduce sea-floor spreading. Content: Scientists determined the location and size of underwater mountain chains known as mid-ocean ridges. In sea-floor spreading, the sea floor spreads out along both sides of a mid-ocean ridge as new crust is added. As a result, the ocean floors move like conveyor belts, carrying the continents along with them. Sea-floor spreading is occurring today, but we dont notice the movement because it is very slow and gradual. Hess interpreted evidence to support sea-floor spreading: molten material, magnetic stripes, drilling samples. Subduction - the ocean floor doesnt just keep spreading and spreading. Instead the ocean-floor plunges into deep underwater canyons calls deepocean trenches. Goals: Explore the structure of the earth system: layered with lithosphere; hot, convecting mantle; and dense, metallic core (NRC, 2003). Understand the interior of the earth is hot (NSDL, n.d.). Discuss the earths history. The earth processes we see today, including movement of lithospheric plates, are similar to those that occurred in the past (NRC, 2003). Examine continental drift and the theory of plate tectonics.

Understand that heat flow and movement of material within the earth cause earthquakes and volcanic eruptions and create mountains and ocean basins (NSDL, n.d.). Objectives: List the evidence for sea-floor spreading, and explain the process. Describe the process of subduction. Explain how sea-floor spreading helps support the idea that continents drift.

Day 7 (Not Detailed) Topic: Introduction to forces in the earths crust. Content: Tension, compression, and shearing work over millions of years to change the shape and volume of rock. Most faults occur along plate boundaries, where the forces of plate motion push or pull the crust so much that the crust breaks. There were three main types of faults: normal, reverse, and strike-slip. Over millions of years, the forces of plate movement can change a flat plain into landforms such as anticlines and synclines, folded mountains, fault-block mountains, and plateaus - folding, stretching, and uplifting the earths crust. Goals: Explore the structure of the earth system: layered with lithosphere; hot, convecting mantle; and dense, metallic core (NRC, 2003). Understand the interior of the earth is hot (NSDL, n.d.). Discuss the earths history. The earth processes we see today, including movement of lithospheric plates, are similar to those that occurred in the past (NRC, 2003). Examine continental drift and the theory of plate tectonics. Recognize that some changes in the earths surface are abrupt (e.g. earthquakes and volcanic eruptions), while other changes happen very slowly (e.g. uplift and wearing down of mountains) (NSDL, n.d.). Objectives: Explain how stress in the crust changes the earths surface, describe where faults are usually found and why they form, identify the land features that result from plate movement.

Day 8 (Not detailed) Topic: Review geologists and seismic waves, introduce seismic waves and earthquakes. Content: An earthquake is the shaking and trembling that results from the movement of rocks beneath the earths surface. Most earthquakes begin in the lithosphere with about 100 km below the earths surface. Define focus. Define epicenter. Seismic waves carry energy from an earthquake away from the focus through the earths interior, and across the surface. There are three main categories of seismic waves (P, S, and surface). Three commonly used used methods of measuring earthquakes are the Mercalli scale, the Richter scale, and the moment magnitude scale. Geologists use seismic waves to locate an earthquakes epicenter.

Goals: Explore the structure of the earth system: layered with lithosphere; hot, convecting mantle; and dense, metallic core (NRC, 2003). Understand the interior of the earth is hot (NSDL, n.d.). Understand that heat flow and movement of material within the earth cause earthquakes and volcanic eruptions and create mountains and ocean basins (NSDL, n.d.). Recognize that some changes in the earths surface are abrupt (e.g. earthquakes and volcanic eruptions), while other changes happen very slowly (e.g. uplift and wearing down of mountains) (NSDL, n.d.). Objectives: Describe earthquakes and how the energy of earthquakes travels through the earth. Identify the scales used to measure the strength of an earthquake. Explain how scientists locate the epicenter of an earthquake. Day 9 (Not detailed) Topic: Review sea-floor spreading. Introduce volcanoes and plate tectonics. Content: A volcano is a weak spot in the earths crust where molten material, or magma, comes to the surface. Volcanic belts form along the boundaries of the earths plates. Diverging and converging boundaries. A hot spot is an area where material from deep within the mantle rises and then melts, forming magma. A volcano forms above a hot spot when magma erupts through the crust and reaches the surface. Goals: Explore the structure of the earth system: layered with lithosphere; hot, convecting mantle; and dense, metallic core (NRC, 2003). Understand the interior of the earth is hot (NSDL, n.d.). Understand that heat flow and movement of material within the earth cause earthquakes and volcanic eruptions and create mountains and ocean basins (NSDL, n.d.). Recognize that some changes in the earths surface are abrupt (e.g. earthquakes and volcanic eruptions), while other changes happen very slowly (e.g. uplift and wearing down of mountains) (NSDL, n.d.). Objectives: Identify where Earths volcanic regions are located and explain why they are found in these areas. Explain how hot spot volcanoes form.

Day 10 (Detailed) Topic: To introduce the properties of magma. Content: Each substance (element or compound) has a particular set of physical and chemical properties. These properties can be used to identify a substance or to predict how it will behave. Viscosity is the resistance of a liquid to flowing. Because liquids differ in viscosity, some liquid flow more easily than others. The viscosity of magma depends upon its silica content and temperature. Goals: Understand that heat flow and movement of material within the earth cause

earthquakes and volcanic eruptions and create mountains and ocean basins (NSDL, n.d.). Recognize that some changes in the earths surface are abrupt (e.g. earthquakes and volcanic eruptions), while other changes happen very slowly (e.g. uplift and wearing down of mountains) (NSDL, n.d.). Objectives: Explain why some fluids flow more easily than others, and explain what factors determine the viscosity of magma. Materials: Various household liquids, inclined planes Pre-teaching: I will have assessed students just after discussion of plate tectonics to have the data available to differentiate about volcano/earthquake/changes in the earths surface knowledge, if necessary. Im going to keep the writing prompt fairly abstract, because the students will repeat this activity at the end of the unit for a summative assessment. According to Moreno, Ozogul, and Reisslein (2011), learners are better equipped to problem solve when provided with both concrete visual representations and abstract representations. Therefore, both concrete and abstract activities should take place during learning. In addition, abstract learning should be the ultimate goal in the classroom as supported by developmental learning theory. Abstract learning more effectively generalizes to new situations than concrete and specific examples (Kruse, 2009). This idea also fits in with my first goal for students, that students will demonstrate a robust understanding of science content and apply this knowledge to everyday life. The modified writing prompt: I would like you to write me a story. Be as creative as you would like, and try your best to Explain/Describe: 1. Why some changes in the earth's surface are abrupt and some changes happen very slowly. 3. What causes earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, and creates mountains and ocean basins. Word Bank earthquakes, volcanic eruptions/volcanoes, uplift, mountains, hot/heat flow, plate tectonics Introduction: I am utilizing the learning cycle (explore, concept development, apply) or the 5Es (engage, explore, explain, elaborate, evaluate) in this lesson. I want to support a hands-on, concrete experience for all students (developmental learning theory). All students should have the opportunity to experience the concrete representation before I move on to more abstract activities (e.g. verbal explanation) (Kruse, 2009). Also, (thinking about classroom management and safety) rather than using the heated honey, which could potentially bubble and burn students, I will use safer materials for

the students to race. I will ask students early in the week and again the previous day to bring safe, edible liquids from home. I will also provide liquids for those who forget/refuse. Part 1 of the 5Es (approximately day 5 of the unit) Explore (Engage, Explore) Today we will be investigating the properties of the various liquids you have brought from home (goals from students - apply science content to everyday life). Investigate your household liquid using all of your senses (excluding taste since we dont eat in lab!). Really test them using touch, smell, sight, and sound. Make a list of properties or characteristics about the liquid. Record these on a chart. Place a star next to the most useful property. Students might list color, translucent/transparent, thickness, flow, smell, texture, sound (if any), bubbles, etc. If students object to not being able to taste their edible household items I will ask them, how does this situation (not being able to taste your substance) relate to the nature of science? (Science is limited, science is frustrating, etc.) I will be continually walking around the classroom, monitoring student exploration, and available for questions. Development: Concept Development (Explain, Elaborate) Students will have been grouped together in teams of three at the beginning of the unit. They will be mixed ability groups, based on the initial assessment. This plan is supported by social learning theory. As mentioned previously, when pairing a more proficient individual with a less proficient individual, the more proficient student can bring a fresh and accurate perspective to new information to help the other students work through a tough topic (within their ZPD). Working together also fits in with two of my goals for students to 1) use science knowledge to connect/collaborate with others, and 2) communicate effectively. I will make sure to monitor student interactions to detect misconceptions and to ensure higher ability students arent simply telling the other students the answers. Explain Work together with your group of three to compare/contrast the characteristics of your household items. How did your group members test their liquids and how did that compare/contract to your methods? How did your most interesting properties compare? NOS Explicit, whole group discussion How does what you are doing compare to what real scientists do? The students will have already been involved in several decontextualized nature of science activities, Im simply revisiting and probing for discussion of some of those topics which we have already covered in depth. Learning about the nature of science involves not only hands-on exploration, but also explicit, purposeful discussion and reflection (Bell, 2009). Also, when talking about the nature of science I am encouraging a classroom goal for students that science is accessible. After asking the question, how does what you are doing compare to what real

scientists do, I will provide adequate wait time (1 and 2) and make a list of student responses on the board. I am looking for these responses, but if students dont make the connections, there are associated prompting questions for each NOS idea. *Science is collaborative. Students are working together. (How does the behavior of scientists relate to your group activity?) *Science is based on evidence, but evidence is interpreted (each student was asked to choose his or her most interesting property.) (Why did one persons interesting property differ from another?) *Objectivity and subjectivity even though scientists strive to improve objectivity, subjectivity should not be eliminated from science. Intuition, beliefs, and values play a role (Bell, 2009). *There is no such thing as the scientific method. Each student used a different approach to investigate his or her material, just as scientists use a wide variety of approaches to generate knowledge (Bell, 2009). **Observational science. Students are making observations about their household items. Other methods could include experiments, inferences, and chance discovery (Bell, 2009). (How did your methods differ from others?) *Science uses models. Rather than handling real lava, students are investigating the properties of household liquids and soon they will race the liquids! (How is this simulation different from real world investigation of magma?) Practice: Concept Development (Explain, Elaborate) Explain Revisit the liquid characteristics with the group. Work together to determine which characteristics might have an effect on volcanic activity. Share out wholegroup. Ill make a list on the board. Once we get to thickness/flow focus in on this concept. I will have students make predictions first and support their reasoning for the speed of each group members liquid. They will rank the liquids and share their reasoning with the group. Making predictions encourages active mental engagement (constructivist learning theory). Students are activating prior knowledge about liquids to make predictions and support their beliefs. Check for Understanding: Student will share their ideas whole group. Closure: What additional characteristics might affect thickness/flow of liquids? What might happen if we raced outside on a hot summers day? What about a cold day in the middle of winter? Retake formative assessment as a summative assessment. Write and/or draw and try your best to Explain/Describe: 1. Why some changes in the earth's surface are abrupt and some changes happen very

slowly. 2. The interior of the earth. 3. What causes earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, and creates mountains and ocean basins. Evaluation: Evaluate the effectiveness of the unit based on the responses of the summative assessment. Teacher Reflections: Reteach if necessary. (Extension activity - Review additional characteristics might affect thickness/flow of liquids? Discuss temperature. Discuss silica. Apply (Evaluate) How might these characteristics contribute to the explosiveness and/or shape of a volcano? Virtual volcano lab.) Day 11 Topic Volcanic Eruptions Day 12 Topic Volcanic Landforms

Resources Bell, R.L. (2009). Teaching the nature of science: Three critical questions. National Geophraphic School Publishing. Retrived from http://www.ngsp.com/portals/0/downloads/scl22-0449a_am_bell.pdf Clough, M.P. (2007). Teaching the nature of science to secondary and post-secondary students: Questions rather than tenets. The Pantaneto Forum, Issue 25, January. Clough, M.P. (2007). Wait just a moment! Iowa Science Teachers Journal, 34(2), 2. Kruse, J.W. (2008). Integrating the nature of science throughout the entire school year. Iowa Science Teachers Journal, 35(2), 15-20. Kruse, J.W. (2009). Learning theories: Pillars of teacher decision-making. Iowa Science Teachers Journal, 36(2), 2-7. Moreno, R.; Ozogul, G.; Reisslein, M. (2011). Teaching with concrete and abstract visual representations: Effects on students' problem solving, problem representations, and learning perceptions. Journal of Educational Psychology, 103(1), 32-47. National Research Council. (2003). National science education standards (9th ed.). Washington, DC: National Academy Press. National Science Digital Library. (n.d.). Science literacy maps. Retrieved from http://strandmaps.nsdl.org/?id=SMS-MAP-0049 Pearson Education, Inc. (2005). Science explorer: Earth science. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.