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# CHAPTER 16 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS

Q16.1 Q16.2

The copper's temperature drops and the water temperature rises until both temperatures are the same. Then the metal and the water are in thermal equilibrium. The astronaut is referring to the temperature of the lunar surface, specifically a 400F difference. A thermometer would register the temperature of the thermometer liquid. Since there is no atmosphere in the moon, the thermometer will not read a realistic temperature unless it is placed into the lunar soil. All dimensions of the heated metal piece increase, including the size of the hole.

Q16.3

## Q16.4 Q16.5 Q16.6 Q16.7

Thermal expansion of the glass container occurs first (since it is in contact with the hot water). Then the mercury heats up, and it expands. The measurements made with the heated steel tape will be too short but only by a factor of 5 10 5 of the measured length. The volume of the balloon will decrease. The pressure of the atmosphere remains the same, so from PV = nRT , volume must decrease with temperature. The ideal gas law, PV = nRT predicts zero volume at absolute zero. This is incorrect because the ideal gas law cannot work all the way down to or below the temperature at which gas turns to liquid, or in the case of CO 2 , a solid. Suppose the balloon rises into air uniform in temperature. The air cannot be uniform in pressure because the lower layers support the weight of all the air above them. The rubber in a typical balloon is easy to stretch and stretches or contracts until interior and exterior pressures are nearly equal. So as the balloon rises it expands. This is an isothermal expansion with P decreasing as V increases by the same factor in PV = nRT . If the rubber wall is very strong it will eventually contain the helium at higher pressure than the air outside but at the same density, so that the balloon will stop rising. More likely, the rubber will stretch and break, releasing the helium to keep rising and "boil out" of the Earth's atmosphere. Call the process isobaric cooling or isobaric contraction. The rubber wall is easy to stretch. The air inside is nearly at atmospheric pressure originally and stays at atmospheric pressure as the wall moves in, just maintaining equality of pressure outside and inside. The air is nearly an ideal gas to start with, but PV = nRT soon fails. Volume will drop by a larger factor than temperature as the water vapor liquefies and then freezes, as the carbon dioxide turns to snow, as the argon turns to slush, and as the oxygen liquefies. From the outside, you see contraction to a small fraction of the original volume.

Q16.8

Q16.9

Q16.10 Cylinder A must be at lower pressure. If the gas is thin, it will be at one-third the absolute pressure of B. Q16.11 At high temperature and pressure, the steam inside exerts large forces on the pot and cover. Strong latches hold them together, but they would explode apart if you tried to open the hot cooker.

Chapter 16

Q16.12 (a)

(b)

The water level in the cave rises by a smaller distance than the water outside, as the trapped air is compressed. Air can escape from the cave if the rock is not completely airtight, and also by dissolving in the water. The ideal cave stays completely full of water at low tide. The water in the cave is supported by atmospheric pressure on the free water surface outside.

Q16.13 The alcohol evaporates, absorbing energy from the skin to lower the skin temperature. Q16.14 Refer to equations 16.15 and 16.19. (a) 3

(b)

Now think of the first steps in the kinetic-theory account of how a gas exerts pressure. (c) (d) (e) 3 3 3 Q16.15 Absolute zero is a natural choice for the zero of a temperature scale. If an alien race had bodies that were mostly liquid water or if they just liked its taste or its cleaning properties it is conceivable that they might place one hundred degrees between its freezing and boiling points. It is very unlikely, on the other hand, that these would be our familiar "normal" ice and steam points, because atmospheric pressure would surely be different where the aliens come from.

Chapter 16

PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

16.1

Since we have a linear graph, the pressure is related to the temperature as P = A + BT , where A and B are constants. To find A and B, we use the data 0.900 atm = A + (80.0C)B 1.635 atm = A + (78.0C)B Solving (1) and (2) simultaneously, we find and Therefore, (a) At absolute zero which gives (b) (c) At the freezing point of water And at the boiling point A = 1.272 atm (1) (2)

B = 4.652 10 3 atm/C
P = 1.272 atm + 4.652 10 3 atm/C T P = 0 = 1.272 atm + 4.652 10 3 atm/C T

T = 274C
P = 1.272 atm + 0 = 1.27 atm P = 1.272 atm + 4.652 10 3 atm/C (100C) = 1.74 atm

## P1V = nRT1 P2V = nRT2

P2 T2 = P1 T1

(a)

P2 = T3 =

P1T2 (0.980 atm )(273 K + 45.0 K ) = 1.06 atm = T1 (273 + 20.0) K T1P3 (293 K )(0.500 atm ) = 149 K = 124 C = P1 0.980 atm

(b)

16.3

(a) (b)

TF = TC + 32.0 F =

9 5

9 5

(195.81) + 32.0 =

320 F

## T = TC + 273.15 = 195.81 + 273.15 = 77.3 K

Chapter 16
16.4 (a) To convert from Fahrenheit to Celsius, we use and the Kelvin temperature is found as (b) In a fashion identical to that used in (a), we find and

TC =

5 9

37.0C

T = 253 K

16.5

(a) (b)

T = 450C = 450C

T = 450C = 450 K

*16.6

## = 1.10 10 5 C 1 for steel

L = 518 m 1.10 10 5 C 1 [35.0C ( 20.0C)] = 0.313 m

*16.7

(a)

L f = 3.0058 m

L f = 2.9986 m

16.8

## For the dimensions to increase,

L = Li T
1.00 10 2 cm = 1.30 10 4 C 1(2.20 cm)(T 20.0C) T = 55.0C

16.9

(a) (b)

(c)

Chapter 16

16.10

(a)

A = 2 Ai T :

## A = 2 17.0 10 6 C 1 (0.0800 m ) ( 50.0C)

2

A = 1.09 10 5 m 2 = 0.109 cm 2 (b) The length of each side of the hole has increased. Thus, this represents an increase in the area of the hole.

16.11

## V = ( 3 )Vi T = 5.81 10 4 3 11.0 10 6

))(50.0 gal)(20.0)=

0.548 gal

*16.12

(a)

L = Li (1 + T ) :

T = 437C

(b)

We must get

## LAl = LBrass for some T, or

Li , Al (1 + Al T ) = Li , Brass (1 + Brass T ) 5.000 cm 1 + 24.0 10 6 C 1 T = 5.050 cm 1 + 19.0 10 6 C 1 T

[ (

) ]

[ (

) ]

Solving for T, so

T = 2080C,

T = 3000C

*16.13

(a)

## V = Vt t T VAl Al T = ( t 3 Al )Vi T = (9.00 10 4 0.720 10 4 ) C 1(2000 cm 3 )(60.0C) V = 99.4 cm 3 overflows

(b)

The whole new volume of turpentine is 2000 cm 3 + 9.00 10 4 C 1(2000 cm 3 )(60.0C) = 2108 cm 3 so the fraction lost is

## 99.4 cm 3 = 4.71 10 2 2108 cm 3

and this fraction of the cylinder's depth will be empty upon cooling: 4.71 10 2 (20.0 cm) = 0.943 cm 5

Chapter 16

*16.14

## The area of the chip decreases according to

A = A1T = A f Ai
A f = Ai (1 + T ) = Ai (1 + 2 T )

The star images are scattered uniformly, so the number N of stars that fit is proportional to the area. Then N f = N i (1 + 2 T ) = 5342 1 + 2 4.68 10 6 C 1 ( 100C 20C) = 5336 star images

[ (

*16.15

L = Li T

## x = 17 10 6 C 1 (28.0 cm)( 46.5C 18.0C) = 1.36 10 2 cm

The vertical section expands similarly by

## y = 17 10 6 C 1 (134 cm)(28.5C) = 6.49 10 2 cm

The vector displacement of the pipe elbow has magnitude

r = x 2 + y 2 =

= 0.663 mm

= tan 1

## r = 0.663 mm to the right at 78.2 below the horizontal

16.16

(a)

Initially, Finally,

PV i i = ni RTi
Pf Vf = n f RTf

## (1.00 atm)Vi = ni R(10.0 + 273.15) K

Pf (0.280Vi ) = ni R( 40.0 + 273.15) K

## 0.280 Pf 1.00 atm

313.15 K 283.15 K

## Pf = 3.95 atm Pf = 4.00 10 5 Pa(abs.)

Pd (1.02)(0.280Vi ) = ni R(85.0 + 273.15) K

Pd = 1.121Pf = 4.49 10 5 Pa

Chapter 16
16.17 The equation of state of an ideal gas is PV = nRT so we need to solve for the number of moles to find N.

1.01 10 5 N/m 2 [(10.0 m )(20.0 m )( 30.0 m )] PV n= = = 2.49 10 5 mol RT (8.315 J/mol K )(293 K )

## N = nN A = 2.49 10 5 mol 6.022 10 23 molecules/mol = 1.50 10 29 molecules

16.18

PV = NP V = r 3 NP :

4 3

N=

## 3(150)(0.100) 3 PV = = 884 balloons 3 4 r P 4 (0.150)3 (1.20)

16.19

Fy = 0 :

out gV in gV (200 kg ) g = 0

## ( out in )(400 m 3 ) = 200 kg

The density of the air outside is 1.25 kg/m 3 . From PV = nRT ,

n P = V RT

The density is inversely proportional to the temperature, and the density of the hot air is 283 K in = 1.25 kg/m 3 Tin

Then

## 283 K 3 (1.25 kg/m3 ) 1 ( 400 m ) = 200 kg T in

0.600 = 283 K Tin

Tin = 472 K

*16.20

(a)

PV = nRT

n=

PV RT
3

## Fg = mg = 1.17 10 3 kg 9.80 m/s 2 = 11.5 mN

2 F = PA = 1.013 10 5 N/m 2 (0.100 m ) = 1.01 kN

(d) The molecules must be moving very fast to hit the walls hard.

Chapter 16
16.21 At depth, At the surface, P = P0 + gh and

PVi = nRTi

P0Vf = nRTf :
Tf P + gh Vf = Vi 0 P0 Ti

(P0 + gh)Vi

P0Vf

Tf Ti

Therefore

Vf = 1.00 cm 3

## 3 2 5 293 K 1.013 10 Pa + 1025 kg/m 9.80 m/s (25.0 m ) 278 K 1.013 10 5 Pa

)(

Vf = 3.67 cm 3

16.22

My bedroom is 4 m long, 4 m wide, and 2.4 m high, enclosing air at 100 kPa and 20 C = 293 K. Think of the air as 80.0% N 2 and 20.0% O 2 . Avogadros number of molecules has mass (0.800)( 28.0 g/mol ) + (0.200) (32.0 g/mol) = 0.0288 kg/mol Then gives PV = nRT = (m/M)RT

1.00 10 5 N/m 2 ( 38.4 m 3 )(0.0288 kg/mol) PVM m= = = 45.4 kg ~ 10 2 kg 8 . 315 J/mol K ( 293 K ) RT ( )

*16.23

PV = nRT:

mf mi

nf ni

Pf Pf Vf RTi = Pi RTf PV i i

so

## Pf m f = mi Pi Pi Pf 41.0 atm 26.0 atm m = mi m f = mi = 4.39 kg = 12.0 kg P 41.0 atm i

*16.24

The CO 2 is far from liquefaction, so after it comes out of solution it behaves as an ideal gas. Its molar mass is M = 12.0 g/mol + 2(16.0 g/mol) = 44.0 g/mol. The quantity of gas in the cylinder is n = msample / M = 6.50 g/( 44.0 g/mol) = 0.148 mol Then gives

pV = nRT
V= nRT 0.148 mol(8.315 J/mol K )(273 K + 20 K ) 1 N m 10 3 L = = 3.55 L 3 1 J p 1.013 10 5 N/m 2 1m

Chapter 16
10 9 Pa 1.00 m 3 6.02 10 23 molecule/mol PVN A N= = = 2.41 1011 molecules RT (8.315 J/K mol)(300 K )

*16.25

)(

)(

16.26

## P0V = n1RT1 = (m1 / M )RT1 P0V = n2 RT2 = (m2 / M )RT2 m1 m2 = 1 P0VM 1 R T1 T2

*16.27

Consider the x axis to be perpendicular to the plane of the window. Then, the average force exerted on the window by the hail stones is
v sin ( v sin ) v vxf vxi 2v sin = Nm F = Nm = Nm = Nm t t t t

## Thus, the pressure on the window pane is

P=

2v sin F = Nm A At

16.28

F=

1.00 s

and

P=

*16.29

(a)

PV = NkBT :
3 2 3 2

N=

]=

3.54 10 23 atoms

(b) (c)

K = kBT =

## (1.38 1023 )(293) J =

6.07 10 21 J
m= 4.00 g/mol = 6.64 10 24 g/molecule 6.02 10 23 molecules/mol

## For helium, the atomic mass is

m = 6.64 10 27 kg/molecule
1 mv 2 2

= kBT :

3 2

vrms =

## 3kBT = 1.35 km/s m

Chapter 16
16.30 One mole of helium contains Avogadros number of molecules and has a mass of 4.00 g. Let us call m the mass of one atom, and we have

N A m = 4.00 g/mol
or m=
4.00 g/mol = 6.64 10 24 g/molecule 6.02 10 23 molecules/mol

m = 6.64 10 27 kg

16.31

(a) (b)

K = kBT =
1 2

3 2

3 2

(1.38 10

23

## J/K ( 423 K ) = 8.76 10 21 J

K = mvrms 2 = 8.76 10 21 J
so vrms = m= 1.75 10 20 J m (1)

For helium,

## m = 6.64 10 27 kg / molecule Similarly for argon, m=

39.9 g/mol = 6.63 10 23 g/molecule 23 6.02 10 molecules/mol

m = 6.63 10 26 kg/molecule Substituting in (1) above, we find for helium, and for argon,

*16.32

(a)

PV = nRT =

3

Etrans =
(b)

3 PV 2

3 2

5

2.28 kJ

10

Chapter 16
*16.33 (a)

vav =

ni vi = N

1 15

## [1(2) + 2(3) + 3(5) + 4(7) + 3(9) + 2(12)] =

2 av

6.80 m/s

(b) so (c)

(v )

ni vi 2 = 54.9 m 2/s 2 N

vrms =

(v )
2

av

*16.34

vmp =

2 kBT = m

27

kg

= 132 m/s

*16.35

dN v =0 dv

m 4 N 2 kBT

3/ 2

## mv 2 2mv 3 exp 2v =0 2 kBT 2 kBT

and solve for vmp to get Equation 16.23. Reject as solutions Retain only v=0 and

v=

mv 2 =0 kBT
2 kBT m

Then

vmp =

*16.36

(a)

From

vav =

8 kBT m

T=

## 6.64 10 27 kg 1.12 10 4 m/s

8 1.38 10 23 J/mol K

)(

= 2.37 10 4 K
2

(b)

T=

8 1.38 10

23

)(

J/mol K

= 1.06 10 3 K

*16.37

## For a uniform lapse rate, the identity

T Tf Ti = y y
Tf = Ti + T y = 30C (6.7C/km)( 3.66 km) = 5.5C y

implies

11

Chapter 16

*16.38

(a)

## = 9.73 10 3 K/m = 9.73C/km

(b) Air contains water vapor. Air does not behave as an ideal gas. As a parcel of air rises in the atmosphere and its temperature drops, its ability to contain water vapor decreases, so water will likely condense out as liquid drops or as ice crystals. (The condensate may or may not be visible as clouds.) The condensate releases its heat of vaporization, raising the air temperature above the value that would be expected according to part (a). For an object of mass m on Mars,

(b)

mg =

GMMars m 2 rMars

or

g=

GMMars 2 rMars

## 6.67 10 11 N m 2/kg 2 )(6.42 10 23 kg ) ( g= = 3.77 m/s 2 2 6 (3.37 10 m)

2 dT 1 gM 0.30 3.77 m/s (0.0440 kg/mol) = = = 4.60 10 3 K/m = 4.60C/km dy R 1.30 (8.315 J/mol K )

(d) (e)

T dT = : y dy

y =

## 60C ( 40C) T = = 4.34 km dT / dy 4.60C / km

The dust in the atmosphere absorbs and scatters energy from the electromagnetic radiation coming through the atmosphere from the sun. The dust contributes energy to the gas molecules high in the atmosphere, resulting in an increase in the internal energy of the atmosphere aloft and a smaller decrease in temperature with height, than in the case where there is no absorption of sunlight. The larger the amount of dust, the more the lapse rate will deviate from the theoretical value in part (c). Thus it was dustier during the Mariner flights in 1969.

16.39

## Lrod Ltape = ( brass steel )Li T ( L) = (19.0 11.0) 10 6 (C)

1

(0.950 m)(35.0C)

(L) = 2.66 10 4 m (a) The rod contracts more than tape to a length reading (b) 0.9500 m 0.000266 m = 0.9497 m 0.9500 m + 0.000266 m = 0.9503 m

12

Chapter 16
16.40 At 0C, 10.0 gallons of gasoline has mass, from

= m/V
0.00380 m 3 m = V = 730 kg/m 3 (10.0 gal) = 27.7 kg 1.00 gal

## V = Vi T = 9.60 10 4 C 1(10.0 gal)(20.0C 0.0C) = 0.192 gal

At 20.0C, 10.192 gal = 27.7 kg 10.0 gal 10.0 gal = 27.7 kg = 27.2 kg 10.192 gal The extra mass contained in 10.0 gallons at 0.0C is 27.7 kg 27.2 kg = 0.523 kg

16.41

## Neglecting the expansion of the glass,

h =

V T A
4 0.250 3 2

h =

2.00 10

cm

cm

(1.82 10

C 1 ( 30.0C) = 3.55 cm

16.42

(a)

The volume of the liquid increases as Vl = Vi T . The volume of the flask increases as Vg = 3Vi T . Therefore, the overflow in the capillary is Vc = Vi T ( 3 ) ; and in the capillary Vc = Ah . Therefore,

h =

Vi ( 3 )T A

(b)

## For a mercury thermometer and for glass, Thus or

(Hg) = 1.82 10 4 C 1
3 = 3 3.20 10 6 C 1

<<

13

Chapter 16
16.43 (a)

m V

and

d =

m dV V2

## For very small changes in V and , this can be expressed as

m V = T V V

The negative sign means that any increase in temperature causes the density to decrease and vice versa. (b) For water we have

## 1.0000 g/cm 3 0.9997 g/cm 3 = = 5 10 5 C 1 3 T 1.0000 g/cm (10.0 C 4.0 C)

*16.44

The astronauts exhale this much CO 2 : n= msample M = 1000 g 1 mol 1.09 kg (3 astronauts)(7 days) = 520 mol astronaut day 1 kg 44.0 g

Then 520 mol of methane is generated. It is far from liquefaction and behaves as an ideal gas.
P= nRT 520 mol(8.315 J/mol K )(273 K 45 K ) = = 6.58 106 Pa 3 3 V 150 10 m

16.45

(a)

We assume that air at atmospheric pressure is above the piston. In equilibrium Therefore,

Pgas =

mg + P0 A

nRT mg = + P0 hA A

or

h=

nRT mg + P0 A

where we have used V = hA as the volume of the gas. (b) From the data given,
0.200 mol(8.315 J/K mol)( 400 K )

h=

## 20.0 kg 9.80 m/s 2 + 1.013 10 5 N/m 2 0.00800 m 2

) (

)(

= 0.661 m

14

Chapter 16
*16.46 The angle of bending , between tangents to the two ends of the strip, is equal to the angle the strip subtends at its center of curvature. (The angles are equal because their sides are perpendicular, right side to the right side and left side to left side.) (a) The definition of radian measure gives and By subtraction,

Li + L1 = r1 Li + L2 = r2
L2 L1 = (r2 r1 )

2 Li T 1Li T = r
=
(b) (c)

( 2 1 )Li T
r

In the expression from part (a), is directly proportional to T and also to ( 2 1 ) . Therefore is zero when either of these quantities becomes zero. The material that expands more when heated contracts more when cooled, so the bimetallic strip bends the other way. It is fun to demonstrate this with liquid nitrogen.
6 6 1 2( 2 1 )Li T 2 19 10 0.9 10 C (200 mm )(1C) = = 2 r 0.500 mm

(d)

((

*16.47

(a)

Ti = 2

Li g

so

Li =

Tf = 2

## Li + L 0.2483 m = 2 = 1.0000949 s g 9.80 m/s 2

T = 9.49 10 5 s (b) In one week, the time lost is time lost = 1 week( 9.49 10 5 s lost per second)
s lost 86400 s time lost = (7.00 d/week ) 9.49 10 5 1.00 d s

## time lost = 57.4 s lost

15

Chapter 16
16.48 From the diagram we see that the change in area is A = lw + wl + wl Since l and w are each small quantities, the product w l will be very small. Therefore, we assume wl 0. Since we then have and since A = lw, w = w T and

l = l T,

A = lw T + lw T

A = 2 AT

## The approximation assumes wl 0, or T 0 . Another way of stating this is T << 1 .

*16.49

I = r 2 dm

and since

r(T) = r( Ti )(1 + T)

## for T << 1 we find

I (T ) 2 = (1 + T ) I (Ti )
I (T ) I (Ti ) 2 T I (Ti )

thus (a) With = 17.0 10 6 C 1 and we find for Cu: (b) With and we find for Al:

T = 100C

= 24.0 10 6 C 1
T = 100C

## I = 2(24.0 10 6 C 1 )(100C) = 0.480% I

16.50

(a)

Let m represent the sample mass. The number of moles is n = m/M and the density is = m/V So PV = nRT becomes PV =

m RT M

or

PM =

m RT V

Then,

PM m = RT V

(b)

## 1.013 10 5 N/m 2 (0.0320 kg/mol) PM = = 1.33 kg/m 3 RT (8.315 J/mol K )(293 K )

16

Chapter 16
*16.51 After expansion, the length of one of the spans is

## L f = Li (1 + T) = 125 m[1 + 12 10 6 C 1 (20.0 C)] = 125.03 m

L f , y, and the original 125 m length of this span form a right triangle with y as the altitude. Using the Pythagorean theorem gives:

## (125.03 m)2 = y 2 + (125 m)2

yielding y = 2.74 m

*16.52

After expansion, the length of one of the spans is L f = L(1 + T). L f , y, and the original length L of this span form a right triangle with y as the altitude. Using the Pythagorean theorem gives
L f 2 = L2 + y 2 ,

or

y = L f 2 L2 = L (1 + T ) 1 = L 2 T + ( T )
2

Since T << 1,

L 2 T

*16.53

(a)

V=

nR T P

## Therefore, when pressure is held constant,

dV nR V = = dT P T
1 dV 1 V , = V dT V T

Thus,

or

1 T

(b)

## At T = 0C = 273 K, this predicts Experimental values are:

1 = 3.66 10 3 K 1 273 K

16.54

Ls =

c Lc T = s Ls T

c Lc s

and

L =

c Lc Lc s

and

Ls =

## L c 17.0 = 5.00 cm = 14.2 cm 6.00 c s

17

Chapter 16
*16.55 (a) With piston alone: or With A = constant, T = constant, so PV = P0V0 P( Ahi ) = P0 ( Ah0 ) h P = P0 0 hi P = P0 +
mp g A

But,

where mp is the mass of the piston. Thus, P0 + hi = mp g h = P0 0 A hi h0 = mp g P0 A 50.0 cm 1+ 20.0 kg 9.80 m/s 2

which reduces to

1+

1.013 10 5 Pa (0.400 m )

= 49.81 cm
2

]
)
= 49.10 cm
2

With the man of mass M on the piston, a very similar calculation (replacing mp by mp + M) gives: h =

( mp + M ) g 1+
P0 A

h0

= 1+

## 50.0 cm 95.0 kg 9.80 m/s 2

1.013 10 5 Pa (0.400 m )

## h = hi h = 49.81 cm 49.10 cm = 0.706 cm = 7.06 mm

(b) P = const, so giving
V V = T Ti T = Ti

or

Ahi Ah = T Ti

## hi 49.81 = 293 K = 297 K 49.10 h

(or 24C)

*16.56

(a)

dL = dT : L
L f = (1.00 m )e[

T dT = L
i

Ti

Li dL
i

Lf T ln = T L f = Li e L Li

(b)

2.00 10 5 C 1 (100 C )

] = 1.002002 m

## L f = 1.00 m 1 + 2.00 10 5 C 1(100C) = 1.002000 m :

L f = (1.00 m )e[
2.00 10 2 C 1 (100 C )

L f L f Lf

= 2.00 10 6 = 2.00 10 4%

] = 7.389 m

## L f = 1.00 m 1 + 0.0200C 1(100C) = 3.000 m :

L f L f Lf

= 59.4%

18

Chapter 16
*16.57 Some gas will pass through the porous plug from the reaction chamber 1 to the reservoir 2 as the reaction chamber is heated, but the net quantity of gas stays constant according to

ni1 + ni 2 = n f 1 + n f 2
Assuming the gas is ideal, we apply n = PV / RT to each term: Pf V0 Pf ( 4V0 ) P ( 4V0 ) PV i 0 + i = + (300 K )R (300 K )R (673 K )R (300 K )R
1 atm 4 5 1 = Pf + 300 K 673 K 300 K

Pf = 1.12 atm

*16.58

The pressure of the gas in the lungs of the diver must be the same as the absolute pressure of the water at this depth of 50.0 meters. This is:

## P = P0 + gh = 1.00 atm + 1.03 10 3 kg/m 3 9.80 m/s 2 ( 50.0 m )

or
P = 1.00 atm + 5.05 10 5 Pa 1.00 atm = 5.98 atm 1.013 10 5 Pa

)(

If the partial pressure due to the oxygen in the gas mixture is to be 1.00 atmosphere (or the fraction 1/5.98 of the total pressure) oxygen molecules should make up only 1/5.98 of the total number of molecules. This will be true if 1.00 mole of oxygen is used for every 4.98 mole of helium. The ratio by weight is then

( 4.98 mole He)( 4.003 g/mole He) g = (1.00 mole O 2 )(2 15.999 g/mole O2 ) g

0.623

*16.59

Let 2 represent the angle the curved rail subtends. We have Li + L = 2 R = Li (1 + T ) and Thus,

sin =

Li / 2 Li = 2R R

Li (1 + T ) = (1 + T ) sin 2R

and we must solve the transcendental equation Homing in on the non-zero solution gives, to four digits, Now,

## = (1 + T ) sin = (1.0000055) sin

h = R R cos = Li (1 cos ) 2 sin

## This yields h = 4.54 m , a remarkably large value compared to L = 5.50 cm.

19

Chapter 16
*16.60 (a) Maxwells speed distribution function is

m N v = 4 N 2 kBT
With N = 1.00 10 4 , m = T = 500 K and

3/ 2

v 2 e mv

/ 2 k BT

## 0.032 kg M = = 5.32 10 26 kg N A 6.02 10 23

kB = 1.38 10 23 J/molecule K

## this becomes N v = 1.71 10 4 v 2 e

3.85 10 6 v 2

To the right is a plot of this function for the range 0 v 1500 m/s.

(b)

The most probable speed occurs where N v is a maximum. From the graph, vmp 510 m/s

(c)

vav =
Also,

8 kBT = m

vrms =

3 kBT = m

## 300 m/s v 600 m/s

is where

300 N v dv
N
N = 10 4

600

and the integral of N v is read from the graph as the area under the curve. This is approximately 4400 and the fraction is 0.44 or 44% .

20

Chapter 16
m N v (v) = 4 N 2 kBT
Note that
3/ 2

*16.61

v 3 exp mv 2 / 2 kBT

vmp = (2 kBT / m)

1/ 2

Thus,

m N v (v) = 4 N 2 kBT
N v (v)
2

3/ 2

v2e

( v 2 / vmp 2 )

And For

N v vmp

( )

v (1 v 2 / vmp 2 ) = e vmp

v = vmp /50
N v (v)

N v vmp

( )

## 2 1 1 (1/ 50) = 1.09 10 3 e 50

The other values are computed similarly, with the following results:

v vmp
1/50 1/10 1/2 1 2 10 50

N v (v)

N v vmp

( )

## (50)2 e1 2500 = 2500e 2499

10 log 2500 e( ln 10)( 2499 /ln 10) = 10 log 250010 2499 /ln 10 = 10 log 2500 2499 /ln 10 = 10 1081.904

21

Chapter 16

(a) (a)

(b) (b)

0.109 cm 2
437 C

(b) (b)

## 5 336 star images (a) 400 kPa (b) 449 kPa

884 balloons (a) (c) 1.17 g 1.01 kN (b) 11.5 mN (d) The molecules are moving very fast.

22. 24.

26.

m1 m2 =

28. 30.

32. 34.

(a)

2.28 kJ

(b)

6.22 10 21 J

132 m/s

22

Chapter 16

36. 38.

(a)

2.37 10 4 K

## (b) (b) (e)

1.06 10 3 K
See the solution. (c) 4.60 C/km See the solution; the Mariner flights.

(a) 9.73 C/km (d) 4.34 km 0.523 kg (a) See the solution.

40. 42.

(b)

glass << Hg

44.

6.58 MPa

46.

(a) (c)

## T (r2 r1 ) It bends the opposite way.

= Li ( 2 1 )

(b)

0 as T 0 and as 1 2

(d) 0.830

48. 50.

See the solution. We assume that T is much less than 1. (a) See the solution. (b) 1.33 kg/m 3

52. 54.

y = L 2 T

## LC = 9.17 cm, LS = 14.2 cm

(a)
L f = Li eT

56.

(b)

2.00 10 4 % ; 59.4%

58. 60.

0.623 (a) (c) See the solution 575 m/s, 624 m/s (b) about 510 m/s (d) 44%

23