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A Process or Legal declaration, by which individuals demonstrate the level of knowledge and skill required in the profession, occupation, role or the competent use or support of a product, are identified by the relevant organizations. OR An official notice, either on the transcript or on a certification form, provided by standard Communities or awarded by a Vendor for the course completion verification to satisfy all the requirements to be a professional. OR A valued credential awarded in several fields that proves competency upon satisfactory demonstration of particular knowledge and skills. OR A recognized written statement/permission of the correctness and reliability of someones professional achievement. Certification of persons indicates that the individual has a specific knowledge, skills, or abilities in the view of the certifying body. Certification of products indicates their reputed suitability for a specified purpose.
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The computer field is vast and encompasses a wide variety of specialties, of which networking is only one. While some specialties are growing faster than others, and networking is among the fastest growing specialties, all fields are growing quickly. Good to excellent wages and above average job security are available in all specialties.
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Technical certification fills the gap between desire and experience. Passing and achieving Microsoft's Certifications, demonstrate not only your technical competency, but also your willingness and ability to master highly involved technical concepts. This gives a prospective employer the confidence necessary to continue your development as an employee in their organization. Employers in technical field are primarily looking for people with experience and the growth of the technical economy.
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Networking Technology deals with the concepts, hardware, software and procedures used to plan, implement and maintain computer networks. Many hardware manufacturers and software companies support certifications programs whereby prospective consultants and technical support personnel demonstrate their competence using and maintaining that company's products.
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Microsoft offers one of the most comprehensive certification programs available for assessing and maintaining Networking skills. Microsoft Corporation supports several certification programs including:
The MCP (Microsoft Certified Professional) The MCSA (Microsoft Certified System Administrator) The MCSE (Microsoft Certified System Engineer)
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Microsoft Certifications Microsoft Certified Professional For those who want to demonstrate in-depth knowledge and expertise with at least one particular Microsoft product, we offer the Microsoft Certified Professional (MCP) credential. Microsoft Certified Systems Engineers are qualified to effectively plan, implement, maintain, and support information systems with Microsoft Windows 2003 track.
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Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer (MCSE)


Core Exams (6 Exams Required) Four networking system exams One client operating system exam One design exam Elective Exams (1 Exam Required)

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Core Exams: Client Operating System (1 Exam Required) Exam 70270: Installing, Configuring, and Administering Microsoft Windows XP Professional Exam 70-210: Installing, Configuring, and Administering Microsoft Windows 2000 Professional Core Exams (6 Exams Required) Core Exams: Networking System (4 Exams Required) Exam 70290: Managing and Maintaining a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Environment Exam 70291: Implementing, Managing, and Maintaining a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network Exam 70-293: Planning and Maintaining a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network Infrastructure Exam 70-294: Planning, Implementing, and Maintaining a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Active Directory Infrastructure

Core Exams: Design (1 Exam Required) Exam 70-297, 3: Designing a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Active Directory and Network Infrastructure Exam 70-297: Designing a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Active Directory and Network Infrastructure Exam 70-298, 3: Designing Security for a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

Elective Exams: Elective Exams (1 Exam Required) Exam 70-227: Installing, Configuring, and Administering Microsoft Internet Security and Acceleration (ISA) Server 2000, Enterprise Edition Exam 70-228: Installing, Configuring, and Administering Microsoft SQL Server 2000 Enterprise Edition Exam 70-229: Designing and Implementing Databases with Microsoft SQL Server 2000 Enterprise Edition Exam 70-282: Designing, Deploying, and Managing a Network Solution for a Small- and Medium-Sized Business Exam 70-284: Implementing and Managing Microsoft Exchange Server 2003 Exam 70-284: Implementing and Managing Microsoft Exchange Server 2003 Exam 70-297: Designing a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Active Directory and Network Infrastructure Exam 70-297: Designing a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Active Directory and Network Infrastructure Exam 70-298: Designing Security for a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

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Microsoft Certified Systems Administrator (MCSA)


Papers Required :

Core Exams (3 Exams Required) Core Exams: Client Operating System (1 Exam Required) Exam 70-210: Installing, Configuring, and Administering Microsoft Windows 2000 Professional Exam 70270: Installing, Configuring, and Administering Microsoft Windows XP Professional Core Exams: Networking System (2 Exams Required) Exam 70-290: Managing and Maintaining a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Environment Exam 70291: Implementing, Managing, and Maintaining a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network Infrastructure

Elective Exams: Elective Exams (1 Exam Required) Exam 70-227: Installing, Configuring, and Administering Microsoft Internet Security and Acceleration (ISA) Server 2000, Enterprise Edition Exam 70-228: Installing, Configuring, and Administering Microsoft SQL Server 2000 Enterprise Edition Exam 70-229: Designing and Implementing Databases with Microsoft SQL Server 2000 Enterprise Edition Exam 70-282: Designing, Deploying, and Managing a Network Solution for a Small- and Medium-Sized Business Exam 70-284: Implementing and Managing Microsoft Exchange Server 2003 Exam 70-284: Implementing and Managing Microsoft Exchange Server 2003 Exam 70-297: Designing a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Active Directory and Network Infrastructure Exam 70-297: Designing a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Active Directory and Network Infrastructure Exam 70-298: Designing Security for a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

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Job Roles in Technology Life Cycle


MCSE credential Plan, design, and implement Microsoft Windows server solutions and architectures in medium- to large-sized companies. Have at least one year of experience implementing and administering network operating systems and desktop operating systems. Related job titles: systems engineer, network engineer, systems analyst, network analyst, or technical consultant. MCSA credential Implement, manage, and maintain the typically complex computing environment of medium- to large-sized companies. Have 612 months of experience administering client and network operating systems. Related job titles: systems administrator, network administrator, information systems administrator, network operations analyst, network technician, or technical support specialist.
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How We Prepare You?


Tests

Concepts

Questions & Answers

Practice

Workshops to Polish the Concepts

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Success is the Sum of Small Efforts Repeated Day-In And Day-Out


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THANK YOU

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Data Communication
Transfer of information from one place to another
COMMUNICATION MODEL
MEDIUM SENDER RECEIVER

SENDER sends a MESSAGE to a RECEIVER over a MEDIUM


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NETWORK INTERFACE CARD (NIC)


A Network Interface Card (NIC), also called a Network Adapter, is used to connect a computer to the cabling used in a local area network (LAN).

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Function of NETWORK INTERFACE CARD (NIC) The primary function of a NIC is to allow the computer to communicate on the network It does this by transmitting/receiving and controlling traffic with other computers or devices on the network When transmitting, the NIC place data on the wire in the form of an electrical signal. The process is reversed on the receiving end. The NIC translates the electrical signal it receives off the wire into bits that can be read by the computer

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Computer Network
Computer network establishes when two or more computers are physically as well as logically connected with each other for data or resource sharing.

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Components of a Network
Physical connection Logical connection Data sharing Resource sharing

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Components of Physical Connection


Network Topology Network Card (LAN Card) Physical Address (MAC Address) Cables Connectors Repeaters HUB Switch
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TOPOLOGY The physical arrangement or layout of a Network is called TOPOLOGY.


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TYPES OF NETWORK TOPOLOGIES

BUS or LINEAR TOPOLOGY STAR TOPOLOGY RING or TOKEN TOPOLOGY


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BUS or LINEAR TOPOLOGY

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BUS Topology
A bus topology connects each computer (node) to a single segment trunk. The signal travels from one end of the bus to the other. A terminator is required at each end to absorb the signal so it does not reflect back across the bus. In a bus topology, signals are broadcast to all stations.
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STAR TOPOLOGY

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STAR TOPOLOGY
All of the stations in a star topology are connected to a central unit called a hub. The hub offers a common connection for all stations on the network. Each station has its own direct cable connection to the hub. In most cases, this means more cable is required than for a bus topology. However, this makes adding or moving computers a relatively easy task; simply plug them into a cable outlet on the wall
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RING TOPOLOGY

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RING TOPOLOGY A ring topology consists of a set of stations connected serially by cable. In other words, its a circle or ring of computers. There are no terminated ends to the cable; the signal travels around the circle in a clockwise direction.

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MEDIA
Transmission media is commonly classified as
BOUNDED or GUIDED or WIRE BASED

And
UNBOUNDED or UNGUIDED or WIRELESS.

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Guided Media In Bounded or Guided media such as Cable systems. The signal travels inside a physical conductor.
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Unguided Media In Unbounded or Unguided media such as Wire less systems. The signal is usually transmitted through air.
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CABLE MEDIA
Cable is the medium through which information usually moves from one network device to another. There are several types of cable which are commonly used in networking.

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TYPES OF CABLES 1. Coaxial Cable 2. Twisted Pair Cable (UTP/STP) 3. Fiber Optic Cable

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Major difference is the data transfer rate in all cables


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CO-AXIAL Cable

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Types or Standards of CO-AXIAL Cable


The two types of coaxial cabling are: Thinnet (10 base 2) Thicknet (10 base 5) 10 mean data transfer rate supported in mbps. Maximum
data send/receive speed is 10mbps. BASE tells the nature of cable (Baseband, signal send/receive at same frequency) 2 or 5 mean distance cover (attenuation rate) 2 = 185 meter 5 = 500 meter
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Connectors used with Coaxial cable


BNC Connector T- Connector End Terminator

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BNC cable connector

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BNC T connector

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END connector

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TWISTED PAIR
CABLE OVERVIEW

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TWISTED PAIR
It consists of two insulated copper wires that are twisted together. It can be classified in two categories.

1.STP (Shielded Twisted Pair) 2.UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair)


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STP UTP

Shielding

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UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair)


UTPs 100BaseT specification is widely used in LAN. It has a maximum cable length of 100 meters (328 feet) and consists of 2 or 4 twisted wire pairs.
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STP (Shielded Twisted Pair) STP is same as UTP but it is covered with a shield for resistance. It is more reliable and faster also for longer distances.
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RJ-45 CONNECTOR

The RJ-45 Connector

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UTP Implementation
Straight Through Cross over Roll over

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UTP Implementation Straight-through


Straight-through Cable:
Use to connect different devices
8 1 8

w g w b w o w br g o b br

w g w b w o w br g o b br

Wires on cable ends are in same order


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UTP Implementation Crossover


Crossover Cable
Use to connect Same devices

8 1 8

br w g w b w o w br b g o

w ww w br b g br o b

o g

Some wires on cable ends are crossed


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FIBER OPTIC
CABLE OVERVIEW

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FIBER OPTIC
Fiber-optic cable uses optical rather than electrical pulses to transmit signals.

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Optical fiber (core)

Glass cladding

Fiber-optic connector Kevlar

Protective outer sheath (jacket)

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Two Types of Optical Fiber:


Single-Mode

Multimode

What is Mode
A mode is a ray of light that enters the fiber at a particular angle.
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Single-Mode
1. single-mode fiber generally uses lasers as the light-generating device 2. Single-mode fiber allows only one mode of light to propagate through the fiber.

Multimode
1. Multimode fiber uses LED as the light-generating device 2. Multimode fiber allows multiple modes of light to propagate through the fiber.
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FEATURES
It provides fast transmission speeds over long distances. Cable length of 2 kilometers or more Not affected by electrical interference It ensures secure and reliable data transmission. It is expensive

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REPEATER
Attenuation refers to the degradation of signal strength (amplitude) that occurs in transmissions over long distances. Shortening the transmission distance or using repeaters can help solve this problem

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Weakened signal

Repeater

Regenerated signal
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Hub & Switch


A Hub/Switch is a central device used on star network topology that repeats or amplifies signals, allowing the network to be expanded with additional stations.

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Network can be divided into two broad categories: PEER TO PEER CLIENT/SERVER BASED
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PEER TO PEER

CLIENT-SERVER

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PEER TO PEER NETWORKING


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FACTORS 1. Size of organization 2. Level of security required 3. Types of business 4. Amount of network traffic 5. Needs of the network users 6. Network Budget
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In peer-to-peer network, there are no dedicated servers or hierarchy among the computers. All of the computers are equal and known as peers. Normally, each computer functions as both a client and a server, and there is no one assigned to be an administrator responsible for the entire network.
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PEER TO PEER MODEL


This environment allows each client on a network to communicate directly with all other clients. Each computer performs as both A server with software and devices to share And A client that requests network services.
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Use Peer to Peer when Users are less than 10 Security is not required Future growth is minimal Close locations
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Dont use Peer to Peer when Many no. of users Security is priority Network is expanding Remote locations
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PEER TO PEER NETWORK IMPLEMENTATION 1. Users manage their own computers and resources. 2. Clients systems are usually located on their desktops 3. Communication medias are very simple and effective.
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CLIENT/SERVER BASED NETWORKING


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A server is a special computer that does not function as a client or workstation. Servers are dedicated because they quickly serve request from network clients and to ensure the security of files and directories.
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SERVER BASED MODEL


In this environment, all communications pass through the server, which is very powerful computer for sharing resources. Server serves the client requests and provide network security for directories and files.
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ADVANTAGES
Data, users and shared resources are centrally located, controlled and managed. A single USERNAME & PASSWORD is used for network access. High level of security is available and applied by Network Administrator. Thousands of users can be supported.
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Network Classification
Often classified according to geographical size. Common Classification
LAN (Local Area Network) WAN (Wide Area Network)

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Network Classification
LAN
(Local Area Network) Transfer data at high speed Exists in a limited geographical area Technology is generally less expensive

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Network Classification
WAN (Wide Area Network)
Exists in an unlimited geographical area More error chances due to the distance data travels Interconnect multiple LANs More complex and Sophisticated than LANs Technology is Expensive

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Server based Networking


Resources are located on a central server or group of servers, who is specifically designed to provide services for the other computer/clients on the network.

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Advantages of Server based Networks


Share centralized resources Centralized Management of security Centralized backup of all network Support of virtually unlimited numbers of users

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NT Network Models
Domain
Is the collection of the computer which uses common account database. Account database is called SAM ( Security Access Manager ) in NT Environment.

Workgroup
Is the Microsofts name of Peer to peer Networks

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Logical Connection
Protocols IP Address Network Model Peer to Peer (Workgroup)
Client-Server based (Domain)
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PROTOCOL
A protocol is a set of defined rules for communication: Type of protocols: Connection less Connection oriented

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Connection Less
No acknowledgement require Use for voice/video traffic Example : UDP (User Data Program Protocol)

Connection Oriented
Acknowledgement require Use for data traffic Example : TCP (Transmission Control Protocol)

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Traffic Types
Data
Reliability Speed Should be High Not matter

Voice Video

Reliability Speed

Not matter Should be High

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MAC (Media Access Control) ADDRESS


Each network interface card (NIC) has a unique MAC address physical address, assigned to it 48 Bit Address (6 bytes memory consumed to store) Based on Hexadecimal (0--9,A,B,C,D,E,F) Permanent address Syntax:
YY-YY-YY-YY-YY-YY 00 - 12- 34 - AB-9D-EF Vendor code Serial No.
24 bits 24 bits
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Internet Protocol Addressing A unique IP address is required for each host and network component that communicates using TCP/IP. 32 Bit Address (4 bytes) Decimal Virtual (logical) Syntax

1B. 1B. 1B. 1B


Octet (8 bits)
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Internet Protocol Addressing IP Address Conversion from Binary to Decimal

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Internet Protocol Addressing Address Classes

C la s s A (E x p e n s iv e ) B (M o d e ra te ) C (C h e a p ) D (M u ltic a s t) E (R n D )

R ange 1 126 128 191 192 223 224 239 240 255
1st Octet Rule: 1st octet tells the class of IP

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Internet Protocol Addressing Parts of IP address Network Host

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IP AddressingThree Classes
Class A: NET.HOST.HOST.HOST Class B: NET.NET.HOST.HOST Class C: NET.NET.NET.HOST

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IP Network Address Classes


Class # Networks
126 16,384 2,097,152

# Hosts
16,777,214 65,534 254

Example
01111111 00000000 00000000 00000000

A B C
Class A Class B Class C

10111111

11111111

00000000

00000000

11011111

11111111

11111111

00000000

35.0.0.0 128.5.0.0 132.33.33.0

Host Address Space

Network Address Space

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Types of IP classes Private IP


Class A : 10.0.0.0 - 10.255.255.255 Class B : 172.16.0.0 - 172.31.255.255 Class C : 192.168.0.0 - 192.168.255.255

Special IP
Class A : 127.0.0.0 - 127.255.255.255 Class B : 169.254.0.0 - 169.254.255.255

Public IP
All remaining IP Addresses are Public
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IP Address Guidelines
Check validity of IP Identify class on the basis of given ranges, identify by left most octet calculate how much bits for network and for host portion

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Invalid IPs
Every IP address whose host portion is whole 0 or 1 Host Portion whole 0 refer NID Host Portion whole 1 refer BID
192.168.1.0
1

NID
Valid IPs

254

192.168.1.255 BID
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SUBNET MASK is the back bone of IP, SUBNET MASK identifies network portion (NID) of the IP RULE
All network bits 1 All Host bits 0 Class A: Subnet Mask Class B: Subnet Mask Class C: Subnet Mask
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SUBNET MASK

NET.H.H.H 255.0.0.0 NET.NET.H.H 255.255.0.0 NET.NET.NET.H 255.255.255.0


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Default IP Communication
Rule
NID of both ends should be same HID of both ends should be same

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