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WELDING-A FABRICATION PROCESS Welding may be defined as the process of joining metals by heating them to a suitable temperature with or without the application of pressure and with or without the use of filler metal. The filler metal used in welding has approximately the same melting point as those of the metals or work pieces to be joined, or a little lower, but always above 430 Degree Celsius.

The use of welding processes in todays technology has risen phenomenally since 1940. This growth has been faster than general industrial growth. Many common every days use items depends upon welding for economical construction or output.

The art of joining metals by forging is very old, and the discovery of electric arc process took place in 1809. Till the end of the 19 th century the development or welding processes was very slow and confined to iron and steel only. Rapid developments started in the field of welding since 1903 and now it is possible to weld almost all metals and alloys. The application of welding processes is so versatile these days that we hardly find any industry or branch of engineering where welding is not utilized in one form or the other.

Some of the common applications of welding are automobiles, aircrafts, ships, railway, electronic equipments, machinery, household components, tools and equipment including repair of blowholes and cavities of castings, repair of cracked cylinders, repair of boilers, pipes, girders, worn out parts, making of large steel bridges and so on. Many joining procedures like riveting, fastening devices, nuts and bolts are used in engineering but welding produces a permanent joint having strength equal to the base metal.


Gas welding is the process of melting the edges or surfaces to be joined by a gas flame and allowing the molten metal to flow together, thus forming a solid continuous joint upon cooling. It is suitable for joining sheets up to 50mm thickness. In lower thicknesses filler metals are not used whereas in greater thicknesses a filler metal is used. The composition of welding rod being used as a filler metal is nearby the same as that of metals to be joined. A flux is always used to prevent oxidation except in welding of mild steel. A filler metal is added in the form of a filler rod must be having the same composition as that of the parent metal. Flux is also needed for proper flow of metal and for avoiding oxidation of the metal surfaces to be joined during welding. It also removes impurities present on the surface of the metal.

Various gases like hydrogen, propane, acetylene and coal gas in combination with oxygen are used for producing flames for welding metals. Depending upon a number of factors like the temperature of the flame required, the cost of gases, material to be welded and so on. Selection of combustible gas can be done for gas welding. Practical results have shown that gases like propane, coal gas, hydrogen from much quantity of water at high temperatures. The flame temperatures obtained by these gases are also low. So oxy-acetylene flame is most commonly used and it gives a very high temperature of 3500 Degree Celsius at its hottest portion.

Thus it is most suitable for welding. However, oxy-hydrogen mixture can be used for welding metals of low melting point like magnesium, aluminium, lead, zinc, and tin. Flames produced by mixture of oxygen with hydrogen, propane and coal gas have low flame temperatures. If flame temperature is tried to be raised by excess oxygen, flame becomes too oxidising and oxidises the metal also. In welding gas, care is taken that gases used are highly pure. If gases will be pure, high flame temperature can be obtained and even small amount of impurities like nitrogen, argon and water vapour have much effect on flames temperatures.


This is the phenomenon produced at the surface of the nozzle tip where two gases meet and undergo combustion with the evolution of the heat. The chemical reaction for complete combustion of oxygen and acetylene is: 2 Acetylene + 5 Oxygen 4 Carbon Dioxide + 2 Water Thus for complete combustion the ratio of oxygen to acetylene is 2 to 1. But for different purposes, different ratios of gases have given the best results. The remaining 1 parts of oxygen are supplied by the air present in the atmosphere. For normal welding, most suitable mixture is generally obtained by using equal proportions of oxygen and acetylene produce a neutral flame and are very suitable for welding. Under this condition, the following reactions take place: Acetylene + Oxygen 2 Carbon Dioxide + Hydrogen 2 Carbon Dioxide + Oxygen 2 Carbon Dioxide 2 Hydrogen + Oxygen 2 Water Depending upon their nature, flames can be classified as below: Neutral Flame Is produced by burning nearly equal volumes of oxygen and acetylene drawn from the cylinders. It is also called balance flame due to equal volumes of gases and also consist of two clearly visible zones. It is the mostly used flame and consists of a luminous blue-white inner core. The inner core is surrounded by a larger outer envelope and acts as a preventive covering from the oxidation of metal. It is used for welding of mild steel, stainless steel, copper, aluminium and alloys.

Oxidising Flame Is produced when more than one volume of oxygen is mixed with one volume of acetylene for burning at the tap of the blowpipe. This flame is used where excess oxygen has no harmful effects on the weld and very high temperatures are required. It is used as a cutting flame or preheating flame and in welding of brasses and bronzes. It forms an oxide film over the metal surface and prevents oxidation. The inner cone of the flame is short and produces a hissing sound. Maximum temperature of the flame produced is 3500 Degree Celsius.

Reducing Flame Is produced by burning more than one part of acetylene to one part of oxygen at the tip of the blowpipe. Is used on steel for increasing the percentage of carbon, has three distinct zones which is bluish-white inner cone, white inner cone and outer envelope with reddish feathers. Is used for welding non-ferrous metals and alloys such as nickel, aluminium, manganese, zinc and copper.


Though they are available in many designs, yet all have certain basic characteristic in common. Each has a handle with two inlet valves for oxygen and acetylene gases at one end. Each inlet has a valve to control the volume of the gases passing through and then mixing takes place in the chamber of the torch. After mixing in the chamber, gases flow through the torch for complete burning at the tip of the nozzle. The flame is produced by igniting the mixture at the tip by a spark lighter. Tips are interchangeable and are of varying size.

Commercially two types of torches are available : Positive or equal pressure type Injector type

In the positive or equal pressure torch gases are generally delivered at a pressure more than 1lbs/sq inch. It generally varies from 1 to 15lbs/sq inch. In case of injector the pressure of acetylene is less than 1 psi. Oxygen is supplied at high pressures.

1. Firstly, wear safety equipment and proper cloth before starting the workshop. 2. Store the oxygen and acetylene cylinders separately in an upright position. 3. Never temper with oxygen and acetylene cylinders valves. 4. When using acetylene cylinder, keep the key at the valve stem. It helps in quickly turning off the valve in an emergency. 5. If any leakage is noticed in the acetylene cylinder, remove all materials from its vicinity and let the gas escape to the atmosphere. If possible, place the cylinder in the open air. 6. Always use protective glasses while welding, chipping or grinding. 7. Before starting any welding operation, make sure that gas connection are tight. Use soap water for testing. Never use flame for testing. 8. Always use friction lighter for lighting torches. Never use matchsticks for this purpose. 9. Never strike an arc on the cylinder. 10. Never use oxygen near inflammable materials. 11. Do not weld in confined space having inadequate ventilation. 12. Never use acetylene above pressure more than 1kg/ . 13. Never drop the cylinders. 14. Always keep cylinders and hoses away from flying sparks and open flames. 15. Never hang a torch with the hose on regulator or cylinder valve. 16. When the torch is to be extinguished temporarily, release the pressure adjusting screws from the regulators so that there is no flow of gases in the hose. 17. When working, if the flame is to be stopped for a long time, close the cylinder valves and release all pressure gas from the regulators and hoses by opening the valves of the torch till the regulators show zero pressure. Then releases the pressure adjusting screw and close the valves.



Oxyacetylene-welding-tips for Gases should explain that they are normally stored under pressure in special gas cylinders regulated by appointed authorities and subject to periodic controls.

Oxygen cylinders of various capacities are available. The most frequently used has a capacity of 6.9 m3 or 224 standard cubic feet (scf). When full, its pressure is around 15 MPa (1 Mega Pascal = 1 Newton per mm2) or about 2200 psi.

Acetylene cylinders are special. Acetylene becomes unstable and can explode under a slight shock when its pressure is above 203 kPa (1 kilo Pascal = 1000 Newton per m2) or about 29.4 psi. Therefore safety regulations prohibit its use at a pressure of 105 kPa (15 psi) or higher.

Commercially available cylinders for acetylene are filled with a porous material containing liquid acetone. Acetylene is dissolved in liquid acetone and then it can be stored under pressure of 1.7 MPa (250 psi) without danger. Capacity of a normal acetylene cylinder is about 7.8 m3 or 275 scf.

A pair of pressure regulators is installed on top of the cylinders when in use. One is the cylinder pressure gage that shows at any time the actual pressure in the cylinder. The other one permits to regulate the low delivery pressure and shows it to the welder.

Two types of regulators are in use. Single stage are simpler and cheaper, but their delivery pressure is not really uniform. Two stage regulators are more expensive but guarantee an almost constant delivery pressure until the cylinder has no more gas to supply.

Note that regulators are made for a specific gas and are not interchangeable. The use of oil or grease in the oxygen line fittings is prohibited because of the danger of self igniting fire.

Color coded flexible hoses deliver separately the gases to the torch where they are admitted to the mixer chamber in the right proportion for the desired flame, according to the work at hand (slightly reducing = with excess acetylene, or neutral, or slightly oxidizing = with excess oxygen).

Welders are instructed to evaluate the type of the flame by examining the aspect of the white cone, its hottest part.

Oxygen hose connections are threaded right-handed. Acetylene hose connections are threaded left-handed and are grooved or marked accordingly. This helps prevent accidentally switching oxygen and acetylene hoses.

Torch handles are small, medium sized or heavy duty, depending on the amount of gas flow they permit, normally correlated to the mass or thickness of the parts to be welded. Interchangeable tips of proper size must be selected according to the type of work on hand. No universal standardization of types and sizes is in place so that one should follow manufacturers' recommendations.

Torches are fitted with flame traps or flashback arrestors, designed to avoid that the flame run back to torch or cylinders, causing damage and injuries.

Step By Step Procedure For Starting And Shutting Down Oxyacetylene Torches
STARTING THE TORCHES Step 1 Turn on Oxygen Tank valve completely and Acetylene Tank valve 1/4 to 1/2 of a turn. Step 2 Crack open Acetylene torch valve and set the regulator to the correct line pressure. Step 3 Close the Acetylene torch valve. Step 4 Crack open the Oxygen torch valve and set the regulator to the correct line pressure Step 5 Close the Oxygen torch valve. Step 6 Crack open the Acetylene torch valve and using a striker light the torch and adjust the Acetylene to get a clean burning flame. Step 7 Open Oxygen torch valve until you get a neutral flame.

SHUTTING DOWN THE TORCHES Step 1 Close the Acetylene torch valve. Step 2 Close the Oxygen torch valve. Step 3 Close the Oxygen and Acetylene tank valves. Step 4 Crack open the Oxygen torch valve and drain the Oxygen line until both the line and tank pressure gauges read zero. Close Oxygen torch valve. Step 5 Crack open the Acetylene torch valve and drain the Acetylene line until both the line and tank pressure gauges read zero. Close Acetylene torch valve. Step 6 Wrap up the hoses around the cart handles. Step 7 Remove the regulator adjusting screws from both the Oxygen and Acetylene regulators and give them to the instructor.

1. How is the best way of gas welding? The best Oxyacetylene-welding-tips point to the many advantages:

the process is versatile, suitable for small objects or big constructions, adaptable to many different jobs in all welding positions, irreplaceable for maintenance work, capable of surfacing, even with materials high in Zn content (copper alloys), portable on a truck or a trailer, on a two wheel hand cart, even on one's back, self sufficient, self contained, independent from availability of external energy sources, can be used, with the regular torch, for heating, bending, straightening, the outfit can be used for brazing, braze-welding and soldering, capable, with a different torch, to perform flame cutting, used successfully for Home work, Hobby and Artwork, used to weld thin materials and to bridge poor fit-up and large gaps, the equipment is of relative low cost, welder has full control of temperature and heat input, welder controls weld bead shape, size and weld pool viscosity, the flame can be easily controlled to be neutral or slightly reducing or oxidizing, depending on the material welded. 2. What is the tips in gas welding? The Oxyacetylene-welding-tips limitations include:

welder's skill required for manipulating torch, flame and filler rod, unsuitable for welding high alloy steel in hardened condition, unsuited for welding of reactive or refractory metals, not cost effective for thick section welds, fluxes are required for welding most materials, except low carbon steel.

As the conclusion, in gas welding is defined as a joining process that produces penetration of material by heating them to the welding temperature, with or without the application of pressure or by the application of pressure alone, and with or without metal. Is used to form an electric arc between the electrode and the metals to be joined.

REFERENCES Pdf Workshop practice book


1. The metal is clean by using the brush. 2. The flame is set up. 3. The clean piece of mild steel and a torch that is adjusted to a neutral flame, push a molten weld pool in a straight line down the sheet. 4. Start at one end and hold the torch 45 degree angle in the direction of the weld. 5. A little spark indicates that the melting pool is suitable enough to move the torch. 6. Move the torch in a circular pattern down the sheet toward the other end. 7. If the size of the molten weld pool changes, speed up or slow down to keep it the same size all the way to the end. 8. Repeat this practice until can keep the width of the molten weld pool uniform and the direction of travel in a straight line.


1. The metal is clean by using the brush. 2. The flame is set up to a neutral flame. 3. Place two clean pieces of metal flat on the table and tack weld both ends together. 4. Point the torch so that the flame is distributed equally on both sheets. 5. When both sheet edges have melted it will be joint. 6. Start at one end and hold the torch 45 degree angle in the direction of the weld. 7. A little spark indicates that the melting pool is suitable enough to move the torch. 8. Move the torch in a circular pattern down the sheet toward the other end. 9. If the size of the molten weld pool changes, speed up or slow down to keep it the same size all the way to the end. 10. Repeat this practice until can keep the width of the molten weld pool uniform and the direction of travel in a straight line.

AT THE END OF THE SESSION THE STUDENTS SHOULD BE ABLE TO: Exposes the students to basic gas welding processes involving various types of joining metals. Ignite and adjust flame for different types of welding gas. Keep the workshop clean and safe. Able to weld an open square butt joint with full penetration throughout the point. Know the equipment of welding gas.