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Annotated Bibliography "The 1st Navy Jack." US Flag. N.p., 10 Feb. 2005. Web. 6 Jan. 2013. <http://www.usflag.org/history/gadsden.html>.

The image of the First Navy Jack--a flag used by Alfred of the Continental fleet and the navy in the American Revolution--is used to present a banner used in Tea Party rallies to symbolize the more radical protesters' threats of using physical force to overpower the federal government in which the Tea Party is directly connected to the same opposition to "oppressive" government expressed from 1763 to 1781. The Tea Party is thus the largest movement since the Sons and Daughters of Liberties and the Patriots to gather en mass to oppose government. Anderson, Susan, and Wendy Bowman. I Want You to Join the Reform Party/ Photo by Susan Anderson; Digital Retouching by Wendy Bowman. 1999. Miscellaneous Items in High Demand. Lib. of Cong., Washington, D.C. LC-DIG-ppmsca-24324. Library of Congress. Web. 29 Dec. 2012. <http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2010646071/>. The photograph of Jesse Ventura for Ross Perot's Reform Party is used to emphasize the forcefulness and the popularity of the Reform Party in the 1990s and the connection to the T.E.A. Party as an organization against "politics as usual." Andrews, John. "John Andrews Letter." Letter. May 1774. A Synopsis of American History: Through Construction. Collection of Ivan R. Dee, Chicago. Smithsonian Source. Web. 14 Nov. 2012. <http://www.smithsoniansource.org/display/primarysource/viewdetails.aspx?TopicId=& PrimarySourceId=1005>. John Andrews was a merchant in Boston. In May 1774, he wrote his brother in Philadelphia an account of the correspondence between Boston (the colonies) and Britain. Andrews references the reaction of the British government for the

Boston Tea Party events, and notes the employment of the Coercive Acts primarily in Boston port and the attack on Boston specifically from the British government. Arnold, Chris. "Tea Party Finds Inspiration in Boston History." Editorial. National Public Radio. N.p., 14 Apr. 2010. Web. 14 Nov. 2012. The National Public Radio article by Chris Arnold on the connections of the modern Tea Party with the 1773 Boston Tea Party is used to emphasize the similarities and differences of the T.E.A. Party and the Boston Tea Party, to which it claims to be identical. "Bailout Bill: Full Text of Plan." The Huffington Post. TheHuffingtonPost.com, 28 Sept. 2008. Web. 8 Apr. 2013. <http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2008/09/28/bailout-legislationfull_n_130063.html>. The full-text reproduction of the "Stimulus Bill" decision draft is used to present the spending programs that helped spur the aggression of Americans, soon rallying behind a notion of reduced government and radical individualism, i.e., the Tea Party. Blitzer Calls Trump "Ridiculous." CNN. Turner Broadcasting System, n.d. Web. 27 Dec. 2012. <http://www.cnn.com/video/#/video/bestoftv/2012/05/29/tsr-intv-trump-youreridiculous.cnn>. The video clip of The Situation Room with Wolf Blitzer anchor Wolf Blitzer's criticizing Donald Trump on his "Birther Claim" (that President Obama was not born a United States citizen in Hawaii) is used to relate the T.E.A. Party influences of bigotry in some of its sects to the previous bigotry and conspiracy in parties such as the Anti-Masonic Party and the American ("Know-Nothing") Party. Block, Herbert. Mine! Mine! All Mine!/ Herblock. 10 Nov. 1994. Cartoon Drawings: Herblock Collection. Lib. of Cong., Washington, D.C. LC-USZ62-132518. Library of Congress. Web. 29 Dec. 2012. <http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2002735859/>. The illustration of

the 1994 Republican (GOP) "takeover" of the House of Representatives is used to compare the massive 1994 Republican domination of Congress with the 2010 T.E.A. Party domination of the House of Representatives. Burghart, Devin. "Tea Party Caucus Map - 112th Congress." Infographic. Institute for Research and Education on Human Rights. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Dec. 2010. <http://www.irehr.org/issue-areas/tea-party-nationalism/the-data/tea-party-caucus-map112th-congress>. The interactive informational graphic (map) of the 112th Congress Tea Party Caucus is used to present the large amount of T.E.A. Party and T.E.A. Partysupported congressmen elected in the 2010 congressional election and the beginning of the political strength of the T.E.A. Party. Cammeyer, William, Jr. Anti-Masonic Apron. 1831. Popular Graphic Arts. Lib. of Cong., Washington, D.C. LC-USZ62-92279. Library of Congress. Web. 29 Dec. 2012. <http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2003690779/>. The illustration ("apron") formed as an attack on the Anti-Masonic Party, comparing it with the Masonic Order, is used to indicate the beginnings of the American third party and the political consequences each has always encountered. Carter, Dan T. "Wallace Quotes." The American Experience. Public Broadcasting Service, n.d. Web. 8 Apr. 2013. <http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/wallace/sfeature/quotes.html>. The quote of Governor George Wallace of Alabama from PBS's The American Experience is used to parallel the conviction of the segregationists with the conviction of the Tea Party. The "mainstream" Tea Party (if "mainstream" is appropriate) does not harbor such racial degradation, but does harbor the confidence in its own, radical ideals, such as the Dixiecrats and segregationists harbored in the 1950s and 1960s.

CNBC Rick Santelli Goes Basaltic on Floor of Chicago Merc over Housing Bailout. For More Info Go to Radioviceonline.com. Radio Vice Online. Spider Creations, n.d. Web. 28 Dec. 2012. <http://radioviceonline.com/send-em-to-fine-print-class-but-no-mortgagemoney/>. The video clip of Rick Santelli's irritation with the housing market bailout is used to present what is believed to be the "Rosa Parks Moment" for the T.E.A. Party, and to present the beginning platform of and zeal for the T.E.A. Party. Dalrymple, Lewis. Deserting the Old Idol/ Dalrymple. 5 July 1899. Miscellaneous Items in High Demand. Lib. of Cong., Washington, D.C. LC-DIG-ppmsca-28610. Library of Congress. Web. 30 Dec. 2012. <http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2012647438/>. The illustration from the magazine Puck of the "voters'" dissenting from William Jennings Bryan and Populism is used to compare the possible 2012-2013 Republican dissent from the T.E.A. Party with the American dissent from Populism and the American dissent from the east (from the original painting titled Manifest Destiny). Dalrymple, Louis. In Battle Array,- and There's Not Much Doubt about the Result/ Dalrymple. 30 Sept. 1896. Miscellaneous Items in High Demand. Lib. of Cong., Washington, D.C. LC-DIG-ppmsca-28845. Library of Congress. Web. 27 Dec. 2012. <http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/det1994023444/PP/>. The cartoon illustration from the magazine Puck with William Jennings Bryan leading the Populist masses is used as the introductory header for the website to emphasize the control of the T.E.A. Party over the masses and its fight against the Washington, D.C. government (and its similarity to the Populist Party). Ehrhart, Samuel D. Another Proposed War Tax/ Ehrhart. 13 July 1898. Miscellaneous Items in High Demand. Lib. of Cong., Washington, D.C. LC-DIG-ppmsca-28718. Library of

Congress. Web. 29 Dec. 2012. <http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2012647581/>. The illustration from the magazine Puck of the division of taxes between the elderly (married) and the "bachelors" is used to emphasize the divide between the liberal and conservative ideas of taxation--tax increases on the wealthy or tax increases on no one. Elisberg, Robert J. "Grover Norquist Gets His Wish." Huffington Post Politics. Ed. Arianna Huffington. TheHuffingtonPost.com, 9 Aug. 2007. Web. 29 Dec. 2012. <http://www.huffingtonpost.com/robert-j-elisberg/grover-norquist-gets-his_b_59806.html>. The article from the website The Huffington Post Politics on Grover Norquist, fiscal conservatism, and the "shrinking" of government is used as a secondary source for Grover Norquist's quote about his job of shrinking government to present evidence of fiscal conservatism (before the T.E.A. Party) and of the T.E.A. Party-enraged members' of Congress opposition to government expansion. Formisano, Ronald P. The Tea Party: A Brief History. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 2012. Print. The Tea Party: A Brief History is written by Ronald P. Formisano. Formisano is the William T. Bryan Chair of American History at the Univeristy of Kentucky; he has written books such as For the People: American Populist Movements from the Revolution to the 1850s. Formisano's work is derived from his previous lectures on populism at various universities in the United States in which he was advised to write on the modern Tea Party. Thus, The Tea Party: A Brief History is a scholarly work on the beginnings of the Tea Party and its influences. Franklin, Benjamin. Join or Die. 9 May 1754. Miscellaneous Items in High Demand. Lib. of Cong., Washington, D.C. LC-USZ62-9701. Library of Congress. Web. 6 Jan. 2013. <http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2002695523/>. The illustration of Benjamin

Franklin's "Join, or Die" cartoon from The Pennsylvania Gazette (published during the Albany Congress of 1754), which was published to encourage colonial unity in America to defeat the French and the opposing Native American, is used to emphasize the necessity of unity, which the Tea Party opposes if unity impedes upon its platform, to maintain a prosperous America. Franklin's cartoon also is used to present the beginning of the "snake's" representing the United States and freedom. Franklin D. (Franklin Delano) Roosevelt, 1882-1945. 6 June 1947. Miscellaneous Items in High Demand. Lib. of Cong., Washington, D.C. LC-USZ62-87317. Library of Congress. Web. 29 Dec. 2012. <http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2002715895/>. The photograph of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt is used to illustrate the leader and the beginner of the notion of Democrats as a more liberal party with the New Deal, thus indicating the political shift leftward (and the opposition shift rightward) from the Roosevelt administration. Gadsden, Christopher. The Gadsden Flag. N.d. US Flag. Web. 6 Jan. 2013. <http://www.usflag.org/history/gadsden.html>. The image of the Gadsden Flag is used to present the primary banner of the Tea Party, which was adapted from the same flag used during the American Revolution by Colonel Christopher Gadsden, and symbolizes the sense of an ideological "fight for freedom from an oppressive government" and the zeal for the Tea Party. Gash, Morry. Away from the stage, the passionate arguments went right on, each side claiming the upper hand, the larger crowd, the right side of history. The Madison Police estimated a crowd--at its highest point--of about 6,500 people, though it was uncertain how many of those were Tea Party supporters and how many were there to protest. Either way, the

figure was far smaller than the tens of thousands of demonstrators that had been reported around the Capitol on several days in recent months. The New York Times. New York Times, 16 Apr. 2011. Web. 29 Dec. 2012. <http://www.nytimes.com/slideshow/2011/04/17/us/20110417_TEAPARTY-4.html>. The photograph of the Madison, Wisconsin Tea Party rally (not associated with the massive 2011 Madison Union rally) is used to present the large but decreasing size of the continuing T.E.A. Party protests. - - -. Sarah Palin spoke at the Wisconsin State Capitol, a throng Tea Party supporters cheering her on and a throng of union supporters trying to shout them (and her) down. And in a way, it look like just another day in Madison, a place already so polarized that even with the presence of Ms. Palin, a figure beloved and detested, people here seemed to go right on with the debate they had been having for months. The New York Times. New York Times, n.d. Web. 29 Dec. 2012. <http://www.nytimes.com/slideshow/2011/04/17/us/20110417_TEAPARTY-2.html>. The photograph of Sarah Palin at the April 16, 2011 Madison, Wisconsin Tea Party (and union) rally is used to introduce a prominent political figure in the T.E.A. Party, who maintains the fervor for the T.E.A. Party and its rallies. Glenn: Establishment GOP Is Over. Glenn Beck: The Fusion of Entertainment and Enlightenment. Mercury Radio Arts, 8 Nov. 2012. Web. 29 Dec. 2012. <http://www.glennbeck.com/2012/11/08/glenn-establishment-gop-is-over/>. The video clip of Glenn Beck about the fall of the Grand Old Party (after the 2012 election) is used as evidence to support the T.E.A. Party and libertarian dissent from the Grand Old Party

by means of influential pundits such as Glenn Beck (e.g., criticizing the Republican Speaker of the House). Hill, William Ely. Greeting the Trail of the Lonesome Pine/ W.E. Hill '13. 14 Jan. 1914. Miscellaneous Items in High Demand. Lib. of Cong., Washington, D.C. LC-DIGppmsca-28015. Library of Congress. Web. 29 Dec. 2012. <http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2011649661/>. The illustration from the magazine Puck of two aristocratic men and one woman is used to indicate the ascension of capitalistic Wall Street, greed, and financial lust in the twentieth-century--both the supports and the enemies of the T.E.A. Party. "Home Page." American Crossroads. American Crossroads, n.d. Web. 6 Jan. 2013. <http://www.americancrossroads.org/>. The website of Karl Rove's (co-founder and adviser) Super PAC, American Crossroads, is used to indicate that the Tea Party's eruption into American politics greatly shifted "right-wing" analysts and pundits (e.g., Karl Rove) farther "right," yielding their zealous support for the Tea Party (politically and financially). "Home Page." Americans for Prosperity. Americans for Prosperity, n.d. Web. 6 Jan. 2013. <http://americansforprosperity.org/>. The website of the David Koch and Charles Kochfunded Super PAC that supports far-right and Conservative candidates in national, state, and local elections is used to present evidence of the Tea Party's effect on wealthy Americans, such as the Koch brothers, inspiring mass funding to "buy elections" on both sides of the political spectrum. "Home Page." Americans for Tax Reform. Braynard Group, n.d. Web. 6 Jan. 2013. <http://www.atr.org/>. The organization American for Tax Reform, which was founded

by Grover Norquist in 1985 by request of President Ronald Reagan, website is used to present the organization that "holds" a Republican congressional majority "hostage" and grants Tea Party candidates to "primary" the incumbent Republican who defies Norquist or the Taxpayer Protection Pledge. "Home Page." FreedomWorks for America. Ed. Jim Demint. FreedomWorks, n.d. Web. 17 Dec. 2012. <http://www.freedomworksforamerica.org/>. The website of the conservative, Tea Party-associated Super Political Action Committee (Super PAC) FreedomWorks for America is used to present the largest Tea Party-exclusive Super PAC and the primary causes of the 2010 Conservative revolution. "Home Page." Koch Industries, Inc. Koch Industries, n.d. Web. 6 Jan. 2013. <http://kochind.com/>. The website of the Koch brothers' industry (including chemicals, mining, and crude oil) is used to indicate the politicizing effect of the Tea Party on nonpartisan and non-political organizations such as an industries company (the Koch brothers, however, are known to be partisan). "Home Page." Tea Party Patriots. Tea Party Patriots, n.d. Web. 6 Jan. 2013. <http://www.teapartypatriots.org/>. The website, which is one of the two major Tea Party websites (the other is Tea Party Express), of Tea Party Patriots is used to present one of the primary organizers of Tea Party events and one of the causes of--ironically--the Tea Party's disorganization (by allowing the formation of local Tea Party sects, which have alternating platforms). James G. Blaine. 2 Oct. 1884. Popular Graphic Arts. Lib. of Cong., Washington, D.C. LC-DIGpga-02168. Library of Congress. Web. 25 Jan. 2013. <http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2003671786/>. The image of candidate and Half-

Breed James G. Blaine is used to indicate the control of patronage and political division during the Gilded Age. Thus, the image alludes to the control of political division within the GOP in the 21st Century that is similar to that in the Gilded Age. Johnson, J. H. No Irish Need Apply. J H. Johnson, Stationer & Printer, 7N. 10th Street, Phila. [1862?] [Song Sheet] . 1862. Rare Books and Special Collections, Library of Congress. Lib. of Cong., Washington, D.C. Library of Congress. Web. 29 Dec. 2012. <http://lcweb2.loc.gov/diglib/ihas/loc.rbc.amss.cw104040/default.html>. The song sheet of the Nativist and Know-Nothing Party phrase "No Irish Need Apply" ("NINA") is used to emphasize the possible bigotry in specific political parties and to note the possible increasing bigotry in the T.E.A. Party (compare with "Blitzer Calls Trump 'Ridiculous'"). Karr, Jay. In Buffalo, S.C., Representative Michele Bachmann, Republican of Minnesota, greeted a fellow congressman, Joe Wilson of South Carolina, before speaking at a Tea Party event. The New York Times. New York Times, 16 Apr. 2011. Web. 29 Dec. 2012. <http://www.nytimes.com/slideshow/2011/04/17/us/20110417_TEAPARTY-5.html>. The digital photograph of Representative Michele Bachmann and congressman Joe Wilson at a South Carolina Tea Party event on 2011 tax day is used to introduce the head of the congressional Tea Party caucus of the 112th Congress (2011-2012), who ran for the Republican presidential nomination of 2012 (thus becoming the first possible Tea Party president). Kennedy, David M., Lizabeth Cohen, and Thomas A. Bailey. The American Pageant. 12th ed. Boston: Houghton, 2002. Print. David M. Kennedy is the Donald J. McLachlan Professor of History at Stanford University--a teacher for 30 years. Kennedy has written books such as Birth Control in America: The Career of Margaret Sanger (1970), Over Here: The

First World War and American Society (1980), and Freedom from Fear: The American People in Depression and War (1929-1945). Kennedy is a scholar of President Franklin Roosevelt. Lizabeth Cohen is the Howard Mumford Jones Professor of American studies at the history department of Harvard Univeristy (previously of New York University, and Carnegie Mellon University). Cohen has an A.B., an M.A., and a Ph.D. Cohen has written the books Making a New Deal: Industrial Workers in Chicago, 1919-1939 (1990), and A Consumers' Republic: The Politics of Mass Consumption in Postwar America, and the article "Encountering Mass Culture at the Grassroots: The Experience of Chicago Workers in the 1920s. Thomas A. Bailey taught history for 40 years at Stanford University, and was an author of 20 books; he prides most The American Pageant. The American Pageant is a non-partisan textbook for Advanced Placement United States History courses. Keppler, Joseph Ferdinand. Men May Come, and Men May Go; But the Work of Reform Shall Go on Forever/ J. Keppler. 5 Nov. 1884. Miscellaneous Items in High Demand. Lib. of Cong., Washington, D.C. LC-DIG-ppmsca-28247. Library of Congress. Web. 29 Dec. 2012. <http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/ppmsca.28247/>. The illustration from the magazine Puck of the progression of reform and the Independent is used to indicate the great reform occurring in the 1800s to establish the origins of the T.E.A. Party and third parties. - - -. A Presidential Conjuror/ J. Keppler. 12 Oct. 1881. Miscellaneous Items in High Demand. Lib. of Cong., Washington, D.C. LC-DIG-ppmsca-28520. Library of Congress. Web. 25 Jan. 2013. <http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2012647292/>. The illustration from the magazine Puck of President Arthur is used to indicate the corruption and spoils within the

country under patronage in which the Tea Party claims against patronage, but accepts it during elections with funding from Super PAC's. - - -. Two of a Kind/ J. Keppler. 7 May 1884. Miscellaneous Items in High Demand. Lib. of Cong., Washington, D.C. LC-DIG-ppmsca-28317. Library of Congress. Web. 29 Dec. 2012. <http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2012645199/>. The illustration from the magazine Puck of the Pope and a leader of a rival religious organization in conflict is used to emphasize the influence of religion (of the congressmen) on the legislation and the division in Congress. Keppler, Udo J. But You Can't Make Him Drink/ Keppler. 3 Feb. 1904. Miscellaneous Items in High Demand. Lib. of Cong., Washington, D.C. LC-DIG-ppmsca-25819. Library of Congress. Web. 6 Jan. 2013. <http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2011645503/>. The illustration from the magazine Puck is used to emphasize the Tea Party's use of political force on the Republican party and GOP to unanimously conform to its more radical platform, which is similar to William Jennings Bryan's and he Populist Party's use of political force on the Democratic party in the late 1800s and early 1900s. - - -. Coming!/ Keppler. 25 July 1906. Miscellaneous Items in High Demand. Lib. of Cong., Washington, D.C. LC-DIG-ppmsca-26079. Library of Congress. Web. 29 Dec. 2012. <http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2011645921/>. The illustration from the magazine Puck of the changing platforms from William Jennings Bryan and the continuing popularity of populism is used to emphasize the popularity of the T.E.A. Party and to counter the nonconformity of the T.E.A. Party. - - -. The Democratic Moses and His Self-Made Commandments/ Keppler. 19 Sept. 1906. Miscellaneous Items in High Demand. Lib. of Cong., Washington, D.C. LC-DIG-

ppmsca-26097. Library of Congress. Web. 30 Dec. 2012. <http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2011645940/>. The illustration from the magazine Puck of William Jennings Bryan as Moses with Jennings Bryan's form of the Ten Commandments (and with lights labeled "Radicalism" and "Conservatism") is used to portray the T.E.A. Party as the Republican Moses, which led the Republicans to dominance in the House of Representatives, yet damaged the Grand Old Party. - - -. The "Fake" Beggar/ Keppler. 22 Aug. 1900. Miscellaneous Items in High Demand. Lib. of Cong., Washington, D.C. LC-DIG-ppmsca-25448. Library of Congress. Web. 29 Dec. 2012. <http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2010651321/>. The illustration from the magazine Puck of William Jennings Bryan's begging for votes and wearing of a prosthesis marked "16 to 1" and a cane labeled "Populism" is used to illustrate (as a header) the attack of the T.E.A. Party on the "beggar" (the "slacker") asking for government aid. It is also used to emphasize the Republican dependence on the T.E.A. Party. - - -. For Once, Science and Religion Agree/ Keppler. 7 Sept. 1898. Miscellaneous Items in High Demand. Lib. of Cong., Washington, D.C. LC-DIG-ppmsca-28627. Library of Congress. Web. 30 Dec. 2012. <http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2012647468/>. The illustration from the magazine Puck of Chauncey M. Depew and Robert G. Ingersoll pointing out specific quotes that support American imperialism is used to emphasize the difficulty of compromise or agreement in the polarized Congress. - - -. A Hard Game of "Follow Your Leader"/ Keppler. 18 July 1900. Miscellaneous Items in High Demand. Lib. of Cong., Washington, D.C. LC-DIG-ppmsca-25440. Library of Congress. Web. 29 Dec. 2012. <http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2010651313/>. The

illustration from the magazine Puck of William Jennings Bryan (Populism) leading the donkey (Democratic Party) to the White House is used to emphasize the reliance of the Republican Party on the T.E.A. Party to gain power in the three branches of government. - - -. A Young Head on Old Shoulders/ Keppler. 1 Nov. 1899. Miscellaneous Items in High Demand. Lib. of Cong., Washington, D.C. LC-DIG-ppmsca-28553. Library of Congress. Web. 29 Dec. 2012. <http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2012647377/>. The illustration from the magazine Puck of Theodore Roosevelt is used to emphasize the significance of third parties in which they may bring influential and successful presidents such as Roosevelt (who formed the progressive party after becoming president) or Abraham Lincoln--thus, the T.E.A. Party may bring an influential and successful president. "Key Issues." AFT-A Union of Professionals. American Federation of Teachers, AFL-CIO, n.d. Web. 6 Jan. 2013. <http://www.aft.org/issues/>. The webpage of the American Federation of Teachers' (a teachers union) is used to present the more liberal "synonym" to the more conservative Super PACs, which fund liberal candidates and bills. The webpage is also used to present the different platforms of unions and Super PACs. Leffler, Warren K. Civil Rights March on Wash[ington], D.C. 28 Aug. 1963. Miscellaneous Items in High Demand. Lib. of Cong., Washington, D.C. LC-DIG-ppmsca-04296. Library of Congress. Web. 29 Dec. 2012. <http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2003688163/>. The photograph of the 1963 civil rights march on Washington, D.C. is used to emphasize the scale of the early T.E.A. Party events on Washington, D.C., which were only surpassed by a later Wisconsin protest (associated with the T.E.A. Party).

Levering, Albert. Republican Voters' Revolt/ Albert Levering. 20 Apr. 1910. Miscellaneous Items in High Demand. Lib. of Cong., Washington, D.C. LC-DIG-ppmsca-27625. Library of Congress. Web. 30 Dec. 2012. <http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2011647577/>. The illustration from the magazine Puck of the wave (of "Republican voters' revenge") consuming Republicans such as President Taft is used to emphasize the possible demise of the T.E.A. Party from Republicans' necessity to become more moderate for political success. Lipman, L. Emancipation Proclamation/ Del., Lith. and Print. By L. Lipman, Milwaukee, Wis. 26 Feb. 1864. Popular Graphic Arts. Lib. of Cong., Washington, D.C. LC-DIG-pga02040. Library of Congress. Web. 29 Dec. 2012. <http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2003671404/>. The illustration of the events of American slavery, Abraham Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation (support for the abolitionists and the Republican party after 1863) is used to identify the Republican party of 1854 as a populist movement that gains support from the popular northern notions of the 1860s (after the Emancipation Proclamation). Longacre, James Barton. Andrew Jackson/ Drawn from Life and Engraved by J.B. Longacre. N.d. Miscellaneous Items in High Demand. Lib. of Cong., Washington, D.C. LC-USZ62117120. Library of Congress. Web. 29 Dec. 2012. <http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/96523440/>. The illustration of President Andrew Jackson is used to indicate the first ascension of the Common Man into political office (the beginning of populism) and the Jacksonian Democratic Party. Lucidon, Amanda. A crowd marched toward the Capitol as people from around the country gathered to express their discontent with the government. The New York Times. New

York Times, 12 Sept. 2009. Web. 29 Dec. 2012. <http://www.nytimes.com/2009/09/13/us/politics/13protestweb.html?_r=1&>. The photograph of an early (2009) T.E.A. Party rally against President Obama is used to establish the initial fervor for the T.E.A. Party and for opposition to President Obama and government. The photograph is also used to contrast the initial protests with the later protests, which were with less zeal (to emphasize the decrease of the T.E.A. Party). Magee, John L. Terrible Rout & Total Destruction of the Whig Party. In Salt River. 1852. Cartoon Prints, American. Lib. of Cong., Washington, D.C. LC-USZ62-7487. Library of Congress. Web. 29 Dec. 2012. <http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2008661556/>. The illustration of the perceived demise of the Whig Party (1832) is used to introduce the first third-party to be assimilated into the two-party system (ending the "Era of Good Feelings"). The Whig Party is also significant as the party to face "destruction" because of sectional and ideological divide (an inhibitor of the T.E.A. Party). Maurer, Louis. The Great Exhibition of 1860. 1860. Popular Graphic Arts. Lib. of Cong., Washington, D.C. LC-USZ62-14226. Library of Congress. Web. 29 Dec. 2012. <http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2003674593/>. The political cartoon of Horace Greeley, slavery, and Abraham Lincoln is used to indicate the significance of the Republican party of 1854 as a powerful third party and the popularity of third parties' use of moral issues (e.g., slavery) politically, as the T.E.A. Party does. The Mugwumps Met Him on the Way. 1888. Music Division. Lib. of Cong., Washington, D.C. M1663.M 1888. Library of Congress. Web. 25 Jan. 2013. <http://lcweb2.loc.gov/diglib/ihas/loc.natlib.ihas.200155619/default.html>. The illustration for the Cleveland 1888 campaign is used to represent the Mugwumps who

dissented from the Republican Party to support Grover Cleveland (a Democrat). Thus, the campaign illustration alludes to the possible dissent of moderate Republicans from the GOP because of the Tea Party. Munroe, Randall. "A History of the United States Congress: Partisan and Ideological Makeup." Infographic. XKCD. N.p., 29 Sept. 2012. Web. 29 Dec. 2012. <http://xkcd.com/1127/>. The infographic from the website "xkcd" (preferred lower case) of the amount (and degree of extremism) of members on both sides of the political spectrum in Congress from 1788 to 2012, and to emphasize the major growth of the "far-right" sects starting in 1984 and increasing in the 2010 election. The Newsroom - Rinos, Real Republicans, The Tea Party, The Founding Fathers on Religion and More. YouTube. N.p., 27 Aug. 2012. Web. 29 Dec. 2012. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lAjX2aiX3PM>. The edited video clip of the fictional television show The Newsroom of the fictional news anchor's description of the T.E.A. Party and "R.I.N.O.(s)" (Republicans in Name Only) is used to present a entertainment reaction to the T.E.A. Party uprising, and to support the evidence (the creators attempt to be historically accurate) of the T.E.A. Party's forcing the Republican shift "rightward." The Newsroom - Tea Party Is the American Taliban. YouTube. N.p., 27 Aug. 2012. Web. 29 Dec. 2012. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yGAvwSp86hY>. The video clip from the television show The Newsroom of the new anchor's criticizing of the T.E.A. Party (and presenting a critical T.E.A. Party platform) is used to present the media's attacks on the T.E.A. Party (in entertainment), and to support the separation of the Republican party between the T.E.A. Party and the Grand Old Party.

Opper, Frederick Burr. An End to All Disagreement/ F. Opper. 28 Sept. 1881. Miscellaneous Items in High Demand. Lib. of Cong., Washington, D.C. LC-DIG-ppmsca-28515. Library of Congress. Web. 30 Dec. 2012. <http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2012647288/>. The illustration from the magazine Puck of physicians Francklyn Cottage (President Garfield's location of death) is used to represent the death of the T.E.A. Party if it does not become more moderate and accept compromise (T.E.A. Party death represented by Garfield, who was inhibited by the division of the Republican party factions in the 1880s). Pughe, John S. J.S. A Chattering Nuisance/ J.S. Pughe. 24 Feb. 1904. Miscellaneous Items in High Demand. Lib. of Cong., Washington, D.C. LC-DIG-ppmsca-25824. Library of Congress. Web. 29 Dec. 2012. <http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2011645508/>. The illustration from the magazine Puck of William Jennings Bryan (the Populist Party) influencing and irritating the Democratic Party is used to indicate that the T.E.A. Party is a nuisance to the Grand Old Party (GOP Republican Party), which is diminishing because of the influencing T.E.A. Party. - - -. The Democratic Microbes/ P. 27 Apr. 1904. Miscellaneous Items in High Demand. Lib. of Cong., Washington, D.C. LC-DIG-ppmsca-25843. Library of Congress. Web. 29 Dec. 2012. <http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2011645527/>. The illustration from the magazine Puck of the "microbes" affecting the Democratic Party (including Jennings Bryan and Populism) is used to emphasize the damaging effect of the T.E.A. Party on the Republican Party (GOP) and on politics. - - -. Swallowed!/ J.S. Pughe. 11 July 1900. Miscellaneous Items in High Demand. Lib. of Cong., Washington, D.C. LC-DIG-ppmsca-25438. Library of Congress. Web. 29 Dec. 2012.

<http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2010651311/>. The illustration from the magazine Puck of William Jennings Bryan's (as a snake labeled, "Populist Party") swallowing of the Democratic Party (as a donkey) is used to present the inevitability of the T.E.A. Party's consuming of the mass of the Republican Party and becoming the other political party of the two-party system as the Populist Party threatened to do. Reilly, Bernard F. I Feed You All! 1875. Popular Graphic Arts. Lib. of Cong., Washington, D.C. LC-DIG-pga-00025. Library of Congress. Web. 29 Dec. 2012. <http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2003690771/>. The illustration of the "farmer's grievances" (The American Pageant) is used to indicate the means in which a successful third party starts: A demographic is damaged; a sect of one of the two political parties embraces that demographic with a friendly platform; the party begins to use the demographic to gain political power. The Populist Party used farmers and laborers. The T.E.A. Party uses the laborer and the common American citizen (a far larger demographic than the farmer). Ritchie, Alexander Hay. Andrew Jackson/ Painted by D.M. Carter; Engraved by A.H. Ritchie. 1860. Popular Graphic Arts. Lib. of Cong., Washington, D.C. LC-DIG-pga-02501. Library of Congress. Web. 29 Dec. 2012. <http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/96521663/>. The painting of president Andrew Jackson is used as a picture for the slideshow in the "Historic Influences" header, thus, to support the Jacksonian Democracy's affect on the shift left in American demographics. [Ronald Reagan, Head-and-Shoulders Portrait, Facing Front. 1981. Miscellaneous Items in High Demand. Lib. of Cong., Washington, D.C. LC-USZ62-13040. Library of Congress. Web. 29 Dec. 2012. <http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/96522678/>. The photograph of

President Ronald Reagan (presidential photograph) is used to present the president who increased the notion of biblical fundamentalism and the conservative shift rightward in the 1980s (used within the slideshow for the header of the section, "Historic Influences"). Schwartz, Ian. Scarborough: Extremists Leading GOP to "Absolute Catastrophe." Real Clear Politics. Real Clear Politics, 21 Dec. 2012. Web. 6 Jan. 2013. <http://www.realclearpolitics.com/video/2012/12/21/scarborough_extremists_leading_go p_to_absolute_catastrophe.html>. The video clip (online) of the Morning Joe's conservative anchor Joe Scarborough's explosive criticism of the right wing (Tea Party) sect of the Republican party is used to present an established "RINO," who represents the popular frustration with the radical sect of the Republican party and Congress. Sinatra, Frank. "My Way." Rec. 1968. Nothing but the Best - The Frank Sinatra Collection (Remastered). Perf. Frank Sinatra. Reprise Records, a Warner Music Group Company, 2008. CD. The audio recording (Frank Sinatra's "My Way") is used as a dramatic introduction for the website, and to illustrate the possible demise of the Republican party (GOP) because of the T.E.A. Party (and to illustrate the T.E.A. Party members' stubbornness). Singer-Vine, Jeremy. "How Much Are Super PACs Spending?" Chart. The Wall Street Journal. Dow Jones and Company, Dec. 2012. Web. 6 Jan. 2013. <http://projects.wsj.com/superpacs/#>. The infographic-chart of the recorded (as of December 2012) amount of money spent on candidates and the passing of federal, state, and local bills is used to present the consolidated, organized data of all major Super PACs and the majority Super PAC support for Republican and Tea Party candidates and platforms.

Skocpol, Theda, and Vanessa Williamson. The Tea Party and the Remaking of Republican Conservatism. New York City: Oxford UP, USA, 2012. Print. The research, non-fiction book The Tea Party and the Remaking of Republican Conservatism is written by Theda Skocpol and Vanessa Williamson. Williamson is a researcher that was curious of the Tea Party movement. Williamson joined Tea Party and the Organization for America (O.F.A)., company based on candidate Obama's election in 2008. Williamson, however, found more appeal in the Tea Party's actions. Theda Skocpol is a professor of political science and sociology at the Harvard Department of Sociology. Skocpol is deemed "leftleaning" by the blog The Daily Beast, and writes articles for the New York Times such as "Whose Tea Party Is It?" (co-written with Vanessa Williamson). Thus, the book is a scholarly, yet "bi-partisan" text that discusses the motives, the development, and the influence of the Tea Party. - - -. "Whose Tea Party Is It?" Editorial. The New York Times. N.p., 26 Dec. 2011. Web. 18 Nov. 2012. <http://campaignstops.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/12/26/whose-tea-party-is-it/>. "Whose Tea Party Is It," an opinion editorial, is written by Thesa Skocpol and Vanessa Williamson. Skocpol is the Victor S. Thomas Professor of Government and Sociology at Harvard Univeristy and a member of the National Academy of Sciences; Skocpol was the president of the American Political Science Association. Williamson is a prospective Ph.D. in Government and Social Policy at Harvard University; Wlliamson was the Political director for Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans of America. Skocpol and Williamson co-authored the analytical and research work The Tea Party and the Remaking of Republican Conservatism (2012).

Stuart, Gilbert. [James Monroe, Half-length Portrait, Seated at Desk, Facing Slightly Left] . 1828. Popular Graphic Arts. Lib. of Cong., Washington, D.C. LC-USZ62-117118. Library of Congress. Web. 29 Dec. 2012. <http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/96523417/>. The painting of President James Monroe (president during the "Era of Good Feelings") is used to illustrate the first political shift with the destruction of the Federalists and the dominance of the Democratic-Republicans. Monroe's Democratic-Republicans were not, however, united (yet neither is the T.E.A. Party). "Tea Party Express I." Tea Party Express. Tea Party Express, n.d. Web. 29 Dec. 2012. <http://www.teapartyexpress.org/photos/page/3>. The several digital photographs of the early (2009-2011) T.E.A. Party rallies (titled "Tea Party Express I" to "Tea Party Express V: Reclaiming America Tour") are used to present the beginnings of the Tea Party Express (other Tea Party organizations exist) rallies and the scale of such parties, which decreased during 2011 and 2012. "Tea Party Patriots Campaigning against Obomacare." The Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group, 5 Jan. 2011. Web. 28 Dec. 2012. <http://blogs.telegraph.co.uk/news/author/alexsingleton/page/2/>. The photograph from Alex Singleton's 2011 Telegraph article (January 5) of a Tea Party Patriots campaign against the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is used to illustrate the strong Tea Party opposition to "Obamacare" and its comprehension and use of politics such as socialism. "Ten Core Beliefs of the Modern-Day Tea Party Movement." Tea Movement Platform. Tea Party Platform, n.d. Web. 11 Dec. 2012. <http://www.teaparty-platform.com/>. The privately

organized website is used to establish the primary notions of the Tea Party platform (to establish its attempted influence in politics). Texas. Peacefully Grant the State of Texas to Withdraw from the United State of America and Create Its Own NEW Government. The White House. Web. 28 Dec. 2012. <https://petitions.whitehouse.gov/petition/peacefully-grant-state-texas-withdraw-unitedstates-america-and-create-its-own-new-government/BmdWCP8B>. The petition for the state of Texas to secede from the United States (the Union) reaching the 25,000 signature requirement shortly after the 2012 presidential election (the petition began November 9, 2012) is used as evidence for the extreme polarization of the United States and the polarization's being catalyzed by the Tea Party, which supported partisanship and allowed the more radical sects of both parties become the majority. [Theodore Roosevelt] . 15 Aug. 1913. Miscellaneous Items in High Demand. Lib. of Cong., Washington, D.C. LC-USZ62-69210. Library of Congress. Web. 8 Apr. 2013. <http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2010645496/>. The photograph of president Theodore Roosevelt is used to represent a leader of one of the major political shifts (to the left) in American history. The photography is also used to present a leader of a movement of which ideals are liberal and oppose the conservative ideals of the Tea Party. Thus, the Tea Party refers to modern "Progressives" as a problem of tyrannical government. United States. Cong. House. No Tax Payer Funding for Abortion Act. 112th Cong. H. 3. Print. The information (by means of a "PDF") of the No Tax Payer Funding for Abortion Act (H.R. 3) from the Senate (for the new session) is used as evidence to support the focus on biblical fundamentalism and social issues in the T.E.A. Party.

- - -. - - -. House. Birthright Citizenship Act of 2011. 112th. H. Res. 140. Print. The Birthright Citizenship Act of 2011 (H.R. 140) is used to present a widely accepted form of legislation, of which acceptance was spurred by the Tea Party confidence. H.R. 140 is also used to provide textual perception of the chart of the 112th Congress Tea Party Caucus, on which the members' vote on H.R. 140 is recorded. US Const. amend. IX (amended 1788). Print. Amendment IX of the United States Constitution is used to represent a primary defender of Tea-Party-based legislation (among that other individualist political sects). Amendment IX also contributed to the relation of the Tea Party to a less-modern grass-roots movement. US Const. amend. X (amended 1788). Print. Amendment X to the United States Constitution, providing the powers reserved to the state and people, is used to represent the source of the states'-rights and individual-rights zeal of the Tea Party. The Tenth Amendment also contributes to the Tea Party's over-reaching fear of a tyrannical government by providing for the people a Bill of Rights so guided for their power over the federal government. When the federal government "exceeded" its rights over the people's rights, the Tea Party used that anger for political momentum. Williams, Dave. David H. Koch, left, and Charles G. Koch have long used their wallets to promote fiscal conservatism and combat regulation. The New York Times. New York Times, 22 Feb. 2011. Web. 29 Dec. 2012. <http://www.nytimes.com/imagepages/2011/02/22/KOCH-1.html>. The digital photograph(s) (edited) of David H. Koch and Charles G. Koch are used to present the wealthiest financial supporters of the T.E.A. Party (by means of a "Super PAC" titled

"Americans for Prosperity" after Citizens United v. FEC, also supported by the Koch brothers), who effectively maintain the T.E.A. Party and its candidates.